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EM/OCT 2009/MEC442/KJM492

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


FINAL EXAMINATION

COURSE

FLUID MECHANICS II

COURSE CODE

MEC442/KJM492

EXAMINATION

OCTOBER 2009

TIME

3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1.

This question paper consists of six (6) questions.

2.

Answer any five (5) questions in the Answer Booklet. Start each answer on a new page.

3.

Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the
invigilator.
Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of:
i)
ii)
iii)

the Question Paper


an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty
a one - page Appendix 1

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO


This examination paper consists of 5 printed pages
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EM/OCT 2009/MEC442/KJM492

QUESTION 1
a)

If the y component of velocity in a steady, incompressible flow field in the x-y plane is
v = -0.2xy3 , where x and y are measured in meters,
i)

Find the simplest x -component of velocity for this flow field,

ii)

Determine the equation of streamlines for this flow.


(10 marks)

b)

Consider the flow field given by

V = x2yi-3yj

+ 2z2k

i)

Is the flow incompressible?

ii)

Determine further the acceleration of a fluid particle at point (x,y,z)=(3,1,2).


(10 marks)

QUESTION 2
a)

Stream function for an incompressible flow field is given by


y/ = -Ur sin 0 + 9

where q and U are constants.

In
i)

Obtain an expression for the velocity field.

ii)

Determine the stagnation points and show that v|/=0 these points.
(8 marks)

b)

Consider a flow with velocity components u=0, v= - y3-4z and w=3y2z.


i)

Is this a one, two or three-dimensional flow,

ii)

Is this incompressible or compressible flow,

iii)

Derive a stream function for this flow.


(12 marks)

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EM/OCT 2009/MEC442/KJM492

QUESTION 3
a)

The x-component of velocity in an incompressible laminar boundary layer is assumed to be


represented as a linear variation in the form
u = Us
where U s is the free stream velocity at the boundary edge y=8 and 8=Cx1'2
8
where C is a constant.

b)

i)

Derive the simplest expression for the y-component of velocity.

ii)

Evaluate the maximum value of the ratio v/u at a location where x=0.5 m and 8=5
mm.
(10 marks)

Evaluate 878 and G/8 for the velocity profile = 2 -

fy]2

where u is the velocity at a

distance y from the wall and 8 is the boundary layer thickness.


(10 marks)

QUESTION 4
a)

For isentropic flow in a variable area duct, derive the expression

du
u

~{M2

dA
-1) =

where u is the fluid velocity, M the Mach number and A, the cross-

sectional area of the duct. Employing the above expression, explain why a convergingdiverging section is required to produce a supersonic flow from a reservoir of stationary fluid.
(8 marks)
b)

Air in a reservoir has a pressure of 5 bar and temperature of 23 C. It is connected to a


receiver via a converging-diverging section with exit diameter of 38 mm. If the pressure in
the receiver is kept at 3 bar, calculate:
i)

the temperature and density of the air at exit from the nozzle.

ii)

the exit Mach number.

iii)

the air mass flow rate through the converging-diverging section.

(Take for air R=287 J/kgK, y=1.4)


(12 marks)
The following equations may be used without proof,
fy-\\

Ml

T0=T 1 +
\

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EM/OCT 2009/MEC442/KJM492

r
(r-D

^o

\L

a = JyRT
m = pAu

QUESTION 5
A centrifugal pump is required to deliver water from a water treatment tank to a reservoir 20 m
above the level in the tank. The pump inlet will be located 2 m above the constant top water level
of the treatment tank. The suction pipe is 250 mm diameter and 15 m long and has a Darcy
friction factor of 0.02. The inlet to the suction pipe is fitted with a strainer and a filter which
together produce a head loss of 10 v ^ g where v is the suction pipe mean velocity. The discharge
pipe from the pump is 50 m long and 250 mm in diameter and a Darcy friction factor of 0.025.
Fittings in the discharge pipe produce a total minor head loss of 1,0u2/2g where u is the average
discharge pipe velocity. Characteristic performance data of the centrifugal pump at 1800 rpm is
shown in Table Q5.
a)

On a graph paper draw the performance curve of the centrifugal pump running at 1800rpm
(5 marks)

b)

On the same graph, draw the system demand curve, tabulating clearly your calculations.
(5 marks)

c)

Estimate the flow rate available from the pump(running at 1800 rpm) when meeting the
system demand curve(i.e. the point of intersection of the two curves)
(5 marks)

d)

Calculate the net positive suction head (NPSH) available under the operating conditions in
part (c) if atmospheric pressure is 1 bar, water vapour pressure is 3 kN/m2 and water density
1000 kg/m3
(5 marks)

[Note: The Darcy friction factor f is used in the following formula for friction head loss in a pipe
L V2
f

Qm3/s
Hm
r|%

Dig
0.04
71
48

0.08
63
72

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0.12
52
80

0.16
39
79
Table Q5

0.20
23
68

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EM/OCT 2009/MEC442/KJM492

QUESTION 6
Laminar flow of a fluid of dynamic viscosity \i takes place in a horizontal annular pipe with internal
and external radii F^ and R2 respectively when subjected to a longitudinal pressure gradient of
dp/dx. Assuming steady, fully developed incompressible flow,
a)

Show that the 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation may be reduced to a governing


equation of the form

dp
d(
du^
r = /u r
dx
dr
J

where u is the fluid velocity at radius r in the annular region.


(4 marks)

b)

Hence show that the fluid velocity in the annulus is given by

-\_dp^
1
u = \fj, dx R^-r

Cln

where C =

R22

In
(10 marks)

c)

Show that the maximum velocity in the annulus occurs at a radius given by

Hf
d)

(4 marks)

In a particular case, with Ri= 0.12 m, R2= 0.24 m, n=0.3 kg/ms and

dp
dx

-420 N/m3

determine the maximum fluid velocity in the annular region.


(2 marks)

END OF QUESTION PAPER

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EM/OCT 2009/MEC442/KJM492

APPENDIX 1
FORMULA LIST

Equations of Motion in Cartesian Coordinate System.


{du

du

du

Bu\

(d2u

dp

d2u

ci2u

( j direction)
/du
p +

\a/

du
M

a*

du
din
dp
/d 2 y
cTv
d2v
+ u + w = - + pp.,y + u, r2 + ~52 + 72

av

az/

av

\ax

av

az ,

d iv

dviA

dp

f dZw

d2w

d2w

(z direction)

aw

dw

~- + U + V

dt

dx

+ w

av

dz)

= - + pg. + 11 \ 7
+ 7
+ J
2
2
2

dz

\dx

BY

dz

Equations of Motion in Cylindrical Coordinate System.


Continuity:

Convective time derivative:

a ,i
a +v a
z
aP + T ^ w + ^te

V V = vr+-ve-r^

Laplacian operator:
.22 =_ i a /r a \ +. l

a z+ , a"

ftr( fr) -?W dz<

The r-momentum equation:

The 0-momentum equation:


at/a . , . , , .

1 3p ,

/*

ve

2 dty

ae
The z-momentum equation:

a*

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+ (V
v .v)^z =

- i ? + gz+A
p az

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