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# CONFIDENTIAL

EM/OCT 2009/MEC442/KJM492

## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FINAL EXAMINATION

COURSE

FLUID MECHANICS II

COURSE CODE

MEC442/KJM492

EXAMINATION

OCTOBER 2009

TIME

3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1.

## This question paper consists of six (6) questions.

2.

3.

Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the
invigilator.
Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of:
i)
ii)
iii)

## the Question Paper

an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty
a one - page Appendix 1

## DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO

This examination paper consists of 5 printed pages
Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

EM/OCT 2009/MEC442/KJM492

QUESTION 1
a)

If the y component of velocity in a steady, incompressible flow field in the x-y plane is
v = -0.2xy3 , where x and y are measured in meters,
i)

ii)

(10 marks)

b)

V = x2yi-3yj

+ 2z2k

i)

ii)

(10 marks)

QUESTION 2
a)

## Stream function for an incompressible flow field is given by

y/ = -Ur sin 0 + 9

In
i)

## Obtain an expression for the velocity field.

ii)

Determine the stagnation points and show that v|/=0 these points.
(8 marks)

b)

i)

ii)

iii)

(12 marks)

## Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA

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EM/OCT 2009/MEC442/KJM492

QUESTION 3
a)

## The x-component of velocity in an incompressible laminar boundary layer is assumed to be

represented as a linear variation in the form
u = Us
where U s is the free stream velocity at the boundary edge y=8 and 8=Cx1'2
8
where C is a constant.

b)

i)

## Derive the simplest expression for the y-component of velocity.

ii)

Evaluate the maximum value of the ratio v/u at a location where x=0.5 m and 8=5
mm.
(10 marks)

fy]2

(10 marks)

QUESTION 4
a)

## For isentropic flow in a variable area duct, derive the expression

du
u

~{M2

dA
-1) =

where u is the fluid velocity, M the Mach number and A, the cross-

sectional area of the duct. Employing the above expression, explain why a convergingdiverging section is required to produce a supersonic flow from a reservoir of stationary fluid.
(8 marks)
b)

## Air in a reservoir has a pressure of 5 bar and temperature of 23 C. It is connected to a

receiver via a converging-diverging section with exit diameter of 38 mm. If the pressure in
the receiver is kept at 3 bar, calculate:
i)

the temperature and density of the air at exit from the nozzle.

ii)

iii)

## (Take for air R=287 J/kgK, y=1.4)

(12 marks)
The following equations may be used without proof,
fy-\\

Ml

T0=T 1 +
\

## Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA

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EM/OCT 2009/MEC442/KJM492

r
(r-D

^o

\L

a = JyRT
m = pAu

QUESTION 5
A centrifugal pump is required to deliver water from a water treatment tank to a reservoir 20 m
above the level in the tank. The pump inlet will be located 2 m above the constant top water level
of the treatment tank. The suction pipe is 250 mm diameter and 15 m long and has a Darcy
friction factor of 0.02. The inlet to the suction pipe is fitted with a strainer and a filter which
together produce a head loss of 10 v ^ g where v is the suction pipe mean velocity. The discharge
pipe from the pump is 50 m long and 250 mm in diameter and a Darcy friction factor of 0.025.
Fittings in the discharge pipe produce a total minor head loss of 1,0u2/2g where u is the average
discharge pipe velocity. Characteristic performance data of the centrifugal pump at 1800 rpm is
shown in Table Q5.
a)

On a graph paper draw the performance curve of the centrifugal pump running at 1800rpm
(5 marks)

b)

On the same graph, draw the system demand curve, tabulating clearly your calculations.
(5 marks)

c)

Estimate the flow rate available from the pump(running at 1800 rpm) when meeting the
system demand curve(i.e. the point of intersection of the two curves)
(5 marks)

d)

Calculate the net positive suction head (NPSH) available under the operating conditions in
part (c) if atmospheric pressure is 1 bar, water vapour pressure is 3 kN/m2 and water density
1000 kg/m3
(5 marks)

[Note: The Darcy friction factor f is used in the following formula for friction head loss in a pipe
L V2
f

Qm3/s
Hm
r|%

Dig
0.04
71
48

0.08
63
72

## Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA

0.12
52
80

0.16
39
79
Table Q5

0.20
23
68

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EM/OCT 2009/MEC442/KJM492

QUESTION 6
Laminar flow of a fluid of dynamic viscosity \i takes place in a horizontal annular pipe with internal
and external radii F^ and R2 respectively when subjected to a longitudinal pressure gradient of
dp/dx. Assuming steady, fully developed incompressible flow,
a)

## Show that the 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation may be reduced to a governing

equation of the form

dp
d(
du^
r = /u r
dx
dr
J

(4 marks)

b)

## Hence show that the fluid velocity in the annulus is given by

-\_dp^
1
u = \fj, dx R^-r

Cln

where C =

R22

In
(10 marks)

c)

Show that the maximum velocity in the annulus occurs at a radius given by

Hf
d)

(4 marks)

In a particular case, with Ri= 0.12 m, R2= 0.24 m, n=0.3 kg/ms and

dp
dx

-420 N/m3

(2 marks)

## Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA

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EM/OCT 2009/MEC442/KJM492

APPENDIX 1
FORMULA LIST

## Equations of Motion in Cartesian Coordinate System.

{du

du

du

Bu\

(d2u

dp

d2u

ci2u

( j direction)
/du
p +

\a/

du
M

a*

du
din
dp
/d 2 y
cTv
d2v
+ u + w = - + pp.,y + u, r2 + ~52 + 72

av

az/

av

\ax

av

az ,

d iv

dviA

dp

f dZw

d2w

d2w

(z direction)

aw

dw

~- + U + V

dt

dx

+ w

av

dz)

= - + pg. + 11 \ 7
+ 7
+ J
2
2
2

dz

\dx

BY

dz

Continuity:

## Convective time derivative:

a ,i
a +v a
z
aP + T ^ w + ^te

V V = vr+-ve-r^

Laplacian operator:
.22 =_ i a /r a \ +. l

a z+ , a"

## The 0-momentum equation:

at/a . , . , , .

1 3p ,

/*

ve

2 dty

ae
The z-momentum equation:

a*

+ (V
v .v)^z =

- i ? + gz+A
p az

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