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BALKAN JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING, 2013, Vol.1, No.

71

Quasi-Resonant Full-Wave Zero-Current


Switching Buck Converter Design, Simulation
and Application
G. Yanik and E. Isen

AbstractThis paper presents a full wave quasi-resonant zerocurrent switching buck converter design, simulation and
application. The converter control uses with zero-current
switching (ZCS) technique to decrease the switching losses.
Comparing to conventional buck converter, resonant buck
converter includes a resonant tank equipped with resonant
inductor and capacitor. The converter is analyzed in
mathematical for each subintervals. Depending on the desired
input and output electrical quantities, converter is designed with
subinterval equations. The converter is simulated in PSIM with
design parameters. The simulation results are verified with
experimental setup. The converter is controlled by UC3867N
integrated resonant mode power supply controller.
Index TermsBuck converter, resonant converter, zero
current switching,

I. INTRODUCTION

HE switching frequency or output filter components


values must be increased to improve the output
performance of conventional hard switching PWM DC-DC
converters. Increased switching frequency causes increase in
switching losses and electromagnetic noise. Furthermore,
more losses cause warming problems, thus bigger heat sink or
higher current capacity switching device usage is needed. To
solve the problems occurs during switching zero-current
switching (ZCS) and zero-voltage switching (ZVS) techniques
have been improved [1]-[3]. Using a series connected inductor
and a parallel connected capacitor to switching device ZCS
and ZVS techniques can be applied [4]. In addition, these soft
switching techniques can be applied with resonant circuits [5].
The switch current is decreased to zero with resonant, and then
switching signal is off to turn-off the switching device. Thus,
switching loss could be significantly decreased with ZCS. In
ZVS technique, the voltage on the switch is forced to be zero
with resonant before turn-on. When the current decreases to
zero, switching signal is applied to turn-on the switch. Hence,
the loss occurs during the turn-on greatly decreased [6].

Soft switching techniques are mostly used in DC-DC


converters, such as buck converter, boost converter [7],[8].
The placed resonant circuit between output filter and input
source is utilized to force the current and voltage to become
zero. The resonant circuits are classified in three categories,
conventional, quasi-resonant and multi-resonant.
Quasi-resonant converters can be performed as half-wave
[9] and full-wave [10]. Considering the quasi-resonant buck
converter, conventional buck converter can be worked with
resonant by connecting a series inductor to the switch utilized
in the input and a parallel capacitor to the output diode. While
a unidirectional switching device is used in half-wave quasiresonant converter, bidirectional switching device is used in
full-wave quasi-resonant converter. Operating principle is the
same for both converters. However, reverse inductor current
can flow through the anti-parallel diode of switch, thus
resonant interval increases. Therefore, this condition lets
resonant energy be transferred back to input source in low
load operating, and the dependence of output voltage to the
load decreases. As a result, use of quasi-resonant converter
instead of conventional DC-DC converter provides low
switching losses, high efficiency, ability of working in higher
frequencies, low EMI and low value of output filter elements.
In this study, 60 W quasi-resonant full-wave (QRFW) zerocurrent switching (ZCS) buck converter is analyzed, simulated
and implemented. Operating intervals of the converter are
examined, circuit equations for each interval are derived and
circuit parameters are calculated. The converter is simulated
with calculated parameters and the simulation results are
verified with experimental results.
II. SERIES RESONANT CIRCUITS
In this section, operating principle of series resonant circuits
is explained to understand quasi-resonant full-wave converter
operating. As shown in Fig. 1, series resonant circuit includes
series connected an inductor and a capacitor. When the input
voltage is applied to resonant circuit, a resonant occurs
between these resonant elements. Circuit equations during the
resonant are given in (1)-(3) and waveforms are shown Fig. 2.

G. YANIK, is with the Electrical Engineering Department, Electrical &


Electronics Faculty, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, 34220, TURKEY.
(e-mail: gyanik@yildiz.edu.tr).
E. ISEN, is with the Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department,
Engineering Faculty, Kirklareli University, Kirklareli, TURKEY. (e-mail:
evren.isen@kirklareli.edu.tr).

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that output current ILf is constant during one switching cycle.


Subinterval 1 starts with the signal applied to the switch Q.

iL

+ vL -

Vg

+
vC
-

Fig. 1. Series resonant circuit

iL I L 0 cos t

Vg VC 0
Z

72

sin t

(1)

VL (Vg VC 0 ) cos t ZI sin t

(2)

VC (Vg VC 0 )cos t ZI L0 sin t Vg

(3)

A. Subinterval 1
The switch Q turns on and input voltage V g is applied to the
resonant inductor L. Therefore, resonant inductor current rises
linearly, with the slope of V g/L and diode current decreases
from ILf to zero, with the same slope. Switch current increases
linearly with a slightly slow slope, therefore ZCS turn on of
the switch is provided. Fig. 4 shows the subcircuit in this
interval.
Lf i
L
iL
Q
Lf

iD

Vg

Cf

R load

Fig. 4. Subcircuit in subinterval 1

IL

Vg
L

(4)

VC 0

(5)

When resonant inductor current reaches to I Lf and the diode


turns off, this interval ends.
B. Subinterval 2
Fig. 5 shows the subcircuit in this interval. In the input side
of the converter, a series resonant tank occurs where L and C
are the resonant elements.
Lf i
L
iL
Q

Fig. 2. Series resonant circuit waveforms

Lf

III. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS


QRFW buck converter is a special version of the traditional
buck converter that uses resonant intervals to ensure soft
switching of the semiconductor device. In this section,
operation principle of the QRFW buck converter that is shown
in Fig. 3 along with subintervals of the converter will be
analyzed.
Lf
L
Q

Vg

Cf

R load

Before subinterval 1, converter is assumed to be working in


steady state. Inductor current and output voltage are set to
nominal values. The output diode D conducts the filter
inductor current ILr. Filter inductor is assumed to be so large
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Cf

R load

Fig. 5. Subcircuit in subinterval 2

Resonant inductor has initial current ILf and inductor current


continues to increase in sinusoidal. Resonant capacitor voltage
also starts to increase, simultaneously. Related state equations
can be calculated from (1) and (3).

Vg

sin t

(6)

VC Vg Vg cos t

(7)

I L I L0
Fig. 3. Full Wave Quasi Resonant Buck Converter Topology

iC

Vg

When inductor current decreases to zero, this interval ends.

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C. Subinterval 3
Fig. 6 shows subcircuit in this interval. As it is seen in the
figure, the subcircuit is the same with the previous subinterval
but resonant inductor and resonant capacitor currents are
reversed.
Lf i
L
iL
Lf

Vg

iC

Cf

R load

73

current turns on the diode. Corresponding subcircuit is shown


in Fig. 8. This subinterval is the off state of the traditional
converter. Output current is conducted by the diode and this
interval ends when the switch is back on. Unlike the
traditional buck converter, this subinterval is the control
interval. In the traditional buck converter, duration of the on
state of the switch controls output voltage. In QRFW buck
converter, off stage duration is adjusted to control the output
voltage. Therefore, the on time of the switch is constant and
defined by the resonant elements.
Lf i
L
Lf

iD

Vg
Fig. 6. Subcircuit in subinterval 3

Cf

In the beginning of this interval, a negative ringing between


resonant elements starts. Resonant current flows through the
body diode of the switch. This is the ZCS interval where
control signal applied to the switch must be cut off to ensure
turn the switch off with ZCS. State equations of the resonant
elements are the same with the previous one and given below.

R load

Fig. 8. Subcircuit in subinterval 5

Theoretical waveforms of the resonant tank are shown in


Fig. 9.
IL

Vg

sin t

(8)

VC Vg Vg cos t

(9)

I L I Lf

IT
0t
VC

This interval ends when resonant current reaches to zero.


D. Subinterval 4
The subcircuit of this interval is shown in Fig. 7. At the start
of this interval, resonant capacitor is not discharged
completely therefore, output current I Lf flows through resonant
capacitor, discharging it linearly with the slope of I Lf/C.

Lf

VC1

Q1
D1

i Lf

Q1

R load

D2

To design any SMPS circuit, output power, input and output


voltages and switching frequency must be considered. These
parameters of the designed converter are shown in TABLE I.
TABLE I
DESIGN CONSIDERATION

State equations of the resonant elements are given below.

IL 0

Symbol

(10)

I Lf

(11)

This interval ends when capacitor voltage decreases to zero


and output diode turns on.
E. Subinterval 5
When capacitor voltage decreases to zero, output inductor
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0t

IV. DESIGN CONSIDERATION

Cf

Fig. 7. Subcircuit in subinterval 4

VC

Fig. 9. Theoretical waveforms of the resonant tank

iC

Vg

D1

ISSN: 2147-284X

P0
Vg
V0
fs

Quantity

Value

Output power
Input voltage
Output voltage
Switching frequency

60 W
48 V
12 V
200 kHz

In a QR converter, values of the resonant elements are


crucial for the operation. In this section, selections of the
resonant elements are explained.
In the second interval of the converter, a series resonant
circuit tank, loaded with a current source, occurs as shown in
Fig. 10.

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74

IL

Vg

VC

I0

Fig. 10. Series resonant tank loaded with constant current source

In this resonant circuit, resonant inductor current is


calculated as below.

I L IO

Vg
L
C

Fig. 11. Simulation circuit

sin t

(12)

In a QRFW buck converter, current source value must be


lower than resonant current peak level to ensure negative
ringing, where switch signal will be cut off. Output current is
selected as 5 Amps due to the output power and voltage.
Therefore, resonant tank current must be greater than 5.

I Lres ( peak ) 5
IO

Vg
L
C

(13)

sin t 5

12
L
C

L
2.4
C

(14)

Conversation ratio of the QRFW buck converter is as given


below.

Vo FVg

fs
Vg
fo

(15)

result in simulation, this type of controlled must be designed.


In the designed controller, principle of a capacitors linear
charging with a constant current is used. The capacitor is
charged with a constant current source. Then, when the
capacitor voltage exceeded a pre-defined limit, another current
source starts to discharge capacitor and so capacitor voltage
decreases linearly. Second current source is a voltage
controlled current source so that a compensating voltage in the
output of the closed loop error amplifier will be controlling
discharge current of the capacitor.
If the voltage on the capacitor is compared with a constant
DC voltage, a desired PWM will be obtained. Frequency of
this PWM can be controlled with discharge current. In a
ZCSHW buck converter, a frequency controlled fixed on time
PWM signal is needed to control output voltage. Although
variable frequency is obtained by the described method, on
time of the controlled is still varies along frequency. Fig. 12
shows capacitor voltage with reference voltage and PWM
signal. As shown in figure, only positive slope of the
triangular capacitor voltage must be compared with reference
voltage.

For the minimum load, the switching frequency is selected


200 kHz. Therefore,

12
200000 2 LC LC 198 109
(16)
48
Depending on the (14) and (16), calculated resonant elements
are given TABLE II.
TABLE II
RESONANT ELEMENTS
Quantity

Value

Resonant inductor
Resonant capacitor

0.85 H
47 nF

V. SIMULATION STUDY
Simulation study of the designed converter has been
performed in PSIM simulation software. Fig. 11 shows the
simulation circuit.
For the closed loop operation, a voltage controlled oscillator
is needed to control circuit but this type of a control block is
not present in software library. To obtain close loop operation
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Fig. 12. Controlled capacitor voltage with reference voltage and PWM signal

To compare reference voltage with positive slope only,


positive slope on the capacitor voltage must be detected.
Derivative of the capacitor voltage will give the slope value. If
the derivative of the capacitor voltage is positive, this means
capacitor is charging. To use only sign not the value of this
derivative, upper and lower limit block is used. Positive
derivative gives high signal, and negative derivative gives low
signal. The reference and capacitor voltage are compared, and
so a signal is generated when reference is higher than
capacitor voltage. The output signal is generated with given to
AND integrated circuit of obtained signal and a signal of
derivative slope. As a result, a fixed on time and variable

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frequency PWM signal is obtained where frequency of the
signal is controlled with input voltage.
Resonant tank waveforms obtained from simulation study is
shown in Fig. 13. Obtained waveforms are completely
matching the theoretical analysis.
MOSFET drain source voltage versus drain current which is
equal to resonant inductor current is shown in Fig. 14. In the
turn-on process of the MOSFET, collision between this
current and voltage is very small due to series inductor; hence
turn-on switching losses are very small. In the turn-off process
of the MOSFET, there are no collisions between voltage and
current, so switching loss at turn off process is zero.

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VI. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS


In this section experimental results are given and discussed.
Fig. 16 shows oscilloscope plot of the inductor current and
VDS voltage on MOSFET. A very high frequency ringing on
MOSFET voltage can be seen in the plot. This ringing occurs
when MOSFET turns off due to the resonant between
MOSFETs parasitic capacitor and resonant inductor.
Resonant inductor current increases further than expected in
positive direction after negative ringing in resonant tank.
To prevent this parasitic ringing, a RC snubber is added to
the circuit. Fig. 17 shows the inductor current and VDS voltage
on MOSFET after the RC snubber. As it is seen in the figure,
the parasitic ringing is eliminated with the RC snubber.
Resonant inductor current, capacitor voltage and MOSFET
gate signal is shown in Fig. 18.

Fig. 16. Inductor current and VDS voltage of MOSFET

Fig. 13. Resonant tank waveforms and corresponding control signal

Fig. 17. Inductor current, VDS voltage after the RC snubber and MOSFET gate
signal
Fig. 14. MOSFET voltage versus MOSFET current

Fig. 15 shows compensated output voltage corresponding to


change in output current. As can be seen in the figure,
whenever output current changes from half load to full load or
from full load to half load, output voltage is settles back the
desired value after a small drop or a small overshoot.

Fig. 18. Resonant capacitor voltage, resonant inductor current and MOSFET
gate signal

Fig. 15. Output voltage corresponding to step change in output current

Fig. 19. Output voltage and current

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Output voltage and current for open loop operation can be
seen in Fig. 19. Closed loop operation of the converter for a
positive step in the output current is shown in Fig. 20. After
output current rises from half load to full load, output voltage
drops for a short time and settles back to desired level. Output
voltage response to a negative step in output current is shown
in Fig. 21. Output voltage overshoots for a short period of time
then settles back to desired level after change in the output
current.

Fig. 20. Output voltage corresponding to positive step in output current

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VII. CONCLUSION
In this study, a 60 W quasi-resonant full-wave zero-current
switching buck converter design, simulation and experimental
results are given. Although all unwanted parasitic effects on
waveforms, desired result is obtained with the experimental
setup. Output voltage can be controlled with switching
frequency and a well filtered DC voltage with desired value
can be obtained in output. Converter can regulate output
voltage when the load current changes. Measured efficiency of
the experimental setup is around %85. Resonant elements are
crucial for a quasi-resonant converter. For a switching
frequency around 200 kHz, resonant tank elements are very
small, and so it is very hard to measure these elements with a
LCR meter. Measurement error and a small change in this
elements values, due to the external factors such as
temperature, may cause major problems in operation of the
converter. PCB design of such a converter has a major effect
in operation. High frequency effects on every element must be
considered during PCB design process. An air inductor is used
for the resonant inductor. Although expected result has been
obtained, the effects of an air inductor, such as EMI, should be
investigated.
REFERENCES
[1]

Fig. 21. Output voltage corresponding to negative step in output current

Change in the resonant inductor current for a positive step


in output current is shown in Fig. 22 and for a negative step in
output current is shown in Fig. 23.

Fig. 22. Resonant inductor current change corresponding to positive step in


output current

Y.C. Chuang, Y.L. Ke, H.S. Chuang and Y.S. Wang, "A Novel SingleSwitch Resonant Power Converter for Renewable Energy Generation
Applications", Industrial & Commercial Power Systems Technical
Conf., May, 2013, pp. 1-9.
[2] C.J. Tseng and C.L. Chen, "Novel ZVT-PWM converters with active
snubbers", IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, Vol. 13, Iss. 5, pp. 861869, 1998.
[3] D.S. Gautam and A.K.S. Bhat, "A Comparison of Soft-Switched DCto-DC Converters for Electrolyzer Application", Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 5463, 2013.
[4] I.H. Baciu and S. Lungu, "Resonance in Power Converters Circuits",
IEEE 18th Int. Symp. For Design and Tech. in Electronic Packing, Oct.
2012, pp. 183-187.
[5] S. Urgun, "Zero-voltage transition-zero-current transition pulsewidth
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5, pp. 627-634, 2012.
[6] E. Jayashree and G. Uma, "Analysis, design and implementation of a
quasi-resonant DC-DC converter", IET Power Electronics, Vol. 4, Iss.
7, pp. 785-792, 2011.
[7] T. Mishima and M. Nakaoka, "A Practical ZCS-PWM Boost DC-DC
Converter With Clamping Diode-Assisted Active Edge-Resonant Cell
and Its Extended Topologies", IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics,
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[8] L. Jiang, C.C. Mi, S. Li, C. Yin and J. Li, "An Improved SoftSwitching Buck Converter With Coupled Inductor", Vol. 28, No. 11,
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[9] N.N. Goryashin and A.S. Solomatova, "Analysis of MOSFET
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Fig. 23. Resonant inductor current change corresponding to negative step in


output current

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77

G. YANIK was born in Istanbul, Turkey,


in 1985. He received his B.S. and M.S.
degrees in Electrical Engineering at Yildiz
Technical University, Istanbul, in 2008
and 2011, respectively.
He is a Research Assistant in the
Department of Electrical Engineering,
Yildiz Technical University since 2008.
His research interests include DC-DC converters, softswitching techniques, power factor correction and inductor
design.

E. ISEN was born in Bandrma, Turkey,


in 1981. He received his B.S., M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering at
Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, in
2003, 2005 and 2012, respectively.
He was a Research Assistant in the
Department of Electrical Engineering,
Yildiz Technical University between 2005 and 2012. He is an
Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical and
Electronics Engineering, Kirklareli University. His current
research interests include grid connected inverters, renewable
energy conversion systems and power electronics.

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