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de Ocampo, Randel Boris V.

May 2015

2012108007/ CE-3
Homework 1

SOIL TESTS AND ASTM STANDARDS

1.) Moisture Content of Soil

ASTM D4944-11 Standard Test Method for Field Determination of


Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Calcium Carbide Gas
Pressure Tester
o This test method outlines procedures for determining the water
(moisture) content of soil by chemical reaction using calcium carbide
as a reagent to react with the available water in the soil producing a
gas. A measurement is made of the gas pressure produced when a
specified mass of wet or moist soil is placed in a testing device with an
appropriate volume of reagent and mixed.
ASTM D4959-07 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water
(Moisture) Content of Soil By Direct Heating
o This test method covers procedures for determining the water
(moisture) content of soils by drying with direct heat, such as using a
hotplate, stove, blowtorch, etc.
ASTM D4643-08 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water
(Moisture) Content of Soil by Microwave Oven Heating
o This test method outlines procedures for determining the water
(moisture) content of soils by incrementally drying soil in a microwave
oven.
ASTM D7830/D7830M-14 Standard Test Method for In-Place Density
(Unit
Weight)
and
Water Content of Soil Using
an
Electromagnetic Soil Density Gauge
o This test method covers the procedures for determining in-place
properties of non-frozen, unbound soil and soil aggregate mixtures
such as total density, gravimetric water content and relative
compaction by measuring the intrinsic impedance of the compacted
soil.
ASTM D6938-10 Standard Test Method for In-Place Density and
Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods
(Shallow Depth)
o This test method describes the procedures for measuring in-place
density and moisture of soil and soil-aggregate by use of nuclear
equipment. The density of the material may be measured by direct
transmission, backscatter, or backscatter/air-gap ratio methods.
Measurements for water (moisture) content are taken at the surface in

backscatter mode regardless of the mode being used for density. It is


the intent of this subcommittee that this standard replace D2922 and
D3017.
2.) Specific Gravity

ASTM
D5550-14
Standard
Test
Method
for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Gas Pycnometer
o This test method covers the determination of the specific gravity of soil
solids by means of a gas pycnometer. Particle size is limited by the
dimensions of the specimen container of the particular pycnometer
being used.
ASTM
D854-14
Standard
Test
Methods
for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer
o These test methods cover the determination of the specific gravity of
soil solids that pass the 4.75-mm (No. 4) sieve, by means of a water
pycnometer. When the soil contains particles larger than the 4.75-mm
sieve, Test Method C127 shall be used for the soil solids retained on the
4.75-mm sieve and these test methods shall be used for the soil solids
passing the 4.75-mm sieve.

3.) Grain Size Analysis of Soil

ASTM D422-63(2007)e2 Standard Test Method for ParticleSize Analysis of Soils


o This test method covers the quantitative determination of the
distribution of particle sizes in soils. The distribution of particle sizes
larger than 75 m (retained on the No. 200 sieve) is determined by
sieving, while the distribution of particle sizes smaller than 75 m is
determined by a sedimentation process, using a hydrometer to secure
the necessary data.
ASTM D6913-04(2009)e1 Standard Test Methods for ParticleSize Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
o Soils consist of particles with various shapes and sizes. This test
method is used to separate particles into size ranges and to determine
quantitatively the mass of particles in each range. These data are
combined to determine the particle-size distribution (gradation). This
test method uses a square opening sieve criterion in determining the
gradation of soil between the 3-in. (75-mm) and No. 200 (75-m)
sieves.

4.) Atterberg Limits and Indices

ASTM
D4318-10e1
Standard
Test
Methods
for Liquid Limit,
Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
o These test methods are used as an integral part of several engineering
classification systems to characterize the fine-grained fractions of soils
(see Practices D2487 and D3282) and to specify the fine-grained
fraction of construction materials (see Specification D1241). The liquid

limit, plastic limit, and plasticity index of soils are also used
extensively, either individually or together, with other soil properties to
correlate with engineering behavior such as compressibility, hydraulic
conductivity (permeability), compactibility, shrink-swell, and shear
strength.
5.) Other Tests Performed

Standard Penetration Test (SPT) ASTM D1586


o It is the most popular test field. The SPT is performed by driving a
standard split spoon sampler into the ground by blows from a drop
hammer of mass 63.5 kg falling 760 mm. The sampler is driven 152
mm (6 in.) into the soil at the bottom of a bore-hole, and the number of
blows (N) required to drive it an additional 304 mm is counted. The
number of blows (N) is called the standard penetration number.
Vane Shear Test (VST) ASTM D2573
o The VST is simple, inexpensive, and quick to perform, and the
equipment is widely available. The insertion of the vane causes soil
remolding. Higher blade thickness results in greater remolding and
lower soil strengths. The blade thickness should not exceed 5% of the
vane diameter. Errors in the measurements of the torque include
excessive friction, variable rotation, and calibration. The VST cannot be
used for coarse-grained soils and very stiff clays. The vane is pushed,
usually from the bottom of a borehole, to the desired depth. A torque is
applied at a rate of 68 per minute by a torque head device located
above the soil surface and attached to the shear vane rod.
Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT) ASTM D 5778
o The cone penetrometer is a cone with a base area of 10 cm2 and cone
angle of 608 (Figure 3.8a) that is attached to a rod. An outer sleeve
encloses the rod. The thrusts required to drive the cone and the sleeve
into the ground at a rate of 2 cm/s are measured independently so that
the end resistance or cone resistance and side friction or sleeve
resistance may be estimated separately. Although originally developed
for the design of piles, the cone penetrometer has also been used to
estimate the bearing capacity and settlement of foundations. The
piezocone is a cone penetrometer that has a porous elements inserted
into the cone to allow porewater measurements of the pressure.
Pressuremeters ASTM D4719-87
o It is placed in a desired depth in an unlined borehole, and pressure is
applied to measure the cell probe. The pressure is raised in stages at
constant time intervals, and volume changes are recorded at each
stage. A pressurevolume change curve is then drawn from which the
elastic modulus, shear modulus, and undrained shear strength may be
estimated.
Standard Proctor Test ASTM D 698
o In this test, the soil is compacted in a mold that has a volume of
944cubic cm. The diameter of the mold is 101.6mm, during the
laboratory test, the mold is attached to a baseplate at the bottom and

to an extension at the top. The soil is mixed with varying amounts of


water and then compacted in three equal layers by a hammer that
gives 25 blows to each layer.
Modified Proctor Test ASTM D 1557
o The same mold is used in this test like the standard one, as in the case
of the same test. However, the soil is compacted in five layers by a
hammer that has a mass of 4.54kh. Because it increases the
compactive effort, the modified proctor test results in an increase in
the maximum dry unit weight of the soil. The increase in the maximum
dry unit weight is accompanied by a decrease in the optimum moisture
content.
Direct Shear Test ASTM D3080
o This is the oldest test and simplest form of shear test arrangement.
The test equipment consists of a metal shear box in which the soil
specimen is placed. The soil specimens may be square or circular in
plan. The shear test can be either stress controlled or strain controlled.
In stress controlled, the shear force is applied in equal increments until
the specimen fails. In strain controlled tests, a constant rate of shear
displacement is applied to one half of the box by a motor that acts
through gears. The constant rate of shear displacement is measure by
a horizontal dial gauge.