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Contherm

Scraped Surface Heat Exchangers

More than the package

Contherm The superior SSHE for heating and


cooling viscous products
Today convenience food plays an important role in
peoples lifestyles as it frees them from many tedious, time-consuming tasks. However, the modern
consumer still wants the desirable qualities found in
numerous traditional home-made foods, especially
fresh flavour and pleasing texture. Premium food at
affordable price is also expected. This presents a
challenge to food manufacturers, particularly with prepared foods made from delicate raw materials or
whose consistency demands special processing.

fer. As the product is pumped through the SSHE cylinder, even temperature distribution is ensured by a
rotor and blade assembly which continually and gently blends the product while simultaneously removing
it from the heat-transfer surface.
Versatility also sets SSHEs apart. They fit readily into
non-dedicated lines where short production runs and
fast product changeover are routine. They can even
be modified to concentrate appropriate products. And,
of course, SSHE design complies with strict international standards of hygiene.

Optimizing thermal efficiency


Continuous production is a prerequisite for modern
food processing because it promotes high throughput, uniform heat transfer and better economy. To
achieve the rapid product heating and cooling required
by continuous production, heat exchangers are usually included in the processing line. These incorporate various features to optimize thermal efficiency
and to eliminate product burn-on and discoloration.
Such features include optimal design for specific applications, thin high-conductivity metal, product agitation and countercurrent media flow.

Why a scraped-surface heat exchanger


(SSHE)?
Many prepared foods prevent optimal heat transfer
because of their consistency. For example, food containing large particles, viscous, sticky and crystalline
products can quickly block or foul certain types of heat
exchanger.
Scraped-surface heat exchangers incorporate special design features which make them ideal for heating and cooling products that impair good heat trans-

Contherm is the most effective


Contherm is a vertically-mounted, scraped-surface
heat exchanger, a design that has proven to be the
most effective in providing a comprehensive range of
benefits, including:
Saving valuable floor space
Maximizing product recovery
Optimizing cleaning-in-place (CIP) and
reducing the risk of contamination
Facilitating rapid removal of the rotor
assembly for inspection and maintenance
Allowing simple, labour-saving maintenance
Providing effective air purging
As processing difficulty increases, so does the complexity and price of
the equipment required. Plate heat exchangers are inexpensive and can
handle materials that have low viscosities, and a limited amount of fibres
and particles. Tubular heat exchangers are more expensive and are used
for more difficult-to-process products. Scraped surface heat exchangers
are more expensive still, but can handle high viscosity and particulate
laden products. Contherm units can handle particles, or chunks, up to
25-30 mm3.

1997 Alfa Laval Contherm Inc.

Heating Cooling Evaporation

Low Viscosity
Low Fouling
Low Particles

High Viscosity
Fouling
Particles

Contherm Scraped-Surface Heat Exchanger

Motor
Blade
Heat Transfer
Surface
Rotor

Product Outlet
Heating/Cooling Media Port (in)
(Refrigerant - out)

Rotor
Insulation
Blade
Heat Transfer Surface
Media Channel

Media Coil

Heating/Cooling Media Port (out)


(Refrigerant - in)

Product Inlet
Rotor Lifting Device

Over 30 years of successful processing


Contherm, supplied by Alfa Laval, embodies more
than 30 years of efficiency and reliability. Units installed
worldwide are fulfilling the demand for a premium,
uniform product quality.
As Contherm is designed on aseptic technology and
follows good manufacturing practice (GMP), it complies with the strict standards of hygiene expected in
the food industry. Moreover, Contherm is designed to
heat and cool products that can generally be pumped,
especially those which traditional heat exchangers just
cannot handle.

How it works
Product enters the cylinder through the lower tangential port and continuously flows upwards through the
cylinder. Simultaneously, media travels in a countercurrent flow through the narrow annular channel. Rotating blades continually remove the product from the
cylinder wall to ensure uniform heat transfer to the
product. A coil in the annulus increases media velocity and hence adds to the heat transfer efficiency. The
product exits the cylinder via the upper tangential port.
Product flow and rotor speed are varied to suit the
properties of the product flowing through the cylinder.
Two or more Contherm units can be linked in series
or parallel to give a greater heat-transfer surface area
depending on the processing capacity required.

Typical products that benefit from


Contherm processing*

Particulate

Sticky

Features that optimize performance


The rotors and tangential inlet/outlet ports are specially designed to improve food processing. Rotor diameter and pin/blade configuration vary to suit different applications. Smaller diameter rotors allow larger
particles to pass through the cylinder, while larger diameter rotors result in shorter residence times and
improved thermal performance.
As a general rule, a 90 blade configuration is best for
heat-sensitive products, whereas, a 180 blade configuration suits less viscous products. Staggered
blades are used for viscous products with or without
particles.
Better product integrity and quality are maintained by
tangential inlet/outlet ports that allow the product to
enter and exit the cylinder in the same direction as the
turning rotor. The resulting gentler handling is a must
for such products as pie fillings, fruit preserves, and
soups and stews.

Vertical benefits
The upright design of Contherm contributes significantly to everyday processing efficiency and cost reductions. At process start-up, all the air is completely
purged ahead of the product thereby allowing the heat
transfer chamber to fill completely with product. At process shutdown, product recovery is maximized by the
ability to chase the product with water. Following this,
complete drainage facilitates CIP/product changeover.
Moreover, when steam is used as the heating medium
the resulting condensate is removed rapidly from the
annulus by gravity thereby maintaining high heat transfer efficiency.

Viscous

Chicken pieces, fish meal, jams and Caramel, cheese sauces, lecithin, Ketchup, mayonnaise, chocolate,
preserves, pet food, rice pudding, process cheese, confectionery and fruit pie filling, gravy and sauces,
peanut butter, pizza sauce, pudding,
yogurt fruit.
starch.
salad dressing, salsa and taco fillings, sandwich spreads, deboned
chicken (MDM), gelatin, scrambled
eggs, baby food, ointment, lotions,
* Individual types of applications may possess more than one of these properties.
mascara and candle gels.

Crystallizing/Phase Change
Coffee/tea extracts, cookie cream,
confectionery topping, lard, sugar
concentrates, margarine, shortening, spreads, beer and wine.

Typical Contherm applications


STEAM

INGREDIENTS
IN

STEAM

COOLANT

Typical Cooking and


Cooling Line

COOLANT

INGREDIENTS
IN

For sauces, gravies, soups, marmalade, preserves, jams, and dressings.

PRODUCT
OUT TO
FILLING

CONTHERM
HEATER

STEAM

CONTHERM
HEATER

STEAM

CONTHERM
COOLER

STEAM

A Contherm-based system for costeffective continuous processing that


results in premium quality products.

CONTHERM
COOLER

Fruit and Vegetable


Processing

COOLANT

For pures, mashes, pulps, concentrates, and pastes.


PRODUCT IN

PRODUCT
OUT TO
FILLING

CONTHERM
CONTHERM
PREHEATER CONCENTRATOR

CONTHERM
HEATER

The integrity of fruit and vegetable


products is retained better in a
Contherm system than in traditional
heat exchangers because they are
exposed to heat for shorter periods.

CONTHERM
COOLER

Aseptic Processing
STEAM

STEAM

COOLANT

COOLANT

For soups, sauces, jams, yogurt fruit,


pures, and juices.

COOLANT

Aseptic processing preserves product


taste, colour and texture, and prolongs
shelf life. A Tetra Pak aseptic packaging system can be integrated to
complete this type of processing line.

PRODUCT
IN

PRODUCT
OUT TO
FILLING

CONTHERM
STERILIZER

CONTHERM
STERILIZER

CONTHERM
COOLER

CONTHERM
COOLER

CONTHERM
COOLER

Typical Contherm applications


CONTHERM
COOKER

SUGAR, MILK, ETC.

CONTHERM
COOLER

VAPOR

STEAM

WATER

CARAMEL
TANK

Caramel Processing

The caramel mixture (condensed milk,


corn syrup, HFCS, caramel, sugar and
flavouring) is heated and agitated in a
process vessel and then pumped to a
Contherm to further heat the product.
It is then flashed into a caramel tank
for colour development. The mixture is
then pumped to a Contherm for final
cooling, as temperature control is
PRODUCT critical to the production of a consistOUT
ent product.

PREMIX TANKS

MDM Cooling Line

CONTHERM
CHILLER

The Contherm scraped surface heat


exchanger is used for batch or
continuous cooling of mechanically
deboned meat (MDM). The Contherm
system improves product quality compared to other methods of cooling.

PRODUCT
IN

DEBONER

MILK &
ADDITIVES

FILLING

CONTHERM
COOKER

CONTHERM
COOLER

STEAM

WATER

Continuous Rice
Pudding Production

DRY
RICE
HOT
WATER

PLATE HEAT
EXCHANGER

RIBBON
BLENDER

PUMP

PRODUCT
OUT TO
PACKAGING

The pudding ingredients (milk, salt,


sugar and thickener) are mixed and
preheated before dry rice or grain is
metered into the mixture. The mixture
is then pumped to a Contherm
scraped surface heat exchanger for
heating (scalding). It then resides in
a holding cell before being cooled in a
Contherm to the required filling
temperature, which determines the
consistency of the end product.

Features and options that mean lifetime economy


Numerous Contherm design features and options en- gas is halted to ensure that the cylinder temperature
sure reliability, flexibility and maximum runtime. These is slightly higher than the products freezing point. This
action protects drive motors and contributes to rapid
all add up to increased lifetime economy.
production restart.

Hydraulic lift system


A unique feature is the hydraulic rotor lift system. This
requires just one person to rapidly lower and raise the
rotor assembly thereby facilitating inspections and
maintenance procedures, and reducing manpower
expenditure. It minimizes system downtime by speeding up the inspection and replacement of seals and
bearings when required.

Vertical cost-effectiveness
The vertical design of Contherm contributes to costeffective installation, operation and maintenance. Its
0.33 m2 footprint saves valuable floor space. As costs
per square area for new construction rise, or when
floor space is limited in existing facilities, a small footprint can mean big savings. During short-run processing, costs are saved from minimal mixing of product
and purging water during product changeover.

Automatic Maintain Status for cooling


units
This is a major feature of the Contherm refrigeration
package incorporating cooling with ammonia. If the
product flow is interrupted for any reason, the refrigerant is instantly purged from the annulus and replaced
by hot gas. After a predetermined time the flow of hot

Only a few simple steps are


required to lower the rotor for rapid
inspection and maintenance. First,
remove the clamp.
Then, lower the rotor automatically
by means of the hydraulic lift.

Aseptically-sealed units
A Contherm model is available for aseptic processing
to minimize the risk of microbial contamination. During production, steam is fed to the area between the
two seals. These seals withstand the high pressures
and temperatures found in aseptic processing.

Cylinders, rotors, blades and seals


Depending on the application, either nickel, chromed
nickel, stainless steel, chromed stainless steel, or multiplex cylinders can be supplied.
A choice of rotors is available to optimize product velocity, retention time and particulate handling. An eccentric rotor may be supplied as an option for very
sticky products. Stainless steel and nonmetallic blades
are available. A full range of seals are stocked to suit
diverse products and applications.

Fast service and spare parts


A processing line out of operation means lost revenue.
We provide immediate response worldwide, should a
Contherm unit require attention. Moreover, a comprehensive range of parts is always kept in stock for immediate delivery.

Next, after the rotor has been


lowered using the hydraulic lift, it
can be held in position by a
special retainer to facilitate
inspection, maintenance and

removal of blades.

How Contherm cuts the costs of everyday processing


Compared to batch processing, continuous processing offers better profitability primarily because it embraces economy of scale. Higher throughput combined with reduced labour costs sharpens competitive edge. This is where Contherm comes in.
Not only is Contherm an economic processing module, it is specially designed to maintain the quality of
food ingredients. A breakdown of the costs involved
in running a typical Contherm unit compared with a
typical batch processing system is presented in the
table on this page to show how Contherm cuts the
costs of everyday processing.

Fair system payback


The return on investment depends on several operational factors including production run times, utility
costs and the price of raw materials. When such factors are taken into consideration, and from the extensive experience already gained from customized
Contherm systems worldwide, the payback periods
for Contherm have proved more than satisfactory.

Contherm continuous process system


Figures based on continuous run of 2,270 kg/hr, once a day clean up.
UTILITY

CONSUMPTION

UNIT COST $

COST $/2,270 kg

Steam

331 kg/h

13.23/1,000 kg

4.38

Motors

32 HP = 23 kwh

0.07/kwh

1.61

Controls, alarms, displays

6 kwh

0.07/kwh

0.42

Air 5 kwh

0.07/kwh

0.35

Manpower

Electrical Power

14.00/hr*
3

14.00

Water

11,355 m /h

0.132/m

1.50

CIP

145 kg/day

4.41/1,000 kg

0.11

Total

22.37
* In many European countries $ 35

Batch system using jacketed kettles


Figures based on batch processing of 2,270 kg/hr using 6 kettles.
UTILITY

CONSUMPTION

UNIT COST $

COST $/2,270 kg

Steam

1,135 kg/h

13.00/1,000 kg

15.00

Motors

9 HP = 7 kwh

0.07/kwh

0.49

Controls, alarms, displays

2 kwh

0.07/kwh

0.14

Air

Manpower

14.00/hr*

Water

Cleaning

145 kg/day

4.41/1,000 kg

Electrical Power

Total
Underlying assumptions:

84.00
0.64
100.27
* In many European countries $ 35

Six batches of 2,270 kg food/batch produced each day,


5 days per week for 52 weeks (1,560 batches per year).

One man operates the continuous system, six men (conservative


estimate) operate the batch system.

All continuous process motors operate at full rating.

The continuous system involves CIP, the batch system does not.

Continuous system cooling and heating are 95% efficient.

Costs for poorer product quality and recovery for batch processing
are not considered.

Batch system heating is 30% efficient (conservative estimate).

Technical information
Model

Heating
Surface
m2

A
mm

B
mm

C
mm

D
mm

E
mm

Net*
Weight
kg

Floor
Space
m2

6x3
6x6
6x9

0.279
0.557
0.836

854
1387
1997

2502
3645
4864

864
864
864

933
933
933

717
1326
1936

140
234
274

0.33
0.33
0.33

*Excluding motor

Working temperature range: -35C to +150C.


Maximum working pressure: 20 bar on product side.
17 bar on media side.
Connections - product side:

51 mm (2), union.

Connections - media side:

48 mm (2), upper.
37 mm (11/2), lower.

Options
Alternative drive systems are available.
Tachometer.
Nickel, chromed nickel, stainless steel,
chromed stainless steel, or multiplex cylinders.
Mounting column.
Stainless steel and nonmetallic blades.
Flush and hard face seals.
Rotors: 76, 102, 114, and 127 mm.
Eccentric rotor.
Staggered blades to prevent channelling of
product.
Connections with a larger diameter.
A horizontal Contherm option is available for use in
facilities having limited ceiling height.
Cryogenic units.

Particulars required for quotation


To enable our representative to tailor a Contherm system to your exact requirements, inquiries should be accompanied by the following information:
Flow rates required.
Temperature program.
Physical properties of your product(s) or a
description.
Type of heating and/or cooling media preferred.
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Customer support and


innovative technology that never ends
From initial contact to system operation, there are
many ways in which we can help you get the best out
of your investment in Contherm. Our customer support program includes application advice, test units,
process development and configuration, and service
contracts. By listening to your views and following
processing trends at source, we can fine-tune our
systems to satisfy your demands.
To enable your staff to run and maintain your Contherm
during everyday production, we offer training courses
and seminars covering all aspects of their use. And,
of course, because we provide local support on a
worldwide basis, we can respond rapidly to your emergency situations.

Maintenance and service


Tetra Pak offers service and maintenance agreements
tailored to your individual requirements. We can also
help you to optimize the performance of your plant to
achieve better efficiency and utilization.

Food Development Centres at your


disposal
The R&D Assistance option enables you to put the
Contherm and your product to the test. We have fully
equipped Food Development Centres, which are available for the cost effective development and definition
of process conditions prior to scale-up. Whether you
want to test processing methods or plant efficiency,
we have the facilities and application knowledge to
help your decision-making.

Rental units are also available


For reasons of confidentiality, if you prefer to carry
out processing trials using Contherm in your own plant
and with your own personnel, we can offer you a
Contherm test unit on a rental basis along with qualified Contherm personnel during start-up.
Our Food Development Centers are at your disposal to allow you to develop and define process conditions using Contherm units prior to scaleup.

Convap evaporation module


The Contherm SSHE can be modified to form the
Convap evaporator, which is particularly suited to concentrating viscous products. The system normally
operates under vacuum. The entrainment separator
connected to the SSHE by means of a specially designed vapour head allows the separation of the concentrate from the vapour phase.

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We offer very short delivery times on standard units and nearly 100%
of all spare parts are shipped the same day.

Convap, a continuous single-effect scraped surface evaporator which


incorporates a Contherm SSHE, is the ideal system for concentrating
viscous products.

We maintain close contact with our customers to help them get the
best out of their Contherm equipment.

Modular Contherm and Convap test units are readily available on a


rental basis to facilitate your in-house research and development.

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PB 63423 E2 / 0012

Alfa Laval, Lund, Sweden

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