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DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE OPERATIONS

Marine Lifting

May 2003

Rev. Date

Reformatted version of original document


Reason For Issue

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LOC Doc. Title

Marine Lifting

LOC Ref No.

LOCH/GUIDELINES/R003

Client Doc Title


Client Ref No.
LOC Field

Marine Operations Guidelines

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Marine Lifting

LOCH/GUIDELINES/R003 Rev. 0

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
1.

2.

3.

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Scope of Guidelines

1.2. Definitions

1.3. Reference Documents

1.4. Certificates of Approval

PLANNING OF MARINE LIFTS

2.1. General

2.2. Site Survey

2.3. Lifting Manual

2.4. Documentation

2.5. Design Calculations

2.6. Operational Aspects

LOADS AND ANALYSIS

3.1. General

3.2. Module Design Weight

3.3. Rigging Weight

3.4. Centre of Gravity and Tilt of Module - Single Crane

3.5. Static Hook Load Single Crane Lift

3.6. Static Hook Load - Dual Crane Lift

3.7. Dynamic Hook Load

3.8. Derivation of Lifting Point Loads - Single Crane Lifts

11

3.9. Derivation of Lifting Point Loads - Dual Crane Lifts

12

3.10.Lifting Through Water

12

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5.

6.

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STRUCTURES

14

4.1. General

14

4.2. LRFD and Consequence Factors

14

4.3. Method of Analysis of Module

14

4.4. Strength of Module

15

4.5. Padeye Design

15

4.6. Padears and Trunnions

16

4.7. Cast Lifting Points

17

4.8. Fabrication and Installation of Lifting Points

17

4.9. Seafastening

17

4.10.Bumpers and Guides

17

REQUIREMENTS FOR LIFTING EQUIPMENT

19

5.1. General

19

5.2. Sling Force Distribution

19

5.3. Shackles

20

5.4. Spreader Beams

21

5.5. Hydraulic Lifting Devices

21

CRANE AND CRANE VESSELS

22

6.1. General

22

6.2. Allowable Load

22

6.3. Crane Radius Curve

22

6.4. Minimum Clearances

22

6.5. Crane Vessel Stability

23

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1.

LOCH/GUIDELINES/R003 Rev. 0

INTRODUCTION

1.1.

Scope of Guidelines

1.1.1

These guidelines are a basis for the planning, design and operational aspects of marine
lifting.

1.1.2

The purpose of these guidelines is to specify appropriate standards, based on sound


engineering and good marine practice in order to ensure that lifting operations maintain
an acceptable level of safety at all times.

1.1.3

These guidelines are intended to cover any lifting operation that is subject to approval by
the Marine Warranty Surveyor. For example:

Topsides Module Lifting

Subsea Structure Lifting

Jacket Lifting

1.1.4

Other considerations may apply for other categories of lift.

1.1.5

These guidelines are based on experience over a large number of lifting operations.
However, as knowledge advances in specific areas, Marine Warranty Surveyors should
recognize that lifting operations may use alternative or new methods. The fundamental
principle to be followed by the introduction of novel or alternative methods is that the
overall level of safety of a lifting operation should not be reduced.

1.1.6

The Marine Warranty Surveyor for a project will be required to review the following for
any lifting operation requiring approval:

Design specifications

Proposed lifting procedure

Rigging design

Crane vessel details

1.1.7

This information should be made available to the Marine Warranty Surveyor in sufficient
time to enable the completion of these reviews well before the planned operations.

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1.2.

Definitions

1.2.1

Company: Warranted Company or representatives acting on their behalf.


MWS: Marine Warranty Surveyor and/or Marine Warranty Survey Company.
Installation Contractor: Shall mean the contractor who is responsible for the installation
and marine lifting operations.
Module: A structure or parts thereof subject to lifting.
Sling: Steel ropes spun together with a spliced eye in each end.
Grommet: Steel rope spun together and spliced such that there is no end.
Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF): A factor accounting for the global dynamic effects
that may be experienced during lifting.
Consequence Factor: An additional factor to be applied in assessing the structural
strength of lifting points and primary structure.
Module Design Weight (MDW):
relevant contingencies.

The maximum weight of the module including all

Rigging Weight: The weight of all rigging, which will be lifted by the crane.

1.3.

Reference Documents

1.3.1

MWS review of technical documents will include checks to current editions of relevant
codes and standards.

1.4.

Certificates of Approval

1.4.1

The lifting design calculations and operations manuals shall be prepared well before the
planned start of operations and require approval by the MWS prior to the lifting operation
commencing.

1.4.2

An MWS Certificate of Approval for Lift shall be issued to the attending Surveyor
immediately prior to the lift when all preparations and checks are completed to his
satisfaction, and environmental conditions/weather forecast are suitable for the planned
duration of the operation.

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LOCH/GUIDELINES/R003 Rev. 0

PLANNING OF MARINE LIFTS

2.1.

General

2.1.1

The Installation Contractor shall prepare and issue a comprehensive lifting manual for
approval by the MWS. This manual may form part of an installation manual for the
module.

2.1.2

All planning for marine operations is based, where possible, on the principle that it may
be necessary to interrupt or reverse the operation. This is generally impractical for lifting
operations.

Therefore points of no return, or thresholds, shall be defined during

planning and in the operations manual. Checklists should be drawn up detailing the
required status to be achieved before the operation proceeds to the next stage.
2.1.3

Operational planning shall be based on the use of well-proven principles, techniques,


systems and equipment to ensure acceptable health and safety levels are met and to
prevent the loss or injury to human life and major economic losses.

2.2.

Site Survey

2.2.1

Drawings shall be prepared to document that the lifting site is suitable for the planned
lifting operation.

2.2.2

A drawing shall be prepared clearly showing existing pipelines and seabed obstructions.
The drawing shall also show the areas where mooring anchors cannot be placed.

2.3.

Lifting Manual

2.3.1

A lifting manual shall be prepared and shall include, as a minimum, details of the
following:

Time schedule

Module dimensions

Module weight and COG information

Module buoyancy and COB information

Organization and communication

Site information

Crane vessel tugs and barges

Clearances module/crane/vessel/barge

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Crane vessel mooring and/or DP arrangement

Crane radius curve

Lifting equipment

Vessel handling procedures

Mooring arrangement

Pre-lift checklist

Description of operation

Limiting environmental criteria

Specific operations:
Barge/crane vessel ballasting
ROV
Survey and positioning
Suction and ventilation systems

Recording Procedure

Drawings

Safety and contingency plans

2.4.

Documentation

2.4.1

The MWS requires to sight all relevant documentation related to the crane vessel
including but not limited to Classification and Statutory records and details of crane tests.

2.4.2

The MWS requires to be satisfied that all certificates for component parts of the rigging,
particularly slings, grommets and shackles, are valid. All slings and grommets shall
meet the requirement of Guidance Note PM 20 from the Health and Safety Executive
Cable laid slings and grommets' October 1987).

2.4.3

Documentation, which confirms that suitable tests of the welds on the lifting points have
been satisfactorily carried out, shall be available for inspection by the attending
Surveyor. If a module is lifted more than once, then a close visual inspection of the
lifting point welds shall, where access is possible, be carried out by a competent person
before the second and subsequent lifts.

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2.5.

Design Calculations

2.5.1

Calculations prepared by the designers of the module, lifting points and rigging
arrangements shall be submitted for review. Generally, the calculations will be reviewed
and checked against the criteria contained herein.

2.5.2

Where computer analyses form the basis of the designers' submission, details of the
program and the basis of the input should be made available to assist the MWS in their
reviews and approval.

2.6.

Operational Aspects

2.6.1

Before approving the lifting operation the MWS will require detailed descriptions and
specifications of the equipment involved and a comprehensive procedure for the lifting
operation.

2.6.2

Where the limiting criteria for a lift have been derived by dynamic analysis resulting in a
limiting criteria based on an allowable significant wave height, Hs, and associated wave
period it is recommended that a wave buoy or similar device is deployed at the lifting site
to allow accurate determination of the existing seastate.

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3.

LOCH/GUIDELINES/R003 Rev. 0

LOADS AND ANALYSIS

3.1.

General

3.1.1

This section gives guidelines concerning the derivation of the loads for which the lifting
equipment, structure and crane vessels should be assessed.

3.1.2

The stages in the design or analysis of a lift are summarized in a flow chart in Appendix
1. The text of these guidelines should be read in conjunction with this chart.

3.2.

Module Design Weight

3.2.1

The Module Design Weight (MDW) shall include adequate contingency factors to allow
for the module being heavier than intended.

The MWS will require to review the

designers proposed overweight allowances; otherwise the following paragraphs give


recommended factors.
3.2.2

If the weight is being estimated at the design stage, then the weights of all components
of the module should be established by accurate material take-off and separated into
two parts:

Structural steel weight: To allow for mill tolerances, paint, weld, section size substitution
and future additions, the estimated weight of structural steel should be increased by
10%.

Weight of equipment and ancillaries: To allow for inaccuracies in the estimation of the
equipment weights and the unforeseen addition of equipment and associated steelwork,
such as equipment foundations and working platforms, the estimated weight of
equipment and ancillaries should be increased by 20%.

3.2.3

After completion, the module shall be weighed using an approved weighing method.
The as-weighed weight shall be increased by 3% to account for weighing inaccuracies.
Documentation should be provided to demonstrate that the equipment and procedures
adopted for weighing have the required accuracy.

3.2.4

Similarly, if the module is partially complete then the design lift weight may be
established by an approved weighing method and allowances for weighing inaccuracies
made. The weight of items which are not yet installed should then be established by an

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updated material take-off and an appropriate allowance made for inaccuracies and
possible future additions.
3.2.5

If the as-built weight plus contingency exceeds the module design weight, then
calculations shall be submitted to verify the lift design.

3.3.

Rigging Weight

3.3.1

A further component, the Rigging Weight (RW), shall be added to the MDW. This
allowance represents the weight of rigging and shall include the estimated weight of all
shackles, slings, spreaders and rigging platforms. For preliminary design purposes an
assumed weight of rigging of 5% of a topsides module weight may be used (7% if
spreader bars are used). For jacket structures the weight assumed in the preliminary
design shall reflect the proposed rigging arrangement. In the final design phase the
actual weight of rigging (including contingencies) shall be used.

3.4.

Centre of Gravity and Tilt of Module - Single Crane

3.4.1

The plan position of the centre of gravity shall generally be restricted for the following
reasons:

To allow for the use of matched pairs of slings

To prevent overstress of the crane hook

To control the maximum tilt of the object.

3.4.2

The Module COG should be kept within a design envelope.

Figure 3.1 shows the

allowable zone within which the centre of gravity should be positioned.


3.4.3

The value of e' in Fig. 3.1 shall not exceed e = 0.02 x vertical distance from the crane
hook to the module centre of gravity. Where the vertical distance between the crane
hook and module centre of gravity is not initially known, the value of e' in Fig. 3.1 shall
not exceed 600mm. Where the centre of gravity is found to be outside the cruciform
shown in Fig. 3.1, the strength of the crane hook shall be shown to be sufficient for the
design load case.

3.4.4

The length of the lifting slings/grommets shall be chosen to control the tilt of the module.
For practical purposes the tilt of the module should not exceed 2 degrees.

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3.4.5

LOCH/GUIDELINES/R003 Rev. 0

When the module has been weighed, the maximum tilt should be calculated using the
measured centre of gravity position and the certified lengths of the rigging arrangement.
Also, the relative offset between the centre hook position and the module centre of
gravity should be less than 600mm.

Figure 3.1

Allowable position of Centre of Gravity

3.5.

Static Hook Load Single Crane Lift

3.5.1

The Rigging Weight (RW) shall be added to the Module Design Weight (MDW) to give
the Static Hook Load (SHL):

MDW + RW = SHL

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3.5.2

LOCH/GUIDELINES/R003 Rev. 0

The Static Hook Load shall be checked against the approved crane capacity curve at the
maximum planned outreach.

3.5.3

Where the lifting situation may give rise to a dynamic increase in the effective load the
Dynamic Hook Load (DHL) shall be calculated in accordance with Section 3.7 below.

3.6.

Static Hook Load - Dual Crane Lift

3.6.1

For dual crane lifts, the SHL for each crane shall be calculated as follows:

The SHL shall be the MDW shared between cranes in accordance with static
equilibrium, plus allowances of:
a) 5% of calculated hook load for offset of centre of gravity (comparing
actual with predicted); this value may be reduced to 3% after weighing.
b) 3% for longitudinal tilt of the lifted object during the lift
c) RW appropriate for the crane.

For subsea lifts using two hooks the buoyancy, hydrodynamic loads and wave slam
effects may alter the load distribution between the two hooks. These effects should be
taken into account when determining the individual hook loads.

3.6.2

The SHL shall be checked against the approved crane capacity curve at the maximum
planned outreach for each crane.

3.7.

Dynamic Hook Load

3.7.1

The Dynamic Hook Load (DHL) shall be obtained by multiplying the SHL by a Dynamic
Amplification Factor (DAF):

3.7.2

DHL = SHL x DAF

The DAF allows for the dynamic loads arising from the relative motions of the crane
vessel and/or the cargo barge during the lifting operations.

3.7.3

The DHL shall be checked against the approved crane capacity curve at the maximum
planned outreach.

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3.7.4

LOCH/GUIDELINES/R003 Rev. 0

For lifts in air the dynamic load is normally considered to be highest at the instant when
the module is being lifted off its grillage. This load, and hence the appropriate DAF,
should be substantiated by means of an analysis which considers the maximum relative
motions between the hook and the cargo barge takes account of the elasticity of the
crane falls, the slings, the crane booms and the luffing gear.

3.7.5

The description of such an analysis must clearly state the assumed limiting wave heights
and periods such that, if the calculated value of DAF is critical to the feasibility of the
operation, then those conducting the lift will be aware of the limiting seastates

3.7.6

For lifts with the module submerged, special investigations should be made taking
account of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic effects to calculate an appropriate DAF.
Further recommendations are given in section 3.10.

3.7.7

In the absence of a dynamic lift response analysis being carried out the values of DAF
given in Table 3.1 may be used for lifts in air using the semi-submersible crane vessels

Weight of Module

< 100 Tonnes

100 1,000 Tonnes

> 1,000 Tonnes

Lift Offshore

1.30

1.20

1.10

Lift Inshore

1.15

1.10

1.05

Table 3.1 DAF values for SSCV

3.7.8

For offshore lifts from the deck of a semi-submersible crane vessel the DAF appropriate
to an inshore lift may be used.

3.7.9

For lifts from a quayside a DAF of 1.0 may be used.

3.7.10 When using larger mono-hulled crane vessels, the values of DAF given in table 3.2 may
be used as a guideline.

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Weight of Module

< 100 Tonnes

100 1,000 Tonnes

> 1,000 Tonnes

Lift Offshore

1.50

1.40

1.30

Lift Inshore

1.30

1.20

1.15

Table 3.2 DAF values for large mono-hulled crane vessels

3.7.11 It should be noted that some crane capacity curves already take due account of the DAF
and care should be taken to ensure that the DAF is not considered twice in the design
calculations.

3.8.

Derivation of Lifting Point Loads - Single Crane Lifts

3.8.1

Lifting points (padeyes or padears) are the structural elements which connect the lift
rigging to the structure of the module. Spreader bars may also be considered to have
lifting points where the slings or grommets are attached.

3.8.2

After specification of the lifting point locations and lift rigging lengths, the lifting point
loads shall be derived from the Design Lift Load (DLL) by consideration of the geometry
of the lifting arrangement and the position of the module centre of gravity:

3.8.3

DLL = MDW x DAF

An analysis shall be made to determine the load distribution between diagonally


opposite pairs of lifting points.

This should include an assessment of the torsional

rigidity of the module and spring stiffness of the slings.

In such an analysis it is

recommended that, in the absence of other information, the fabrication errors listed
below should be considered to occur in combination:

Lifting Points:

Each lifting point is positioned 12mm from its correct position.

The

combined effect of all lifting points being out of position shall be summed in the least
favorable manner

Shackles: Two shackles which are 6mm shorter than their standard dimensions are
attached to diagonally opposite padeyes, whilst 2 shackles which are 6mm longer than
standard are attached at the remaining diagonals.

Slings/Grommets:

Slings/grommets that are 0.25% under specified nominal length

should be considered to be attached to two diagonally opposite lifting points, whilst

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slings/grommets that are 0.25% over specified nominal length are attached to the two
remaining lifting points.

3.8.4

If the above analysis is not carried out the DLL carried by a diagonally opposite pair of
lifting points shall be increased by a skew load factor of 1.5, i.e. the load shall be
distributed in the ratio 75/25 across opposite pairs of diagonals.

3.8.5

Where a loose spreader bar is used the skew load factor may be reduced to 1.2, i.e. the
load shall be distributed in the ratio 60/40 across opposite pairs of diagonals.

3.9.

Derivation of Lifting Point Loads Using Two Crane

3.9.1

Lifting point loads for two cranes should be derived from the Design Lift Load in
accordance with the following principles.

3.9.2

3.9.3

The DLL is determined for each crane:


DLL = DHL - (RW x DAF)

For lift arrangements having four lift points i.e. two to each crane, the lift point loads are
statically determinate, and shall then be derived from the DLL by considering the
geometry of the sling arrangement. No skew load factor need be applied.

3.9.4

The lift point load shall be increased by 5% to allow for rotation (yaw) of the lifted object.

3.10. Lifting Through Water


3.10.1 This section applies to a module being lowered through the sea surface to its final
position on the seabed. These guidelines are in addition to the foregoing paragraphs.
3.10.2 The DAF and modified hook loads applicable when lifting through water shall be
determined taking account of the factors given below. The lift design shall be checked
accordingly.
3.10.3 The buoyancy and centre of buoyancy of the object shall be established on the basis of
accurate hydrostatic calculations.
3.10.4 For subsea modules, where wave loading may be significant, environmental loads shall
be established for wave conditions consistent with the design and operational criteria.

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An appropriate range of wavelengths and directions, including swell effects, shall be


considered. Wave slam effects in the splash zone shall also be evaluated, as shall the
possible uplift of the module and resulting slackening of slings.
3.10.5 Hydrostatic loads due to external pressure on the submerged module shall be
considered. The effect of hydrodynamic loads shall be calculated.

For objects with

complex shapes, a 3D analysis should be carried out to determine the hydrodynamic coefficient.
3.10.6 The limiting operational criteria shall be established by considering the predicted motions
of the crane vessel for varying seastates and directions. This may be achieved either by
model testing or a suitable hydrodynamic analysis.
3.10.7 Module impact velocities, in horizontal and vertical directions, due to mating or
contacting the seabed, should not be taken as less than 1 m/s.
3.10.8 Forces due to current on the object and hoist lines should be evaluated and used to
derive off lead (forces away from the crane) and side lead (forces perpendicular to the
crane boom axis) loads.
3.10.9 At the preliminary design stage a DAF of 1.4 may be assumed for lifts of small structures
through water. For jackets a DAF of 1.2 may be assumed.

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STRUCTURES

4.1.

General

4.1.1

The lifted object shall be designed in accordance with Standards or Codes of Practice
given in Section 1.3.

Wherever possible, the design should be carried out to the

requirements of one code only.

4.2.

LRFD and Consequence Factors

4.2.1

For Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD), the combined LRFD and Consequence
Factors as given in Table 4.1 below shall be applied to the structural elements in
addition to the factors for dynamic effects, weight tolerances, etc. given in Section 3.

4.2.2

A material resistance appropriate to the chosen Standard or Code shall be used.

4.2.3

For Working Stress Design (WSD), in addition to the factors for dynamic effects, weight
tolerances, etc given in Section 3, the consequence factors given in Table 4.1 shall be
applied for each element of the structure.

Combined LRFD +
Consequence Factor

Working Stress
Consequence Factor

Lift points, spreader


bars, etc.

1.50

1.0

Primary load
transferring members

1.50

1.0

Other, secondary,
members

1.15

1.0

Structural Element

Table 4.1 Consequence Factors

4.2.4

In Table 4.1, a member is considered as being primary if structural collapse could result
from failure of that member alone. Generally, primary members will be those members
framing directly into the lifting points. Other members are defined as being secondary.

4.3.

Method of Analysis of Module

4.3.1

The module shall be analyzed as a three dimensional elastic space frame, including the
slings and appropriate restraints to prevent rigid body rotations. The structural model

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shall include all primary and secondary members and may take account of the bracing of
floor plating, if appropriate.
4.3.2

The loads input into the model shall represent structural and non-structural dead load,
equipment and finishes. The total input loads shall equal the module design weight,
including overweight contingencies, multiplied by the appropriate DAF.

4.3.3

For single hook lifts two load combinations shall be considered, representing the load
being distributed unevenly to each diagonally opposite pair of padeyes, as per Section
3.8 above.

For dual hook lifts the design load shall be the lifting point loads as

determined in Section 3.9.

4.4.

Strength of Module

4.4.1

The stresses in the member resulting from the lift analyses shall be evaluated and
compared with the design resistance or allowable stress of the member computed in
accordance with the appropriate design code.

4.5.

Padeye Design

4.5.1

Padeyes shall be designed for the following loads:

Lifting point loads calculated in accordance with Section 3.8 and 3.9.

An additional lateral load equal to 5% of the lifting point load. This shall be assumed to
act horizontally at the level of the padeye pinhole.

Where a loose spreader bar is used in the rigging arrangement the additional lateral load
above shall be increased to 8%.

4.5.2

Padeyes shall be aligned to the theoretical true vertical sling angle but shall be
dimensioned for a sling angle tolerance of 5.

4.5.3

Wherever possible padeyes shall be designed with the main welds in shear rather than
tension. Where plates/sections are subjected to tensile loads applied perpendicular to
the rolling direction they shall have guaranteed through thickness properties.

4.5.4

Wherever possible the padeye main plate shall be continuous into the primary structure.

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4.5.5

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Padeyes should not have more than one load-bearing cheek plate on each side of the
main plate.

The cheek plate thickness should be no greater than the main plate

thickness.
4.5.6

Pin holes should be machined, and be line bored after the welding of the cheek plates to
the main plate

4.5.7

All sharp edges likely to damage the sling during handling and transportation shall be
radiused.

4.6.

Padears and Trunnions

4.6.1

Padears and trunnions shall be designed for the following loads:

Loads calculated in accordance with Section 3.8 and 3.9 above. Additionally, where
doubled slings or grommets are used, a load split in the ratio 55%/45% between sling
legs shall be considered;

An additional lateral load equal to 5% of the lifting point load. The line of action of this
force shall be taken at centre of the trunnion, in the longitudinal and transverse
directions;

Where a loose spreader bar is used the additional lateral load above shall be increased
to 8%.

4.6.2

The central stiffener plate (shear plate) of the trunnion should be slotted through the
main plate and should be designed to transfer the total sling load into the main plate,
without taking the strength of the trunnion bearing plate into account.

4.6.3

The diameter of the trunnion shall be a minimum of 4 times the sling/grommet diameter
except where the reduction in strength due to bending losses has been considered.

4.6.4

Unless the lift point is profiled the sling will flatten out at the contact area during lifting.
Therefore, the width of a fabricated trunnion should be a minimum of 1.25 times the
overall sling diameter plus 25mm.

4.6.5

The trunnion shall be fitted with a sling retaining arrangement.

4.6.6

Padears shall be aligned to the theoretical true sling angle but shall be dimensioned for
a sling angle tolerance of 5, vertically and horizontally.

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4.6.7

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All sharp edges likely to damage the sling during handling and transportation shall be
radiused.

4.7.

Cast Lifting Points

4.7.1

The strength of cast lifting points shall be verified by finite element analyses.

4.7.2

The finished castings shall be subject to stringent quality control including dimensional
conformity, material properties and NDT.

4.8.

Fabrication and Installation of Lifting Points

4.8.1

Fabrication and inspection of lifting points shall be in accordance with Company


structural steel fabrication and casting specifications.

4.9.

Seafastening

4.9.1

Lift rigging, spreader bars and other temporary lifting equipment shall be seafastened for
transportation.

4.10. Bumpers and Guides


4.10.1 For offshore lifts consideration shall be given to the provision of bumpers and guides on
the modules. The bumpers and guides shall

Enable the object to be positioned after the lift within the required tolerances.

Protect the lifted object, the adjacent surroundings and equipment from damage during
lift.

4.10.2 Particular requirements for bumpers and guides should be determined at the planning
stage taking account of lifting procedures and the assessed risk of damage.
4.10.3 Fabrication tolerances of guides shall be closely controlled. Prior to lifting an as-built
dimensional survey of the guide systems shall be carried out to confirm that operational
tolerances have been maintained.
4.10.4 The design forces on bumpers and guides shall not be less than those given in Table
4.2.

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4.10.5 The bumpers and guides should be designed for any possible combination of forces,
except that the total force perpendicular to the face of the bumper need not exceed 1.1 x
MDW.
4.10.6 The requirements for design impact forces for stab-in guides (e.g. deck to jacket legs)
are given in Table 4.3.
4.10.7 The point of the Stab-in guide shall be designed to fail before damage can occur to the
receiving guide.
Force

Bumpers

Guides

Pin/Bucket

Vertical forces due to friction

1% MDW

1% MDW

1% MDW

Vertical forces due to direct


impact (Fv) (vertical post type)

10% MDW

10% MDW

10% MDW

Horizontal forces due to friction

1% MDW

1% MDW

1% MDW

Horizontal forces due to impact


acting normal to face (Fh)

10% MDW

5% MDW

5% MDW

Horizontal forces due to impact


acting parallel to the face (Fl)

5% MDW

5% MDW

5% MDW

Table 4.2 Bumper and guide impact force factors


For bumpers and guide designed as secondary systems the forces Fv, Fh and FI may be taken to
be 50 % of those given in Table.4.2

Force

Primary

Secondary

Vertical forces due to direct impact

10% SHL

5% SHL

Horizontal forces due to direct


impact in longitudinal direction of
deck

10% SHL

5% SHL

Horizontal forces due to direct


impact in transverse direction of
deck

10% SHL

5% SHL

Table 4.3 Design forces for stab-in guides

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5.

LOCH/GUIDELINES/R003 Rev. 0

REQUIREMENTS FOR LIFTING EQUIPMENT

5.1.

General

5.1.1

Cable laid rope for heavy offshore lifting shall be constructed and used in accordance
with the requirements of Guidance Note PM20, issued by the Health and Safety
Executive, entitled Cable Laid Slings and Grommets, or an equivalent standard.

5.1.2

The Safe Working Load of slings/grommets shall be calculated in accordance with PM20
taking due account of splicing efficiency and strength losses due to any bending of the
wire rope.

5.2.

Sling Force Distribution

5.2.1

Doubled Slings: To take account of the friction losses where slings have been doubled
around the lifting or crane hook the total sling force shall be divided between the two
legs of the slings in the ratio 45/55%.

5.2.2

Grommets: When single grommets are used over a padear or trunnion, the total sling
load shall be divided between the two legs of the grommet in the ratio 45%/55%. This
ratio may be 50%/50% where sheaves are used in the system.
In cases where grommets are doubled between the hook and lifting point a distribution of
45%/55% shall be used between each leg and in addition a distribution of 50%/55%
between each pair, i.e. a design factor of 1.21 shall be used on the heaviest loaded
grommet leg.

5.2.3

Manufacturing and Tolerances: The wire rope construction shall be well suited for the
intended use and comply with recognized codes and standards.
The length of slings or grommets should normally be within tolerances of plus or minus
0.25% of their nominal length. During measuring, the slings or grommets should be fully
supported and adequately tensioned. The tension load should be in range of 2.5% to
5.0% of the MBL. Matched slings should be measured with the same tension load and
under similar conditions.

5.2.4

Construction and Certification: Valid certificates for each sling and grommet to be
used shall be supplied by the sling manufacturer and should be available for inspection
prior to installation of the slings or grommets on the lifted object.

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For cable laid slings and grommets the certificates required in accordance with PM20 are as
follows:

Consolidation Test Certificate that shall contain:


Identification details
Calculated and actual breaking load for outer and core ropes
Summation of breaking loads
Calculated sling or grommet breaking load

Calculation of Working Load Limit

Certificates of Dimensional Conformity

Certificates of Examination (The Certificate of Examination is valid for a period of 6


months)

5.2.5

Inspection and re-use of slings/grommets shall be examined by a competent person


prior to each use. Where the sling or grommet is not part of the vessel's approved
rigging gear, covered by an annual inspection by its Classification Society, then the
details of the history of the sling/grommet and a record of lifts for which the
slings/grommets have been previously used should be available.

5.2.6

The MWS acceptance is subject to a visual inspection of each sling/grommet prior to


and after rigging and tie-down is complete.

5.2.7

During sling lay down, particularly with cable laid rigging, care must be taken to avoid
any twisting of the slings/grommets. Where possible, a line should be painted along the
length of the sling/grommet during manufacture, to facilitate correct lay down of the
rigging.

5.2.8

If a sling/grommet is found to have any defects such that the certified Minimum Breaking
Load cannot be guaranteed, it shall not be used for lifting purposes.

5.3.

Shackles

5.3.1

Each shackle shall be marked with its Safe Working Load (SWL) as recommended by
the manufacturer, who shall be a recognized shackle fabricator

5.3.2

A certificate verifying the proof loading and the SWL of each shackle shall be provided
for inspection by the MWS. These certificates shall be issued by a recognized Certifying

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Authority or testing. Each shackle shall be clearly stamped with an identifying mark with
reference to the corresponding certificate.
5.3.3

Shackles and their certification will be subject to an inspection by the attending MWS
surveyor prior to lift. T

5.3.4

The SWL of shackles, which are attached to lifting padeyes, shall not be less than the
lifting point load divided by the DAF.

5.3.5

Shackles shall be loaded along their centreline, in accordance with the design and load
rating principles to which the shackles were fabricated.

5.3.6

When selecting shackles for a particular application the proposed sling or grommet
diameter shall be taken into account.

5.4.

Spreader Beams

5.4.1

The requirements of Section 4 shall also apply to the design and fabrication of spreader
beams where applicable.

5.5.

Hydraulic Lifting Devices

5.5.1

Hydraulic Lifting Devices (HLD), such as pile lifting clamps, may also be used. The
points below should be taken into consideration when designing for such lifts.

5.5.2

The HLD should rate by the manufacturer. The SWL should be documented, preferably
by means of test results, in accordance with recognized standards. It shall be used in
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and approved procedures.

5.5.3

The SWL of the HLD shall be greater than the Design Lift Load (See Chapter 3)

5.5.4

The HLD shall be designed to fail-safe. Thus failure of the hydraulic system during lift
(e.g. rupture of the control umbilical) shall not lead to the load being dropped. The lifting
manual shall document modes of failure and their effects and the appropriate
contingency measures.

5.5.5

The lifting forces from the HLD to the lifting points should be transmitted in accordance
with these guidelines and the code of practice being used in the design of the structural
steelwork.

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Marine Lifting

6.

LOCH/GUIDELINES/R003 Rev. 0

CRANE AND CRANE VESSELS

6.1.

General

6.1.1

The crane, crane vessel and associated equipment shall be fit to perform the planned lift
operations in a safe manner.

6.1.2

The crane should be equipped with an accurate load-monitoring device, sufficient to


measure cyclic dynamic loads.

6.2.

Allowable Load

6.2.1

Prior to lift, the correct value of the Module Design Weight shall be confirmed using the
as-weighed module weight or updated estimates of weight.

6.2.2

The Dynamic Hook Load, which includes the DAF, shall be compared to the crane
radius curve, adopting the maximum radius to be used for the lift.

6.2.3

It shall be demonstrated, by reference to the crane certification, or by calculation of


allowable stress levels and safety factors within the components of the crane and its
foundations, that the crane has adequate capacity to carry out the lift.

6.3.

Crane Radius Curve

6.3.1

A part of the submission made to the MWS for approval purposes shall be a crane
radius curve showing the allowable lift capacity of the crane at different lift radii.

6.3.2

The crane capacity shall be as specified by the manufacturer of the crane and shall have
been validated by a proof load test wherein the crane is loaded to 10% in excess of the
crane radius curve. A statement that the crane is in class with a Certification Authority is
sufficient confirmation that such a test was carried out.

6.4.

Minimum Clearances

6.4.1

During all phases of a lift the following minimum clearances should be maintained:

Below module:

3m

Between module and crane boom:

3m

Between spreader bar and crane boom:

3m

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6.4.2

LOCH/GUIDELINES/R003 Rev. 0

For offshore lifts:

From crane vessel to platform:

3m

From crane vessel to platform:

10 m (Crane vessel on DP)

6.5.

Crane Vessel Stability

6.5.1

If the design hook load is less than 80% of the capacity of the cranes and the crane
vessel will perform the lift at its normal working draft then no special submission is
required by the MWS with regard to stability. However, if the load is near the maximum
allowable for the vessel or the vessel will be at a draft outside its normal operational
range a stability statement shall be submitted for review.

6.5.2

When carrying out tandem lifts, documentation shall be submitted to demonstrate that
the crane vessel can safely sustain the changes in hook load which arise from the tilt
and yaw factors combined with environmental effects in the lifting calculations,
specifically considering allowable cross lead angles for the crane booms.

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Appendix A1 Summary of Stages in Design/Analysis of Lift Using Single Crane.

3.2.
Module Design Weight (MDW)
3.3.
Rigging Weight
(RW)

(3.4)

Check COG
Position & Tilt

Check Crane
Capacity

4.2
Consequence Factors for:
(a) Lifting Points, Spreader Bars
(b) Primary Members
(c) Secondary Members

(3.5)
MDW + RW = Static
Hook Load (SHL)

(3.7)
SHL x DAF =
Dynamic Hook
Load (DHL)

(3.8)
MDW x DAF = Design
Lift Load (DLL)

(5.)
Rigging Design

(3.8)
Lifting Point Forces

Combined LRFD +
Consequence Factor
1.50
1.50
1.15

(4.)
Module Structural
Strength

Working Stress
Consequence Factor
1.0
1.0
1.0 ( increase allowed)

(4.5 4.8)
Lifting Point Design

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Appendix A2 Summary of Stages in Design/Analysis of Lift Using Two Cranes

(3.2)
Module Design Weight
(MDW)

3.6
Where:

Static Hook Load (SHL) = (MDW x a

(1)

i(2)

x 1.05

(3)

x 1.03 ) + Rigging Weight

(1) is the ratio of the cog position to the length between lift points
(2) is the factor to allow for cog shift
(3) is the factor to allow for longitudinal tilt

(3.7)
Dynamic Hook Load (DHL) = SHL x DAF

(3.9)

Check Crane
Capacity

(5.)
Rigging
Design

DLL = {DHL (RW x DAF)}

(3.9)
Lift Point Load = DLL x 1.05(1)
where: (1) is the factor to allow for yaw

(3.9)
Lifting Point Forces

(4.2)
Consequence Factors for:
(a) Lifting Points, Spreader Bars
(b) Primary Members
(c) Secondary Members

Combined LRFD +
Consequence Factor
1.50
1.50
1.15

(4.3 4.4)
Module Structural Strength

Working Stresses
Consequence Factor
1.0
1.0
1.0 ( increase allowed)

(4.5 4.8)
Lifting Point Design

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