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Lab Act 6: Bernoullis equation

Objective:
To validate that the Bernoullis equation is composed of three different
components namely
a. Potential energy due to pressure
b. Potential energy due to elevation
c. Kinetic energy due to flow
Equipments:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

P6100-02 hydraulics bench


P6103 Constant Head Inlet tank
P6104 Variable Head Outlet tank
P6221 10mm pvc pipe with two pressure tappings 360mm apart
P6227 Venturimeter with 11mm diameter throat and 21mm diameter inlet
and outlet pipe

Principles:
The Bernoullis equation is perhaps the most widely used and misused equation
in fluid mechanics and hydraulics. The wide ranging application of Bernoullis
equation in many civil engineering projects is limited to practically one type of
fluid WATER. The Bernoullis equation takes into account the following
conditions that are present during the fluid flow. These are:
a) Potential energy due to elevation
b) Potential energy due to pressure
c) The kinetic energy

Wz'
W

p'

v2
2g

Combining the total energy we will get

E=W z ' +W

p'
v2
+W

2g ;

We can write the energy in terms of height H; dividing E by the weight W we will
obtain

p v2
H=z ' + +
2g

The Bernoullis equation is subject to the law of conservation of energy. As such


for a given two points as shown below:

We can say that the energy head H for two points can be equated as

H 1=H 2 .

Expanding the equation will yield

P1 V 21
P V2
+ +h1= 2 + 2 +h 2
2g
2g
This is the form of Bernoullis equation that many engineers are very familiar.
The equation that was shown above represents an ideal condition. That is to say
no energy loss occurs. In real life application, this is not the case for the fluids
that flow in a conduit or channel is viscous (A fluid with a low viscosity is still
considered viscous). And viscosity has an effect on the fluid that leads to friction
with the walls of the conduit. Therefore it is necessary take into consideration
the loss of energy due to friction and energy extracted by turbines as well as
those added by energy input devices such as pumps. To maintain the
conservation of energy while taking into consideration the losses or gains the
energy equation is rewritten as follows

P1 V 21
P2 V 22
+ + z1 + H p = + + z2 + H l + H m + H t
2g
2g
Where:

Hp head added by pumps


Hl head loss (major)
Hm head loss (minor)
Ht head extracted by turbines

The flow equation at a point is written to be


Where: Q flow (m3/s or ft3/s)
A Area of Flow
V velocity

Q= AV .

As the bernoullis equation is subjected to the law of continuity, the flow at pt. 1
is equal to the flow at pt. 2. This is valid if there is no leak between 1 and 2.
Mathematically, the flow relationship is written as

Q1=Q2

Data:
Data for PVC Pipe

The Bernoulli Equation for the 10mm PVC Pipe set up

Computation for the computed flow using Bernoullis equation

Computed
Flow

Elevation of
Constant Head
Tank

Manometer
Reading at Pt.
1

Manometer
Reading at Pt.
2

Manometer
reading at
Variable Head
Tank

31.2 cm

27.8 cm

24.8 cm

24.7 cm

Solution
We consider pts. @ Elevation of constant head tank and manometer reading @ pt.
1.

P1 V 21
P2 V 22
+ +h = + +h
2 g 1 2g 2
Since the datum is in the center of the pipe, therefore
2

V
0+0+ 31.2cm=27.8 cm+ 2 +0
2g

31.2 m=27.8 m+

V 2 = 0.817

V 22
2( 9.81)
m
s

Q=Av

Q=

( 0.01 m )
m
(.817 )
4
s

3
5 m
x
10
Q=6.418
s

Data for Venturimeter

The Bernoulli Equation for the 10mm PVC Pipe set up

Computation for the computed flow using Bernoullis equation

Computed
Flow

Elevation of
Constant
Head Tank

Manometer
Reading at
Pt. 1

Manometer
Reading at
Pt. 2

Manometer
Reading at
Pt. 3

Manometer
reading at
Variable
Head Tank

30.6 cm

29.1 cm

10.5 cm

24.4 cm

24.2 cm

Conclusion:

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