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ABSTRACT

Experiment was all about to determine the gas diffusion coefficient of acetone by using
the established Winkelmann`s method. This experiment was based on mass transfer theory where
by determine the diffusivity of the vapour of a volatile liquid which is acetone.
Acetone was filled by 30mm of height of the vertical tube in the T-tube and then was
placed on the constant temperature at 50 of the water bath. The T-tube was connected to
air pump for allowed the gas diffuses to the free moving air. To obtained the diffusivity of the
acetone, a telescope was setup to measured the level of acetone. The level of acetone was
recorded for interval of 30minute for 2 hours.
The diffusivity was determined by calculated the tabulated data. The graph was
s
represented on t/dL against dL and the slope values is 0.1975 mm2 . The partial pressure of
the acetone was calculated by using Antoine equation which is 81.9 kPa. The result of diffusivity
mm2

acetone at temperature 50
is to 553.296
s .
The hypothesis was accepted which is the level of the acetone will decrease by passing
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time but the plotted graph shows R is 0.6948 which lower than expected value. There were a
few factors that affected the values which is human error when take the reading from the
telescope and the controlled temperature was not constant values.

Table of Contents

Abstract
Table of Content
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Theory
4.0 Description of Apparatus
5.0 Experimental Procedure
6.0 Results and Discussions

1
2
3
3
4
6
7
8

6.1 Results

6.2 Discussions
7.0 Sample Calculations
8.0 Conclusions and Recommendations

10
11
13

8.1 Conclusions

13

8.2 Recommendations
9.0 References
10.0 Appendices

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14
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1.0 INTRODUCTION
Gaseous diffusion coefficient apparatus involves diffusion with a flow of laboratory
equipment that has been designed to allow measurement of molecular diffusivities. This
apparatus is suitable to determine the diffusion coefficients of vapour in air, which
methodologically measures the rate of evaporation of a liquid through a stagnant layer into a
flowing air stream which air is provided to pass stream to remove vapour. The apparatus also
comes with an air pump, a travelling microscope with accurate focus adjustment which mounted
for vertical axis moving against a vernier scale and a thermostatically controlled water bath,
which is to place the capillary tube, capable to give a very accurate temperature control. One of
the experimental capabilities of this apparatus is direct measurement of mass transfer rates in the
absence convective effects. The diffusivity of the vapour of a volatile liquid in air can be
conveniently determined by Winklemanns method [1], in which liquid is contained in a narrow
diameter vertical tube, maintained at a constant temperature, and an air stream is passed over the
top of the tube to ensure the partial pressure of the vapour is transferred from the surface of the
liquid to the air stream by molecular diffusion. The molecular diffusivity, D, is a kinetic
parameter associated with static and dynamic conditions of a process [2]. All the complexity and
ungainliness of many calculations indeed, connected with the determination of this quantity.
2.0 OBJECTIVES
The experiment conducted is aimed to determine the gas diffusion coefficient of acetone by
using established Winkelmanns method which could be obtained from evaporation rate. The
evaporation rate obtained is to measure diffusivity of liquid acetone to the air. Level of acetone is

measured to plot the evaporation due to time, the changes are to show the diffusion and
evaporation of acetone occurs at controlled temperature.
3.0 THEORY
A fluid containing two or more components exists a concentration gradient has a
tendency to flow in such direction for each constituent as to reduce the concentration gradient.
The flow occurs is called the mass transfer, which could take place either in both gas or liquid
phase and simultaneously [1].
The diffusion of vapour A from its liquid into another gas B can be easily studied by
confining a small sample of the liquid in a narrow vertical tube and observing its rate of
evaporation into a stream of gas B passed across the top of the tube. For simple instructional
purposes, gas B is air and vapour A is an organic solvent such as acetone or methyl alcohol [3].
An evaporated liquid in a narrow vertical tube at constant temperature is where mass
transfer takes place. It happens to be from the surface by molecular diffusion. Winkelmann has
established this technique to calculate the diffusivity of vapour of the volatile liquid. Evaporation
rate that had been monitored which is the level drop of liquid surface with concentration gradient
knowledge, the diffusivity can be obtained.
The relation between the measured molar mass transfer rate (NA per unit area),
the partial pressure gradient and the diffusion coefficient, D is deduced based on the following;

N ' A =D

Where, D

CA
L

CT
C Bm

( )( )
s
= Diffusivity ( m2 /

CA

kmol

3
= Saturation concentration at interface m

= Effective distance of mass transfer (m)

kmol

3
m
CBm = Logarithmic mean molecular concentration of vapour

kmol

3
= Total molar concentration m

CT

Considering the evaporation of the liquid:

N ' A =D

Where,

( M )( dLdt )

3
= density of liquid ( kg /m )

kmol
M = molecular weight ( kg /

Thus,
L
M

CA
dL
=D
dt
L

CT
C Bm

( )( ) ( )( )
Integrating and putting L = L0 at t = 0:

L L0=

C A CT

t
( 2 MD
)( C )
L

Bm

L0 and L cannot be measured accurately but L-L 0 can be measured accurately using the vernier
calipers on the microscope;

( LL0 ) ( LL0 +2 L0 )=

2 MD
L

)(

CA CT
t
CBm

Where, t= time (s)


Where s are the slopes of the graph t/(L-L0) against L-L0 then:

s=

( 2 MD
)( CC C )
L

Bm

Or,

D=

L C Bm
2 M CA CT s

4.0 DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS


In this experiment of gaseous diffusion, apparatus that was used shown in figure 1 which was the
SOLTEQ Gaseous Diffusion Coefficient Apparatus (Model: BP 10) and a telescope with
sliding venier scale. This model of apparatus consists of water bath, RTD temperature sensor, air
pump, heater, level switch and capillary tube or known as t-tube and a valve.Firstly, the water
bath or known as water tank is used for fill in water for heating process in order for acetone and
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water go through diffusion process. Next, the RTD temperature sensor is used for detecting the
heating temperature of the heater. The heater is used in this experiment to heat up the water in the
water bath. The other component is capillary tube or called t-tube because of its shape. This ttube placed on top of the water bath and where the diffusion of gaseous is going to take place.
The other component in this model is air pump. Air pump is used for drowning air through the ttube in order to maintain the pressure difference between the evaporating of water surface and
the flowing of air stream. Level switch act as a detector to detect the level or the height of water
in the water bath. The valve connected below the water bath is used to allow the water flow out
from the water bath. The last component is telescope. Telescope with sliding vernier scale is used
to measure the acetone level.

Figure 1: Diagram for gaseous diffusion coefficient apparatus (Model: BP 10)


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5.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE


1.

The water bath was filled with water to approximately 20mm from the top of the water
bath.

2.

The main power on the control panel then was switched on.

3.

The temperature controller was set to 50 and heater was switched on.

4.

Temperature of the heater was remained constant at 50 .

5.

The capillary tube known as t-tube was filled with about 30 mm depth of acetone. The
acetone was filled in the t-tube using a dropper.

6.

The t-tube was cautiously inserted through right in the fitting on top of the water bath
cover with gentle tighten.

7.

Through the telescope with sliding vernier scale, the initial level of acetone was
observed. This was done to ensure the acetone level can be observed using the telescope.
The initial acetone level was recorded.

8.

The end of the t-tube was connected to the tube of the air pump and the air pump was
switched on. At the same time the stopwatch was started.

9.

After 30 minutes, the air pump was switched off. There were no condensation occurred in
the t-tube, the level of acetone was observed using the telescope and the reading on the
scale of telescope was recorded.

10.

The steps 7 to 9 was repeated at 30 minutes intervals.


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6.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


6.1 RESULTS
Table 1: Results for Gaseous Diffusion
Time

Time

Level of Acetone

(min)

(ks)

(mm)

0
30
60
90
120

0
1.8
3.6
5.4
7.2

59.25
57.40
56.30
54.90
53.40

L-

L0 ,dL
(mm)
0
1.85
2.95
4.35
5.85

t/dL
(ks/mm)
0
0.973
1.220
1.241
1.231

Chart Title
1.4

f(x) = 0.2x + 0.34


R = 0.69

1.2
1
0.8
t/dL 0.6

Linear ()

0.4
0.2
0
0

dL

Figure 2:Results on t/dL against dL

Based upon the graph above, it has stated that the slope value is 0.1975

s
mm2

and from the

mm2
result given, the value obtained for gas diffusivity is equal to 553.296
s . While for the
partial pressure of Acetone, using Antoine equation, it is best to use the table in the appendix as
reference and so the answer is 81.9 kPa after conversion.

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6.2 DISCUSSIONS
Diffusion is known as spreading out from one substance to another. It occurs when there is any
difference in concentration gradient. Normally, diffusion took place from higher concentration to
a lower concentration. That is what happened during the experiment. Acetone has the higher
concentration while air has lower thus acetone diffuse into the air. Another factor that affects
diffusion is heat. Heating caused the particles to act way faster and collide with each other in a
not oriented path. If this happened in the experiment, it is easier to evaporate, resulting in an
increase of rate of diffusion.
Discuss the trend of the graph. Based on the results obtained, the graph of t/dL against dL is
plotted. From the graph it can be observed that the trend of the graph is directly proportional. The

equation used to get the slope is y = mx + c and the value of the slope is 0.1975

mm2
the diffusivity value is 553.296
s . The significance of correlation

s
mm2 while

R2 is 0.6948 which is

lesser than expected.


Both partial pressure and concentration will give an effect on the rate of diffusion. When the
partial pressure increases, it is easier for the solvent to evaporate. This is because pressure affects
the movement of the molecular particles in the solvent. But for the concentration, an increase in
concentration, it will take a longer time for the diffusion because more particles are there in the
solvent.

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Before the experiment started, the temperature controller has been set up only at 50 . This
is because the boiling point of Acetone is at 56 . Say that the temperature went beyond that
temperature diffusion will still happen but in a higher rate of diffusion. This is because Acetone
is a substance that volatize easily. The molecular attraction of the particles in Acetone if
temperature exceeds more than 56 become unstable thus making it easier to evaporate.
That is a reason why the temperature was set up not beyond than 70 .
During the experiment, there were few inconsistencies which affecting the results. First, there
was a slightly human error when taking the reading of the Acetone level using the telescope.
Secondly, though the temperature controller was set up at 50 ,

it did not constantly remain

at that temperature. Instead, there were changes of temperature that is about 0.2 .

7.0 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


1. Molecular weight of Acetone:

M = 58.08

kg
kmol

2. Temperature was converted to Kelvin, k

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T=

1k
(50 1
)+273 k=323 k

Pa

3. Pressure

is a atmospheric pressure:

101.3 kPa
4. Density of Acetone:

791.0

kg
m3

5. Vapour Pressure was calculated by Antoine Equation:

Pa=10

B
C+T

Where A, B and C is a constant values for the acetone from -64 to 70 .


A= 7.11714
B= 1210.595
C=229.664
7.11714

Pa=10

1210.595
229.664+ 50

= 614.3161 mmHg

Converted to kPa .

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614.3161 mmHg

101.325 kPa
760 mmHg

= 81.9 kPa .

6. From the graph gradient:


s
Slope, s =0.1975 mm2

7. Total molar concentration,

CB2

103

C Bm

kmol
= 0.0377 m3

kmol

( m3

kmol
= 0.0377 m3

CT

P aPv
C
(
) T
Pa

kmol
3
)
m

m3 kPa
8.314
(323 K )
kg mol K

8. Logarithmic mean value,

101.3 kPa

P
CT =
RT =

CB1

CT

kPa81.9 kPa
( 101.3101.3
)
kPa

kmol
m3

Solve for

C Bm

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0.0377

kmol
m3

7.2199

C Bm

C B 1 C B 2
C
ln ( B 1 )
C B2

0.03770.0072199
0.0377
=(
) = 0.01844
ln (
)
0.0072199

9. Saturation concentration at interface (

Pv
CT
= ( Pa )

CA

kmol
m3

kmol

3
m

81.9 kPa
kmol
kmol
0.0377
=0.03048
( 101.3
)
kPa
m
m
3

10. Diffusivity, D

L C BM
2 M C A CT s

D =

)
(791 mkg )(0.01844 kmol
m
kg
kmol
kmol
s
2( 58.08
) 0.03048
0.0377
(0.1975 )
(
)(
)
mol
m
m
m
3

=553.29581

mm
s

8.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


8.1 CONCLUSIONS
As a conclusion, this experiment is to study the diffusivity of the gaseous based on
theory of mass transfer using Winkelmanns method. From the hypothesis is the level of acetone
will decrease by passing time, can concluded that the hypothesis is accepted with represented the
result table. From the graph plotted, the flowing air is significantly increase the diffusion
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coefficient which slope is 0.1975

s
2
mm

and the

R2

is 0.6948. The value of

R2

is lower

than expected showed that there were a few inconsistencies which affected the result collected.
The human error when reading the telescope and the controlled temperature were changed that is

about 0.2 . The diffusivity of the acetone was calculated is equal to 553.296

mm2
.
s

In

addition, the temperature different in this experiment will affected the result because it will
affected in molecules speed or kinetic energy. Therefore, the molecules movement is affected and
diffusion is slightly disturbed.
8.2 RECOMMADATIONS

The telescope reading must be only one person in the team to read because the eyes levels

of other team member are different to reduce the parallax errors.


The temperature must constant so that always check the heater to temperature of water

bath.
Make sure the air pump work properly and at constant velocity of air flow into the

capillary tube.
Acetone is flammable substance so it need to handle carefully and should not be nearest
to sources of heat.

9.0 REFERENCES
(1)

Chemical Engineering Laboratory Manual, Semester June-October 2013.

(2)

Leonard B., Kinetic Theory of Gases, Mineola, New York: Dover

Publications Inc.
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(3)

E. L. Cussler, Diffusion: Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems, 2nd ed.,


Cambridge, United Kingdom: The Press Syndicate Of University Of
Cambridge.

(4)

Landolt-Bornstein, Gases in Gases, Liquids and Their Mixtures, New


York: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

10.0 APPENDICES

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