M O D U L A R
S Y S T E M
VECTORS
IN THE PLANE
Erturul Tarhan
www.zambak.com
Copyright 2005 Zambak Basm
Yayn Eitim ve Turizm letmeleri
Sanayi Ticaret A..
All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be
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system, or transmitted in any form
without the prior written permission
of the publisher.
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amil Keskinolu
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letmeleri Sanayi Ticaret A..
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To the Teacher
When I taught mathematics in different schools, my students asked me why they were learning these
topics and how they used them. These questions were important to me. While I was planning this book,
I decided to answer my students questions by including a good number of applications of vectors. I have written
this book to teach vectors in the plane to high school students. The aim of the book is to introduce vectors in the
plane in a way that students can understand.
This book has only one chapter, which is divided into three sections. In each section there are examples,
selfcheck questions, and exercises.
The selfcheck questions (Check Yourself sections) check students understanding at key points in the book.
They can also be used in pop quizzes to check students understanding of a subtopic such as the use of the
polygon method for the addition of vectors. The aim of including applications is to show the use of vectors in
different areas such as physics. Examples throughout the text help students to understand the topics and show
how to use vectors to solve typical problems. Exercises cover the material in a whole section. They provide a
thorough review of the material covered and are a means of checking students general understanding of the topic.
The summary at the end of the book lists the important ideas and concepts covered in the book. Finally, the
multiplechoice tests show examples of multiplechoice exam questions and aim to prepare the students for such
exams.
In the first section of the book, we analyze vectors and operations on vectors in synthetic geometry. In the second section, we analyze vectors and operations on vectors in analytic geometry. In the last section, we introduce
the dot product and look at its use in different areas. As a result, I can say that if a student who is not familiar with
vectors learns half of the material in this book, then he or she will have a good basic understanding of vectors. If the
student learns all of the material in this book, then he or she will be able to study vectors in space and vectors in calculus easily at university.
The prerequisite for the material in this book is a basic familiarity with trigonometric ratios in right triangles,
the cosine law, linear equations, real numbers, triangles, quadrilaterals, and polygons.
Acknowledgements
I would like to thank all the people who made a significant contribution to the preparation of this book. I would
also like to give thanks to the staff of the design center at Zambak publishing, especially amil Keskinolu.
The completion of this book owes much to the ideas and support of Ali avdar, Ramazan ahin, and
Mustafa Krk. Many thanks also to Ahmet Dokuyucu, etin zyurt, Cem Giray, Cihan Mert, Salih Katrc,
smail ahin, and Mustafa stner, who gave me the idea of writing this book for high school students.
Finally, I am grateful to my family for their support throughout the writing of this book. The success of the
book will owe a great deal to their understanding and kindness.
Erturul Tarhan
VECTORS IN THE PLANE
C. VECTOR APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . .24
D. PARALLEL VECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
1. ANALYSIS OF VECTORS
GEOMETRICALLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
A. BASIC VECTOR CONCEPTS . . . . . . . .2
1. Directed Line Segment . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Definition of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Equal Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
B. VECTOR OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . .4
1. Addition of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Subtraction of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar . . 9
C. PARALLEL VECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
1. Parallel Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
2. NonP
Parallel Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Activity: Traffic Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
EXERCISES 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
2. ANALYSIS OF VECTORS
ANALYTICALLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
A. BASIC CONCEPTS OF VECTORS
E. LINEAR COMBINATION
OF VECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
1. Linear Combination of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . 27
2. Linearly Dependent and
Independent Vectors (OPTIONAL) . . . . . .29
Activity: Computer Applications . . . . . . .30
EXERCISES 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
3. THE DOT PRODUCT OF TWO
VECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
A. DOT PRODUCT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
1. Properties of the Dot Product . . . . . . . . . . . 33
B. ANGLE BETWEEN TWO VECTORS . . . .34
1. Angle Between Two Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
2. Perpendicular and Parallel Vectors . . . . . .36
C. COMPONENT OF u
ALONG v (OPTIONAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Activity: Projectile Motion in Sport . . . . .43
EXERCISES 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
IN THE ANALYTIC PLANE . . . . . . . . .15
1. Axioms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
2. The Rectangular Coordinate System . .15
3. Position Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
4. Components of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . .17
5. Equal Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
B. VECTOR OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . .19
1. Addition of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
2. Subtraction of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . .20
3. Multiplication of a Vector
by a Scalar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
4. Standard Base Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . .22
CHAPTER SUMMARY
CONCEPT CHECK
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
CHAPTER REVIEW TEST 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
CHAPTER REVIEW TEST 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
ANSWERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
The origin of the parallelogram law for the addition of vectors
is unknown. It may have appeared in a lost work of Aristotle
(384322 B.C.). It was also the first corollary in Isaac Newtons
Principia Mathematica (1687). In the Principia, Newton (16421727) dealt extensively with vector quantities (e.g. velocity andforce), but never the concept of a vector.
Vectors were born in the first two decades of the 19th century
with the geometric representation of complex numbers. Caspar
Wessel (17451818), Jean Robert Argand (17681822), Carl
Friedrich Gauss (17771855), and others conceived of complex
numbers as points in the twodimensional plane, i.e. as
twodimensional vectors. Gauss used complex numbers to prove the Fundamental Theorem of
Algebra (1799). In 1837, William Rowan Hamilton (18051865) showed that complex numbers
could be considered abstractly as ordered pairs (a, b) of real numbers. This idea inspired many
mathematicians, including Hamilton himself, to search for a way to extend the twodimensional
numbers to three dimensions.
Hamilton gave up the search for such a threedimensional system and instead invented a
fourdimensional system that he called quaternions. He wrote two exhaustive books, Lectures on
Quaternions (1853) and Elements of Quaternions (1866), which described the algebra of
quaternions and how they could be used in geometry. Peter Guthrie Tait (18311901) began
applying quaternions to problems in electricity and magnetism and to other problems in physics.
In the second half of the 19th century, Taits support of quaternions produced strong reactions in
the scientific community.
At about the same time that Hamilton discovered quaternions, Hermann Grassmann
(18091877) was writing The Calculus of Extension (1844), now well known by its German title,
Ausdehnungslehre. Unfortunately, The Calculus of Extension had
two strikes against it. First, it was highly abstract, lacking in
explanatory examples and written in a nonstandard style with a very
complicated notation. Second, Grassmann was a secondary school
teacher without a major scientific reputation (compared to
Hamilton). In 1862, Grassmann published a second and revised
edition of his The Calculus of Extension, but it too was abstract for
the mathematicians of the time, and it met essentially the same fate
as his first edition. Finally, in the late 1860s and 1870s, The Calculus
of Extension slowly began to be understood and appreciated. A third
edition of The Calculus of Extension was published in 1878, the year
after Grassmann died.
In his Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (1873), Maxwell
emphasized the importance of what he described as quaternion
ideas or the doctrine of Vectors as a mathematical method. At
the same time, he pointed out the inhomogeneous nature of the
product of quaternions, and he warned scientists against using
quaternion methods with its details involving the three vector
components. Essentially, Maxwell was suggesting a purely vectorial
analysis.
The vector representation that we use today is attributed to
Josian Willard Gibbs (18391903). Gibbs was born in the town of
New Haven in Connecticut (his father had also been a professor at Yale), and his main
scientific accomplishments were in physics. He read Maxwells Treatise on Electricity and
Magnetism, and also studied Grassmanns The Calculus of Extension. He concluded that
vectors would provide a more efficient tool for his work in physics. In 1881, Gibbs privately
printed notes on vector analysis for his students, which were
widely distributed to scholars in the United States, Britain, and
Europe. The first book on modern vector analysis in English was
Vector Analysis (1901), which was Gibbss notes as assembled by
one of his last graduate students, Edwin B. Wilson (18791964).
Another contribution to the modern understanding and use of
vectors was made by Jean Frenet (18161990).
Vector methods were introduced in Italy (1887, 1888, 1897),
Russia (1907), and the Netherlands (1903). Vectors are now the
modern language of a great deal of physics and applied mathematics,
and they continue to hold their own mathematical interest.
ANALYSIS OF VECTORS GEOMETRICALLY
A. BASIC VECTOR CONCEPTS
Some of the quantities we measure in our daily lives are completely determined by their
magnitudes, for example, length, mass, area, temperature, and energy. When we speak of a
length of 3 cm or an area of 5 cm2, we only need one number to describe each of these
quantities. We call such quantities scalar quantities.
On the other hand, to describe a force, we need to record its direction as well as its size. For
example, to describe the velocity of a moving object, we must specify both the speed and the
direction of travel. Quantities such as displacement, velocity, acceleration, and other forces
that have magnitude as well as direction are called vector quantities. We usually show a
vector quantity as an arrow that points in the direction of the action, with length that shows
the magnitude of the action in terms of a suitable unit. The way to represent such quantities
mathematically is through the use of vectors.
1. Directed Line Segment
When we move from Antalya to Berlin
by bus, we have two quantities: the
direction from Antalya to Berlin, and
the length of the displacement between
these cities.
Antalya
We can sketch a line segment AB as shown in the figure with starting
Berlin
terminal point
point A and finishing point B to represent the movement from Antalya to
B
Berlin. The line segment AB with an arrow has direction and length. The
arrow head specifies the direction, and the length of the arrow specifies
the magnitude, at a suitable scale. A and B are the endpoints of the segment. A initial point
Point A is called the initial point and point B is called the terminal point
of the line segment. The resulting segment AB is called a directed line segment.
Definition
directed line segment
A line segment with direction is called a directed line segment.
We write AB to denote a directed line segment from point A to point B.
Directed line segments are used in daily life. For example, some
traffic signs for drivers use directed line segments.
In technology we also use directed line segments.
Vectors in the Plane
EXAMPLE
Solution
Points M, N, P and K on line d are given. Write all the
directed line segments with endpoints M, N, P, or K.
The directed line segments with endpoints M, N, P, or K are MN, MP, MK, NP, NK,
NM, PK, PN, PM, KP, KN, and KM.
Notice that MN is not the same as NM, and MP is not the same as PM. This is because the
line segments have direction. Pairs such as MN and NM have the same magnitude but
opposite direction.
2. Definition of a Vector
vector
Definition
A directed line segment in the plane is called a vector.
The length of the directed line segment is the length of the
vector.
initial point
terminal point
The direction of the directed line segment is the direction of
the vector.
We write AB to mean a vector with initial point A and terminal point B. Alternatively, we can
name a vector with a lowercase letter such as u or p.
For example, consider a line segment AB with length 2 cm.
We can say the length of vector AB is 2 cm, and write  AB = 2 cm.
3. Equal Vectors
equal vectors
Definition
Two vectors that have the same direction and length are
called equal vectors. We show that two vectors u and v are
equal by writing u = v .
EXAMPLE
In the figure, D, E, and F are the midpoints of AB, AC and
BC respectively, and DE  BC, EF  AB, DF  AC.
Name all the equal vectors.
Solution In triangle ABC, DE = BF = FC
EF = AD = DB
DF = AE = EC.
ED = FB = CF
So DE = BF = FC
EF = AD = DB and FE = DA = BD
FD = EA = CE.
DF = AE = EC
Analysis of Vectors Geometrically
Check Yourself 1
Answers
1. 4 2. 4
Definition
opposite vectors
Two vectors are called opposite vectors if and only if their
magnitudes (lengths) are the same but their directions are opposite.
For example, in the figure, AB and BA are opposite vectors. CD and
DC are also opposite vectors. We can write AB = BA and CD = DC.
Definition
ABCD is a parallelogram in the figure.
1. How many pairs of equivalent directed line segments are there?
2. How many pairs of equal vectors are there?
zero vector
A vector whose initial and terminal points are the same is called a zero vector.
We write a zero vector as 0.
A zero vector has no direction and no size.
B. VECTOR OPERATIONS
1. Addition of Vectors
Let PQ and QR be two vectors in a plane. PQ + QR denotes the sum of the vectors PQ and
QR. There are two ways to find the sum of two or more vectors.
a. The Polygon Method
Imagine we want to add n vectors together. Using the polygon method, we draw the first
vector. Then we place the initial point of the second vector at the terminal point of the first
vector, the initial point of the third vector at the terminal point of the second vector, and so
on until we place the initial point of the nth vector at the terminal point of the (n 1)th
vector. The sum is the vector whose initial point is the initial point of the first vector and
whose terminal point is the terminal point of the last vector.
Let us look at an example.
Let AB and CD be two vectors in a plane, as in the
diagram. We place the initial point of AB at the
terminal point of CD to make DE (AB = DE).
D
A
E
C
Using the polygon method,
CD + AB = CD + DE = CE.
4
Vectors in the Plane
Now look at an example of adding more than two vectors using the polygon method.
As shown in the figure,
u + v + w + x = AE.
b. The Parallelogram Method
To add one vector to another using the parallelogram method, we draw the first vector, and
then we draw the second vector with its initial point at the initial point of the first vector. We
make a parallelogram by drawing two additional sides, each passing through the terminal
point of one of the vectors and parallel to the other vector. We find the sum by drawing a
vector along the diagonal from the common initial point to the intersection of the two lines.
Look at the example of adding u and v using the parallelogram method:
step 1
step 2
step 3
step 4
EXAMPLE
Find u + v + w in the figure on the right.
u+v= r
Analysis of Vectors Geometrically
Solution
Let us choose A as a fixed point. We can use the polygon method or the parallelogram
method to add the given vectors u + v + w .
u+ v
u + v +w
by the parallelogram method
by the polygon method
EXAMPLE
Solution
The velocity of a boat is 25 m/min north and the velocity of a river current is 3 m/min east.
Draw a scale diagram to show the velocities as vectors and find the sum.
First we choose a starting point A and
write AN = velocity of the boat due north.
AE = velocity of the current due east.
AN and AE are perpendicular, and AK is
the sum of AN and AE:
2
2
AK = 25 + 3 = 634.
North
25 m/min
West
East
A 3 m/min E
South
This is the sum of the vectors.
c. Properties of Vector Addition
Let u, v, and w be three vectors in a plane P.
1. The sum of any two vectors in P is
also a vector in P (closure property).
u P
v P
v+u P
v+u
2. The sum of any two vectors in P is
commutative (commutative property).
v+u
u+v
u+v=v +u
commutative
Vectors in the Plane
3. The sum of any three vectors in P is associative (associative property).
u +( v + w ) = ( u + v ) + w
u + v +w
u + v +w
4. The sum of the zero vector and a vector
in P is the vector itself (identity
element).
AB = u
AB +BB =AB
u + 0= u
5. The additive inverse of any vector u is u: u + ( u) = 0 (additive inverse).
AB = u
A
u +( u ) = 0
BA = u
A
B
A
EXAMPLE
Solution
In a triangle ABC, P is the midpoint of AB. Express CP in terms of CA and CB.
CP = CA + AP
+
CP = CB + BP
2 CP = CA + CB +
AP
+
BP
1
CP = (CA + CB)
2
Analysis of Vectors Geometrically
2. Subtraction of Vectors
Since subtraction is the inverse of addition, we can find the difference of two vectors u and
v by adding the vectors u and v (opposite of v) using either the parallelogram method
( u v = u + ( v )) or the polygon method.
EXAMPLE
Solution
uv
uv
In a triangle ABC, G is the centroid. Find GA + GB + GC.
A
Let us label a point G on the extension of CG which
satisfies CG = GG. Since G is the centroid of
ABC, CG = 2GK. Therefore GG = 2GK,
which means that K is the midpoint of GG. We conclude that AGBG is a parallelogram because K is the
G
K
G
midpoint of both diagonals AB and GG. So we have
AG = GB which gives us GA + GB = GG.
B
On the other hand, we have CG = GG = GC. Using
this result in GA + GB = GG, we get GA + GB = GC which gives us
GA + GB + CG = 0.
Check Yourself 2
1. Find the following using the vectors in the figure.
a. v u
b. u + w
c. w + v u
2. In a triangle ABC, D [BC] and BD = 2 DC.
Express AD in terms of AB and AC.
Answers
1. use the polygon method
8
2
1
2. AD = AC + AB
3
3
Vectors in the Plane
3. Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
Multiplying a vector by a scalar makes the vector longer or shorter depending on the value of
the scalar. If the scalar is greater than 1 or less than 1, multiplying makes a longer vector. If
the scalar is between 1 and 1 and nonzero, it makes a shorter vector.
If the scalar is positive, multiplying does not change the direction.
If the scalar is negative, multiplying will make the vectors direction opposite.
For a real number a and a vector u,
1. if a > 0 then vector a u has the same direction as u and the length a u = a u.
2. if a < 0 then vector a u has the opposite direction to u and the length a u = a u.
3. if a = 0 then a u = 0.
EXAMPLE
Solution
Using AB as shown in the figure, draw vector
1
diagrams to show 2AB, 4AB, and AB.
2
1
1
are positive, 2AB and AB have the
2
2
same direction as AB. However, 2AB is twice as long
1
as AB and AB is half as long.
2
On the other hand, 4AB has opposite direction to
AB (since 4 is a negative scalar) and it is four times
as long as AB.
Since 2 and
AB
2 AB
4 AB
1
AB
2
a. Properties of the Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
For any vectors u, v, and w and real numbers a and b, the following properties are satisfied.
1. a u is a vector in the plane
2. (ab) u = a(b u )
3. (a + b) u = a u + b u
4. a( u + v ) = a u + b v
5. 1 u = u
6. a 0 = 0
Analysis of Vectors Geometrically
EXAMPLE
Solution
Points A, B, C, and M are on the same line. M is between C and B. AB = 3AC. Express the
vector MC in terms of vectors MA and MB.
AB = 3AC so CB = 2AC
(1)
MA + AC = MC
(2)
CM + MB = 2AC
(3)
1
1
AC = MC + MB
(4)
2
2
1
1
MA MC + MB
2
2
1
MA + MB
2
1
MA + MB
2
So MC
M
A
= MC by (2) and (4).
1
MC + MC
2
3
= MC
2
2
1
= MA + MB.
3
3
Check Yourself 3
1
1. Multiply the vector u by the scalars 2, 3, 0.5 and
3
and draw a vector diagram to show them.
2. Points A, B, C, and M are on the same line. M is between
A and C. AB = 2AC. Express the vector MC in terms of
the vectors MA and MB.
Answers
1
2. MC = (MA + MB)
2
C. PARALLEL VECTORS
1. Parallel Vectors
Definition
parallel vectors
Let a and b be two vectors. a and b are called parallel vectors if and only if a = k b where
k 0 and k \. We write a b to show that two vectors are parallel.
For example, in the diagram,  a = 2 cm,
 b = 1 cm and  c = 4 cm.
1
We can express vector a as a = c and a = 2 b.
2
Therefore the vectors a, b, and c are parallel, i.e. a b c.
10
Vectors in the Plane
In a triangle ABC, D and E are the midpoints of sides AB and AC respectively.
Show that DE  BC.
A
Solution BA + AC = BC and DA + AE = DE by the addition of vectors.
1
1
DA = BA, AE = AC
D
2
2
1
1
1
1
DE = BA + AC = (BA + AC) = BC
2
2
2
2
B
1
Now DE = BC, so DE  BC by the definition of parallel vectors.
2
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
10
Solution
E
C
In a quadrilateral ABCD, points E and F are the midpoints of side AB and diagonal AC,
respectively. Show that EF  BC.
A
BA + AC = BC (1) and EA + AF = EF (2).
1
EA = BA
E
2
D
1
+ AF = AC
B
F
2
1
EA + AF = (BA + AC)
2
C
1
EF = BC by (1) and (2). Therefore, EF  BC.
2
2. NonParallel Vectors
By the definiton of parallel vectors we can conclude that if a and b are nonzero,
nonparallel vectors, then h a = k b when h = k = 0. Look at the proof:
k
Suppose that h k 0, a = b.
h
Then a b. This is a contradiction, since a and b are nonparallel. As a result, h = k = 0.
EXAMPLE
11
Solution
Prove that the diagonals of a parallelogram intersect at their midpoints by using vectors.
Look at the diagram. Let AB = a and BC = b, so
AC = a + b
DB = a b
AE = m( a + b )
EB = n( a b )
Analysis of Vectors Geometrically
C
E
11
AE + EB = m( a + b ) + n( a b )
a = m( a + b ) + n( a b)
(m + n 1) a = b(n m).
Since a and b are nonzero and nonparallel, we have (m + n 1) = (n m) = 0. Therefore
1
m + n = 1 and m = n, and so m = n = .
2
EXAMPLE
12
Solution
In a triangle ABC, D, E and F are the midpoints of sides BC, BA and AC respectively. Find the
sum AD + BF + CE.
A
Let us draw the triangle ABC as in the figure.
If D, E and F are midpoints then
1
AD = (AB + AC) by the result of Example 5.
2
1
BF = (BA + BC)
2
1
+ CE = (CA + CB)
B
2
1
AD + BF + CE = ( AB + BA + AC + CA + BC + CB )
2
0
0
0
Therefore, AD + BF + CE = 0.
E
F
Check Yourself 4
1. Name all the pairs of parallel
vectors in the figure.
2. Add the vector pairs u1 and u5,
u2 and u6, and u3 and u7.
3. Find the additive inverse of u7
and u1.
4. Subtract u8 from u4.
5. In a quadrilateral ABCD, P and
K are the midpoints of sides AB
and DC respectively. Express PK
in terms of DA and CB.
Answers
u5
u1
u2
u6
u4
u3
u7
u8
1. look at the directions and lengths 2. use the polygon method 3. use the polygon method
1
4. use the polygon method 5. PK = (DA + CB)
2
12
Vectors in the Plane
Traffic signs are important for
drivers and pedestrians. If people
do not know the meaning of
these signs, they can have some
difficulties in traffic.
For example, if a driver drives in
the opposite direction to a one
way sign, he or she might have
an accident.
Project: Describe some other areas in which we use directed line segments
(for example: flowcharts, keyboards, ...).
EXERCISES
A. Basic Vector Concepts
B. Vector Operations
1. Draw any two parallel directed line segments with
4. Using the vectors given on the right,
the same length but opposite direction. Express
one of the line segments in terms of the other.
sketch the following vectors.
a. u + v
b. w ( u + v)
c. w v u
d. u + ( w + v)
e. u 3 v + 2 w
2. How many equal directed line segments can we
find on two parallel lines?
3. Make a scale diagram showing the vectors in each
statement and find their sum.
a. A 6 km trip east is followed by a 3 km trip
southeast.
b. The velocity of a swimmer is 5 m/min west
and the velocity of a river current is 2 m/min
north.
Analysis of Vectors Geometrically
5. In a plane, [AB] is given. Point K is the midpoint
of [AB] and point O is any point in the same
plane. Express OK in terms of OA and OB.
6. In a triangle ABC, points D and E lie on [BC] and
BD = DE = EC. Express the vector AD + AE
in terms of AB and AC.
13
7. Show that (AB + BC) + CD = AB + (BC + CD)
13. A trapezoid is a foursided figure with only two
parallel sides. A line segment which joins the
midpoints of the nonparallel sides is called the
median of the trapezoid. Prove that the median of
a trapezoid is parallel to the two parallel sides,
and has magnitude equal to half of their sum.
by using the parallelogram method.
8. Point O is in the plane of a triangle ABC. Point G
is the centroid of triangle ABC. Show that
OA + OB + OC = 3OG.
14. In a triangle ABC, BD = DE = EC, and
E, D [BC]. If AD + AE = 9 cm, find AB + AC.
9. Consider any two points A and B in a plane.For
any point P in the same plane, the symmetry of
point P with respect to point A is Q and the
symmetry of point Q with respect to point B is
point R. Show that PR is always 2AB. (Hint: let A,
B, and C be collinear. If AB = BC then A is
the symmetry of C with respect to B.)
15. In a quadrilateral ABCD, E and F are the midpoints
of the diagonals AC and BD respectively.
Show that AB + AD + CB + CD = 4EF.
16. In the figure,
C. Parallel Vectors
10. In a triangle ABC, G is the point of intersection of the
medians and P is the midpoint of BG. Show that
PA + PC = 4PG.
11. ABCD is a quadrilateral and M, N, P, Q are the
midpoints of AB, BC, CD, and DA respectively.
Show that MNPQ is a parallelogram.
12. In a sixsided polygon ABCDEF, AB = ED, BC = FE,
and CD = AF. Show that FBCE is a parallelogram.
14
T is the midpoint of BC,
ABC is a triangle,
2AK = KB, and
2AM = MC.
Use vectors to show that
1
AL = LT.
2
A
K
17. Show that the centroid of a triangle divides a
median in the ratio 1:2 using vectors.
18. In a parallelogram ABCD, K is the midpoint of
side DC, and the intersection point of diagonals
AC and BK is T. Show that AC = 3TC.
Vectors in the Plane
ANALYSIS OF VECTORS ANALYTICALLY
We have studied vectors geometrically. Now let us look at a method for describing vectors
analytically.
We will begin this section by looking at some important axioms.
A. BASIC CONCEPTS OF VECTORS IN THE ANALYTIC
PLANE
1. Axioms
1. For each pair of points P and Q there exists a
unique vector v such that PQ = v.
Q
terminal point
PQ = v
initial point
2. For each point P and vector v, there is a
unique point Q such that v = PQ.
terminal point
v = PQ
initial point
Conclusion
1. Two points in a plane determine two opposite vectors.
2. In a plane, if one point is fixed as an initial point then all the other points in the plane
can be chosen as the terminal point of any vector.
2. The Rectangular Coordinate System
The rectangular coordinate system is formed by
two perpendicular intersecting number lines, as
shown in the diagram opposite.
yaxis
quadrant II
quadrant I
1. The horizontal number line is called the xaaxis.
2. The vertical number line is called the yaaxis.
The origin is the point of intersection. At this
intersection, both number lines are 0. The
rectangular coordinate system is split into four
quadrants, which are marked in the diagram
with roman numerals.
origin
quadrant III
xaxis
quadrant IV
Each point in the coordinate system is associated with a pair of real numbers. In an x, y
system, the xccoordinate always comes first and the yccoordinate always comes second in the
pair (x, y). The first coordinate is called the abscissa of the point and the second coordinate
is called the ordinate of the point.
Analysis of Vectors Analytically
15
EXAMPLE
13
Solution
Plot each pair of coordinates and name the quadrant or axis in which the point lies.
yaxis
A(2, 3), B(1, 2), C(3, 4), D(2, 0), E(0, 5)
E(0, 5)
A(2, 3) lies in quadrant I.
B(1, 2) lies in quadrant II.
A(2, 3)
B(1, 2)
C(3, 4) lies in quadrant III.
D(2, 0) lies on the xaxis.
D(2, 0)
E(0, 5) lies on the yaxis.
Check Yourself 5
xaxis
C(3, 4)
Plot the pairs of real numbers and name the quadrant or axis in which the point lies.
A(3, 2), B(2, 1), C(4, 3), D(0, 2), E(5, 0)
3. Position Vector
position vector
Definition
A vector OP whose initial point is at the origin of the rectangular coordinate plane and which
is parallel to a vector AB is called the position vector of AB in the plane. In other words, if
OP is the position vector of AB, then OP  AB, OP = AB, and OP = AB.
From this definition we can conclude the following:
1. For every vector in the plane there exists a position
vector OP which is determined by a pair (x, y), that is,
OP = (x, y).
2. If OP = AB, then OPBA is a parallelogram.
y
B(x2, y2)
y2
y1
A(x1, y1)
Look at the diagram. We can calculate that x = x2 x1 and
y = y2 y1. Therefore the vector AB determined by the
points A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) has position vector
OP = AB = OB OA = (x, y) = (x2 x1, y2 y1).
EXAMPLE
14
Solution
Find the position vector of KL with endpoints
K(2, 1) and L(4, 5).
OP = KL = OL OK = (4 2,5 1)
OP = (2, 4)
P(x, y)
x1
y
5
4
3
2
1
O
16
x2
K
1 2 3 4 5
Vectors in the Plane
4. Components of a Vector
We have seen how to describe a vector in the plane with
reference to its unique position vector.
ux
We can also express a vector in the plane as the sum of
u
uy
two vectors, one of which is parallel to the xaxis and the
other parallel to the yaxis. These two vectors are called
the components of the original vector. The component
parallel to the xaxis is called the horizontal component
x
O
of the vector and the component parallel to yaxis is
called the vertical component. Expressing a vector as the
sum of its components like this is called resolving the vector. For example, in the figure
opposite, the vector u is the sum of the two components ux and uy.
We can represent the vector u as an ordered pair of real numbers:
u1
y
u = (u1, u2) or u = ,
u2
Q
where u1 is the horizontal scalar component of u, and
y2
u2 is the vertical scalar component of u.
y2 y1= u2
u
Now, ux = (u1, 0) and uy = (0, u2).
Look at the diagram opposite. By applying the
Pythagorean theorem for triangle PQR in the figure, we
can see that the length of the vector u = (u1, u2) is
2
2
 u = u1 + u2 .
EXAMPLE
15
Solution
EXAMPLE
16
Solution
Find the length of each vector.
a. u = (2, 3)
b. v = (3, 0)
y1
O
x2 x1= u1
x1
R
x
x2
3 4
c. w = ( , )
5 5
a.  u =
2 2 + (3)2 = 4+9 = 13
b.  v =
32 + 0 2 = 9 = 3
c. w =
3
4
9 16
9 + 16
25
( )2 + ( )2 =
+
=
=
=1
5
5
25 25
25
25
Find the length of the vector u with initial point (1, 2) and terminal point (3, 6).
u = (3 1, 6 2) = (2, 4)
2
2
 u = 2 + 4 = 4+16 = 20
Analysis of Vectors Analytically
17
EXAMPLE
17
Solution
Find the possible values of a given AB = 25 and the endpoints A(a, 2) and B(1, 4).
AB =
(1 a)2 + (4 2) 2 = (1 a) 2 + 4 = 2 5
(1 a)2 + 4
(1 a)2
1a
a
= 20
= 16
= 4 or 1 a = 4
= 3 or
a=5
Check Yourself 6
1. Find the position vector of ML with endpoints M(3, 2) and L(2, 3).
2. Find the length of each vector.
a. u = (3, 1)
b. v = (0, 3)
Answers
1. ML = (1, 1)
c. AB with endpoints A(2, 1) and B(5, 4)
2. a. 10 b. 3 c. 32
5. Equal Vectors
equal vectors
Definition
Two vectors are equal if and only if their corresponding scalar components are equal.
In other words, the vectors u = (u1, u2) and v = (v1, v2) are equal if and only if u1 = v1 and
u2 = v2.
EXAMPLE
18
Solution
u and v are equal vectors with u = (a + b, 3), v = (1, b a). Find a and b.
u = v , so a + b = 1 and 3 = b a.
a + b = 1
, so b = 1 and a = 2.
ba=3
EXAMPLE
19
Solution
The vector v = (3, 7) has initial point (2, 4). What is its terminal point?
Let the terminal point of v be (x, y), so
(x 2, y 4) = (3, 7)
x 2 = 3 and y 4 = 7 by the equality of vectors.
So x = 5 and y = 11.
18
Vectors in the Plane
EXAMPLE
20
Solution
The initial point and terminal point of MN = (2, 3) are M(2, k) and N(p, 1) respectively. Find p + k.
MN = (p 2, 1 k) = (2, 3)
p2=2
and
1k=3
p=4
and
k = 2
So p + k = 4 2 = 2.
Check Yourself 7
1. A(2, 1), B(1, 3), C(3, 2), and D(a, b) are given. If AC = BD, find AD.
2. Let u = (a, a + 1) and v = (3, b) such that u = v. Find a and b.
Answers
1. 3
2. a = 3, b = 4
B. VECTOR OPERATIONS
1. Addition of Vectors
If u = (u1, u2) and v = (v1, v2), then
u + v = (u1 + v1, u2 + v2).
The figure opposite shows how the analytic definition of
addition corresponds to the geometric one.
Two identical pictures are hung on a wall
by pieces of string as shown in the figure.
Each piece of string exerts a force upon
the picture to support its weight. The sum
of the forces of the first picture is equal to
the force of the second picture. We can
represent the forces as vectors. The box
first picture
shows that the sum of the two vectors of
the first picture equals the vector of the second picture.
EXAMPLE
21
Solution
EXAMPLE
22
Solution
u+v
u2
u1
v1
second picture
u = (1, 2) and v = (2, 1). Find u + v .
u + v = (1 2, 2 + 1) = (1, 1).
A(3, 2) and AB = (5, 2), are given. Find the coordinates of B.
Let us write B(a, b). Now, AB = (a (3), b 2) = (a + 3, b 2)
(a + 3, b 2) = (5, 2).
a + 3 = 5 and b 2 = 2 by the equality of vectors, so a = 2 and b = 0.
Therefore, the coordinates of B are (2, 0).
Analysis of Vectors Analytically
v2
19
a. Properties of Vector Addition
Let u = (u1, u2), v = (v1, v2), and w = (w1, w2) be vectors in a plane. Then the following
properties hold.
1. The sum of any two vectors in a plane is a vector.
2. u + v = v + u
3. u + ( v + w ) = ( u + v ) + w
4. 0 is the identity element:
u + 0 = (u1 + 0, u2 + 0) = (u1, u2) = u.
5. u is additive inverse of u:
u + ( u) = (u1 u1, u2 u2).
(closure property)
(commutative property)
(associative property)
2. Subtraction of Vectors
v2
v1
v1
If u = (u1, u2) and v = (v1, v2) then
u v = (u1 v1, u2 v2).
The figure opposite shows how the analytic definition
of vector subtraction corresponds to the geometric
one.
u2
uv
v2
u1
EXAMPLE
23
Solution
Subtract v = (3, 2) from u = (2, 4).
u v = (2 3, 4 2) = (1, 2)
a. Properties of Vector Subtraction
Let u = (u1, u2), v = (v1, v2), and w = (w1, w2) be vectors in a plane. Then the following
properties hold.
1. The difference of any two vectors in a plane is a vector.
2. u v v u. Therefore, vector subtraction is not commutative.
3. u ( v w ) ( u v ) w . Therefore, vector subtraction is not associative.
4. u 0 0 u. Therefore there is no identity element for subtraction.
EXAMPLE
20
24
Given w = (1, 3), K(3, 2) and P(1, 4), find w + KP and w KP.
Vectors in the Plane
Solution
EXAMPLE
25
KP = (1 3, 4 2) = (4, 2)
w + KP = (1, 3) + (4, 2) = (1 4, 3 + 2) = (3, 1)
w KP = (1, 3) (4, 2) = (1 + 4, 3 2) = (5, 5)
M(1, 4), N(3, 2m), K(m, 1), and MN + NK = 13 are given. Find m.
MN + NK = MK
MN + NK = MK = 13
Solution
( m 1)2 +( 1 4)2 =13
(m 1)2 + 25 = 169
(m 1)2 = 144
m 1 = 12 or m 1 = 12
m = 13 or m = 11
3. Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
Let v = (v1, v2) and c \, then c v = (cv1, cv2).
EXAMPLE
26
Solution
u = (3, 2) and v = (2, 1) are given. Find 2 u, 3 v , and 3 u + 2 v .
2 u = (2(3), (2)2) = (6, 4)
3 v = (32, 3(1)) = (6, 3)
3 u + 2 v = 3(3, 2) + 2(2, 1) = (9, 6) + (4, 2) = (5, 4)
a. Properties of the Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
Let u = (u1, u2), v = (v1, v2) and c, d \. Then the following properties hold:
1. c( u + v) = c u + c v. Look at the proof:
c( u + v ) = c(u1 + v1, u2 + v2)
= (cu1 + cv1, cu2 + cv2)
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Analysis of Vectors Analytically
= c(u1, u2) + c(v1, v2)
= c u + c v.
(c + d) u = c u + d u
(cd) u = c(d u ) = d(c u )
1 u = u
0 u = 0
c 0 = 0
c u = c u.
21
EXAMPLE
27
Solution
Find 2 u 3 v given u = (2, 3) and v = (1, 1).
2 u 3 v = 2(2, 3) 3(1, 1) = (4, 6) (3, 3) = (4 3, 6 + 3) = (7, 9)
2
2
Therefore, 2 u 3 v  = ( 7) +9 = 49+81 = 130.
Check Yourself 8
1. Find w given u = (3, 2), v = (1, 4), w = (a, b) and v w = 3 u.
2. Find x given 2 x + y = (1, 2), and x y = (4, 4).
Answers
1. w = 102
EXAMPLE
28
Solution
2. x = (1, 2)
Find each vector, given u = (3, 1) and v = (2, 2).
a. u 3 v
b. 3 u + 2 v
c. 4 u + v
a. u 3 v = (3, 1) 3(2, 2) = (3, 1) + (6, 6) = (3 6, 1 + 6) = (9, 7)
b. 3 u + 2 v = 3(3, 1) + 2(2, 2) = (9, 3) + (4, 4) = (9 + 4, 3 4) = (5, 1)
c. 4 u + v = 4(3, 1) + (2, 2) = (12, 4) + (2, 2) = (12 + 2, 4 2) = (10, 2)
4. Standard Base Vectors
Definition
unit vector
A vector of length 1 is called a unit vector.
3 4
For example, the vector w = ( , ) is a unit vector.
5 5
1
1
u
=
is a unit vector because
and
2
u1 + u22
 u
 u
For any nonzero vector u = (u1, u2),
u
1
u1
,
= u =
2
2
 u  u
u
+
u
1
2
So
u1
u
u2 + u2
 u
2
1
u2
2
1
2
2
u +u
u2
+ 2
2
u1 + u2
u12
u22
u12 + u22
=
+
=
=1.
u12 + u22 u12 + u22
u12 + u22
to find the direction of u.
 u
There are two important unit vectors, i and j, defined as i = (1, 0) and j = (0, 1).
We sometimes use
These vectors are special because we can use them to express any vector.
We call these vectors standard base vectors.
22
Vectors in the Plane
For example, let us express the vector v = (v1, v2) in terms of i and j:
v = (v1, v2) = v1 i + v2 j.
In this expression,
v1 i is the horizontal component,
v2 j is the vertical component,
v1 is the horizontal scalar component, and
v2 is the vertical scalar component.
We can prove the proposition above by using algebraic operations on vectors and the
properties of real numbers:
v = (v1, v2) = (1v1 + 0, 0 + 1v2) = (1v1, 0) + (0, 1v2)
= v1(1, 0) + v2(0, 1)
= v1 i + v2 j.
EXAMPLE
29
Solution
a. Write the vector u = (5, 8) in terms of i and j.
b. If u = 3 i + 2 j and v = i + 6 j , find 2 u + 3 v.
a. u = 5 i + (8) j = 5 i 8 j.
b. The properties of addition and scalar multiplication of vectors show that we can
cos 60 = sin 30 =
1
2
3
2
2
sin 45 = cos 45 =
2
sin 90 = cos 0 = 1
sin 60 = cos 30 =
sin 0 = cos 90 = 0
cos (180 ) = cos
sin (180 ) = sin
cos (90 ) = sin
sin (90 ) = cos
EXAMPLE
manipulate vectors in the same way we manipulate algebraic expressions. Therefore,
2 u + 3 v = 2(3 i + 2 j ) + 3( i + 6 j )
= (6 i + 4 j ) + (3 i + 18 j )
= (6 3) i + (4 + 18) j
= 3 i + 22 j.
30
Let v be a vector in the plane with its initial point at the
origin. Let be the positive angle between the positive
xaxis and v (see the figure). If we know the length and
direction of v , then we can resolve the vector into
horizontal and vertical components in terms of :
v has length  v , and v = (v1, v2) = v1 i + v2 j.
So v1 =  v  cos and v2 =  v  sin .
v
O
 v  sinq
 v  cosq
a.  v = 4 cm and the angle between v and the positive xaxis is 60. Find the horizontal and
vertical components of v and express v in terms of i and j.
b. Find the angle between the vector u = 3 i + j and the positive xaxis.
Analysis of Vectors Analytically
23
Solution
a. We have v = (v1, v2), where the scalar components are given by v1 = 4 cos 60 = 2 and
v2 = 4sin 60 = 23. Therefore, the horizontal component is 2 i and the vertical
y
component is 23 j . Therefore, v = 2 i + 23 j.
b. From the figure we see that has the property that
1
3
=
tan (180 ) =
.
3
3
Thus 180 = 30, and so = 150.
180 q
Check Yourself 9
1. Express v = (3, 2) in terms of standard base vectors.
2. Resolve the vector u with length 3 cm into its components if the angle between the
positive xaxis and u is 120.
3. Find the angle between the vector v = 3 i 33 j and the positive xaxis.
Answers
1. v = 3 i + 2 j
3 3
2. ux = ( , 0) , uy = (0,
)
2
2
3. = 240
C. VECTOR APPLICATIONS
As we have seen, vectors describe quantities that have both magnitude and direction. They
have a wide range of applications, such as in navigation, mechanics, and engineering.
In navigation, the direction of movement of an object such as a ship is usually given as a
bearing, that is, as an acute angle measured from due north or due south. For example, the
bearing N 60 E stands for a direction that points 60 to the east of due north. Look at some
more examples of bearings in the figure:
N
60
W
60
E
E
70
Note that N 60 E is not
the same as E 60 N.
S
N 60 E
S
N 60 W
S
S 70 W
E
50
S
S 50 E
The speed of a moving object along a bearing is called the velocity of the object. We can see
that velocity has direction (a bearing) and magnitude (speed). Therefore we can use a
vector to represent a velocity.
24
Vectors in the Plane
In the figure, the vector u represents the velocity of
wind blowing in the direction N 60 E, and the
vector v represents the velocity of an airplane flying
through this wind at point A. It is obvious that the
wind affects both the speed and the direction of the
airplane.
y
N
E
From the figure we can see that actual velocity of the
31
Solution
plane (relative to the ground) is given by the vector
w = u + v.
EXAMPLE
30
An airplane is headed due west at an air speed of 400 km/h and the wind is blowing from the
north at 100 km/h. Find the resultant velocity of the airplane relative to the ground.
We first construct a rectangular coordinate system to
indicate the four directions east, west, north and
south.
Look at the figure. We can draw a vector LP to
represent the direction and magnitude of the air
velocity of the plane, and a vector OP to represent
O
P
the direction and magnitude of the wind velocity. We
can now expect the resultant velocity to be in the
direction of OP with a magnitude proportional to the
length of OP. Therefore, we have OP = 400 2 +100 2 412.
So the velocity of the airplane is approximately 412 km/h along OP.
EXAMPLE
32
A woman wants to move by boat from one shore of a straight river to the point directly
opposite on the other shore. The speed of the boat in still water is 12 km/h and the river is
flowing east at the rate of 6 km/h. In what direction should the woman head the boat in order
to arrive at the point directly opposite?
y
Solution
Let us choose a coordinate system with the origin at
the initial position of the boat as shown in the figure.
Let u and v represent the velocities of the river and
the boat, respectively.
Then u = 6 i and  v  = 12,
v = (12cos ) i + (12sin ) j
q
O
where the angle is as shown in the figure.
Analysis of Vectors Analytically
25
The actual velocity of the boat is now
w = u + v = 6 i + (12cos ) i + (12sin ) j
= (6 + 12cos ) i + (12sin ) j.
Since the woman wants to land at a point directly opposite, her direction should have
horizontal component 0.
6 + 12cos = 0
1
2
= 120
cos =
Therefore, the woman should head the boat in the direction N 30 W.
Check Yourself 10
1. A jet plane is flying in the direction N 20 E with a speed of 500 km/h. Find the east and
north components of the velocity.
2. A vector is 4 cm long and makes an angle of 60 with the positive xaxis. Resolve the
vector into its components.
Answers
1. 500 cos70 i , 500 sin70 j
2. u = 2 i + 23 j
D. PARALLEL VECTORS
We know from the geometrical analysis of vectors that two nonzero vectors are parallel if and
only if multiplying one of them by a suitable scalar equals the other, that is,
for any c 0, u 0, and v 0, u  v if and only if u = c v.
It follows that if u = (u1, u2) and v = (v1, v2), then (u1, u2) = (c v1, c v2).
u
u
So u  v if and only if 1 = 2 = c.
v2 v2
EXAMPLE
33
Solution
EXAMPLE
26
34
Show that u = (2, 1) and v = (1, ) are parallel.
2
2 1
= = 2 , so they are parallel.
1 1
2
Find the relation between x and y given A(3, 1), B(2, 3), C(5, 4), D(x, y), and CD  AB.
Vectors in the Plane
Solution
EXAMPLE
35
Solution
AB = (2 3, 3 (1)) = (1, 4)
CD = (x 5, y + 4)
x 5 y+ 4
CD  AB so
=
.
1
4
4x 20 = y 4, so 4x + y 16 = 0.
A triangle ABC has vertices A(3, 2), B(3, 2), and C(2, 3). E and F are the midpoints of
sides AB and AC respectively. Find the coordinates of E and F.
Let us write E(x, y) and F(m, n).
and
BE = EA
BE = (x + 3, y + 2)
EA = (3 x, 2 y)
Remember!
If two parallel vectors a
and b have at least one
point in common, then
a and b lie on the same
straight line (they are
collinear).
For instance, if
AB = k BC for some
k \ \ {0}, then A, B,
and C are collinear.
CF = FA
CF = (m 2, n + 3)
FA = (3 m, 2 n)
x+3=3x
m2=3m
2x = 0
2m = 5
5
m=
2
n+3=2n
x=0
y+2=2y
2y = 0
2n = 1
1
n=
2
5 1
Therefore the coordinates are E(0, 0) and F( , ).
2 2
y=0
Check Yourself 11
1. Show that u = (2, 3) and v = (4, 6) are parallel.
2. Find the value of k if u = (1, k) and v = (3, 6) are parallel.
Answers
1. check the scalar components 2. k = 2
E. LINEAR COMBINATION OF VECTORS
1. Linear Combination of Vectors
Definition
linear combination of vectors
Let u1, u2, ..., uk be vectors in the plane and let c1, c2, ..., ck be scalars.
The expression c1 u1 + c2 u2 + ... + ck uk is called a linear combination of the vectors.
For example, w = 2 u 3 v is a linear combination of vectors.
Analysis of Vectors Analytically
27
EXAMPLE
36
Solution
EXAMPLE
37
Solution
If each element of a set of
vectors V can be expressed
as a linear combination of
vectors u and v, then we
say that u and v span the
set V.
Find the vector w if w = 2 u 3 v, u = (5, 2), and v = (1, 3).
w = 2 u 3 v = 2(5, 2) 3(1, 3) = (10, 4) + (3, 9) = (7, 13)
Express v = (12, 5) as a linear combination of the vectors u1 = (2, 1) and u2 = (3, 2).
Let c1, c2 \. Then v = c1 u1 + c2 u2.
(12, 5) = c1(2, 1) + c2(3, 2)
(12, 5) = (2c1, c1) + (3c2, 2c2)
(12, 5) = (2c1 + 3c2, c1 + 2c2)
12 = 2c1 + 3c2
and
5 = c1 + 2c2
12 = 2(5 2c2) + 3c1
5 2c2 = c1
12 = 10 4c2 + 3c2
2 = c2
(1)
c2 = 2
(2)
c1 = 5 + 4 = 9
Using (1) and (2) gives v = 9 u1 2 u2.
Note
We cannot express any vector as a linear combination of two parallel vectors.
EXAMPLE
38
Solution
Express the vector x = (19, 13) as a linear combination of u = (2, 3), v = (1, 2) and
w = (5, 4).
Let c1, c2, and c3 \. Then x = c1 u + c2 v + c3 w.
(19, 13) = c1(2, 3) + c2(1, 2) + c3(5, 4)
(19, 13) = (2c1, 3c1) + (c2, 2c2) + (5c3, 4c3)
(19, 13) = (2c1 + c2 + 5c3, 3c1 + 2c2 + 4c3)
19 = 2c1 + c2 + 5c3
and
13 = 3c1 + 2c2 + 4c3
c2 = 19 2c1 5c3
and
13 = 3c1 + 219 22c1 25c3 + 4c3
13 = 3c1 4c1 6c3 + 38
7c1 + 6c3 = 25
There are many solutions to this equation.
Let us choose c1 = 1, then c2 = 2 and c3 = 3, so
x = u + 2 v + 3 w. This is one solution to the problem.
28
Vectors in the Plane
2. Linearly Dependent and Independent Vectors (OPTIONAL)
linearly dependent and independent vectors
Definition
A set of vectors S = { v1, v2, ... vk} in a vector space V is called linearly independent if the
vector equation c1 v1 + c2 v2 + ... + ck vk = 0 has only the trivial solution c1 = 0, c2 = 0, ..., ck = 0.
If any of ci is different from zero, then the set S is called linearly dependent.
EXAMPLE
39
Solution
EXAMPLE
40
Solution
Show that S = { v, w}, is linearly independent if v = (1, 0), and w = (0, 1).
c1 v + c2w = 0
c1(1, 0) + c2(0, 1) = (0, 0)
(c1, 0) + (0, c2) = (0, 0)
(c1, c2) = (0, 0)
c1 = 0 and c2 = 0
So S is linearly independent by the definition.
Show that S = { u, v, w}, is linearly dependent if u = (1, 0), v = (0, 1) and w = (2, 5).
Let c1, c2, c3 \ and c1 u + c2 v + c3 w = 0.
c1(1, 0) + c2(0, 1) + c3(2, 5) = (0, 0)
(c1, 0) + (0, c2) + (2c3, 5c3) = (0, 0)
(c1 2c3, c2 + 5c3) = (0, 0)
c1 2c3 = 0
and
c1 = 2c3
and
c2 + 5c3 = 0
c2 = 5c3
There are infinitely many solutions to this set of equations. For example, if
c3 = 1, then c1 = 2 and c2 = 5.
These values are nonzero, so the vector set is linearly dependent.
Note
In a plane, two nonparallel and nonzero vectors are linearly independent but two parallel
vectors are linearly dependent.
Check Yourself 12
1. Express u = (0, 1) as a linear combination of v = (1, 1) and w = (1, 2).
2. Show that a = (2, 0) and b = (0, 2) are linearly independent.
Answers
1 1
1. u = v + w
3
3
Analysis of Vectors Analytically
2. solve the equation u = x v + y w
29
The screen opposite shows a simple problem illustrated using
The Geometers Sketchpad. Suppose a current flows at a
certain velocity w downstream. A boat moves at a constant
speed v. Which direction the boat take in order to reach the
other side of the river in the shortest possible time?
The Geometers Sketchpad calculates the time as we move the
point H on the screen to set the direction of the boat. Using the
Sketchad we can move H to find the shortest possible time in
the problem.
We can use computer applications such as The
Geometers Sketchpad, Cabri Geometry, or
Javascript sketchpad to sketch vectors and solve
problems. We can use an application to a
problem, and then change certain values to see
their effect. We can also use a computer
application to add and subtract vectors, and to
multiply a vector by a scalar.
EXERCISES
Project:
Use The Geometers Sketchpad,
Cabri Geometry, or Javascript
sketchpad to sketch the vectors
2 u, v, u + v, u 3 v and
PQ, QP if P(3, 4) and Q(4, 3).
x
v
A. Basic Concepts of Vectors in the
Analytic Plane
1. Plot the points A(1, 1), B(2, 1), C(3, 1), and
D(3, 1) in the plane.
4. The figure shows the
vectors u and v. Sketch
the following vectors.
a. 2 v
b. u
c. u + v
d. u 2 v
e. 2 u + v
5. Describe the vector with initial point P and
2. Sketch the position vector of the vector with the
given endpoints.
a. AB
b.
A(2, 3)
CD
C(1, 5)
B(4, 1)
D(0, 2)
c.
EF
E(0, 3)
F(4, 2)
3. Find the length of MN given M(1, 4) and N(2, 1).
30
terminal point Q.
a.
b.
y
4
3
2
1
O
y
4
3
2
1
P
Q
1 2 3 4 5
c. P(3, 2), Q(8, 9)
3 2 1 O
1 2 3
d. P(1, 3), Q(1, 0)
Vectors in the Plane
6. Find the vectors a and b if 2 a 3 b = (4, 2) and
a + b = (2, 1).
coordinates of point A.
B. Vector Operations
10. Given AB = 7 i + 2 j and B(3, 11), find the
7. Find u + v, u v, 2 u, 2 u v, u + 3 v, and
4 u + 3 v for the given vectors u and v.
a. u = (2, 6),
v = (1, 3)
b. u = (2, 3),
v = (8, 2)
c. u = (1, 0),
v = (0, 2)
d. u = i
v= j
e. u = 3 + j
v = ij
f. u = 7 i + 5 j
v= j i
11. Given AB = 5 i + 6 j and B(4, 8), find the
coordinates of point A.
12. u = 3 i + 4 j and v = 4 i + j are given. Which
vector is the longest?
1
2
13. Given u = 3 i + 4 j, calculate  u i.
1
3
for the given vectors u and v.
8. Find  u,  v, 2 v,  v,  u + v, and  u v
a. u =
b. u =
c. u =
d. u =
3 i + j
2 i j
(2, 3),
(3, 4)
v=
v=
v=
v=
i + 2 j
i j
(0, 1)
(2, 5)
C. Vector Applications
14. A jogger runs with a constant speed of 6 km/h in
the opposite direction to the wind. Find the
actual velocity of the jogger if the wind blows at a
speed of 3 km/h due west.
9. Find the horizontal and vertical scalar components
of the vector with the given length and angle with
the positive xaxis. Express the vector in terms of
standard base vectors.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
 v  = 20,
 v  = 30,
 v  = 1,
 u  = 80,
 v  = 4,
 u  = 3,
15. The jogger in question 14 above heads due north.
What is the actual velocity of the jogger?
= 30
= 120
= 225
= 135
= 10
= 300
Analysis of Vectors Analytically
16. A swimmer can swim with a velocity of 1.4 m/s in
still water. The current of a river is 1 m/s due
west. The swimmer swims due west in the river.
Find the swimmers actual velocity.
31
17. The swimmer in question 16 swims due east
22. In a triangle ABC, the vertices are A(2, 3),
(against the current). Find the swimmers actual
B(0, 1) and C(4, 1). Points D(1, 2) and E(1, 2)
velocity.
are on the sides AB and AC respectively.
Show that DE  BC.
18. A pilot heads his airplane due west. The airplane
23. In a triangle ABC, the vertices are A(1, 3),
3
, 2) is on the side AB.
2
Find the coordinates of F if F is on AC and
EF  BC.
B(2, 1), and C(3, 2). E(
has a speed of 425 km/h in still air. The wind is
blowing due north with a speed of 40 km/h.
a. Find the actual velocity of the airplane.
b. Find the actual speed of the plane.
E. Linear Combination of Vectors
24. a = (13, 2), b = (11, 6) and c = (1, 1) are given.
If a + b + u = 4 c u, find u.
19. A boat heads in the direction N 36 E along a
river. The speed of the boat in still water is
16 km/h. The river is flowing directly south. It is
observed that the actual direction of the boat is
25. Show that the vectors a = (1, 2), b = (3, 1) and
c = (1, 1) are linearly dependent.
directly east. Find the speed of the river current
and the actual speed of the boat.
26. Let u, v and w be unit vectors with angles of
3
respectively with the positive xaxis.
, ,
4 3 4
Express u as a linear combination of v and w .
D. Parallel Vectors
20. Show that u = (a, b) and v = (2a, 2b) are
parallel.
27. Show that any three nonparallel, nonzero
21. u  v, u = (1, k 3), and v = (k, k 4) are given.
Find the value of k.
32
vectors in a plane are linearly dependent.
28. a = (1, 2), b = (3, 1), and c = (1, 7) are given.
Express a + b + c in terms of a and b.
Vectors in the Plane
3 THE DOT PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS
We have seen how to add and subtract vectors, and how to multiply vectors by a scalar.
In this section we will introduce another operation on vectors, called the dot product.
The dot product is sometimes called the scalar product because the resulting product is a
number and not a vector. It has applications in mathematics, as well as in engineering and
physics.
A. DOT PRODUCT
dot product (scalar product, or Euclidean inner product)
Definition
Let u = (u1, u2) and v = (v1, v2) be two vectors in the plane.
The dot product of u and v, denoted by u v, is defined by
u v = u1v1 + u2v2.
Thus, to find the dot product of two vectors we multiply the corresponding scalar components
and then add them together.
EXAMPLE
41
Solution
Find the dot product of the given vectors.
a. u = (2, 3) and v = (5, 4)
b. u = i + j and v = 5 i + j
a. u v = 25 + 34 = 10 + 12 = 2
b. u v = 15 + 11 = 5 + 1 = 4
1. Properties of the Dot Product
The definition of the dot product gives us the following properties.
1. u v = v u
(commutative property)
2. u( v + w ) = u v + uw
(associative property)
3. c( u v ) = (c u) v
4. u u =  u2
5. u v 0, and u u = 0 if and only if u = 0.
Proof
1. u v = u1v1 + u2v2 = v1u1 + v2u2 = v u , by the commutative property of real numbers.
2. u( v + w ) = (u1, u2)(v1 + w1, v2 + w2) = u1(v1 + w1) + u2(v2 + w2)
= u1v1 + u1w1 + u2v2 + u2w2
= u1v1 + u2v2 + u1w1 + u2w2
= u v + u w
The Dot Product of Two Vectors
33
3. c( u v ) = c(u1v1 + u2v2) = cu1v1 + cu2v2 = (c u ) v
2
2
4. u u = u1u1 + u2u2 = u1 + u2 =  u2, so
u
u =  u.
5. This proof is left as an exercise for you.
EXAMPLE
42
Solution
Find the length of the vector u = (2, 2) by using the dot product.
u u = 22 + (2) (2) = 4 + 4 = 8. Therefore,  u = 8.
Check Yourself 13
1. Find the dot product of u = 3 j and v = i + j.
2. Find the quantity ( u + v)( u 3 v ) given u = j , v = i.
Answers
1. 3 2. 2
B. ANGLE BETWEEN TWO VECTORS
1. Angle Between Two Vectors
Definition
angle between two vectors
Let u = OE and v = OF be two nonzero vectors. The angle EOF
is called the angle between u and v. We use to represent the
smaller angle between u and v when their initial points coincide.
Theorem
dot product theorem
Let be the angle measure between two nonzero vectors u and v. Then
u v =  u vcos .
Proof
cosine law:
2
a = b + c 2bccos A
34
The proof is a nice application of the law of cosines.
As we know,  v u2 = ( v u)( v u) = v 2 + u 2 2 v u (1).
Applying the cosine law to triangle EOF in the figure,
 v u2 =  u2 +  v2 2 u v cos (2) (0 < < )
( v u)( v + u) =  u2 +  v2 2 u2 v2cos .
v u
Vectors in the Plane
By (1) and (2),
2
v 2 v u + u2 =  u2 +  v2 2 u vcos
2 v u = 2 u vcos .
Therefore,
u v =  u vcos .
EXAMPLE
43
Solution
Given u = (2, 2), v = (5, 8) and w = (4, 3), find the following.
a. u v
b. ( u v ) w
c. u (2 v )
d. w2
a. By the definition of the dot product we have u v = 2 5 + (2)8 = 6.
b. Using the result from (a) we have ( u v ) w = 6 w = 6( 4, 3) = (24, 18).
c. By property 3 of the dot product we have u(2 v) = 2( u v) = 2(6) = 12.
d. By property 4 of the dot product we have w2 = w w = (4)2 + 32 = 25.
One of the most important uses of the dot product is to find the angle between two vectors if
the scalar components of the vectors are given. We simply calculate the angle by solving the
equation given by the dot product theorem for cos . Let us state this important result clearly.
FINDING THE ANGLE BETWEEN TWO NONZERO VECTORS
u v
If is the angle measure between two nonzero vectors u and v then cos =  .
 u v
EXAMPLE
44
Solution
a. Find the cosine of the angle between the vectors u = (2, 5) and v = (5, 2).
b. Find the angle between the vectors u = (1, 2) and v = (2, 22).
a. u v = 25 + 52 = 20
 u = 2 2 +5 2 = 29
 v = 52 + 22 = 29
cos =
20
by the formula, and so cos =
29 29
b. u v = 12 + 222 = 2 + 4 = 6
 u = 12 + 2 = 3
 v = 4+8 = 12
cos =
6
3 12
6
36
20
.
29
=1
Therefore, = 0.
The Dot Product of Two Vectors
35
Check Yourself 14
1. Find the dot product of u = (0, 3) and v = (1, 2).
2. Find the length of u = (1, 3) using the dot product.
3. Find ( u v ) w given u = (0, 3), v = (1, 2), and w = (2, 1).
4. Find the angle between u = (2, 1) and v = (1, 3).
Answers
1. 6 2. 10
3. (12, 6)
4. = 45
2. Perpendicular and Parallel Vectors
perpendicular (orthogonal) vectors
Definition
Two nonzero vectors u and v are perpendicular if and only if the
angle measure between them is 90.
By the dot product thorem, u v =  u vcos . We can conclude that for two nonzero
vectors u and v , u v is zero if and only if equals 90.
Theorem
Two nonzero vectors u and v are perpendicular if and only if u v = 0.
EXAMPLE
45
Solution
Are the vectors u = (6, 2) and v = (1, 3) perpendicular?
u v = 61 + (2)3 = 0
So the vectors are perpendicular.
EXAMPLE
46
Solution
Are the vectors u = (3, 5) and v = (2, 6) perpendicular?
u v = 32 + 5(6) = 6 30 = 24. So u and v are not perpendicular.
From the definition of parallel vectors we know that u  v if and only if u = k v . We can
write,
 u = k v
(1)
2
u v = k v v = k v
(2)
u v =  u vcos
(3).
36
Vectors in the Plane
From (1), (2) and (3),
k v vcos = k v2
k
cos =
 k
cos = 1 or cos = 1
= 0 or = 180.
From these results we can conclude that two vectors are parallel if and only if the angle
measure between them is 0 or 180.
Conclusion
Let be the angle measure between nonzero vectors u and v.
Then u  v if and only if u v =  u v or u v =  u v.
EXAMPLE
47
Solution
Determine two vectors in the plane which are perpendicular to u = (4, 2).
Let v = (v1, v2) be perpendicular to u.
u v = 4v1 + 2v2 = 0
v2 = 2v1
If v1 = t R, v2 = 2t, then
v = (t, 2t).
Let t = 1 or 3:
v = (1, 2) and v = (3, 6) are both perpendicular to u.
EXAMPLE
48
Solution
In an equilateral triangle ABC, D is the midpoint of BC. Find ADBC.
A
In an equilateral triangle, the median is also the
altitude, as show in the diagram.
So AD BC and ADBC = 0.
B
EXAMPLE
49
In a square ABCD, E is the midpoint of side BC and BC = 4 cm. Find AEAB.
The Dot Product of Two Vectors
37
Solution AB =
a
b
AE = a +
2
50
Solution
b
2
ab
b
2
AEAB = a( a +
)= a +
= a2
2
2
2
2
Since a b, a =  a = 42 = 16.
EXAMPLE
Find the area of the triangle with vertices A(2, 3), B(0, 1), C(3, 2).
 AH   BC 
A(ABC) =
2
AH = (x0 2, y0 3)
BC = (3, 1)
AHBC = 3(x0 2) + (y0 3) = 0
3x0 + y0 6 3 = 0
3x0 + y0 = 9
BH = kHC
BH = (x0, y0 1)
HC = (3 x0, 2 y0)
H(x0, y0)
x0
y 1
= 0
3 x0 2 y0
2x0 x0y0 = 3y0 3 x0y0 + x0
x0 = 3y0 3
x0 3y0 = 3
3x0 + y0 = 9
x0 3y0 = 3
(1)
(2)
Let us multiply (1) by 3. Then,
9x0 + 3y0 = 27
+ x0 3y0 = 3
10x0 = 24
x0 = 2.4 and y0 = 1.8.
AH = (0.4, 1.2)
1
AH = 0.16+1.44 = 1.6 = 4
10
A(ABC) =
38
BC = (3, 1)
BC = 9+1 = 10
1 4
10 = 2
2 10
Vectors in the Plane
triangle inequality
Theorem
If u and v are vectors in the plane, then  u + v   u +  v. This property is called the
triangle inequality.
Proof
By the property of the dot product,  u + v2 = ( u + v )2 = u 2 + 2 u v + v 2.
2 u v 2 u v
{ u2 +  v2 + 2 u v } { u2 +  v2 + 2 u v}
 u + v2 ( u +  v)2, since both  u +  v and  u + v are nonnegative.
Therefore,  u + v  u +  v.
Theorem
u and v are perpendicular in the plane if and only if  u + v2 =  u2 +  v2.
51
Solution
EXAMPLE
52
Solution
 u= 3,  v= 4, and the angle between u and v is 60. Find 2 u 3 v.
2 u 3 v 2 = (2 u 3 v)2 = 4 u 2 + 9 v2 12 u v
= 4 u2 + 9 v 2 12 v vcos
1
= 432 + 942 1234
2
= 36 + 144 72
= 108.
Now 2 u 3 v  = 108, and so2 u 3 v = 108 = 63.
Find an equation for the line passing through A(1, 3) which is perpendicular to n = (3, 5).
Let us choose a variable point B(x, y):
AB = (x + 1, y 3).
AB and n are perpendicular, so
AB n = 0.
3(x + 1) + 5(y 3) = 0
3x + 3 + 5y 15 = 0
3x + 5y 12 = 0 is the required equation.
The Dot Product of Two Vectors
(3
,5
)
EXAMPLE
 u + v2 = ( u + v )2 = u 2 + 2 u v + v 2 =  u 2 + 2 u v +  v 2
=  u 2 +  v 2, since u v = 0.
A(1, 3)
B(x, y)
n=
Proof
39
Check Yourself 15
1. Find the value of a if u = (a, 1) is perpendicular to v = (3, 4).
2. In the right triangle ABC, AC is the hypotenuse, BH AC, and H lies on AC.
Find (HC + CB)(AB + BH).
3. Find an equation for the line passing through P(3, 1) which is perpendicular to n = (3, 1).
Answers
4
1. a =
3
2. 0
C. COMPONENT OF
3. 3x + y 8 = 0
u ALONG v (OPTIONAL)
The scalar component of u along v (or the scalar
component of u in the direction of v) is given by
 ucos , where is the angle measure between u and
v. We can interpret this concept geometrically as shown in
the figures opposite. The scalar component of u along v
is the magnitude of the portion of u that points in the
direction of v. We can see in the figures that when is
acute, the scalar component of u along v is  ucos .
When is obtuse, the scalar component of u along v is
negative, and the length is  ucos . As we know from
the previous section,
u v
, and so we can write a formula to
cos = 
 u v
express the component of u along v:
COMPONENT OF
 u  cos q
 u  cos q
u ALONG v
u v
 ucos = 
 v
EXAMPLE
53
A bus weighing 6000 N is parked on a driveway that is
inclined 30 to the horizontal, as shown in the figure.
a. Find the magnitude of the force required to prevent
the bus from rolling down the driveway.
60
30
30
b. Find the magnitude of the force experienced by the
driveway due to the weight of the bus.
40
Vectors in the Plane
Solution
The bus exerts a force w of 6000 N directly downward.
We need to determine how much of this force causes the bus to roll down the driveway, and
how much of it is exerted on the surface of the driveway. This means that we must resolve w
into its components.
a. The magnitude of the part of the force w that causes the bus to roll down the driveway is
 u = scalar component of w along u = 6000 cos 60 = 3000.
Thus, the force needed to prevent the bus from rolling down the driveway is 3000 N.
b. The magnitude of the force exerted by the bus on the driveway is
 v = scalar component of w along v = 6000 cos 30 = 30003 N.
Therefore, the force exerted by the bus on the driveway is 30003 N.
EXAMPLE
54
Solution
Find the scalar component of u along v if u = (1, 4) and v = (2, 1).
u v
1(2)+ 41
2
By the formula, the scalar component of u along v is  =
=
.
4+1
5
 v
In physics, the work W done by a constant force F
when the application of F points in the direction of
displacement AB is defined by the formula
W = ( Fcos)AB =  FABcos
= F AB
(AB = D)
= F D.
Units for work and force
force
work
newton
newtonmeter
Nm
1N =1
kg m
s2
1 J = 1 Nm
EXAMPLE
55
Solution
F
q
A
Fcosq
A force is given by F = (2, 3) N and an object moves from the point A(1, 3) to C(4, 7), where
each unit is 1 m. Find the work done in newtonmeters.
The displacement vector is D = (4 1, 7 3) = (3, 4).
Therefore, the work done is W = F D = (2, 3) (3, 4) = 2 3 + 3 4 = 18 Nm.
The Dot Product of Two Vectors
41
EXAMPLE
56
Solution
A student pulls a box horizontally across a table by exerting
a force of 20 N on the handle. If the handle makes an angle
of 30 with the horizontal, find the work done in moving
the box 100 m.
30
Let us choose a coordinate system with the origin at the initial position of the box. That is,
the initial point of the displacement is P(0, 0). The terminal point is Q(100, 0). So the
displacement vector is D = (100, 0).
The force on the handle is F = (20 cos30) i + (20sin30) j = 103 i + 10 j.
So, the work done is
W = F D = (103 i + 10 j ) (100 i ) = 100 103 = 10003 Nm.
Check Yourself 16
1. Find the scalar component of u along v if u = (4, 1) and v = (2, 2).
2. A helicopter is pulling a truck horizontally due
east. The tension exerted by the rope connecting
the truck and the helicopter is 103 newtons. If the
angle between the connecting rope and the horizontal path is 60, how many newtonmeters will
it take to pull the truck 50 kilometers?
60
Answers
1.
42
3
2
2. 25 000 Nm
Vectors in the Plane
Look at the problem:
A basketball player is 1.85 m tall. He throws
a basketball into a basket from 0.45 m
above his head, with a velocity of 10 m/s at
an angle of 53 to the horizontal. If the
player is 9 m away from the basket when he
throws the ball, how many seconds later
does the ball pass through the basket?
We can solve this problem by using the
horizontal component of the velocity of the
ball and the distance it travels in the
horizontal direction. Let t be the time in
seconds. Then
x = v0cos 53t (resolving a vector)
9 = 10 0.6t,
(cos 53 0.6)
thus t = 1.5 s.
In the picture, a soccer player has kicked
the football. The maximum height of the
ball and the maximum height of the
goalkeepers hand are the same, but the
ball passes over the goalkeeper. Why cant
the goalkeeper catch the ball?
The reason is timing. While the goalkeeper
is jumping up, the ball is already at its
maximum height.
Project: Investigate other projectile motion problems.
The Dot Product of Two Vectors
43
4
5
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
ACROSS
DOWN
1. A vector with length zero.
2. A single vector that is the equivalent of a set of
vectors.
5. An undefined concept in geometry which has no
shape or size.
3. The measure of heat of a body or environment.
7. Being the main or most important part.
4. The principal structural member of a ship.
10. Being parallel.
6. The solution of an equation in which every variable
is equal to zero.
12. The coordinate representing the position of a point
along a line perpendicular to the yaxis in a plane.
13. A thin straight stick with a point, sometimes used to
shoot things.
7. An acute angle measured from due north or due
south.
8. The size of a flat surface, calculated mathematically.
15. A mathematical statement that establishes the
equality of two expressions.
9. The property that states: if a, b A, then a b A
for an operation.
16. Any of the four areas into which a plane is divided
by the reference axes in a rectangular coordinate
system, designated first, second, third, and fourth,
counting counterclockwise from the area in which
both coordinates are positive.
11. A point whose position is constant.
17. One of the two horizontal or vertical vectors whose
sum is equal to a given vector.
2
18. In a triangle, the formula cos A = (b + c a )/2bc.
21. Vectors which have the same direction and length.
24. To arrange in sets of two.
14. The direction 270 clockwise from due north and
directly opposite east.
19. A picture such as a pie chart or bar graph, used to
illustrate quantitative relationships.
20. To give the meaning of (a word or idea).
22. An undefined concept in geometry that describes a
set of points along a path.
23. A relatively small, usually open craft used by
fishermen.
25. The act or process of adding.
26. The direction 90 clockwise from north.
27. Either of two points marking the end of a line
segment.
44
Vectors in the Plane
EXERCISES
A. Dot Product
1. Find the dot product of each pair of vectors.
a. u =
b. u =
c. u =
d. u =
e. u =
v=
v=
v=
v=
v=
(2, 1)
7 i + 24 j,
3 i + j,
i j,
19 j,
(3, 6)
3 i j
3 i j
2 i
16 j
2. Find the following quantities given u = i + 2 j,
v = 3 i + j , and w = 4 i + 3 j.
a. u w + u w
b. w( u + v )
c. ( u + w )( u w)
d. 2( u v )
e. ( w v )( w + u )
f. (3 u 2 v )( u + 2 v )
3. u, v and w are unit vectors such that
u + v + w = 0. Find u v + v w + w u = 0.
4. Evaluate the following quantities if the angle measure
between u and v is 60 and  u = 4,  v = 3.
a. u v
b.  u + v2
c.  u v2
d. (3 u + 2 v ) ( u + 2 v )
5. Evaluate  u + v given  u = 13,  v = 5, and
 u v = 12.
B. Angle Between Two Vectors
6. Determine whether the given vectors are
perpendicular or not.
a. u = (4, 6), v = (3, 2)
b. u = (5, 0), v = (0, 4)
c. u = 3 i ,
v = j
The Dot Product of Two Vectors
d. u = 2 i 8 j ,
e. u = 3 i 4 j ,
f. u = 4 i ,
v = 12 i + 3 j
v = 8 i 6 j
v = 3 i
7. Find the measure of the interior angles of the triangle
ABC with vertices A(1, 3), B(1, 2), and C(2, 2).
8. Find two perpendicular vectors to each given
vector.
a. a = 3 i j b. b = 8 i 6 j c. c = i + 2 j
9. For what values of t are u = 4 i 5 j t and
v = 3 i 2 j perpendicular?
of t are u + t v and u t v perpendicular?
10.  u = 5 and  v = 3 are given. For what values
b = i + t j have angle measure 120 between
them?
11. For what values of t do a = t i + j and
12. Show that the equality  u + v =  u v holds
when u and v are orthogonal.
13. Verify the equality
 u + v2 +  u v2 = 2( u2 +  v2).
14. In a rhombus ABCD, one side measures 6 cm and
E, F are the midpoints of sides AD and DC
respectively. The angle measure between sides AD
and DC is 120. Find the quantity BEAF.
15. In a rectangle ABCD, DC = 3AD and point E is on
DC. Find the quantity AEBE given DE = 2EC
and AD = 3 cm.
when the angle measure between u and v is less
than 90.
16. Show that the inequality  u + v >  u v holds
45
17. Find two unit vectors that make angles of 45
with i + j.
18. Let u and v be vectors and let be a scalar. Verify
the given properties.
a. u v = v u
b. ( u ) v = ( u v ) = u( v )
A(1, 1) which is perpendicular to u = (3, 4).
20. Show that the diagonals of a rhombus are
perpendicular using vectors.
21. Find the area of a triangle with vertices
A(2, 2), B(0, 2), and C(1, 4).
22. Find the area of a rhombus with vertices A(2, 0),
B(3, 3), C(8, 0), and D(3, 3).
23. Find the area of a rectangle with vertices A(3, 2),
B(9, 2), C(9, 5), and D(3, 5).
24. For any vectors u, v, and w prove that
( u w ) v u( vw) is perpendicular to w.
25. Show that the altitudes of an acuteangled triangle
are concurrent using vectors.
26. Find the distance of P(x0, y0) from the line
ax + by + c = 0 using vectors.
27. Find the area of a parallelogram with vertices
A(2, 1), B(6, 0), C(8, 3), and D(4, 2).
C. Component of u Along v (Optional)
28. Find the scalar component of u along v for each
pair of vectors.
a. u = (4, 6), v = (3, 4)
b. u = 7 i 24 j, v = j
46
object from P to Q given each set of data.
a. F = 5 i 4 j , P(3, 8), Q(0, 0)
b. F = 40 i 5 j , P(1, 1), Q(20, 1)
30. A car is on a driveway inclined 30 to the horizontal.
19. Write the equation of the line passing through
29. Find the work done by the force F in moving an
If the car weighs 28 N, find the force that prevents
the car from rolling down the driveway.
31. A windsurfing board has
its sail inclined in the
direction N 50 W and its
direction is due west. The
wind is blowing into the
sail in the direction
N 20 W with a force of
20 N, as shown in the
figure.
a. Find the effective force
of the wind on the sail.
[Hint: Find the components of the wind parallel
to the sail and perpendicular to the sail.]
b. If the front of the board is turned due north,
find the effective force of the wind that drives
the board forward.
32. Two boats are pulling a
ship, as shown. One
W
E
boat pulls with a force
S
of 2 104 N in the
direction S 45 W, and
the other boat pulls
with a force of 3.4 104 N in the direction S 75 E.
a. Find the resultant force on the ship as a vector.
b. Find the magnitude of the force
(cos 75 0.258, sin75 0.965).
Vectors in the Plane
CHAPTER SUMMARY
A line segment with direction is called a directed line
segment.
A vector in the plane is a directed line segment.
Addition of Two
V
ectors G
eometrically
For two
vectors
PO
and
QR
in a plane, PQ + QR is the
sum of PQ and QR. There are two ways to add vectors
geometrically: the polygon method and the parallelogram
method.
The Polygon Method
In this method we draw the first vector. Then we place
the initial point of the second vector at the terminal point
of the first, the initial point of the third vector at the
terminal point of the second, and so on until we place the
initial point of the nth vector at the terminal point of the
(n 1)th vector. The vector whose initial point is the
initial point of the first vector and whose terminal point
is the terminal point of the last vector is the resultant
(sum) vector.
The Parallelogram Method
In this method we draw the first vector, and then draw
the second vector with its initial point at the initial point
of the first vector. We make a parallelogram by drawing
two additional sides, each passing through the terminal
point of one of the vectors and parallel to the other
vector. The sum is drawn along the diagonal from the
common initial point to the intersection of the two lines.
Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
For a real number a and a vector u:
1. If a > 0, then the vector a u has the same direction
to u and the length a u = a u.
2. If a < 0, then the vector a u has the opposite
direction to u and the length a u = a u.
3. If a = 0, then a u = 0.
Parallel Vectors
Let a and b be two vectors. a and b are parallel if and
only if a = k b where k 0.
NonP
Parallel Vector
If a is not parallel to b, then h a = k b when h = k = 0.
Components of a Vectors
A vector in a plane has two components, called the
horizontal and vertical components of the vector.
Let  a = (a1, a2) be a vector, then  a =
Chapter Summary
a12 + a12 .
Equal Vectors
Two vectors are equal if and only if their corresponding
component vectors are equal.
In other words, for a = (a1, a2) and b = (b1, b2), then
a = b if and only if a1 = b1 and a2 = b2.
Standard Base Vectors
i = (1, 0) and j = (0, 1) are called the standard base
vectors.
Linear Combination of Vectors
Let u1, u2, ... , uk be vectors in a plane and let c1, c2, ... ck
be scalars. v = c1 u1 + c2 u2 + ... + ck. uk is called a
linear combination of vectors.
Dot Product
The dot product of u = (u1, u2) and let v = (v1, v2) is the
scalar quantity u v = u1v1 + u2v2.
Angle Between Two Vectors
Let be the angle between two nonzero vectors u and v.
1. u  v if and only if u v =  u v or
u v =  u v because = 0 or = 180.
2. u and v are perpendicular if and only if u v = 0.
Concept Check
1. Can we use directed line segments in traffic? Give an
example.
2. What is the difference between a vector and a scalar?
3. Is it possible to add a hundred vectors in a plane using the
polygon method or the parallelogram method?
4. How do you change the direction of a vector using a real
number?
5. a. Draw a diagram to show how to add two vectors.
b. Draw a diagram to show how to subtract two vectors.
6. Can you equalize two nonparallel vectors using
multiplication by two real numbers?
7. In a plane, how many components do you need to resolve
a vector?
8. How many standard base vectors are there in the plane?
9. What is the difference between the inner product and dot
product of two vectors?
10. How do you use the dot product to find the angle measure
between two vectors?
11. How do you use the dot product to determine whether two
vectors are parallel or not?
12. How do you use the dot product to determine whether two
vectors are perpendicular or not?
47
CHAPTER REVIEW TEST
1. In triangle ABC, G is the centroid. Describe
AG + GC + CA.
A) 0
B) AG
A(2, 1).
C) BG
D) 2 CA
2. In the figure, K, L, M, N,
P, R are the midpoints
of the sides ABCDEF
respectively. Describe
KB+LC+MD+NE+PF.
A) AR
B) RA
6. Find the coordinates of B if AB = (7, 3) and
L
B
E) AC
E
P
C) FK
D) FA
B) (9, 2)
D) (9, 4)
D
K
A
A) (9, 4)
E) PA
E) (9, 2)
7. u = 2 i + 3 j and v = i 2 j are given.
Find 3 u 2 v.
A) 4 i + 5 j
C) 8 i + 13 j
B) 8 i + 5 j
D) 4 i + 13 j
E) 4 i + 13 j
3. In the figure,
C) (9, 4)
AB = BC = CD
a b
c d
and the vectors a, b, c, d
are given. Which one of
A
B
C
D
the following is the linear
combination of c in terms of a and d?
a+ d
2a + d
2a + d
A) B) C) 2
2
3
a + 2d
a + 2d
D) E) 3
2
8. Find the unit vector with opposite direction to
1
4. AD = 1 AB and BE = BC are given. Express
A) 3 i 2 j
B) 5 i j
C) 7 i 9 j
D) 2 i + 3 j
E) 8 i j
DE in terms of AB and BC.
A)
3
1
AB + BC
4
2
B)
3 1
C) AB BC
4
2
1
1
AB + BC
4
2
1 1
D) AB BC
4
2
1 3
E) BC AB
2
4
D) (1, 5)
48
4 3
5 5
B) (5, 1)
E) (9, 3)
C) (5, 1)
4
5
A) ( , )
3
5
4
7
4 3
7 7
B) ( , )
3
7
C) ( , )
4
5
D) ( , )
3
5
E) ( , )
9. u = i 5 j and v = 2 i + 3 j are given. Find
3 u + 2 v.
10. Describe the unit vector a in the
figure.
60
A)
1
3
i + j
2
2
B)
C)
1
3
i
j
2
2
D)
5. (1, 4) + v = (4, 5) is given. Find v.
A) (3, 9)
AB given A(6, 3), and B(2, 6).
E)
1
3
i + j
2
2
1
3
i +
j
2
2
3
i
2
Vectors in the Plane
11. For how many values of m > 0 are a = (2, 1 m)
and b = (m + 1, 4) parallel?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
16. ABCD is the rectangle in
the figure.
Find AB AC if
3
A
AB = 4 and
BC = 3.
A) 9
B) 12
C) 15
D) 16
E) 20
12. Which one of the following is true for vectors
a = (3, 6), b = (6, 7) and c = (9, 13)?
A) a = 4 b + 3 c
C) a = 4 b 3 c
B) a = 3 b + 4 c
D) a = 3 b 4 c
E) a = b + c
17. In the figure, D and E
are the midpoints of
the sides of triangle
ABC.
Find (AD AE) BC.
A) 100
13. Find the measure of the angle between the unit
vectors a and b in degrees if their dot product is 1 .
2
A) 45
B) 60
C) 120
D) 135
E) 150
Find m.
A) 3
B) 2
C) 1
D) 2
E) 3
B) 150
v = (3, 4)?
C) 0
D) 50
4
5
3
5
B) (4, 3)
3
5
4
5
D) ( , )
Chapter Review Test 1
3 4
5 3
C) ( , )
4 3
5 5
E) ( , )
E) 100
A(1, 1). B(4, 2), and C(0, 6). Find the scalar
product of AB BG.
B) 14
C) 0
D) 1
E) 12
19. A triangle ABC has vertices A(1, 1), B(4, 2), and
C(0, 6). Find the scalar component of AB along
BC.
A)
4
2
B)
4
2
C)
3
4
AB = 4,
3
4
B) 24
E)
3
2
BC = 6. Find
AC (AB + BC).
A) 20
D)
AC = 5,
A) ( , )
10
20. ABC is a triangle with
15. Which one of the following is perpendicular to
18. G is the centroid of a triangle with vertices
A) 8
14. A(2, 5), B(1, 3), C(m, 6), and AB BC are given.
C) 25
D) 30
E) 50
49
CHAPTER REVIEW TEST
b is 60. Find  a + b.
1.  a = 3,  b = 5, and the angle between a and
A) 7
B) 8
C) 9
D) 10
E) 11
6. In the right triangle ABC, mA = 90, D [AC],
and AB = k. Find BA BD.
A) k
B) k2
C)
k2
2
D)
k
2
E) 2k2
7. What is the angle between a = (1, 3) and
AB = AC = 4,
120
mA = 120, and
A) 60
2
C) 30
C) 135
8. A square ABCD has side
C
B) 36
B) 120
D) 150
E) 180
AD = DC.
Find BC BD.
A) 48
b = (4, 43) in degrees?
2. In the figure,
D) 24
E) 18
3 cm, and K, L are the
midpoints of sides AB and
BC respectively. P and Q
trisect AC as shown in the
figure. Find DP PQ.
3. Given  a = 12,  b = 5, and  a b = 8, find
cos( a, b).
A)
3
8
B)
7
8
C)
3
4
D)
5
13
E)
12
13
A) 0
B) 1
C) 1
D) 2
E) 3
9. a, b, and c are three vectors such that b = a 2 c,
b c , and  a = 4 c. Find the angle between
a and c in degrees.
4. In an equilateral triangle ABC, D [AC], BC = 6,
A) 30
B) 45
C) 60
D) 75
E) 90
and CD = 2. Find BC BD.
A) 30
B) 24
C) 20
D) 18
E) 12
5.  a = 7,  b = 10, and  a + b = 73 are given.
Find  a b .
A) 3
50
B) 8
C) 13
D) 15
E) 17
10. Which one of the following is false for two vectors
a, b and a scalar k \?
A) If a b, a b = 0.
B) If a  b, b a = 0.
C) a b = b a
D) (k a + k b) = k( a + b)
E) (k ak b) = k2 a b
Vectors in the Plane
11. In the figure, ABCD is a
parallelogram and
BC = 1,
and the length of BC is 10 cm. Find a possible
value of a.
DC = 2,
DE = EC. Find
(BC + CE)(AD + DE).
A) 0
16. In a triangle ABC, AB = (4, 2a), AC = (a, 4)
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
12. In an equilateral triangle ABC, D and E are the
midpoints of [AC] and [BC] respectively.
Find DC (BA + AE).
D)
B)  EB2
1 2
DC
2
C)
E)
1
EB
2
B)
1
2
with side 2 cm,
AE = ED and
1 2
 DC
2
A) 1
what is BC CA?
1
2
DF = FC.
Find EF (EA + AB).
13. In an equilateral triangle ABC with side 1 cm,
A)
E) 5
E) 4
17. In a square ABCD
A)  AB2
D) 4
B) 2
C) 2
D) 1
E) 0
18. a + b = (1, 3) and 2 a + b = (4, 6) are given.
C)
3
2
D) 2
E)
3
2
Find the measure of the angle between a and b.
A) 30
B) 45
C) 90
D) 135
E) 150
14. For what values of k are the vectors a = (12k, 9)
and b = (4, 3) linearly dependent?
A) 3
B) 2
C) 1
15. In a square ABCD, the
D) 0
[AB] [EP], [PD] [PC],
E
B) 12
Chapter Review Test 2
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
20. a = (12, 5), and b = (3, 4) are given. Find
sin( a, b).
A) 16
AC = (2, 2). Find the length of BC.
A) 1
side is 4 cm,
and AE = EB.
Find PE (PC + PD).
E) 1
19. In a triangle ABC, AB = (2, 5) and
C) 10
D) 8
E) 6
A)
5
13
B)
12
13
C)
63
65
D)
10
13
E)
51
4
13
1
b.
5 m/min
E
3 km
b.
2 m/min
6 km
4. a.
u+ v
u v
d.
e.
(w+v )
2w
+
3v
2w
13. use the sum of the vectors
EXERCISES
2.
3. 34
C(3, 1)
D
B(2, 1)
6. a = (2, 1) b = (0, 0)
4.
2v
x
D(3, 1)
18. use nonparallel vectors
y
A(1, 1)
14. AB + AC = 9 16. use nonparallel vectors and the vectors BA  BC
17. use the definition of nonparallel vectors
1.
1
5. OK =
(OA+ OB) 6. AD + AE = AB + AC
2
7. look at the fifth property of vector addition
8. use AG + BG + CG = 0
1
9. PR = 2AB 11. QM = PN = DB
2
3v
u + (w
+v )
c.
w ( u + v )
2. an infinite 3. a.
number
u w
v
EXERCISES
A E
C
u+v
u
u
x
2u + v
5. a. PQ = (4, 1)
b. PQ = (5, 1)
c. PQ = (5, 7)
d. PQ = (2, 3)
u 2v
7. a. u + v = (3, 9), u v = (1, 3), 2 u = (4, 12), 2 u v = (3, 9), u + 3 v = (5, 15), 4 u + 3 v = (5, 15)
b. u + v = (6, 1), u v = (10, 5), 2 u = (4, 6), 2 u v = (12, 8), u + 3 v = (22, 3), 4 u + 3 v = (32, 18)
c. u + v = (1, 2), u v = (1, 2), 2 u = (2, 0), 2 u v = (2, 2), u + 3 v = (1, 6), 4 u + 3 v = (4, 6)
d. u + v = i + j , u v = i j , 2 u = 2 i , 2 u v = 2 i j , u + 3 v = i + 3 j , 4 u + 3 v = 4 i + 3 j
e. u + v = 2 i, u v = 4 i + 2j , 2 u = 6 i +2 j, 2 u v = 7 i + 3 j, u + 3 v = 2 j, 4 u + 3 v = 15 i 7 j
f. u+ v = 6 i+6 j, u v=8i +4 j, 2 u=14 i +10 j, 2 u v= 15 i +9 j , u + 3 v = 4i + 8 j, 4 u + 3 v = 31 i 17 j
52
Vectors in the Plane
8. a.  u = 10
 v = 5
2 v = 25
b.  u = 5
 v = 2
2 v = 22
1
5
v =
3
3
 u + v  = 13
c.  u = 13
 v = 1
2 v = 2
1
1
v =
3
3
 u + v  = 25
 u v = 22
2
1
v =
3
3
 u + v  = 5
 u v = 3
 u v = 17
d.  u = 5
 v = 29
2 v = 116
1
29
v =
3
3
 u + v  = 106
 u v = 2
2
2
9. a. v = 103 i + 10 j b. v = 15 i + 153 j c. v =
i
j d. u = 402 i + 402 j
2
2
3 3
i j
2
2
e. v = 4cos 10 i + 4sin 10 j f. u =
13.
10. A(10, 9)
11. A(9, 2)
17
14. 3 i km/h 15. 3 i + 6 j 16. 2.4 i m/s 17. 0.4 i m/s
2
12.  u >  v
18. a. v = 425 i + 40 j b. v =
182225
5
22. BC =
DC
3
5
23. F(2, ) 24. u = (10, 2) 25. use the definition of linearly dependent vectors 26. u = (6 2) v + (3 2) w
2
28. a + b + c = 3 a + 2 b
19. speed of the current=16cos 36 km/h, actual speed of the boat=16sin 36 km/h
EXERCISES
21. 2
1. a. 0
b. 45
c. 33 1
4. a. 6
b. 37
c. 13
d. 2
d. 132
e. 304
5. 244
7. mA = 45, mB = 90, mC = 45
2. a. 20
6. a. yes
b. 1
c. 20
b. yes
8. a. (1, 3) and (1, 3)
d. 2
c. yes
e. 45
d. yes
b. (3, 4) and (3, 4)
f. 29
e. no
3.
3
2
f. no
c. (2, 1) and (2, 1)
27
5
6
9. t =
10.
11. 23 12. yes 13. true, use u2 =  u2 14.
15. 9 16. use u2 =  u2
2
3
5
17. (1, 0) and (0, 1) 18. use definition of the dot product and u = (u1, u2), v = (v1, v2) 19. 3x + 4y + 7 = 0
21. 2
22. 30
25.
Let OA = a,
a BC ,
a
b
B
Answers
23. 18 24. find the dot product
OB = b, OC = c, and
b AC, and
use the dot product.
c
C
26. d =
 ax0 + by0 + c 
2
a +b
27. 10 28. a.
29. a. 17 b. 750 30. 14 N
32. a. F = 22810 i 18330 j
b.  F =
12
5
b. 24
31. a. 10 N b. 103 N
22810 2 +18330 2 = 856285000
53
TEST
TEST
1.
11.
1.
11.
2.
12.
2.
12.
3.
13.
3.
13.
4.
14.
4.
14.
5.
15.
5.
15.
6.
16.
6.
16.
7.
17.
7.
17.
8.
18.
8.
18.
9.
19.
9.
19.
10.
20.
10.
20.
Z E R
E
B A S
E
U
A
L
R
T
I
A
N
N
T
G
V
E
C
T
C O
G
R
R
A
L
P A I
H
N
E
54
O V E C T
E
I C
M
P
E
F
R
I
A
X
T
E Q U
R
D
E
P
O
I
S I N E L
T
E Q
B
R
O
A D D
A S T
O R
K
E
A
E
A R A L L E
E
A B S C I
A
A T I O N
Q U A D
C O M
A W
C
L
O
S
U
R
E
P
R
O
P
E
R
T
Y
P O I N T
R
I S M
I
V
S A
I
A
R O W
L
E
S
S
O
A N T
L
U
O N E N T
I
O
O R S
N
D
U A L V E C
F
I
I T I O N
E N D P O I N T
Vectors in the Plane
abscissa: the coordinate representing the position of a
diagonal: a segment which joins two nonadjacent vertices
point along a line perpendicular to the yaxis in a plane.
of a polygon.
additive inverse: the negative of a designated quantity.
altitude: the perpendicular distance from the base of a
geometric figure to the opposite vertex, parallel side, or
parallel surface.
angle: the union of two noncollinear rays with a common
diagram: a graphic representation of an algebraic or geometric
relationship.
directed line segment: a line segment with direction.
displacement: the magnitude of a vector from an initial
endpoint.
position to a final position.
area: the size of a flat surface.
dot product: the result of adding the numerical product
arrow: a thin straight stick with a point: .
of the corresponding scalar components of two vectors.
arrowhead: the pointed tip of an arrow.
associative property: an operation is associative if we can
apply it to a group of numbers in any order and achieve
the same result. For example, a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c.
axiom: a basic assumption in mathematics.
east: the direction 90 clockwise from north, opposite
west.
endpoint: either of two points marking the end of a line
segment.
bearing: an acute angle measured from due north or due
south, used to describe the direction of moving ships or
equal vectors: vectors which have the same direction and
length.
vehicles.
figure: a geometric form consisting of any combination of
centroid: the intersection point of the medians in a
points, lines, or planes.
triangle.
fixed point: a point whose position is constant.
closure property: the property that states: if a, b A then
a
b A for an operation
force: a vector quantity that tends to produce an
acceleration of a body in the direction of its application.
component vector: one of the two horizontal and vertical
vectors which have a sum equal to a given vector.
cosine law: in a triangle with side lengths a, b, c, such that
A is the angle measure between b and c,
2
cosA = (b + c a )/2bc.
Vectors in The Plane
horizontal: parallel to the horizon, or in the plane of the
horizon.
55
origin: the point of intersection of the coordinate axes in
the rectangular coordinate system.
identity element: the element of a set that when combined
with another element in a particular operation leaves that
element unchanged. For example, the zero vector 0 is the
identity element for vector addition.
parallelism: being parallel.
inclined: sloping, slanting, or leaning.
parallelogram: a foursided plane figure with two
initial point: the starting point of a vector.
opposite parallel sides .
intersect: to cut across or through.
parallelogram method: to add vectors using the parallelogram
intersection: the act, process, or result of intersecting.
method, we make a parallelogram by drawing two
additional sides, each passing through the terminal point
of one of the vectors and parallel to the other vector. The
linear combination of vectors: a vector expressed in
terms of other vectors.
sum is the diagonal from the common initial point to the
intersection of the two lines.
perpendicular: two vectors are perpendicular if they form
a right angle.
natural number: any number which is a member of the
perpendicularity: the state of being perpendicular.
set {1, 2, 3, ...}.
plot: to locate (points or other figures) on a graph by
navigation: the act or practice of sailing a ship.
means of coordinates.
negative: less than zero.
polygon: a closed plane figure bounded by three or more
norm of a vector: another name for the length of a vector.
line segments.
north: the direction along a meridian 90 counterclockwise
polygon method: to add vectors using the polygon
from east; the direction to the left of sunrise.
method, we join the initial point and terminal point of
notation: any series of signs or symbols used to represent
each successive vector. The sum is the vector whose
quantities or elements in mathematics.
initial point is the initial point of the first vector and
numerator: the dividend of a fraction.
whose terminal point is the terminal point of the last vector.
position vector: a vector which represents another vector,
opposite vectors: two vectors which have opposite
and has its initial point at the origin.
direction and the same length.
Pythagorean theorem: a theorem stating that the sum of
ordinate: in the rectangular coordinate system, the
the squares of the lengths of the sides of a rightangle
coordinate representing the distance from a specified
triangle is equal to the square of the length of the
point to the xaxis, measured parallel to the yaxis.
hypotenuse.
56
Vectors in The Plane
theorem: a proposition that can be proved on the basis of
explicit assumptions.
quadrant: any of the four areas into which a plane is
divided by the reference axes in the rectangular coordinate
system, designated first, second, third, and fourth,
counting counterclockwise from the area in which both
coordinates are positive.
triangle: a threesided polygon.
triangle inequality: The property that states:

u+
v 
u  + 
v .
trivial solution: the solution of an equation in which
every variable is equal to zero.
quadrilateral: a polygon with four sides.
rectangle: a foursided plane figure with four right angles.
unit vector: a vector with length one unit.
resultant vector: a single vector that is the equivalent of a
set of vectors.
rhombus: a quadrilateral whose sides are all equal length.
variable: a symbol representing a quantity. For example,
in the expression a2 + b2 = c2, a, b, and c are variables.
scalar: a quantity which has only magnitude, for example,
vector: a quantity which has both magnitude and
length or speed.
direction, for example, velocity, or movement along a
scalar component: the numbers v1 and v2 for the vector v
in the directions of i and j.
bearing.
shore: the low land along the edge of an ocean, sea, lake,
or river.
velocity: a vector quantity whose magnitude is a body's
speed and whose direction is the body's direction of
motion.
vertical: at right angles to the horizon; upright.
side: a line or segment which bounds a plane figure.
sketch: a simple, quicklymade drawing.
south: the direction 90 clockwise from east and directly
opposite north.
standard base vectors: horizontal and vertical unit
west: the direction 270 clockwise from north and
directly opposite east.
vectors which start at the origin.
subtraction of vectors: the operation of adding a vector to
the opposite of another vector.
zero vector: a vector with length zero, written 0.
terminal point: the finishing point of a vector.
Vectors in The Plane
57
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