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1.

INTRODUCTION

BABU BANARASI DAS UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW has provided a project on ROAD


CONSTRUCTION WITH RIGID PAVEMENT to final year civil engineering students.
By providing this project , institute has provided a chance to all the final year students to use
there technical knowledge for this project.
This road established at 5 km. distance away from the BBDGEI Faizabad road. which passes
through the agricultural area at Safedabad at front of HIND INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL
SCIENCE.. The length of the road is 1.5 kSm. Which is proposed for the metalled road
(highway) construction. The specification of the above proposed road should be according to
Indian road congress. This road is constructed for the betterment and as a means of transport.

2.1 RECONNAISSANCE

SURVEY

A reconnaissance survey is defined as an examination of all or part of an area accomplished in


sufficient detail to make generalizations about the types and distributions of historic properties
that may be present within a given project area . Reconnaissance surveys represent a type of
field survey that is often used to gather initial information regarding the presence or absence of
historic properties within a project area. Reconnaissance surveys generally include limited shovel
testing in areas that are likely to contain archaeological resources.
The results of a reconnaissance survey should inform the applicant, agency, and the SHPO
about the types of resources that are likely to be found within a project area and the need
for additional survey. The SHPO recommends that archaeological sites identified during a
reconnaissance survey be tested at an intensive level in order to delineate the boundaries of
the site and to make an initial evaluation of the sites eligibility for the National Register of
Historic Places.
In South Carolina, reconnaissance surveys are most profitably employed in the Piedmont
region of the state where soil erosion has created areas of greater surface
exposure. Reconnaissance surveys, however, rarely fulfill Section 106 requirements for the
identification of historic properties in the Coastal Plain. It should be emphasized that areas
surveyed at this level of investigation will require resurvey if additional information is
needed about the nature and distribution of archaeological resources within a given project
area.

Construction Surveying
Construction is one of the largest industries in the world. Surveying plays an extremely
important role in any construction project. Construction surveying can take many forms. It is
used to establish the location and alignment of highways, bridges, buildings, pipes, and other
man-made objects. After large-scale projects are completed, an "as-built" survey is performed to
locate any modifications that were made to the
plans during construction.
Highway surveys involve the location of
alignments and computation of volumes materials
that must be added, removed, or moved. It
initially requires atopographic survey of the site.
For large projects, photogrammetric methods will
be used to develop the base map. The base map is
used by surveyors and other professional to create
a base plan for the project. After the alignment has
been established, the quantities of earth that must
be added or removed are computed. The goal of most projects is to minimize the hauling
distances of the earth. This is done using mass diagrams. Eventually surveyors layout the
elevation and slope of the various subgrades, base, and top coat materials. The end result is a
smooth alignment with smooth transitions from straight to curved sections allowing for safe
public transportation.

Base Map Surveys


The survey for the base map should normally take place before the
geological
survey, because the geologist uses the map in the field to plot his data andto determine his
position by identification oftopographic details. If aerial photographs are available, the
base map need not be made before the geological survey since the geologist can use the aerial
photograph as a plotting base and later transfer the data to a base map. However, if possible, the
base map should be prepared in advance, even in this case, as the number of aerial photographs
needed to cover an area is generally too large to be handled in the field. Plane table topography is
the method best suited to relatively open country. In the absence of detailed instructions, the
following specifications are generally satisfactory:
1. BASE DIRECTION.
To determine a base direction, take from a known base a side in a triangulation net or a
course of a basic control traverse.
2. LOCAL HORIZONTAL CONTROL
Use plane table traverses run in closed circuits or between known control stations of a higher
order of accuracy or locate plane table stations by graphical triangulation.
3. LOCAL VERTICAL CONTROL
Where the terrain is relatively level, carry elevation along traverses by vertical angle or
stadia-arc measurements, adjusting elevations on closure at a basic control station. For rugged
terrain mapped at one of the larger contour intervals, barometric or trigonometric leveling is
suitable. 4. SIGHTS. Use telescopic alidade.
5. DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS
Use, in general, stadid or graphical triangulation to locate points and stations. Certain
measurements can be made most conveniently by pacing or rough taping.
6. CONTOURING
Locate and determine the elevations of controlling points on summits, in valleys and saddles,
and at points of marked change of slope. Interpolate and sketch contours in the field, using these
elevations for control.
7. ACCURACY
Distance measurements by stadia should be accurate to 1 part in 500. Side-shot points located by
pacing or other rough measurements should be accurate to within 25 feet. Take sights for traverse
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lines or graphical triangulation with care to obtain the maximum accuracy inherent in the
telescopic alidade. The error in the elevation of any point, as read from the finished map, should
not exceed one half of the contour interval. Topography may be located more conveniently in
heavily timbered country by stadia measurements from transit-stadia traverse than by the use
of the plane table, although the time required for plotting will be increased. The specifications
listed above are generally applicable. Read horizontal angles on traverses to 1 minute and
horizontal angles for side shots that will be plotted by protractor to the nearest quarter of a
degree. Read vertical angles for elevation determination to 1 minute or use the stadia arc. Keep
complete and carefully prepared stadia notes and sketches to assure correct plotting. When the
geologist indicates that a map of a lower order of accuracy will fulfill his needs, plane table or
compass traverses are suitable. Use of Aerial PhotographsIf aerial photographs are available,
the geologistgenerally uses the instead of a map. The most satisfactory results are
obtained from large-scale photographs, 1:15,000 or larger. Some topographic features.

Earth Map
Now lets discuss map and chart projection. This discussion includes the characteristics and
development of various types of projections. A paper cylinder (without ends) and a paper cone
can be cut along the side and flattened out without distortion. For this reason, the two most
common basic projection methods are the Mercator, in which the earths surface is projected onto
a cylinder, and the conic, in which the surface is projected onto a cone. A third method is the
gnomonic method, in which the earths surface is projected onto a plane placed tangent to a
particular point. For a polar gnomonic chart, this point is one of the earths geographical poles.

Population Map
It is a division of human geography. It is the study of the ways in which spatial variations in the
distribution, composition, migration, and growth of populations are related to the nature of
places. Population geography involves demography in a geographical perspective. It focuses on
the characteristics of population distributions that change in a spatial context. Examples can be
shown through population density maps. A few types of maps that show the spatial layout of
population are choropleth, isoline, and dot maps. Population geography studies:
Demographic phenomena (natality, mortality, growth rates, etc.) through both space and
time
Increase or decrease in population numbers
The movements and mobility of populations
Occupational Structure
The way in which places in turn react to population phenomena e.g. immigration
Research topics of other geographic sub-disciplines, such as settlement geography, have also a
population-geographic dimension:
Grouping of people in settlements
The way from the geographical character of places e.g. settlement patterns

Cutting and Filling


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Cutting and filling is the process of moving earth from one place to another to make ground
more level. A cut is made when earth is cut from above the desired ground height and a fill is
when earth is used to fill a hole to desired ground level. Cutting and filling is a common
technique used to create an even ground surface.

Cutting and filling land carries a certain risk


particularly when the land being filled is going to be used for your house foundations. Whenever
earth is moved the natural compaction is disturbed, and soil in this state is often described as
fluffed or aerated. In order for the earth to be safe enough for use in foundations it needs to be
compacted to avoid settling. If it's not properly compacted, settling earth can cause disastrous
consequences including things like cracked foundations.

Equipment is used for cutting and filling


Cutting and filling is normally carried out using earth moving equipment like skid-steer loaders
or bulldozers. Depending on the size and shape of your site, either a drum roll style compactor or
a plate compactor may be used.

Disadvantages of cutting and filling


Although it's unlikely to be a significant problem on most residential properties, cutting and
filling do have certain disadvantages. For example, flattening land can increase the amount of
sound that's carried across a property or affect natural windbreaks.

Traffic Survey
1. Traffic counting methods Transport planning at all levels requires understanding of actual
conditions. This involves determination of vehicle or pedestrian numbers, vehicle types, vehicle
speeds, vehicle weights, as well as more substantial information such as trip length and trip
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purpose and trip frequency. The first group of data dealing with the characteristics of vehicle or
people movement is obtained by undertaking traffic counts. Those related to measuring trips
involving knowledge of origin and destination require more detailed surveys. There is a wide
range of counting methods available. It is useful to distinguish between intrusive and nonintrusive methods. The former include counting systems that involve placing sensors in or on the
roadbed; the latter involve remote observational techniques. In general the intrusive methods are
used most widely because of their relative ease of use and because they have been employed for
decades. The only widely used non-intrusive method is manual counting, which enjoys wide
application because of its ease. Intrusive methods, however, have evolved little over the last
decade, but in the US, with federal transport policy emphasis on IT solutions to traffic
management, progress is being made in the development of non-intrusive methods. The major
intrusive methods include:

Bending plate
a weight pad attached to a metal plate embedded in the road to measure axel weight and speed. It
is an expensive device and requires alteration to the road bed.

Pneumatic road tube


a rubber tube that is placed across the lanes that uses pressure changes to record the number of
axle movements in a counter placed on the side of the road. The drawback is that it has limited
lane coverage, may become displaced, and can be dislodged by snow ploughs.

Piezo-electric sensor
a device that is placed in a groove cut into the roadbed of the lane(s) being counted. This
electronic counter can be used to measure weight and speed. Cutting into the roadbed can affect
the integrity of the roadbed and decrease the life of the pavement.

Inductive loop
a wire embedded in the road in a square formation that creates a magnetic field that relays the
information to a counting device at the side of the road. This has a generally short life
expectancy because it can be damaged by heavy vehicles, and is also prone to installation errors.
The major non-intrusive methods include:

Manual observation
a very traditional method involving placing observers at specific locations to record vehicle or
pedestrian movements. At its simplest, observers use tally sheets to record, but numbers, on the
other hand there are mechanical and electronic counting boards available that the observer can
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punch in each time an event is observed. It can record traffic numbers, type and directions of
travel. Manual counts give rise to safety concerns, either from the traffic itself or the
neighborhoods where the counts are being undertaken.

Passive and active infra-red


a sensor detecting the presence, speed and type of vehicles by measuring infra-red energy
radiating from the detection area. Typically the devices are mounted overhead on a bridge or
pylon. The major limitation is the performance during inclement weather, and limited lane
coverage.

Passive magnetic
magnetic sensors that count vehicle numbers, speed, and type are placed under or on top of the
roadbed. In operating conditions the sensors have difficulty differentiating between closely
spaced vehicles.

Microwave- Doppler/ Radar


mounted overhead the devices record moving vehicles and speed. With the exception of radar,
devices they have difficulty in detecting closely spaced vehicles and do not detect stationary
vehicles. They are not affected by weather.

Ultrasonic and passive acoustic


devices that sound waves or sound energy to detect vehicles. Those using ultrasound are placed
overhead to record vehicle presence but can be affected by temperature and turbulence; the
acoustic devices are placed alongside the road and can detect numbers and vehicle type.

Video image detection


use of overhead video cameras to record vehicle numbers, type and speed. Various software is
available to analyze the video images. Weather may limit accuracy.
A recent study has examine the use of the various traffic count methods by State Departments of
Transport in the US (Skszek 2001) found that less than half use any non-intrusive techniques.
Part of the reason is the level of technical expertise required to operate the devices. Inductive
loops are in use in all States, with very high levels of use (>90%) for pneumatic rubber tubes and
piezo-electronic road sensors. Manual counts were used by 82%of the States. In terms of
satisfaction with the methods, manual counts and inductive loops were rated highest. Despite the
poor acceptance of the non-intrusive devices, their cost effectiveness was shown to be higher
than the inductive loops (Skszek 2001, 14). This suggests that the newer devices may gain wider
use once their cost effectiveness becomes more widely appreciated. 2. Surveys Traffic counts
may provide some precise information about numbers of vehicles, their type, weight or speed,
but they cannot provide other data that are essential in transport planning, such as trip purpose,
routing, duration etc. Collecting these data requires more extensive survey instruments.
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These instruments include:

Mailed questionnaires
can include a wide range of questions; is relatively cheap to administer to large numbers of
people, although preparation can be expensive; the main problem is the generally low response
rate.

Travel Diaries
soliciting respondents to keep a diary of the trips undertaken, times, purposes, modes etc.;
extremely useful instrument constrained largely by the number of people willing to complete
such a detailed inventory.

Face-to-face home interviews


can overcome many of the errors based on misunderstanding of questions in mail surveys, but
are extremely time-consuming and costly.
Extensive traffic surveys began to be developed in the 1950s. One of the earliest was the Chicago
Area Transportation Study (CATS) that was undertaken in 1956, providing detailed O/D data on
trip length, purposes, modes of travel, and travel patterns. This was followed in 1960 with the US
Censuss first attempt to collect journey to work (JTW) travel data in urban areas. Other
metropolitan areas in the US and Canada, including Detroit and Toronto, copied and extended
the scope of such surveys in the 1960s. The growth of surveys was encouraged by the results that
provided the first comprehensive snapshots of urban travel activities in a society rapidly adopting
the automobile and undertaking new types of travel behavior. This was a boon to transport
planning. Furthermore, much of academic understanding of travel activity in cities has been
drawn from these surveys. Since then national censuses in many countries have included travel
surveys in their decennial inventories, and many planning agencies update and extend the results
from the national surveys with local investigations (see below). All survey techniques represent a
compromise between the objectives of the survey, the resources available, the coverage that is
feasible, and the amount of data to be collected. The surveys instrument(s) that are employed
depend largely on the resources available. Even national agencies find the costs of conducting
national surveys are onerous. For example, it is estimated that the next daily trip survey to be
undertaken in 2007 by the National Household Transport Survey (NHTS) in the US will be $14
million. Very common is the mail-back questionnaire. CATS, for example, uses a questionnaire
along with a travel diary, which involves sending out a letter of introduction to selected
households, distribution of the questionnaire and instructions, mailing out reminder letters, and a
telephone follow-up to selected individuals to verify their information. The NHTS survey of
2007 will be based on a national telephone survey. The degree of detail required in most travel
surveys means that even the largest agencies have to rely on sampling. It is usual to target
households rather than individuals, since the household is a good predictor of travel behavior.
Fixing the size of the sample is an extremely important issue. Sample size determines the degree
of reliability of the results, but these have to be conditioned by the resources available and the
survey instruments to be employed. In its household surveys, CATS determined that 400
completed household responses would be sufficient to provide a statistically significant sample
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for each of the geographic units, and because it expected a 20% rate of response, it could plan for
the distribution of 2,000 questionnaires in each zone. A clustered random sample of
approximately 2,000 addresses in each zone was taken. For national surveys in the US, samples
of 26,000 households are sought. Because of national surveys may not provide a sufficiently
reliable or detailed set of data for the needs of individual States or planning agencies, these
agencies frequently back-on
additional counts in their areas when national surveys are
undertaken. The main problems encountered in traffic surveys are:

Comparability between surveys


It is usually very important to compare survey results over time. This is frequently very difficult
because of different sample sizes, different questions, different response rates, and different
geographical collection units. These are usually major problems for studies trying to compare the
results from different agencies.

Non response Bias


There are significant variations in the response rates achieved by surveys. The larger the non
response rate, the less reliable will be the results. A 60% response rate is sometimes considered
as a threshold. Many surveys fail to achieve high rates of response, for example the 2001 NHTS
survey only achieved 41%.
Coverage bias. The survey instruments frequently contain hidden biases. For example automatic
telephone surveys exclude cell phone users and those without a land line connection.

Unreporting of Trips
Research is now showing that surveys and travel diaries may be undercounting trips made.
Some test surveys are using GPS devices to record trips and indicate that in the Kansas City
survey 10% of trips were unreported and in the case of Laredo the figure was as high as 60%.

2.2 Geometrical Design


Geometric design (GD), also known as geometric modelling, is a branch of computational
geometry. It deals with the construction and representation of free-form curves, surfaces, or
volumes.[1] Core problems are curve and surface modelling and representation. GD studies
especially the construction and manipulation of curves and surfaces given by a set of points
using polynomial, rational, piecewise polynomial, or piecewise rational methods. The most
important instruments here are parametric curves and parametric surfaces, such as Bezier curves,
spline curves and surfaces. An important non-parametric approach is the level set method.
Application areas include shipbuilding, aircraft, and automotive industries, as well as
architectural design. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume
bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by shipbuilders of
1960s.Geometric models can be built for objects of any dimension in any geometric space. Both
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2D and 3D geometric models are extensively used in computer graphics. 2D models are
important in computer typography and technical drawing. 3D models are central to computeraided design and manufacturing, and many applied technical fields such as geology and medical
image processing.Geometric models are usually distinguished from procedural and objectoriented models, which define the shape implicitly by an algorithm. They are also contrasted
with digital images and volumetric models; and with implicit mathematical models such as the
zero set of an arbitrary polynomial. However, the distinction is often blurred: for instance,
geometric shapes can be represented by objects; a digital image can be interpreted as a collection
of coloredsquares; and geometric shapes such as circles are defined by implicit mathematical
equations. Also, the modeling of fractal objects often requires a combination of geometric and
procedural techniques.Geometric problems originating in architecture can lead to interesting
research and results in geometry processing, computer-aided geometric design, and discrete
differential geometry.

Design Speed
The design speed is a tool used to determine geometric features of a new road during road
design. Contrary to the word's implication, a road's design speed is not necessarily its maximum
safe speed; that can be higher or lower.

Geometric Features
The design speed chosen for a highway is a major factor in choosing superelevation rates and
radii of curves, sight distance, and the lengths of crest and sagvertical curves. Roads with higher
travel speeds require sweeping curves, steeper curve banking, longer sight distances, and more
gentle hill crests and valleys. Lower speed roads can have sharper curves, less banking, less sight
distance, and sharper hill crests and valleys.

Speed limit variance from design speed


While a road's design speed is sometimes used to determine an initial speed limit, it is an
imperfect measure of the maximum speed at which a motor vehicle can be operated for reasons
including:It is only a theoretical or laboratory measurement created before a road is even
built.The highest design speed for a road or segment is the design speed of its least favorable
part. For example, given a road segment with an 60 mph design speed except for a curve with a
45 mph design speed, the entire segment would have a 45 mph design speed. In reality, the road
may have a 45 mph advisory speed on the curve and higher safe operating speeds elsewhere.
The design speed may be higher than legislated speed limit caps, so it would not be legal to sign
some roads at their design speeds. It is based on the capabilities of vehicles and roadways that
existed at or before the design speed was determined. Vehicular and roadway technologies
generally improve over time. Therefore, as time elapses from when a roadway's original design
speed was determined, it is increasingly likely that a design speed will underestimate the
maximum safe speed.

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Recognizing the limitations on the use of the design speed for speed limit determination,
"operating speeds and even posted speed limits can be higher than design speeds without
necessarily compromising safety".

Evolution
The concept of design speed is evolving. The definition in the 1994 edition of the
AASHTOGreen Book, was "the maximum safe speed that can be maintained over a specified
section of highway when conditions are so favorable that the design features of the highway
govern. The assumed design speed should be a logical one with respect to the topography, the
adjacent land use, and the functional classification of highway." A majority of US states used this
definition. In 2004, the first sentence was changed to "a selected speed used to determine the
various geometric design features of a roadway." This reflects the fact that meeting a minimum
design speed is not enough to ensure a safe roadway.Recently, the concept of design consistency
has been used instead of minimum design speeds. This attempts to connect driver's expectations
about the roadway with the roadway design. It uses driver behavior models to predict vehicle
speeds on highway segments, and compares the predicted speed on adjacent segments.
Significant reductions in speed from one segment to the next are flagged as locations where
drivers may end up driving too fast for road conditions. A major shift in philosophy is also taking
place regarding design speed of urban and suburban streets. Highway engineers would measure
the prevailing speed on a road and design the road for that speed, assuming that it would be safe.
Recent research and design practices [9] have focused on using the street design to influence
drivers to choose speeds appropriate for the neighborhood.

Factors
When roads are planned, the selected design speed may be based on or influence several factors,
including:
geometric design of road features
planned operating speed
legislated speed limit caps
anticipated traffic volume
the road's functional classification

ROAD RIGHTS-OF-WAY AND PAVEMENT WIDTHS


(A)All new roads shall meet the minimum requirements specified in Table A set forth in this
section. Pavement widths shall be the width of surface available to vehicular traffic. Such width
shall not include shoulders, bike lanes, berms or paved drainage ditches.
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(B) PAVEMENT,
for the purposes of this section, shall mean a minimum of two-inch thick hot mix asphalt
concrete over a minimum of six-inch thick base rock for public and private roads designed for
the traffic index (TI) as indicated in said Table A.
(C) In the case of land divisions or subdivisions abutting existing Town public roads, the
Planning Commission may require reconstruction to Town Standards.
(D) Road improvements, with the exception of connections, are not normally required on
abutting freeways, expressways, or State highways. The details of a connection to a State
highway will be specified by the State.

Berm
A berm is a level space, shelf, or raised barrier separating two areas. The word berm originates in
the Middle Dutch and German berme and came into usage in English via French

A typical berm Application


Berm has been adopted as a wider term usually used to describe a physical, stationary barrier of
some kind. For example in modern highway construction, a berm is a noise barrier constructed of
earth, often landscaped, running along a highway to protect adjacent land users from noise
pollution. In Snowboard Cross, a berm is a wall of snow built up in a corner. In Mountain biking,
a berm is a banked turn formed by soil, commonly dug from the track, being deposited on the
outer rim of the turn. In coastal systems, a berm is a raised ridge of pebbles or sand found at high
tide or storm tide marks on a beach. In snow removal, a berm or windrow refers to the linear
accumulation of snow cast aside by a plow. In open-pit mining, a berm refers to dirt and rock
piled alongside a haulage road or along the edge of a dump point. Intended as a safety measure,
they are commonly required by government organizations to be at least half as tall as the wheels
of the largest mining machine on-site.
Physical security systems employ berms to exclude hostile vehicles and slow attackers on foot
(similar to the military application without the trench). Security berms are common around
military and nuclear facilities. An example is the berm proposed for Vermont Yankee nuclear
power plant in Vermont.[7] At Baylor Ballpark, a baseball stadium on the campus of Baylor
University, a berm is constructed down the right field line. The berm replaces bleachers, and
general admission tickets are sold for fans who wish to sit on the grass or watch the game from
the top of the hill.
Berms are also used as a method of environmental spill containment and liquid spill control. The
EPA requires that oils and fuels stored over certain volume levels be placed in secondary spill
containment. Berms for spill containment are typically manufactured from PVC or geomembrane
fabric that provide a barrier to keep spills from reaching the ground or navigable waterways.
Most berms have sidewalls to keep liquids contained for future capture and safe disposal.[8]

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Radius of curvature (application)

Radius of curvature(r)
The distance from the center of a circle or sphere to its surface is its radius. For other curved
lines or surfaces, the radius of curvature at a given point is the radius of a circle that
mathematically best fits the curve at that point.
The equivalent "surface radius" that is described by radial distances at points along a body's
surface is its radius of curvature (more formally, the radius of curvature of a curve at a point is
the radius of the osculating circle at that point). With a sphere, the radius of curvature equals the
radius (thus, radius of curvature is sometimes used as a synonym for radius). With an oblate
ellipsoid (or, more properly, an oblate spheroid), however, not only does it differ from the radius,
but it varies, depending on the direction being faced. The extremes are known as the principal
radii of curvature.

Explanation
Imagine driving a car on a curvy road on a completely flat plain (so that the geographic plain is a
geometric plane). At any one point along the way, lock the steering wheel in its position, so that
the car thereafter follows a perfect circle. The car will, of course, deviate from the road, unless
the road is also a perfect circle. The radius of that circle the car makes is the radius of curvature
of the curvy road at the point at which the steering wheel was locked. The more sharply curved
the road is at the point you locked the steering wheel, the smaller the radius of curvature.

Formula

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If
curve,

is a parameterized curve in
, is given by

then the radius of curvature at each point of the

.
As a special case, if f(t) is a function from
, is

to

, then the curvature of its graph,

Derivation
Let be as above, and fix . We want to find the radius of a parameterized circle which matches
in its zeroth, first, and second derivatives at . Clearly the radius will not depend on the
position (
), only on the velocity (
) and acceleration (
). There are only three
independent scalars that can be obtained from two vectors v and w, namely vv, vw, and ww.
Thus the radius of curvature must be a function of the three scalars
.
The general equation for a parameterized circle in
where

and

is

is the center of the circle (irrelevant since it disappears in the derivatives),

are perpendicular vectors of length (that is,


), and
is an arbitrary function which is twice differentiable at t.
The relevant derivatives of g work out to be

and

If we now equate these derivatives of g to the corresponding derivatives of at t we obtain

These three equations in three unknowns ( ,


formula for the radius of curvature:

and

or, omitting the parameter (t) for readability,

.
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) can be solved for

, giving the

Elliptic, latitudinal components


The radius extremes of an oblate spheroid are the equatorial radius, or semi-major axis, a, and
the polar radius, or semi-minor axis, b. The "ellipticalness" of any ellipsoid, like any ellipse, is
measured in different ways (e.g., eccentricity and flattening), any and all of which are
trigonometric functions of its angular eccentricity, :

The primary parameter utilized in identifying a point's vertical position is its latitude, . A
latitude can be expressed either directly or from the arcsine of a trigonometric product, the
arguments (i.e., a function's "input") of the factors being the arc path (which defines, and is the
azimuth at the equator of, a given great circle, or its elliptical counterpart) and the transverse
colatitude, which is a corresponding, vertical latitude ring that defines a point along an arc
path/great circle. The relationship can be remembered by the terms' initial letter, L-A-T:
Therefore, along a north-south arc path (which equals 0), the primary quadrant form of latitude
equals the transverse colatitude's at a given point. As most introductory discussions of curvature
and their radius identify position in terms of latitude, this article will too, with only the added
inclusion of a "0" placeholder for more advanced discussions where the arc path is actively
utilized:
There are two types of latitude commonly
employed in these discussions, the planetographic (or planetodetic; for Earth, the customized
terms are "geographic" and "geodetic"), or , and reduced latitudes, or :

The calculation of elliptic quantities usually involves different elliptic integrals, the most basic
unit integrands being

, its inverse,

, and its complement,

Curvature
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A simple, if crude, definition of a circle is "a curved line bent in equal proportions, where its
endpoints meet". Curvature, then, is the state and degree of deviation from a straight linei.e.,
an "arced line". There are different interpretations of curvature, depending on such things as the
planular angle the given arc is dividing and the direction being faced at the surface's point. What
is concerned with here is normal curvature, where "normal" refers to orthogonality, or
perpendicularity. There are two principal curvatures identified, a maximum, 1, and a minimum,
2.

Meridional maximum

The arc in the meridional, north-south vertical direction at the planetographic equator possesses
the maximum curvature, where it "pinches", thereby being the least straight.

Perpendicular minimum

The perpendicular, horizontally directed arc contains the least curvature at the equator, as the
equatorial circumference is at least in mathematical definition perfectly circular.The spot of least
curvature on an oblate spheroid is at the poles, where the principal curvatures converge (as there
is only one facing direction towards the planetographic equator!) and the surface is most
flattened.

Merged curvature
There are two universally recognized blendings of the principal curvatures: The arithmetic mean
is known as the mean curvature, H, while the squared geometric mean or simply the product is
known as the Gaussian curvature, K:
Principal radii of curvature
A curvature's radius, RoC, is simply its reciprocal:

Therefore, there are two principal radii of curvature: A vertical, corresponding to 1, and a
horizontal, corresponding to 2. Most introductions to the principal radii of curvature provide
explanations independent to their curvature counterparts, focusing more on positioning and
angle, rather than shape and contortion.

Meridional radius of curvature


17

The vertical radius of curvature is parallel to the "principal vertical", which is the facing, central
meridian and is known as the meridional radius of curvature, M (alternatively, R1 or p):

(Crossing the planetographic equator,


In fact, S is the function composition of M:

.)

or, conversely and more appropriately, where

Normal radius of curvature


The horizontal radius of curvature is perpendicular (again, meaning "normal" or "orthogonal") to
the central meridian, but parallel to a great arc (be it spherical or elliptical) as it crosses the
"prime vertical", or transverse equator (i.e., the meridian 90 away from the facing principal
meridian the "horizontal meridian"), and is known as the transverse (equatorial), or normal,
radius of curvature, N (alternatively, R2 or v):

(Along the planetographic equator, which is an ellipsoid's


only true great circle,
.)

Polar convergence
Just as with the curvature, at the poles M and N converge, resulting in an equal radius of
curvature:

Merged radius of curvature


There are two possible, basic "means":
Mean radius of curvature, which is the arithmetic mean:

Radius of mean curvature, which is the harmonic mean:

18

If these means are then arithmetically and harmonically averaged together, with the results
reaveraged until the two averages converge, the result will be the arithmetic-harmonic mean,
which equals the geometric mean and, in turn, equals the square root of the inverse of Gaussian
curvature!

While, at first glance, the squared form may be regarded as either the "radius of Gaussian
curvature", "radius of Gaussian curvature2" or "radius2 of Gaussian Curvature", none of these
terms quite fit, as Gaussian Curvature is the product of two curvatures, rather than a singular
curvature.

Radius of curvature in the normal section


One of Euler's many formulas gives the radius of curvature of the ellipse cross-sectioned by a
vertical plane in some direction other than north-south or east-west, in the normal section:

where is the geodetic azimuth of the line at the point: North equals zero, east equals 90 degrees.
At the pole M = N, but at any other point M is the minimum radius of curvature of all the
possible vertical cross-sections through that point, while N is the maximum.

Geodetic radius of curvature ("arcradius")


Euler's radius of curvature is similar to, yet distinctive from, the more inherent radius of
curvature of the great elliptic arc,[1] which is the geodetic (or geographic) radius of curvature in
the great elliptic section, or arcradius, or . It is G that is the radius of curvature of the
differential rectangle on an ellipsoid.[2]

Applications and examples


For the use in differential geometry, see Cesro equation.
Radius of curvature is also used in a three part equation for bending of beams.
Radius of curvature applied to measurements of the stress in the semiconductor structures Stress
in the semiconductor structure involving evaproated thin films usually results from the thermal
expansion (thermal stress) during the manufacturing process. Thermal stress occurs because film
depositions are usually made above room temperature. Upon cooling from the deposition
temperature to room temperature, the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of the
substrate and the film cause thermal stress.
Intrinsic stress results from the microstructure created in the film as atoms are deposited on the
substrate. Tensile stress results from microvoids in the thin film, because of the attractive
interaction of atoms across the voids.
The stress in thin film semiconductor structures results in the buckling of the wafers. The radius
of the curvature of the stressed structure is related to stress tensor in the structure, and can be
described by modified Stoney formula.[4] The topography of the stressed structure including radii
of curvature can be measured using optical scanner methods. The modern scanner tools have
19

capability to measure full topography of the substrate and to measure both principal radii of
curvature, while providing the accuracy of the order of 0.1% for radii of curvature of 90 m and
more.

2.3 PAVEMENT
A pavement may be define as reletively stable layar or crust constructed over the natural soil. the
function of pavement is to support and distribute the heavy wheel load of vehicles over a wide
area of the underlaying subgrade soil and permitted the deformations with in elastic or allowable
range and and to provide an adequate surface.
For the design purpose, the pavement may be divided into the following two categories
depending upon thier structural action
1.Flexiable pavement
2.Rigid pavement
The main difference between these two types of pavements is the is the manner in which they
distribute the load over thier subgrade.

RIGID PAVEMENT
The rigid pavement usually are made of cement concrete and may or maynot have a base course
between the surface and subgrade. The design of this class of pavement is based on, the principle
of providing sufficient strenth in the structural cement concrete slab to resist the the destructive
of action of the traffic. Due to thier rigidity and high modulus of elasticity they distribute the
load over a reletively wider area of soil. The rigid pavement can resist appreciable tensile
stresses ,therefore the minor variations in the stength of subgrade have no influence on the
structrural capacity of the pavement .thus they are capable of bridging small weak patches and
depression. these classes of pavements are capable of developing flexural strength of about 50
kg/cm2Rigid pavement are so named because the pavement stucture deflects very little under
loading due to the high modulus of elasticity pfthier surface cource. A rigid pavement structure is
typically composed of a PCC surface cource built on top of either (1) the subgrade or (2) an
underlying base course. Becouse of its reletive rigidity, the pavement structure distributes loads
over a wide area with only one, or at most two, structural layer.

BASIC STRUCTURAL ELEMENT


RIGID PAVEMENT
A typical rigid pavement structure consists of the surface course and the underlying base and
sub-base course. the surface course(made of PCC) is the stiffest(as measured by resilient
modulus)and provide the majority of stregth. The underlying layers are orders of magnitude less
20

stiff but still make important contributions to pavement strength as well as drainage and frost
protection.

SURFACE COURSE
The surface course is the layer in contact with traffic loads and is made of PCC. It provides
characteristics such as friction, smoothness, noise control and drainage. In addition, it serves as a
waterproofing layer to the underlying base, subbase and subgrade .The surface course can very in
thickness but is usully between 150mm(6 inches) (for light loading) and 300mm(12 inches) (for
heavy loads and high traffic).

BASE COURSE
The base course is immediately beneath the surface course. It provide
(1)addition load distribution,
(2)contributes to drainage and resistance,
(3)uniform support to the pavement and
(4)a stable platform for constructed equipment(CAPE 2001).bases also help prevent
subgrade soil movement due to slab pumping .base course are usually constructed out of:

AGGREGATE BASE
A simple base course of crushed aggregate has been a common option since the early 1900s and
is still appropriate in many situations today.

STABILIZED AGGREGATE OR SOIL


Stabilizing agent are used to bind otherwise loose particle to one another,providing strength and
cohesion. cement treated base(CTBs) can be built to as much as 20-25 percent of the surface
cource strength(FHWA,1999).however, cement treated base(CTBs) used in the 1950s and early
1960s had a tendency to lose excessive amounts of material leading to panel cracking and
settling.
Dense-graded HMA-In situations where high base stiffness is desired base courses can be
constructed using a dense-graded HMA layer.
Permeable HMA-In certain situations where high base stiffness and excellent drainage is desired,
base course can be constructed using an open graded HMA. recent research may indicate some
significant problems with ATPS use.
Lean concrete-contains less portland cement paste than a typical PCC and is stronger than a
stabilized aggregate. Lean concrete bases(LCBs)can be built to as much as 25-50 percent of the
surface cource strength(FHWA,1999).A less concrete base functions much like a regular PCC
surface course and therefore, it requires construction joints and crack over time. These joints and
cracks can potentially cause reflection cracking in the surface course if they are not carefully
matche

SUBBASE COURSE
21

The subbase course is the portion of the pavement structure between the base course and the
subgrade. it function primamarily as structure support but it can also:
Minimize the instrusion of fines from the subgrade into the pavement structure.
Improve drainage.
Minimize frost action damage.
Provide a working platform for construction.
The sub-base generally consists of lower quality materials than the base course but better than
the sub-grade soils. appropriate materials are aggregate and high quality structure fill. A sub-base
course is not always needed or used.

JOINTS
Joints are purposefully placed discontinuities in a rigid pavement surface course. The most
common types of pavement joints defined by their function are (AASHTO,1993): contraction,
isolation, expansion and construction.

CONTRACTION JOINTS
A contraction joint is a sawed, or tooled groove in a concrete slab that creats a weakened vertical
plne. It regulates the location of the cracking caused by dimensional changes in the slab.
Unregulated cracks can grow and result in an unacceptably rough surface as well as water
infiltration into base, subbase and subgrade, which can enable other types of pavement distress.
contraction joints are the most common types of joints in concrete pavement, thus the generic
term joint generally refers to a contraction joint.
Contraction joints are chiefly defiened by their spacing and their method of load transfer. They
are generally between 1/4 -1/3 the depth of slab and typically spaced every 3.1 -15m (12 -50
ft.)with thinner slabs having shorter spacing. Some states use a semi-random joint spacing
pattern to minimize their resonant effect on vehicles. These patterns typically use a repeating
sequence of joints spacing then 3m (10 ft.)then 4.3m (14 ft.) then 4.0m (13 ft.).Transverse
contraction joints can be cut at right angle to the direction of traffic flow or at an angle (called
askewed joints, skewed joints are cut at obtuse angle to the direction of traffic flow to help
with load transfer. the joint is properly, the left wheel of each axle will cross onto the leave slab
First and one wheel will cross the joints at a time, which results in lower load tranfer stress.

EXPANTION JOINTS
An Expantion joint is placed at the spacific location to allow the pavement to expend without
damaging adjacent structures or the pavement itself. Up until the 1950s it was common practice
in the U.S. to use plain jointed slabes with both contraction and expention joint (Sutherland
1956). However, expention joint are not typical used today because their progressive closure
tends to cause contruction joint to progressively open (Sutherland 1956). Progressive or even
22

large seasonal contraction joint openings cause a loss of load transfer particularly so for joints
without dowel bars.

ISOLATION JOINTS
An isolation joint is used to lessen compressive stresses that develop at T- and unsymmetrical
intersection, ramps, bridge, building, foundation, drainage inlets, manholes and anywhere
differential movement between the pavement and structure(or another existing pavement) may
take place (CAPE 2001). They are typically filled with a joint filler material to prevent water and
dirt infilaltration.

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS
Ancontruction joint is a joint between slaves that result when concrete is place at different times.
This type of joint can be further broken down into transverse and longitudinal construction
joints. Longitudinal construction joints also allow slab warping without appreciable separation or
cracking of the slabes.
Based on structural behaviour pavements are of following types:

Flexible pavements
Flexible pavements are those which have low flexural strength. The flexible pavements layers
reflect the deformation of the lower layers on th e surface of thelayer. Flexible pavement layers
transmit the vertical stresses to the lower layers by grain to grain transfer through the points of
contact in the granular structure.
Bituminous concrete, granular material with or without bituminous binder, WBM,soil aggregate
mixes etc are common example of flexible of pavements.Flexible pavements are commonly
designed using empirical charts or equation. There are also semi- empirical and theoritical
methods.

RIGID PAVEMENTS
Rigid pavements posses noteworthy flexible strength.These transfer the load through slab action
but not grain to grain as in case of flexible pavements.These consist of 3 layers:
cement concrete slab
base course
soil subgrade.
The rigid pavements are made of portland cement concrete either plain,reinforced or
prestressed.These are designed using elastic theory,assuming as an elastic pavements resting over
an elastic.

23

SEMI RIGID PAVEMENTS


When bonded materials like the pozzolanicconcrete,lean cement concrete or soil cement are used
then pavement layer have considerably high flexural strength then the common flexible
pavements layer, such pavements are called semirigidpavements.These material have low
resistance to impact and abrasion and therefore are used with flexible pavement surface course.

FUNCTION OF PAVEMENT COMPONENTS

Soil subgrade:
The pavement load is ultimately taken by soil subgrade hence in no case it should be
over stressed and top 50 cm layer of soil subgrade should be well compacted at O.M.C.
Common strength tests used for evaluation of soil subgrade are:
CBR test
California resistance value test
Triaxial compression test
Plate bearing test.

Sub base and base course


These are broken stone aggregates. It is desirable to use smaller size graded aggreagate at sub
base course instead of boulders stones.Base and sub base course are used under flexible
pavements primarily to improve load supporting capacity by distribution of the load through a
finite thickness.
Base course are used under rigid pavements for preventing pumping producing the subgrade
against frost action.

Wearing course
Purpose of this course is to give smooth riding surface . It resist pressure exerted by tyres and
take up wear and tear due to traffic . It also offers water tightness.Thestability of wearing course
is estimated by Marshall stability test wher in optimum % bituminous material is worked out
based on stability density .VMA$VMB.
Plate bearing test and BANKLE beam test are also some times made use, for evaluating the
wearing course and the pavement as a whole.

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENTS


Cement co of concrete pavements have theload carrying capacity mainly due to rigidity and high
modulus of elasticity .
In the analysis WESTERGAARD used the rigid plate of diameter 75cm to find modulus of
subgrade reaction K.
24

k=p/$ =p/0.125kg/cm3 b to subgrade:


The subgrade material offers resistance to slab deflection which depends on stiffness of the
subgrade material. The tendency of slab deflection depends upon stiffness of the subgrade
material. The tendency of slab deflection depends upon stiffeners of slab ,hence relative stiffness
of slab depends upon stiffness of slab , hence relative stiffness of slab to that subgrade subgrade
can be defined.

Radius of relative stiffness :


l=Eh3/12k(1-@2)1/4
E=modulous of Elasticity of cement concrete pavements kg/cm2
h= slab thickness(cm)
k= Modulus of sub grade reaction (kg/cm3)

Stresses on rigid pavements:


1. Wheel load stresses.
2. Temperature stresses.
THESE can be of two types
a. Warping stresses
b. Frictional stresses.

Critical load position


a. INTERIOR LOADING
load is applied in the interior of the slab.

b. EDGE LOADING
load is applied at the edge of slab other than corners.

c. CORNER LOADING
centre of the load is located on bisector of the corner angle and loaded area is at the corner
touching the two corner edging.

25

EQUIVALENT RADIUS OF RESISTING SECTION


IN case of interior loading the maximum bending moment occur at the point of loading, the area
of the pavements which is effective in resisting the bending moment has radius given by
b=1.6a+h)-0.675h
here,
b= equivalent radius of resisting section, cm when a is less than 1.724 h
a= radius of wheel load distribution, cm
h= slabe thickness, cm
when a is greater than 1.724 h, the valu of b=a

1. WHEEL LOAD STRESSES


1. GOLD BECK FORMULA
He gave corner load formula for stresses
Sc =3P/h
where ,Sc=stress due corner loading
p= corner load assumed as a concentrated point load
h=Thickness of the slab (cm)

WESTERGAARDS STRESS EQUATION FOR WHEEL LOADS


For wheel loads, stress developed at three critical locations can be found out by his equation as
given belowInterior loading
Si = 0.316 P/h2 [4log10 (L/b + 1.169)] ..5
For Edge loading
Se = 0.572 P/h2 [4log10(L/b+0.359)] 6
For corner loading
SC = 3P/h2 [1-{a2/L}0.6] ..7
Where,
h = slab thickness in cm.
P = Wheel load in kg.
a = radius of wheel load distribution in cm.
L = radius of relative stiffness in cm.
b = radius of resisting section
The values of a, b and L can be calculated by the following equations
L=[Eh3/12k(1-u2)]1/4
Where,
L = radius of relative stiffness in cm
h = thickness of CC pavement slab, cm
u = Poissons ratio of the CC slab
E = modulus of elasticity of the CC, kg/cm
26

K = reaction modulus of pavement foundation, kg/cm2


(ii) b=(1.6a2+h2)-0.675b ..9
Where,
h = thickness of CC pavement slab in cm
b = radius of equivalent distribution of pressure, cm
b = a, when a/h1.724 and
a = radius of load contact in cm

(A) TEMPERATURE STRESSES


Due to daily variation in temperature reversal of stresses takes place due to heating and cooling
of pavements. The maximum temperature difference occurs in evening hence warping stresses
are predominant in late evening. The magnitudes of warping stresses are maximum at the interior
region and are maximum at the interior region and are minimum at the corner region.When the
slab is warped down in the day time, the warping stress are tensile in nature at the bottom of the
slab. During night when slab is warped up the tensile stresses are developed at the top of the
pavements slab.
Warping stresses can be calculated by Bradbury.

(B) FRICTIONAL STRESSES


Due to seasonal variation of temperature the expansion or contraction of pavement slab is
resisted by friction offered by under lying layer.
The frictional stresses are zero at the free ends and at expansion joints and increases up to a
maximum value towards the interior and there after remain constant.During summer when slab is
under expansion the frictional stress are compressive and During winter when slab contracts
frictional stresses are tensile.
Frictional stresses can be calculated by
Sf= wlf/2*10^4
where ,
Sf= stresses developed in cement concrete pavements (kg/m2)
w= unit weight of concrete (kg/m2)
f= coefficient of subgrade restraint.
f=1.5
L=slab length in metre.

AGGRIGATE INTERLOCK
Aggregate interlock is the mechanical locking which forms between the fractured surfaces along
the crack below the joint saw cut. some low-volume and secondary road systems rely entirely on
aggregate interlock to provide load transfer although it is generally it is generally not adequate to
provide long -term load transfer for high traffic volumes . Generally, aggregate interlock is
27

ineffective in cracks wider than about 0.9mm. Often, dowels bars are used to provide the
majority of load transfer.

DOWELS BARS
Dowels bars are short steel bars that provide a mechanical connection between slabs without
restricting horizontal joint movement.They increase load transfer efficiency by allowing the
leave slab to assume some of the load before the load is actually over it . Specific locations and
numbers vary by state ; however a typical arrangement might look like . In order to prevent
corrosion, dowel bars are either coated with stainless steel. Dowels bars are usually inserted at
mid slab depth and coated with a bond breaking substance to prevent bonding to the PCC. Thus,
the dowels help transfer load but allow adjacent slabs to expand and contract independent of one
another.

REINFORCING STEEL
Reinforcing steel can also be used to provide load transfer. When reinforcing steel is used,
transverse contraction joints often omitted. Therefore, since there are no joints, the PCC cracks
on its own and the reinforcing steel is bonded to the PCC on the either side of the crack in order
to hold the crack tightly together.
Typically, rigid pavement reinforcing steel consist of grade 60(yield stress of 60 ksi (414mpa)
No.5 or no.6 bars. The steel constitute about 0.6-0.7 percent of the
Pavement crosses -sectional area (ACPA, 2001) and is typically placed at slab mid depth or
shallower. At least 63mm (2.5 inches)
Of PCCcover should be maintained over the reinforcing steel to minimize the potential for steel
corrosion by chlorides fou nod in deicing agents (Burke, 1983)

TIE BARS
Tie bars are either deformed steel bars or connectors used to hold the faces of abutting slabs in
contact (AASHTO,1993).Although they may provide some minimal amount of load transfer ,
they are not designed to act as load transfer devices and should not be used as such (AASTHO,
1993).Tie bars are typically used at longitudinally joints or between an edge joint and curb or
shoulder.

TRAFFIC FACTORS
These include the character and volume of traffic which will use the pavement.

MOISTURE FACTORS
These represent change of moisture content of the sub grade due to any of the condition of
precipitation, capillarity and irrigation in the area etc.

28

CLIMATIC FACTORS
These factors represent the effect of temperature change such as frost penetration etc.

SOIL FACTORS
These factors represent the effect of the condition of natural foundation soil in cuts under shallow
embankments or soil used in the embankments immediately underlying the subgrade surface.
They measure the supporting power of the subgrade.

STRESS DISTRIBUTION FACTORS


These factors represent the function of pavement and base for transmitting the load of the
subgrade.

TRAFFIC FACTORS
Under this head following wheel load factors are considered in the design of pavement.
1. Maximum wheel load.
2. Dual or Multiple wheel loads and equivalent single wheel load.
3. Load contact pressure.
4. Repetition of loads.

MAXIMUM WHEEL LOAD


In the design of a pavement the knowledge of maximum wheel load is more important than gross
weight of the vehicle.In evaluating the magnitude of the wheel load to be selected as design
criterion, the legal axle load specified in the
area should be taken into account .In India, Indian Road congress has specified the maximum
legal load as 8170 kg, and maximum equivalent single wheel load as 4085kg.It has been
observed that unless the two wheels are spaced sufficiently closely, the area of sub-grade stressed
by each wheel overlap and as stated above in each case the maximum wheel load is more
important than gross weight of the vehicle. The configuration or space of wheel load gives an
idea how the load of a vehicle acts on the pavement.Typical wheel load configuration of a tractor
trailer unit of heavy duty.This reduces joint deflection and stress in the approach and leave
slabs.Dowels bars are typically 32 to 38 mm in diameter, 460mm long and spaced 305 mm apart.
Specific location and numbers. The vertical stress at any depth can be computed by Boussinesq
equation reproduced below;
z = p[ 1- {z/(a+z)/
here,
z = vertical stress at depth z
29

p = surface pressure
z = depth at which z is computed
a = radius of loaded area

LOAD CONTACT PRESSURE


From the study of fig. it will be evident the influence of tyre pressure is predominant in the upper
layers. At greater depths the tyre pressure is predominant in the upper layers. At greater depths
the tyre pressure effect diminishes and the
Total load exhibits a considerable influence on the vertical stress magnitude. Thus to bear high
magnitude of tyre pressure the upper layers of pavements should be high quality materials.
However the tyre pressure does not affect the total depth of the pavement. With Constant
pressure, the total load governs the thickness requirements of the pavement so that the stress in
the upper layer on the top of the subgrade is restricted within allowable limits.Usually the
distribution of wheel load is assumed on a circular area, but by actual measurement of the
imprint of types with different loads and inflation pressure, in many cases the Contact area has
been found by the following equation.
Contact pressure=load on wheel/ Contact area
Contact area=0.9Wheel load/tyre pressure,
The contact area can also be found by taking actual impression of the tyre imprint. Generally the
tyre pressure and contact pressure are same when the
tyre pressure is 6kg /cm2.The ratio of contact pressure to tyre pressure is known as

Rigidity factor
The value of rigidity factor is 1.0 for an average tyre pressure of 7 kg/cm2. if the tyre pressure is
lower than 7kg /cm2,this ratio is higher than unity and less than unity for higher pressure.
Actually the rigidity factor depends upon the degree of tension developed in the walls of the
tyres.

EFECT OF MULTIPLE WHEELS AND


EQUIVALENT SINGLE LOAD (E.S.W.L.)

TANDEM

AXELS

AND

In order to carry greater load and at the same time to maintain the maximum wheel load within
the legal prescribed limits, it is essential to provide dual wheel assembly to the rear axles of the
highway vehicles. In doing so it is necessary to find out the effect of dual assembly on the
pavement,At which stresses in pavement due to dual wheel assembly are equal to those of a
single wheel assembly, depends upon the spacing of wheels.
30

REPITITION OF LOAD
The deformation of subgrade or pavement due to a single application of wheel load may be very
small, but the repeated application of load on the pavement may result in increased magnitude of
plastic and elastic deformation even may cause failure of the pavement.If the subgrade is poorly
compacted or over stressed, the repeated loading may produce a permanent and non uniform
deformation of subgrade.
This is more significant for rigid pavements as the reduced support is given by the subgrade may
cause failure of the slab.
Laboratory as well as field plate loading tests have shown that the amount of deformation under
repeated loads varies directly with the logarithm of the load applications. This principle can be
used to extend the load deformation data from few tests to a large number of repetitions. Thus it
can be used toevaluate the supporting power of the subgrade for the anticipated load repititions
during the design life of the pavement, but the mixed traffic poses complications in the analysis.
Thus to account for the effect of mixed traffic, traffic surveys are carried out to find out the
repetition factor for wheel loads in the design of pavements. The data collected is converted to
some constant equivalent wheel loads. Equivalent wheel loads are those loads which require
same thickness and strength or quality of pavement taking into the account the repetition of each
load. In India the traffic composition is of mixed type. Thus it is essential to convert the various
wheel loads into one single wheel load for design purposes.

MOISTURE FACTORS
Depending upon the type of soil, climatic conditions, ground water level and its variation, type of
pavement and its shoulders, drainage conditions, Moisture variations on the subgrade may take
place to a considerable extent. The reduction in moisture content may cause shrinkage and
increases in Moisture will cause swell in the soil of the subgrade. Both these changes in Moisture
will cause change in strength of the subgrade and deterioration of the road surfaces. Generally all
soils decrease their strength with the increase in moisture content, more especially clayey soils.
On the other hand decrease in moisture content, increase the strength of subgrade soils. It has
been observed that day long drying period dries out soil more near the edges than the central
portion of the road. In clayey soils this may cause considerable differential shrinkage of the soil
which results in longitudinal cracks in. Flexible pavements and differential movement in rigid
slabs. These effects are likely to cause considerable damage to the pavements.

CAUSES OF INCREASE IN MOISTURE


The moisture increase may take place due to any of the following causes:
1. Percolation of surface water through cracks in the pavement surface.
2. Entry of water through edges of the pavement.
3. Seepage.
4. Capillary rise from high water table or due to rise of table in rainy reason,
31

Etc.
5. Thus in situations where it is anticipated that moisture under subgrade
May reach 100% saturation during rainy season, the strength of subgrade
Should be calculated on soaked specimens.In most of the cases, the design
Of flexible pavements is made on the assumption that the subgrade base
Course will possess a high degree of saturation throughout most of its life.

CLIMATIC FACTORS
The; performance of a [pavement is adversely affected by the climatic
Conditions of a place. It includes the frost action.Fost action affects the pavement in two ways.
1. Frost heave
2. Loss of subgrade support during that period or alternate cycles of
Freezing and thawing.

FROST HEAVE
The frost heave refers to rising up of the pavement portion. When the temperature falls slowly
below freezing temperature , the free water available in the larger pores of the soil freezes. As the
temperature continues to fall down,the ice crystal formed in the large pores attract water in
smaller capillary pores and freeze it also and the original crystal increase in size.The process of
increasing ice crystal continues till the capillary go on supplying water and the soil above these
crystals ultimately heave If due to frost heave, the rise of pavement portion is uniform, then the
supporting power of the subgrade is not affected adversely. However, the rise is non uniform, the
supporting power of subgrade is affected adversely.Further due to rise or change in temperature,
the ice crystals melt and so often the road bed. Due to the rice melting, the voids in the soils
increase and the water collects in these voids in larger quantity below the pavement, which
decreases the load carrying capacity of the pavement to a greater extent. Under heavy loads the
pavement would deflect excessively, causing progressive failure due to decreased load carrying
capacity of the sub-grade.Thus the freezing and thawing or melting ice crystals which occur
alternately due to variation in the weather cause much damage to the pavement. The over ail
effect due to frost heave, frost melting, and alternate freezing and thawing cycle is called 'Frost
action'. The frost action is influenced by the following factors.
(a) Frost susceptible soil.
(b) Low temperature below freezing point.
(c) Supply of water.
(d) Cover.
Thus the soil type,grain size distribution,permeablity and capilliarity of soil
influence frost action.The most effective and practical method to decrease
the water and frost action is to provide surface and sub surface drainage
system.

32

SOIL FACTORS
Soil under the pavement foundation is seldom homogeneous. Large variation mar occurs in its
properties. To predict the behavior of the soil under different conditions, it is essential to carry
out certain tests. The soil strength varies with type of soil, bulk density, moisture content,
permeability, internal structure of the soil etc. It also depends upon the method of application of
load on the soil. We know that the soil strength increases with increasing density and decreasing
moisture content. As the elastic properties of soil are very low, in the design of flexible
pavements the supporting power of sub-grade is very important factor. To evaluate the
supporting power of sub-grade, compressive, and tensile strengths are not of much importance.
To determine the supporting power of subgrade generally following properties of the soil are
determined:
(a) Shear strength
(b) Bearing power
(c) Penetration resistance of the soil

ELASTIOC MODULII
Depending upon the design method, the modulii of elasticity of different materials are calculated
mainly from plate bearing method. It may also be determined from tri-axial compression test. For
the design purposes the modulii of sub-grade, base course and sub base course materials are
determined by plate bearing test.
Subgrade modulus is calculated from the plate bearing test data.
For flexible pavements the elastic modulus can be computed from Boussinsg's settlement
equation. The maximum vertical deflection is given by the
equation as
= 1.5pa /Es ......................................1
Where,
= maximum vertical deflection at the surface.
p = uniform pressure on the flexible loaded plate,
a = Radius of the plate or loaded area.
Es = Modulus of Elasticity of soil.
For rigid circular plate the above equation can be modified as
= 1.18pa /Es ......................................2
IN this case the pressure distribution will not be uniform. If the plate bearing test is conducted
with a mild steel plate, then it will be considered as rigid plate and equation 2 will be used for
deflection, if instead of steel plate. The loads are applied through inflated rubber tyres, then it is
considered as flexible plate loading and equation no.1 shall be used.

33

GENERAL
Cement concrete pavements fall in the group of rigid pavement. They are primarily designed on
the basis of their resistance to bending. Rigid pavements generally fall in direct tension of
bending .The stresses causing failure are tensile in character. Thus to evaluate the strength of the
cement concrete pavements , their modulus of rupture is found out. The design of rigid
pavements largely is based on experience, standardized practices and performance,
Dr.H.MWestergaard former Dean of the graduate school of Engineering, University of Harvard
was the pioneer to provide the national treatment to the problem of rigid pavement design.
He assumed the rigid pavement slab as a thin elastic plate, resting on soil subgrade He also
assumed the soil subgrade as dense liquid. He assumed the upward reaction proportional to the
deflection i.e
P=k
where,
p= upward reaction
k=modulus of subgrade reaction. The unit of K is kg/cm2 per cm

FACTORS CAUSING STRESSES IN SLAB


Following factors induce stresses in rigid pavements slabs:
1. Wheel loads
2. Cyclic changes in temperature
3. Change in moisture
4. Volumetric change in base course or subgrade.
In his analysis of concrete pavement design ,Westergaard considered three critical condition of
loading .
a.Interior loading
b.Edge loading
c.Corner loading

INTERIOR LOADING
In this case , the load is assumed to act in the interior of the slab surface at any place away from
all edge. In this case the maximum bending moment is positive and causes tension at the bottom
and compression at the top of the slab. The stress intensity is highly concentrated in the
immediate vicinity of the load. Stress is maximum at the center of the load application and
decrease rapidly from the centre of the load. The stress acts radialy uniformly in all directions.

EDGE LOADING
In this case the load is assumed to acts on an edge of the slab at any place away from a corner. In
this case also the maximum B.M.,is positive and causes tension at the bottom and compression at
34

the top of the slab.the stress intensity is highly concentrated in the immediately vicinity of the
load.The stress is maximum at the center of the load. The maximum stress is unidirectional and
parallel to the edge of the slab.

CONNER LOADING
In this case the centre of load application is located on the bisector of the corner angle form by
two intersecting edge of the slab and the the load are at the touching the corner edge.

35

36

STAFF READING
STATI
ON
BM
A0

A1

DISTAN
B.S.
I.S.
CE
0
3.43
0
3.9
R5
3.91
R10
3.92
R15
3.9
L5
3.88
L10
3.85
L15
3.9
30
1.275

F.S.

RISE

0.47
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.05
2.625

R5
R10

1.33
1.12

0.21

R15

0.98

0.14

L5

0.055

1.3

0.32

L10

0.975

0.325

L15

0.145

R5

0.83
3.7
3.735

R10

3.775

L5

3.705

0.07

3.55
3.675

0.155

A2

60

L10
A3

90
L5

3.955

L10

3.955

R5

3.985

R10

1.215

R.L.
FALL

2.87
0.035
0.04

0.125
0.28
0
0.03
3.815

37

0.17

100
99.53
99.52
99.51
99.53
99.55
99.58
99.53
102.1
55
102.1
102.3
1
102.4
5
102.1
3
102.4
55
102.6
99.73
99.69
5
99.65
5
99.72
5
99.88
99.75
5
99.47
5
99.47
5
99.44
5
99.61
5

A4

120

1.345

0.13

R5

1.405

0.06

R10
L5

1.51
1.425

L10
R5
R10

1.64
1.5
1.48
1.505

L5
L10

1.48
1.615

0.025

R5

1.28
1.205

0.335
0.075

R10
L5

1.4
1.265

L10

1.51
1.3
1.195

A5

150

A6

180

A7

210
R5
R10
L5
L10

0.105
0.085
0.215
0.14
0.02
0.025

0.135

0.195
0.135
0.245
0.21
0.105

R5
R10

1.55
1.3
1.43
1.56
1.21
1.315

L5

1.205

L10

1.45
1.215

0.235

1.18

0.035

A8

240

A9

270
L5
L10
R5

1.94

0.355
0.25
0.13
0.13
0.35
0.105
0.11
0.245

1.505
1.66

0.325
0.28

38

99.48
5
99.42
5
99.32
99.40
5
99.19
99.33
99.35
99.32
5
99.35
99.21
5
99.55
99.62
5
99.43
99.56
5
99.32
99.53
99.63
5
99.28
99.53
99.4
99.27
99.62
99.51
5
99.62
5
99.38
99.61
5
99.65
99.32
5
99.60
5

R10
A10

1.69
300

1.61

R5

1.7

R10

1.6

L5
L10

1.635
1.97

A11

330

L10

2.05

R5

1.65

R10

1.79
360

L5
L10
R5
R10

0.1
0.035
0.335
0.485
0.005
0.56
0.4
0.14

1.4

0.39

1.35

0.05

1.16

R5
R10

1.595

L5
L10

1.13
1.09
1.54
1.62
1.86
1.495

420

L10

1.355
450

0.135
0.09
1.555

1.05
1.165

R5
R10
L5

A14

0.09

1.485
1.395
390

A13

0.08

1.485
1.49

L5

A12

0.03

0.16
0.11
0.115
0.43
0.465
0.04
0.45
0.08
0.24
0.365

1.315
1.55

0.18
0.195

39

99.57
5
99.65
5
99.56
5
99.66
5
99.63
99.29
5
99.78
99.77
5
99.21
5
99.61
5
99.47
5
99.86
5
99.91
5
99.78
99.87
99.71
99.82
99.70
5
99.27
5
99.74
99.78
99.33
99.25
99.01
99.37
5
99.55
5
99.36

R5
R10
L5

1.74
1.69
1.425

L10

0.05
0.265

R5

1.43
1.44
1.475

0.005
0.01
0.035

R10

1.825

0.35

L5
L10

1.3

A15

480

A16

1.38

0.525
1.58

0.28

510

1.275

0.105
0.015
0.01
0.09

540

1.26
1.25
1.16
1.41
1.665

R5

1.375

0.29

R10

1.285

0.09

L5

1.315

L10

1.315

R5
R10
L5
L10
A17

A18

570

0.25
0.255

0.03
0

R5
R10

1.32
1.53
1.41
1.53
1.36
1.37
1.51
1.505

0.005

L5

1.495

0.01

L10

1.485

0.01

0.355

1.13

R5
R10
L5
L10
A19

A20

0.19

600

630

0.005
0.21
0.12
0.12
0.17
0.01
0.14

40

99.17
99.22
99.48
5
99.48
99.47
99.43
5
99.08
5
99.61
99.33
99.43
5
99.45
99.46
99.55
99.3
99.04
5
99.33
5
99.42
5
99.39
5
99.39
5
99.39
99.18
99.3
99.18
99.35
99.34
99.2
99.20
5
99.21
5
99.22
5
100.3

R5

0.345

L5
A21

1.66
660

R5
L5
L10
L15
A22

690

0.01
0.4

2.02
2.15
2.6
2.61
2.62
1.875

0.055
0.36
0.13
0.45
0.01
0.01
0.745

R5

1.92

L5

1.155

L10
L15

2.26
2.255

0.005

1.925

0.33

A23

720

0.045
0.765
1.105

R5
R10
R15
L5

2.14
2.21
2.15
1.83

0.06
0.32

L10

1.68

0.15

L15

1.865

A24

750
R5

0.215
0.07

0.185

1.46

0.405

1.765

0.305

R10

1.8

0.035

R15

1.765

L5
L10

1.87
1.81

0.06

L15

1.8

0.01

0.035
0.105

41

55
100.3
65
100.3
1
99.95
99.82
99.37
99.36
99.35
100.0
95
100.0
5
100.8
15
99.71
99.71
5
100.0
45
99.83
99.76
99.82
100.1
4
100.2
9
100.1
05
100.5
1
100.2
05
100.1
7
100.2
05
100.1
100.1
6
100.1

A25

780

1.705

0.095

R5

1.9

0.195

L5

2.185

0.285

L10
L15

2.18
2.185

0.005

1.77
2.015

0.415

A26

810
R5
L5

A27

A28

1.495
870

R5
R10
R15

2.025
2.075
2.09
900

1.4
1.12

0.435
0.05
0.015
1.29

1.315
1.385
1.475
0.9
930

R5
L5

0.515
0.07
0.09
0.575

2.545
2.885
2.525

960

0.5
0.15
0.055

0.8

R5
R10
R15
L5

A31

0.35

2.6
1.645
1.59

A30

0.155

3.22
2.1

L5

A29

0.245

2.17
1.82

840
R5
L5
L10

0.005

1.645
0.34
0.19

3.075

R5

1.525
1.95

L5

2.31

0.36

L10

2.34

0.03

0.425

42

7
100.2
65
100.0
7
99.78
5
99.79
99.78
5
100.2
99.95
5
99.8
100.1
5
98.75
99.87
99.37
99.22
99.27
5
98.84
98.79
98.77
5
100.0
65
99.55
99.48
99.39
99.96
5
98.32
97.98
97.79
98.79
98.36
5
98.00
5
97.97

L15
A32

2.345
1.735
2

990
R5

A33

L5
L10
1020

0.61
0.265

2.155
2.055

0.155
1.935

1.91

0.22
0.145

R5

2.4

L5

2.15

0.25

1.66

0.49

A34

1050

0.49

R5

0.34

L5

2.08

0.08

A35

1080

1.83

R5

2.38

L5

1.875
2.25

A36

1110
R5

2.6

L5

2.265
2.525
2.55

A38

1140
R5
L5

A39

A40

0.005

2.42
1170

0.25
0.55
0.505
0.375
0.35
0.335
0.26
0.025
2.68

0.13

2.33

0.09

L5

2.33

R5

2.65
1200

0.32

1.99

0.66

43

5
97.97
98.58
98.31
5
98.16
98.38
98.52
5
98.03
5
98.28
5
98.77
5
98.43
5
98.35
5
98.60
5
98.05
5
98.56
98.18
5
97.83
5
98.17
97.91
97.88
5
97.75
5
97.84
5
97.84
5
97.52
5
98.18
5

R5
L5
A41

2.395
2.37
1230

1260
R5
L5

A43

1320

1350
R5
L5

R5
L5
1410

0.235
0.4
0.375
0.015
0.74
0.05
0.359
0.114

2.68

0.41
2.67

0.01

1.675
2.2

0.415

2.195
1.47

0.005
0.725

0.525

R5

1.81

L5

1.8

0.01
0.205

R5

1.595
1.92

L5

1.94

A48

A49

0.285
0.085

2.27

2.09
1380

A47

0.215

1.825
2.565
2.515
2.156

R5
L5
L10

A46

0.22
0.12

1.785
2.185
1.81

L5
R5

A45

0.675

2.105
2.02
1290

A44

0.025

1.695
1.915
2.035
1.82

R5
L5
A42

0.405

1440

1470

0.34

0.325
0.02

1.85

0.09
44

97.78
97.80
5
98.48
98.26
98.14
98.35
5
98.07
98.15
5
98.39
97.99
98.36
5
98.35
97.61
97.66
98.01
9
97.90
5
97.49
5
97.50
5
97.92
97.39
5
97.4
98.12
5
97.78
5
97.79
5
98
97.67
5
97.65
5
97.74

L5

2.04

0.19

R5

2.53

0.49

R10
R15
A50

2.455
2.55

1500
TOTAL

22.72
5

0.075
0.095
1.65

0.9

24.78

27.74
9

45

29.80
4

5
97.55
5
97.06
5
97.14
97.04
5
97.94
5

46

L-SECTION
102.5
102
101.5
101
100.5
100
99.5
99
98.5
98
97.5

FORMATION LEVEL
reduce level

L-SECTION
101
100.5
100
99.5
99
98.5
98
97.5
97

formation level
reduce level

47

L-SECTION
98.8
98.6
98.4
98.2
98
97.8
97.6
97.4
97.2

formation level
reduce level

CROSS- SECTION
99.6
99.55
99.5
99.45
99.4
99.35
L15

L10

FORMATION LEVEL
L5

R5

48

R10

REDUCE LEVEL
R15

CROSS- SECTION
102.6
102.4
102.2
102
101.8
L15

FORMATION LEVEL

L10

L5

30

R5

R10

REDUCE LEVEL
R15

99.9
99.85
99.8
99.75
99.7
99.65
99.6
99.55
99.5
L10

L5

FORMATION LEVEL
60

R5

49

REDUCE LEVEL
R10

99.7
99.6
99.5
99.4
99.3
99.2
99.1
99
L10

L5

FORMATION LEVEL
240

R5

REDUCE LEVEL
R10

Cross- section
99.6
99.5
99.4
99.3
99.2
99.1
L10

L5

FORMATION LEVEL
510

R5

50

REDUCE LEVEL
R10

CROSS- SECTION
100.2
100
99.8
99.6
99.4
99.2
99
L15

FORMATION LEVEL

L10

L5

REDUCE LEVEL

660

R5

CROSS- SECTION
100.6
100.4
100.2
100
99.8
L15

L10

FORMATION LEVEL
L5

750

R5

51

R10

REDUCE LEVEL
R15

98.6
98.5
98.4
98.3
98.2
98.1
98
97.9
97.8
97.7
L5

FORMATION LEVEL
1020

REDUCE LEVEL
R5

CROSS SECTION

FORMATION LEVEL

L5

REDUCE LEVEL

1230
R5

52

CROSS- SECTION
98.4
98.2
98
97.8
97.6
97.4
97.2
L10

FORMATION LEVEL
L5

REDUCE LEVEL

1320

R5

CROSS- SECTION
97.8
97.6
97.4
97.2
97
96.8
96.6
L5

1470

FORMATION LEVEL
R5

R10

53

REDUCE LEVEL
R15

54

55

5.1

RATE ANALYSIS OF EARTH WORK

Earth work in cutting or filling in road work layer of 20cm including ramming and dressing
surface of required level and slope also and also including 1.5cm lift and 30cm lead.The from
cutting to be use in making embankment or to be deposited as spol bank with 30m distance
S.N

PARTICULAR

QUANTITY

RATE/DAY

AMOUNT

Mate

Rs260

Rs260

Belder

16

Rs247

Rs3952

Collies

16

Rs247

Rs3952

Labour for
dressing

Rs247

Rs123.5

Labour for repair


surface

approx

Rs300

Rs300

TOTAL

Rs8587.5

Add:10% contractor profit

=8587.5*10%=878.57

Gross total

=9446.25

Rate/m3

=94.46Rs/m

56

EDGING IN ROAD WORK


Brick work eadging on both side of the road by Ist class brick 8cm wide & 12 cm deep
with mud mortar including labours& supply of brick also curring and ranningexcaved earth
compaction.
SN
.
1
2
3
4
5

PARTICULAR

QUANNTIT
Y
4000 no.
no.
no.
2 no.
Approx

Ist class brick


Masons
Beldars
Collies
Tools & plants

10% contractor profit

RATE
Rs5200
Rs301
Rs260
Rs247
Rs300
Total

AMOUNT
Rs20800
Rs150.5
Rs130
Rs494
Rs300
Rs21874.5

= Rs.218.74

Gross total

= Rs.22093.24

Rate

= Rs220.93/m2

EARTH WORK IN FOUNDATION


Earth work in foundation in excavation including filling tranchupto 30 m lead & 1.5m lift
SN
1
2
3
4
total

PARICULAR
Mason
Belders
Collies
Roller with driver wages
Tools and plants
= 16729

10% contractor profit

QUANTITY

RATE

nos
20 nos
24 nos
2 nos.
Lum-sum

Rs301
Rs260
Rs247
1150/hr
300

= Rs1672.9

Gross total

= Rs18401.9

Rate

=Rs1840.2/m2

57

AMOUN
T
Rs301
Rs5200
Rs5928
Rs5000
Rs300

5.2

CEMENT CONCRETE IN FOUNDATION:-

cement concrete in foundation cement sand and 40mm gauge stone balast in (1:3:6) (for 10 m)
S.N.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
total=

PARTICULAR ITEM
MATERIAL
Cement
Sand
Stone balast
LABOUR
Main mason
Beldar
Collies
Bhisti
Tools and plants
Rs.24281.8

QUANTIT
Y

RATE(Rs.)

AMOUNT

4.6bags
4.62 m
9.24 m

280/bag
640/m
1200

Rs.1288
Rs.2956.8
Rs.11088

2 nos.
11 nos.
17 nos.
4 nos.
Lum-sum

301/day
260/day
247/day
247/day
300

Rs.602
Rs.2860
Rs.4199
Rs.988
Rs.300

ADD1.5% water charge =

Rs.364.2

10% contractor profit =


GROSS TOTAL
RATE

Rs.2428.18

= 27074.18
=

5.3

2707.4/m

R.C.C. WORK

R.c.c. work 1:2:4 cement concrete including steel and its bending including centering with
supply of all material labours tools and plants etc.
S.N.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

PARTICULAR ITEM
MATERIALS
Stone ballast (12 mm
gauge)
Coarse sand
Cement
Bending wire
LABOUR
Mistri

QUANTIT
Y

RATE

AMOUNT

12 m

1200

Rs.14400

4.4 m
66 bag
1.5 kg

640/m
280/bag
60 Rs./kg

Rs.2816
Rs.18480
Rs.90

1 nos.

350Rs/day

Rs.350

58

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Mason
Beldar
Collies
Bhisti
Tools and plants etc.
CENTERING SHUTE
-RING & DISMORING
OF IT
Timbers blonks&ballies
Carpenter
Beldar
Black smith
Helper
Tools and plants etc.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
total =Rs.57581

3nos.
12 nos.
20 nos.
6 nos.
Lum- sum

301Rs./day
260
247
247
300

Rs.903
Rs.3120
Rs.4940
Rs.1482
Rs.300

Lum-sum

800Rs/day

Rs.800

10 nos.
10 nos.
8 nos.
8 nos.
Lum- sum

300Rs/day
260
250
250
300

Rs.3000
Rs.2600
Rs.2000
Rs.2000
Rs.300

ADD1.5% water charge

10% contracter profit


GROSS TOTAL
RATE

5.4

Rs.863.7
= Rs.5758.1

=Rs.64202.8
= Rs.6420.2/m

RATE ANALYSIS OF STEEL

Steel bars with bending and binding in R.C.C. work.


S.N.

PARTICULAR ITEM

1.

MATERIAL

total

Steel
Binding wire
LABOUR
Black smith
Beldar
Tools and plants etc.
= Rs.5370

QUANTIT
Y

RATE

AMOUNT

1 quintal
1 kg

4500/quin
60/kg

Rs.4500
Rs.60

1 nos.
1 nos.
Lum- sum

250/day
260/day
300/day

Rs.250
Rs.260
Rs.300

59

ADD10% contractor profit


GROSS TOTAL

537.0Rs.

=5907.0Rs.

RATE

=590.7Rs./m

5.5 CEMENT CONCRETE FOR WEARING COAT


Cement concrete with 4 mm gauge approved stone ballast approved coarse sand and cement
(4:2:4) including all of supply materials labour tools and plants etc.
[FOR 10 M]
S.N.

PARTICULAR ITEM

MATERIALS
1.
Stone ballast (10mm
gauge )
Coarse sand
Cement
LABOUR
Mistri
Mason
Beldar
Collies
Bhisti
Tools & plants etc.
total
= Rs.38918

QUANTIT
Y

1.5% water charge


GROSS TOATL

900

Rs.7920

4.4 m
66 bags

640
280Rs./bag

Rs.2816
Rs.18480

1
2
12 nos.
18 nos.
4 nos.
Lum- sum

350
301
247
247
260
300

Rs.350
Rs.602
Rs.2964
Rs.4446
Rs.1040
Rs.300

5.6

= 3891.8
= 583.77
= 43393.57

RATE

AMOUNT

8.8 m

ADD10% contractor profit

RATE

= 4339.35

POINTING

60

Pointing wih 1:2 cement sand mortar on brick work including watering surface & supply
of all materials labours tools & plants etc for proper compaction of the work.
SN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

PARTICULAR
Cement
Sand
Mistri
Mason
Belder
Bhisti
Tools & plants etc

QUANTITY
6 bag
0.4 m3
1/3 nos
10 nos
10 nos
nos
Approx

10 % contractor profit

= Rs811.09

1.5% water charge

= Rs 121.63

Gross amount

= Rs9041.72

RATE

= 90.41/m

61

RATE
Rs280
Rs640/m3
Rs400
Rs301
Rs260
Rs260
Rs300

AMOUNT
Rs1680
Rs256
Rs133.33
Rs3010
Rs2600
Rs130
Rs300

62

6.1 DESIGN OF CULVERT SLAB


R.C.C. slab span

=2m

carriage way of road

=7m

cement concrete in foundation = 1: 3:6


cement mortar in brick work

= 1:4

cement mortar in foundation

= 1:2

wearing coat 10 cm. on road width


cement mortar

= 1:2:4

clear span of slab

=2m

effective span of slab = L+ bearing


l = 2+ 2*(.30/2) =2.30 m
slope of side
letexeternal load
thickness of slab D

= 1:1
= 60 KN/m
= 250 mm

LOAD CALCULATION :external load

= 60000 N/m

steel load of slab

= 1*0.25*25000
= 6250 N/m

total load

= 66250 N/m

BENDING MOMENT :bending moment

= wl/8

=[ 66250*(2.30)]/8
= 43807.81 Nm
= 43807810Nmm
63

use of M-15 grade concrete and Fe - 250 mild steel


cb=5N/mm
st=140
m = 18
bd = 0.6 N/mm
MOMENT OF RESISTANCE :Moment of resistance Mr. =0 .85bd
from B.M. = Mr.
d = Mr./0.85b
= 43807810/0.85*1000
(take 1 m width of strip)
= 227.02 mm say 230 mm
d = 230 mm
effective cover = 20mm

= 230+20
=245 mm 250mm

ok.

AREA OF MAIN STEEL BAR :main steel,


Ast1 = Mr/st*0.87*d
= 43807810/140*0.87*145
= 1470 mm
using 16 mm bar
spacing of bar,

s = a*b/Ast1
= 201.06*1000/1470
= 136.78 mm

say 137 mm
64

according to I.S.- 456 code-2000


main bar should be minimum of 3d or 300 mm ,
3*245=735 or 300

(which are less)

so spacing of main bar = 137 mm c/c


AREA OF DISTRIBUTION STEEL :area of distribution steel = 0.15*b*D/100
Ast2

= 0.15*1000*245/100 = 367.5 mm say 370 mm

using to 10 mm distribution bar


spacing

s = 79*1000/370 = 213.51 mm say 210 mm

according to I.S.- 456-2000


spacing of distribution steel should be less than 5d or 450 mm (which are minimum)
5*245 mm = 1225mm or 450 mm
so spacing of distribution bar,

s =210 mm

PERCENTAGE :p = 100 Ast/b*d


= 100*1470/1000*245
= 0.60%
SHEAR CHECK :shear span of slab = 2 m
shear force,

v = wl/2
= 66250*2/2 = 66250 N

nominal shear stress


= v/b*d
= 66250/1000*245 = 0.27 N/mm
shear strength of concrete body
65

c = 0.33 N/ mm
k = 1.2 ( for 20 mm thickness slab)
so shear strength of slab = k*
= 1.2*0.33 = 0.40 N/mm

so no need for reinforcement
slab section safe in shear

CHECK OF DEVELOPMENT LENGTH :1/3 Ast bars are bent- up from l/7 length of support so the remining bar the support is 2/3 Ast.
moment of resistance near support
m= st*2/3 Ast * Zk* d
= 140*2/3*1470*0.85*245
= 28571900 N-mm
L = 12 or d

(which are more)


= 12*10

or 245 mm

= 120 mm

or 245 mm

= 245 mm
Ld = st*/4*bd
= 140*/4*0.6

= 58.3

for the safe in development length or bandage following condition may be followLd (1.3M/v)+L
58.3

( 1.3*28571900/66250)+245

58.3

805.65

66

13.81 mm

used diameter of bar 10 mm which is less than 13.81 mm


so the bar of slab is safe in bond or anchorage.

CALCULATION OF EARTH WORK


formation width of road

= 12.0 m

carriage way

= 7.0 m

length of road

= 1.5 km

width of permanent land

= 20 m

SIDE SLOPE OF EARTH FORMATION :cutting


= 1:1 (H:V)
filling

= 2:1 (H:V)

GRADIENT OF ROAD :0 to 30 m = 1in 30


30 to 150 = 1 in 100

Up - word
Down - word

150 to 510

up word

= 1 in 1000

510 to 960 = 1 in 500

down word

67

CUTTING/FILLING OF THE EARTH (DEPTH)


DISTANCE(m)
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110

CUTTING(m)
0
1.62

0.0
0.19
0.14

FILLING(m)
0.5
0.175
0.145
0.0
0.15

0.165
0.175
0.27
0.325
0.25
0.27
0.27
0.19
0.255
0.585
0.18
0.17
0.9
0.56
0.76
0.775
1.3
1.11
1.11
1.12
0.25
1.15
0.0

0.53
0.0
0.15
0.205

0.045
0.125
0.545
68

1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500

0.82
0.885
0.545
0.25
0.375
0.34
0.38
0.825
0.81
0.605
0.73
0.985
0.785

69

6.2
dist
anc
e

CUTTING/ FILLING OF SOIL


height/de
pth

mean of
height/

cent
ral

depth

area

total
side

total
sec-

area

tion
area

len
gth
Work
(BD+
SD)*
L

Cut
ting

filli
ng

cutting

filli
ng

(B*D
)

S*D

BD+S
D

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

0
0.81

9.72

0.81

9.72

0.656
1
0.656
1
0.125

10.37
30
61
10.37 22.
61 924
3.125 7.0
76
4.277
30
8125
1.971
30
2
0.880
30
5125
1.149
30
025
2.007
30
225
0.844 14.
9 483
0.911 15.
25 517
0.911 15.
25 714
0.996
30
8063
2.068
30

Cuttin
g

filling

(m)

( m)

(m)
(m) (m)
0
0
0
30 1.6
2
52.9
0
0
24
60
0.5
90
120
150

180

0.1
9
0.1
4
0

210
224.
483
240
255.
714
270
300

0.2
5
0.3
375
0.1
6
0.0
725

0.1
75
0.1
45
0

4.05
1.92
0.87

0.095

1.14

0.165

1.98

0.07

0.84

0.1
5

0.0
75
0.0
75

0
0.1
65
0.1

0.9
0.9

0.0825

0.99

0.17

2.04
70

0.227
8125
0.051
2
0.010
5125
0.009
025
0.027
225
0.004
9
0.011
25
0.011
25
0.006
8063
0.028

(m)

311.2
83
237.8
6172
22.11
25
128.3
3438
59.13
6
26.41
5375
34.47
075
60.21
675
12.23
6687
14.13
9866
14.31
9383
29.90
4188
62.06

330
360
390
404.
42
420

75
0.2
7
0.3
25
0.2
5
0

0.2
7
0.2
7
0.1
9
0.2
55
0.5
85
0.1
8
0.1
7
0

450
480
510
540
570
600
604.
77
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870

0.2225

2.67

0.2975

3.57

0.2875

3.45

0.125

1.5
0.1
35
0.2
7
0.2
3
0.2
225
0.4
2
0.3
825
0.1
75
0.0
85

1.62
3.24
2.76
2.67
5.04
4.59
2.1
1.02

0.9

0.45

5.4

0.5
6
0.7
6
0.7
75
1.3

0.73

8.76

0.66

7.92

0.7675

9.21

1.0375

12.4
5
14.4
6
13.3
2
13.3
8
8.22

1.1
1
1.1
1
1.1
2
0.2

1.205
1.11
1.115
0.685

71

9
0.049
5063
0.088
5063
0.082
6563
0.015
625
0.036
45
0.145
8
0.105
8
0.099
0125
0.352
8
0.292
6125
0.061
25
0.014
45
0.202
5
0.532
9
0.435
6
0.589
0563
1.076
4063
1.452
025
1.232
1
1.243
225
0.469

9
2.719
5063
3.658
5063
3.532
6563
1.515
625
1.656
45
3.385
8
2.865
8
2.769
0125
5.392
8
4.882
6125
2.161
25
1.034
45
5.602
5
9.292
9
8.355
6
9.799
0563
13.52
6406
15.91
2025
14.55
21
14.62
3225
8.689

30
30
30
14.
42
15.
58
30

7
81.58
5188
109.7
5519
105.9
7969
21.85
5313
25.80
7491
101.5
74
85.97
4
83.07
0375
161.7
84
146.4
7838
64.83
75
4.934
3265

30
30
30
30
30
4.7
7
25.
23
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

141.3
5108
278.7
87
250.6
68
293.9
7169
405.7
9219
477.3
6075
436.5
63
438.6
9675
260.6

900
920.
54
930
960

5
1.1
5
0

0.5
3
0

0.1
5
0.2
05
0

990
102
0
104
4.6
105
0
105
7.94
108
0
111
0
114
0
117
0
120
0
123
0
126
0
129
0
132
0
135
0
138
0
141

0.0
45
0

0
0.1
25
0.5
45
0.8
2
0.8
85
0.5
45
0.2
5
0.3
75
0.3
4
0.3
8
0.8
25
0.8
1
0.6

0.7

8.4

0.575

6.9
0.2
65
0.2
65
0.0
75
0.1
775
0.1
025

3.18
3.18
0.9
2.13
1.23

0.0225

0.27

0.0225

0.27
0.0
625
0.3
35
0.6
825
0.8
525
0.7
15
0.3
975
0.3
125
0.3
575
0.3
6
0.6
025
0.8
175
0.7

0.75
4.02
8.19
10.2
3
8.58
4.77
3.75
4.29
4.32
7.23
9.81
8.49
72

225
0.49

225
8.89

0.330
625
0.140
45
0.140
45
0.011
25
0.063
0125
0.021
0125
0.000
5063
0.000
5063
0.007
8125
0.224
45
0.931
6125
1.453
5125
1.022
45
0.316
0125
0.195
3125
0.255
6125
0.259
2
0.726
0125
1.336
6125
1.001

7.230
625
3.320
45
3.320
45
0.911
25
2.193
0125
1.251
0125
0.270
5063
0.270
5063
0.757
8125
4.244
45
9.121
6125
11.68
3513
9.602
45
5.086
0125
3.945
3125
4.545
6125
4.579
2
7.956
0125
11.14
6613
9.491

30
20.
54
9.4
6
30

7675
266.7
148.5
1704
31.41
1457
99.61
35
27.33
75
65.79
0375
30.77
4908

30
30
24.
6
5.4
7.9
4
22.
06
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

1.460
7338
2.147
8196
16.71
7344
127.3
335
273.6
4838
350.5
0538
288.0
735
152.5
8038
118.3
5938
136.3
6838
137.3
76
238.6
8038
334.3
9838
284.7

0
144
0
147
0
150
0

05
0.7
3
0.9
85
0.7
85

075
0.6
675
0.8
575
0.8
85

8.01
10.2
9
10.6
2

1125
0.891
1125
1.470
6125
1.566
45
TOTA
L

1125
8.901
1125
11.76
0613
12.18
645

30
30
30
4469.
9083

3338
267.0
3338
352.8
1838
365.5
935
4638.
0649

6.3 PAVEMENT DESIGN


Design the following details of a plain cement concrete pavement for a two lane highway.
Use the given data. IRC load stress charts for edge and corner regions, and assume any other
data not provided here.
Width of expansion joint gap

2.5 cm

350C

Maximum variation in temperature between


Summer and winter
Thermal coefficient of concrete

Allowed tensile stress in CC during curing

Coefficient of friction

10 x 10-6 per 0C

0.8 kg / cm2
=

1.5

Unit weight of CC

2400 kg/ cm2

Design wheel load

5100 kg

Radius of contact area

15 cm

Present traffic intensity


day

950 commercial vehicles /

Modules of reaction of sub-base course

8 kg/ cm2

Flexural strength (allowed flexural stress) of concrete

40 kg/ cm2

E value of concrete

3x105 kg/ cm2

value

0.15

73

Design load transfer through dowel system

Permissible flexural stress in dowel bar

40%
1400 kg/ cm2

Permissible shear stress in dowel bar

Permissible bearing stress in concrete

1000 kg/ cm2


100 kg/ cm2

Permissible shear stress in dowel bar

1000 kg/ cm2

Permissible tensile stress in steel (tie bar)

1400 kg/ cm2

Permissible bond stress in deformed bars

24.6 kg/ cm2

Temperature differential values in the region:


Slab thickness, cm
Temperature differential in slab in the region, 0C

15
14.
6

(a) Joint Spacing


`
=
joint =
2.5/2 =
1.25 cm
Spacing of expansion joint Ls =
`
=
100C (T2 T1)

20
15.8

25
16.3

1.25________ = 35.7 m
100x10x10-6x35

which is less than maximum specified spacing of 140 m and so acceptable. Contraction
joint spacing in plan CC,
Ls
w.f

2Sc x 104

=
2 x 0.8 x 104________ = 4.45 m
-6
100x10x10 x35

which is less than maximum specified spacing of 4.5m and hence acceptable.
Therefore, provide contraction joints at 4.45 m spacing and expansion joints at every 8th
such joints i.e. 4.45 x 8 = 35.5 m spacing (instead of 35.7 m).
(b) Pavement Slab Thickness
Assume trial thickness of slab
Radius of relative stiffness, l

Lx
l

=
=

20 cm
E h____
12 K (1- 2)

E h____ = 71.1 cm
12 K (1- 2)

445
71.1
74

6.26

Ly
=
350
=
4.92
l
71.1
From Fig. 7.25 warping stress coefficient Cx at Lx of 6.26 = 0.92
l
at Ly / l = 4.92, Cy = 0.72 <Cx
Temperature differential for 20 cm thick slab = 15.80C
Warping stress at edge, Ste
2

Cx.E.e.t

0.92 x 3 x 105 x 10-6 x 15.8


2

Residual strength in concrete slab at edge region


=
40.0 21.8

21.8 km/cm2

18.2 km/cm2

Load stress in edge region, using IRC stress chart (Fig. 7.23), corresponding to
h
Factor of safety available

20 K = 8, Se

27.5 km/cm2

residual strength
=
18.2 = 0.66
Edge load stress
27.5
As the factor of safety is less than 1.0, it is unsafe. Therefore assume a higher slab
thickness say h = 24 cm.
l
=
3x105x243 =
81.53 cm
12x8(1-0.152)
Lx / l =

445
81.53

Cx

0.80 (from chart Fig. 7.25); Cy at Ly/l of 4.29 = 0.6

5.46

Temperature differential for 24 cm thick slab (by interpolation) = 16.20C


Ste

1 x 3 x 105 x 10 x 10-6 x 16.2 x 0.8 = 19.44 kg/cm2


2

Residual strength at the edge =

40.0 19.44

= 20.56 kg/cm2

Load stress at edge, using stress chart (Fig. 7.23) for


h
= 4, K = 8, Se =
19.2 kg/cm2
Factor of safety available =

20.56 =
1.07 which is safe and acceptable value
19.2
Therefore provide a tentative design thickness of 24 cm.
75

Check for corner load stress : Using IRC stress chart Fig. 7.24, for h = 24, K = 8, the
value of Sc=23.0 kg per cm2.
Corner warping stress Ste

E.e.t a
3(1- ) l

3x155x10x10-6x16.2 15
= 7.1 kg/cm2
3(1-0.15)
81.53

The worst combination of stress at the corner is 23.0 + 7.1 = 30.1 kg/cm2, which is also
less than the allowed flexural strength of 40 kg/cm2 and hence the design is safe.
Adjustment for Traffic intensity
Ad

= P` [(1+r)](n+20)

Assuming a growth factor r = 7.5% and the number of years after the last count before the
new pavement is opened to traffic, n = 3.
Ad

= 950 [(1+ 7.5)](n+20) =


100

5013 cv/day

This traffic intensity being in the range > 4500, falls in group G and the adjustment factor
is + 2 cm.
Therefore the revised design thickness of the slab = 24+2 = 26 cm
(c) Dowel bars
Assume dowel bar diameter =
2.5 cm
Joint width,
=
2.5 cm
For equal capacity in bending and bearing
Ld
=
5d Ft x (Ld+1.5 )
Fb x (Ld+8.8 )
=

5x2.5 1400 x Ld+1.5x2.5


100 Ld+8.8x2.5
By substituting different value of Ld by trails (as in Example 7.22), the value of L d is
found to be 42.2 cm.
Therefore provide 45 cm long dowel bars of diameter 2.5 cm
Actual value of Ld

45.0 2.5

Load transfer capacity of single dowel:

76

44.7 cm

P` (shear)

0.785 d2Fs

0.785 x 2.52 x 1000

P` (Bending) =
2d2Ft
Ld+8.8
P` (Bending) =

2x2.55x1400
42.5+8.8x2.5

Fb.L2d.d =
12.5(Ld+1.5 )

4906 kg

678 kg

100x42.55x2.5
=
781 kg
12.5+(42.5+1.5x2.5)

Taking the lowest value for design, P` (design) = 678 kg


Load capacity factor required:
Load capacity of the dowel group
100

= 5100 x 40

2040 kg

Capacity factor required

= 2040
678

3.0

Spacing of dowel bars:


Radius of relative stiffness for revised slab thickness of 24 cm
l

3x105x263
12x8(1-0.152)

=86.6 cm

Effective distance upto which there is load transfer =1.8 l = 1.8x86.6 = 155.9 cm
Assuming a trial spacing of 35 cm between the dowel bars, the capacity available for the
group
= 1+

155.9 35 + 155.9 -60 + 155.9-105 + 155.9-140


155.9
155.9
155.9
155.9

= 2.77 < the required value of 3.0.


Assume dowel bar spacing of 30 cm.
Capacity factor = 1+155.9 30 + 155.9 60 + 155.9 90 + 155.9 120 + 155.9 150
=3.11
155.9

155.9

77

155.9

155.9

155.9

As this value is greater than the required capacity factor of 3.0 cm spacing of the dowel
bars is adequate. Therefore provide 2.5 cm dia. Dowel bars at expansion joints, of total
length 45 cm at spacing of 30 cm centres.
(d) Tie Bars
Area of steel per meter length longitudinal joint,
As
= b.f.h.w = 3.5x1.5x26x2400 = 2.34 cm2 per m length
100 Ss100x1400
Assume 1 m diameter of the bars, cross sectional area of each tie bar as=0.785 cm2.
Perimeter of the tie bar = 3.14 cm
Number of tie bars required per meter length of joint = As = 2.34 = 2.98
as 0.785
Spacing of tie bar = 100 = 33.5 cm
2.98
Provide a spacing of tie bar, say 33 cm
Length of plain tie bar, L1 = d.Ss = 1x1400 = 28.5 cm
2Sb
2x24.6
The length of tie bar may be increased by 5 cm for tolerance in placement.
Therefore provide 1 cm diameter deformed tie bars, 34 cm in length at a spacing of 33
cm.

78

79

7.1 ESTIMATE OF CULVERT SLAB


R.C.C. slab span

2m

width of retaining wall on the top

0.40 m

cement concrete in foundation

= 1:3:6

cement mortar in brick masonary

= 1:4

cement concrete in slab

= 1:2:4

10 mm wear coat on road of cement concrete = 1:2:4


painting of cement mortar
slope of soil

= 1:2
= 1:1

S.N.

Name of item

Nos.

1.

Earth work in foundation


Abutment
Wing wall

2.

3.

4.

L
(m)
12.30

B
(m)
.70

H/D
(m)
.60

Quantity
(m)
10.332

2.30

.70

.60
total

3.864
=14.196

1:3:6 cement concrete


Work in foundation
Abutment
Wing wall

2
4

12.30
2.3

.70
.70

.30
.30
total

5.166
1.932
=7.098

First class brick with 1:4


Cement mortar
Abutment
Wing wall
Parapet up to curb
Parapet above the curb
Parapet coping

2
4
2
2
2

12
2.45
11.90
11.90
12.10

.40
0.40
0.40
0.30
0.40

2.00
2.00
0.30
0.50
0.10
total

19.20
7.84
2.856
3.57
0.968
=34.434

12

0.30

0.20
total

1.44
=32.99

Deduction:Bearing of r.c.c. slab in


Abutment
R.C.C. work 1:2:4 in slab
80

Including centering and


Shuttering
5.

6.

7.

20 mm main bar at
300mm c/c,
no. of bar = (12/0.3)+1
=41 nos.
Main bent up bar Ast/3
Used 16 mm @ 54 mm c/c
Nos =1/3* total bar
= 1/3*41 = 13.6say14
Distribution bar@210mm
c/c of 10 mm
nos = (2.5/0.21)+1
= 12.90 say 13
1:2:4 cement concrete
Wearing coat.
1-Pointing 1:2 cement
mortarIn walls 10
cm below from
G.L. to parapet level in face wall out side
parapet

12

2.60

0.20

6.24

41

2.68

109.88

14

2.82

total

148.42
Kg/m

38.5
m@2.47
=366.5kg

13

12

total

11.2

2.8

156@
=96.72
0.10

156
0.62kg/m
kg
3.136

11.9

0.80

19.04

12.10

0.70

16.94

11.90

2.60

61.88

0.40

0.20

0.32

0.40

0.20

0.32

0.30

0.20

0.24

2- parapet wall inside


(beside coping)
3- coping top inside, out
Side and down word surface
Of out side
4- coping and edge
5- ends of parapet
6- curb ends of parapet to
Coping
DEDUCTION:81

Rectangular opening
trangu-Lar below earth
slope

total

=98.74

2.0

1.80

7.2

1/2

1.80

1.80
Total

6.48
=85.06

7.2 ABSTRACT OF CULVERT COST

S.No.

PARTICULAR WORK

QUANTIT
Y

RATE

AMOUNT

1.

Earth work in foundation

14.196m

94.46/m

Rs.1340.38

2.

Cement concrete in foundstion (1:3:6)

7.098m

2707.4/m

Rs.19217.1

First class brick in 1:4 cement mortar


3.

R.C.C. work 1:2:4 slab with centering


and shutering

34.434m

2789.5/m

Rs.96053.643

4.

Steel bar with bending in R.C.C. work

6.24m

6420.2/m

Rs.40062.04

5.

Wearing coat
4.6 quintal

5907/quin.

Rs.27172.2

6.

3.136

Rs.13608.2

7.

85.06

Rs.4339.35/m

Pointing with 1:2 cement mortar

Rs.7689.4

Rs.90.4/m
total
3% contengency charge

= Rs. 6154.28

2% work charge establishment

= Rs.4102.85

82

= 205142.96

GROOSS TOTAL

= Rs.215400.09

83

Details of Measurement and Calculation of Quantities


Item Particulars of Items of
No. works

No.

Length
m

Breadth
m

Ht. or
Depth
M
-

Quantity

1. Surveying dagbellingetc
Land acquisition permanent
2.
Land acquisition temporary

1500

1500

20

60000m

3. Earthwork in embankment
cutting
filling
4.
METALLLINGPreparation of subgrade(dressing to camber)

17760m

4469.908m
4638.08m

1500

12

18000m

1500

7.0

0.25

2625m

7. Bridges (minor) and


culverts MIC, ITEMS8. Km, half km and boundary
stones
Formation level pillars

1500

3000m

1500

3000 m

9. Road direction posts caution


signs, etc.
10.
Traffic diversion, service
11. road, etc.

1500

1500

1500

1500

12. Steel in pavement

1500

1500

Wearing coat
5. Cement concrete pavement
(1:3: 6)

1500

Dressing of berm
6.
Brick edging on both side
including bricks and labour

84

Remarks

Length

Of road 1500
m

13.

1500

1500

14.

10kg/m

ABSTRACT OF COST
Item
No.

Particulars of Items of works

Quantity

Unit

Rate
Rs. P.

Per

Amoun
Rs.

1500

7000.00

Km

1050

2. Land acquisition permanent

6.0

hect.

750000.00

Hect.

45000

3. Land acquisition temporary

1.76

Hect.

120000.00

Hect.

21120

4. Earthwork in embankment
Cutting
filling

4469.908
4638.08

m
m

59.00
59.00

m
m

26372
27364

18000

20.00

36000

6. Wearing coat (cement concrete


Pavement 1:3:6)
7. Steel in pavement

2625

4339.35

113907

2625

590.70

15505

8. Berm or Patri dressing(Twice)

3000

30.00

9000

9. Brick edging on both sides including


bricks and labour complete

3000

22.09

6627

21540

1500

3000.00

km

4500

1500

2000.00

km

3000

1. Surveying, dagbellingetc

METALLLING5. Preparation of sub-grade

Bridges (minor) and culverts MIC,


10. ITEMSKm, half km and boundary stones
11.
Formation level pillars
12. Road direction posts caution signs, etc.
85

13. Traffic diversion, service road, etc.


Arboriculture of both side on
road
14.

1500

2000.00

km

3000

1500

2600.00

km

3900

15.

1500

3200.00

km

4800

86

total =

18951322.54Rs.

ADD- 3% Contengency charge


2% work charge establishment

GROSS AMOUNT

= Rs. 568539.67Rs.
= 379026.45 Rs.

= 19898888.66 Rs.

87

88

PROJECT REPORT
The road which we have constructed is about 1.5 km from the national highway. By construction
of this road, village people get benefit because there is no means of transportation and this road
links to the national highway.In this area, production of wheat is more , if a road is made then
production can be supply to the market fastly and easily.
Living standard of people get increased by construction of this road.Labour can be easily
available thereand at cheaper price .On the road, for edging first class bricks are used.

For the construction of this road we have done the following work:-

Map study:With the help of available topographic maps of the area.

Reconnaissance survey:A general idea of a topography and other features, failed


identification of soils and survey of constructions, by an on-the spot inspection of the site.

Preliminary survey: Topographic details and soil survey along alternate alignment,
consideration of geometric design and other requirements of alignment, preparation of plans and
comparison of alternate routes; economic analysis and selection of final alignment. Typical plan,
longitudinal section and cross section drawing for the new alignment.

Location of final alignment:Transfer of the alignment from the drawing to the ground by
driving pegs along the centre line of finally chosen alignment; setting out geometric design
elements by location of tangent points, apex point, circular and transition curves, elevation of
centre line and super elevation details.

Detailed survey:Survey of the highway construction work for the preparation of longitudinal
and cross section, computation of earth work quantities and other construction materials; and
checking details of geometric designelements.

Materials Survey:Survey of construction materials, their collection and testing

89

Design:Design details of embankment and cut slopes, foundation of embankments and bridges,
and pavement layers. Earth Work:
construction of embankments.

Excavation for highway cutting and drainage system,

Pavements construction:Preparation of subgrade, construction of sub-base and surface


courses.

Construction controls:Quality control tests during different stages of construction and


check for finished road surface such as unevenness, camber, super elevation and extra
widenning.

COSTING
By all these construction , we get the estimate of Rs-1,98,98,888.66
GROSS AMOUNT = 1,98,98,888.66 Rs.

90

91

REFERENCES
1. JUSTO & KHANNA
2. B.N. DUTTA
3.ASHIAN PUBLICATION
4. S.K DUGGAL
5. SATISH CHANDRA, COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FLEXIBLE AND RIGID
PAVEMENTS FOR DIFFERENT SOIL AND TRAFFIC CONDITIONS. Journal of the Indian
Roads Congress, July-September 2009.
6. Saurabh Jain, Dr. Y.P Joshi,S.S Goliya Design of Rigid and Flexible Pavements by
Various Methods & Their Cost Analysis of Each Method.
. Int.Journal of Engineering Research and Application. Vol.3, Issue 5, Sep-Oct 2013,
pp.119-123
7. WIKIPEDIA

92