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Health Promotion Model

Figure 1. Revised Health promotion Model. From Pender, N.J.

(1996). Health promotion in nursing practice (3rd ed). Stanford, CT:
Appleton & Lange.
1. Individual characteristics and experiences
Everyone has his or her own characteristic and experiences that are different to
others. Pender suggests that experiences are important thing, toward the
development of health-promoting behavior in present. Pender also suggests that
past behavior has both direct and indirect effect on interesting to do healthpromoting behavior over the people (Pender, Murdaugh, & Parsons, 2006).

2. Behavior-Specific Cognitions and Affect

Behavior-Specific Cognitions and Affect are variable which can increase
significantly motivation the people to conduct health-promoting behavior. These
variable can use by nurse as an intervention, because those variable are amenable
change. The behavior-specific cognitions and affect identified in HPM include:

a. Perceived benefits of action perceptions of the positive or reinforcing

consequences of undertaking a health behavior
b. Perceived barriers to action perceptions of the blocks, hurdles, and personal
costs of undertaking a health behavior
c. Perceived self-efficacy judgment of personal capability to organize and
execute a particular health behavior; self-confidence in performing the health
behavior successfully
d. Activity-related affect subjective feeling states or emotions occurring prior
to, during and following a specific health behavior
(Pender, Murdaugh, & Parsons, 2006; sakraida, 2010, p. 438)


Behavioral Outcome- Health Promoting Behavior

Health-promoting behavior, which is ultimately direct toward attaining positive
health outcomes, is the product of HPM (Pender, Murdaugh, & Parsons, 2006).
From those three major categorize, we can see that the behavior of the people to
conducting health promotion, are depend on the characteristics and the specific
behavior. People are more likely to have those behavior when they have a good
experiences and motivation inside them self.
a. Proposition of Theory
The health promotion model is base on 14 theoretical propositions. These
theoretical relationship statements provide a basis for research related to health
1) Prior behavior and inherited and acquired characteristics influence health
beliefs, affect, and enactment of health promoting behavior.
2) Persons commit to engaging in behavior from which they anticipate
deriving personally valued benefits.

3) Perceived barriers can constrain commitment to action, mediators, of

behavior, and actual behavior.
4) Perceived competencies or self-efficacy to execute a given behavior
increase the likelihood of commitment to action and actual performance of
5) Greater perceived self-efficacy results in fewer perceived barriers to a
specifics health behavior
6) Positive affect toward a behavior result in greater perceived self-efficacy,
which can, in turn, result in increased positive affect.
7) When positive emotions or affect is associated with behavior, the
probability of commitment and action are increased.
8) Persons are more likely to commit to and engage in health-promoting
behaviors when significant other behaviors, expect the behavior to occur,
and provide assistance and support to enable the behavior.
9) Family, peers, and healthcare providers are important sources of
interpersonal influence that can either increase or decrease commitment
and engagement in health-promoting behavior.
10) Situational influence in the external environment can either increase or
decrease commitment to or participation in health-promoting behavior.
11) The greater the commitment to a specific plan of action, the more likely,
that health-promoting behavior will be maintained over time.
12) Commitment to a plan of action is less likely to result in the desired
behavior when competing demands over which persons have little control
require immediate attention.

13) Commitment to a plan of action is less likely to result in the desired

behavior when other actions are more attractive and preferred over the
target behavior.
14) Persons can modify cognitions, affect, and the interpersonal and physical
environment to create incentive for health actions.
(Pender, Murdaugh, & Parsons, 2002, p. 63-64)
b. Assumptions Of The Health Promotion Model
The HPM based on the following assumptions, which reflect both nursing and
behavioral science perspectives:
1) Persons seek to create conditions of living through which they can express
their unique human health potential.
2) Persons have the capacity for reflective self-awareness, including
assessment of their own competencies.
3) Persons value growth in directions viewed as positive and attempt to
achieve a personally acceptable balance between change and stability.
4) Individuals seek to actively regulate their own behavior.
5) Individuals in all their biopsychosocial complexity interact with the
environment, progressively transforming the environment and being
transformed over time.
6) Health professionals constitute a part of the interpersonal environment,
which exerts influence on persons throughout their lifespan.
7) Self-initiated reconfiguration of person-environment interactive patterns is
essential to behavior change.
(Pender, Murdaugh, & Parsons, 2002, p. 63-64)

c. Strength and Limitation of The Model

The Panders model is very easy to implement in any nursing field. The HPM
is simple to understand. Its language is clear an accessible to nurses (Tillet,
2010). However, in the model does not explain how the environment involves
the people to change their behavior. However, environment is the one of the
factors which can involve the behavior.