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Presented at the COMSOL Conference 2010 China

Simulations of nanophotonic waveguides


and devices using COMSOL Multiphysics
Zheng Zheng
School of Electronic and Information Engineering
Beihang University
37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191, China

School of Electronic and Information Engineering

Acknowledgement
Yusheng Bian
Lin An
Xin Zhao
Muddassir Iqbal
Ya Liu
Wei Li
Tao Zhou (NJIT)
Jiangtao Cheng (Penn State Univ.)

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Simulation of dielectric waveguides


and optic fibers using COMSOL
Simulation of surface plasmon
polariton (SPP) waveguides and
devices using COMSOL

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Simulation of dielectric waveguides


and optic fibers using COMSOL
Simulation of surface plasmon
polariton (SPP) waveguides and
devices using COMSOL

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Motivation - Nanophotonics
Development of Integrated Circuits

Moore's law

Conventional photonic device

Substrate

Low-index contrast waveguide

High-contrast planar waveguide

Channel waveguide

Photonic crystal fiber and waveguide

Slot waveguide

~ Diffraction limit

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Dielectric slot waveguides and applications


Slot waveguide

Field distribution

Ring resonator

Optical biosensing

Optical modulator

Optical manipulation

*V. R. Almeida et. al, Optics Letters 29, 1209-1211 (2004).


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Dispersion analysis of dielectric slot waveguides

Group velocity dispersion (GVD)


Sellmeiers equation for silicon and silica refractive indices
COMSOL settings
Perpendicular waves of RF module- mode analysis
Scattering boundary condition

*Z. Zheng, M. Iqbal, Optics Communications 281, 5151-5155 (2008).


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Dispersion analysis of dielectric slot waveguides

Slot waveguide: In the normal dispersion regime near the 1550 nm wavelengths
Channel silicon waveguide: In the abnormal dispersion regime
GVD ( slot ) > GVD ( channel )
Higher order dispersion behavior depending strongly on the geometric parameters
of the slot waveguides (e.g. slot & slab width, material filled in the slot region)

*Z. Zheng, M. Iqbal, Optics Communications 281, 5151-5155 (2008).


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Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCF)


A

Various kinds of PCF

A: Standard optical fiber


(Total external reflection)
B: Index-guiding photonic
crystal fiber
(Total internal reflection)
C: Hollow core photonic
bandgap fiber
(Photonic bandgap)

Merits and Potential of PCFs


Lower transmission loss than conventional fibers
Substantially higher damage thresholds than
conventional fibers
Promising for various linear and nonlinear optical
processes
*J. C. Knight, Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
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Design of ultrahigh birefringent, ultralow loss PCF


PCF structure

Intensity distributions

with different elliptic ratio of the air hole

L
d

b
a

L1
L2

y
x

A core region with a rectangular array of four


air holes (to provide the birefringence)
A conventional circular-air-hole cladding (to
reduce the confinement loss).
COMSOL settings
x-polarization
Perpendicular waves of RF module- mode analysis
PML boundary condition

y-polarization

*L. An, Z. Zheng. Journal of Lightwave Technology 27, 3175-3180 (2009)


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Design of ultrahigh birefringent, ultralow loss PCF


Intensity distribution
PCF with circular air holes

x-polarization

y-polarization

PCF with elliptical air holes

x-polarization

y-polarization

-120

Ultrahigh single-mode birefringence (~10-2)


Ultralow confinement losses (<0.002 dB/km)
Relatively flat dispersion
Easy to fabricate

GVD (ps/(nm*km))

-150
-180

x polarization
y polarization

-210
-240
-270
-300
-330
1.48

1.50

1.52

1.54

1.56

Wavelength (m)

1.58

1.60

*L. An, Z. Zheng. Journal of Lightwave Technology 27, 3175-3180 (2009)


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Design of single-polarization, single-mode PCF


PCF geometry

Intensity distribution

y-polarization

Single-mode and singlepolarization propagation


can be realized by tuning
geometry of the air holes,
with low confinement
loss and small mode
area

*L. An, Z. Zheng, Optics Communications 282, 3266-3269 (2009)


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Design of single-polarization, single-mode PCF


Dispersion optimization
Intensity distribution

Dispersion & confinement loss

GVD

GVD

Near-zero, dispersion-flattened

Small mode area

Low confinement loss(<0.25 dB/km) Ultra-wide band (0.31.84 m)


COMSOL settings
Perpendicular waves of RF module- mode analysis
PML boundary condition

*L. An, Z. Zheng, Optics Communications 282, 3266-3269 (2009)


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Highly nonlinear holey fiber with a high index slot core


Proposed structure

COMSOL settings
Perpendicular waves of RF module- mode analysis
PML boundary condition

*L. An, Z. Zheng, Journal of Optics, 115502 (2010).


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Highly nonlinear holey fiber with a high index slot core


Fiber with a slot core
Modal behavior

Group velocity dispersion


Group velocity dispersion (ps/nm/km)

Intensity distribution

-3000
-3500
-4000
-4500
-5000
-5500
-6000

GVD

-6500
1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70
Wavelength (m)

Quasi-TE mode well confined in the slot region


Single-mode propagation with ultra-small mode area ( < 0.3 m2 )
A large negative GVD and large GVD slope

*L. An, Z. Zheng, Journal of Optics, 115502 (2010).


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Highly nonlinear holey fiber with a high index slot core


Group velocity dispersion (ps/nm/km)

Fiber with a slot core and a two-air-hole cladding


-2800

Modification of GVD
d/L = 0.58

-2900

d/L = 0.62
-3000

d/L = 0.6

Telecom C-Band

-3100

d/L = 0.64

GVD

-3200
1.50

1.52

1.54

d/L = 0.66
1.56

1.58

1.60

1.62

Much lower GVD than that


without air-hole
Different dispersion slope at
various air-hole parameters

Enhancement of the field


confinement

1.64

Wavelength (m)

Group velocity dispersion (ps/nm/km)

Fiber with a slot core and a four-air-hole cladding


-1700
-1750
-1800
-1850
-1900
-1950
-2000
-2050

GVD

Even lower absolute GVD


values
Further enhancement of the
field confinement

1.46 1.48 1.50 1.52 1.54 1.56 1.58 1.60 1.62 1.64 1.66 1.68
Wavelength (m)

*L. An, Z. Zheng, Journal of Optics, 115502 (2010).


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Simulation of dielectric waveguides


and optic fibers using COMSOL
Simulation of surface plasmon
polariton (SPP) waveguides and
devices using COMSOL

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Introduction-Surface Plasmons
*W. L. Barnes, Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
Surface plasmons (SPs)

Light guiding

Diffraction
limit

Coherent electron oscillations at


the metal/dielectric interface
Field decays exponentially into
both neighboring media

Sensing

Lasing

Nanolithography
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Introduction-SPP waveguides
Surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguide
Insulator/Metal/Insulator (IMI)
Dielectric

nd

nm hm

Metal

Wm

y
z

Metal/Insulator/Metal (MIM)

Long-range SPP waveguide

CPP waveguides

Advantages

Low propagation loss (a few dB/cm)

Disadvantages

Weak confinement (mode size~)

Loss

metal slot waveguide

Advantages

Tight field confinement (subwavelength scale)

Disadvantages

Huge loss (propagation length ~ several m)

Tradeoff

Confinement

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Hybrid plasmonic waveguide


*R. F. Oulton, Nature Photonics, 2008. 2(8): p. 496-500.
Subwavelength mode confinement
2/400 ~2/40
Long-range propagation distance
40 ~ 150 m

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Design of symmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide


Slab

hd
hg

nd

nm

Metal

nb

hm

nd

Wm

(a)

0.5

y ( m )

0.5

Substrate

0.0
y ( m )

0.5

-0.5
-1.0

0.0

0.0
-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

y ( m )
0.5

(b)

0.0

-1.0
-1.0

1.0

-0.5

0.0

y ( m )

0.5

1.0

(c)

0.0

0.0

-0.5
-1.0

-0.5

nb

(b)

0.5

-0.5

y ( m )

y ( m )

1.0

(a)

0.5

Slab
y

1.0

Normalized Ey

Cladding

Normalized Ey

Wd

0.0

-0.5

0.0

x ( m )

x ( m )

0.5

1.0

0.5M
1.0
My
Y

-0.5

-0.5
-1.0

-0.5

0.0

x ( m )

0.5

1.0

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

x ( m )

0.5

1.0

Subwavelength confinement (1~2 orders of magnitude higher than


insulator/metal/insulator waveguides)
Low loss ( propagation length~ hundreds of microns)
*Y. S. Bian, Z. Zheng, Optics Express 17, 21320-21325 (2009).
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12

(a)

hg=10nm

10

Sx

hg=30nm

hg=50nm

6
4
2
0

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8
3.0
Sx ( m )

3.2

3.4

Normalized coupling length

Normalized coupling length

Design of symmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide


12
10

hg=10nm

(b)
Sy

hg=30nm

hg=50nm

6
4
2
0

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

Sy ( m )

3.0

3.2

3.4

High-density 3D photonic integration( packing density increased by


nearly 60 times over insulator/metal/insulator waveguides)
Finite dimensions in both directions, enabling multilayer, 3-dimensional
(3D) integrated circuits
COMSOL settings
Sub-wavelength field confinement
Perpendicular
waves
of RF modulemode
analysisSPP waveguides
1~2 orders
of magnitude
higher than
long-range
Scattering boundary condition

*Y. S. Bian, Z. Zheng, Optics Express 17, 21320-21325 (2009).


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Dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides

Relatively tight confinement of light (subwavelength scale)


Relatively long propagation distance ( tens of microns)

Low-index DLSPP waveguides

High-index DLSPP waveguides

Low-index polymer
(n~1.5)
Low loss
Relatively large geometry size
(e.g.600nm600nm)

High-index dielectric
(n~2 & n~3.5)
Stronger confinement
Compact, Si fab process
compatible, suitable for integration

Not suitable for high integration

Huge loss
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Design of DLSPP waveguide with a holey ridge


(a)

(b)
d

(a)

Ag

d
w

SiO2

(b)
Si

SiO2
Ag

Air
Si

wa

ha

Geometry

y
z

(c)
Air
SiO2

Field
distribution

Si

SiO2

Strong field enhancement in the nanohole due to the slot effect


COMSOL settings
Perpendicular waves of RF module- mode analysis
Scattering boundary condition

*Y. S. Bian, Z. Zheng, Optics Express, To be published.


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Design of dielectric-loaded waveguide with a holey ridge


Field distributions at different nanohole widths
(a) ha=10nm

(b) ha=30nm

(c) ha=50nm

(d) ha=100nm

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

(i)

0.5

0.0
-0.2

0.0
-1.0

-0.5

0.0
x (m)

0.5

1.0

1.0

(j)

0.5

0.0

0.2
y (m)

0.4

0.6

0.0
-0.2

0.0
-1.0

-0.5

0.0
x (m)

0.5

0.2
y (m)

0.4

0.6

(k)

0.0
-0.2

0.0
-1.0
1.0

0.5

0.0

1.0

-0.5

0.0
x (m)

0.5

1.0

0.2
y (m)

0.4

0.6

(l)

Ey

0.5

(h)

0.5

Ey

0.0
x (m)

0.5

Ey

Ey

-0.5

Ey

0.5

0.0
-1.0

(g)

Ey

Ey

0.5

1.0

(f)

Ey

(e)

0.5

0.0

0.2
y (m)

0.4

0.6

0.0
-0.2

0.0

Even stronger field enhancement with a shallow and wide, low-index nanohole

*Y. S. Bian, Z. Zheng, Optics Express, to be published.


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Design of dielectric-loaded waveguide with a holey ridge


0.5

(a)

NOP

0.3
0.2

(b)
0

NAOI

0.4

10

wa=10nm
wa=30nm
wa=50nm
wa=100nm
wa=150nm

10

0.1

-1

10

0.0
0

30

60

90

120

ha (nm)

150

30

60

90

ha (nm)

120

150

High optical power and strong optical intensity in the nanohole

(a)

150

Neff

Lp(m)

2.4

100

2.0

(b)

0.5

50

1.6
0

1.0

30

60

90

wa (nm)

120

0
150

0.0
0

30

ha=10nm
ha=30nm
ha=50nm
ha=100nm
ha=150nm
DLSPP
60

90

wa (nm)

200

(c)

150

FOM

200

Aeff /A0

2.8

100

120

150

50
0

30

60

90

wa (nm)

120

150

High optical power and strong optical intensity in the nanohole


Loss reduction achieved with small sacrifice in the mode area
Improved figure of merit (FOM) with a shallow and wide air nanohole

*Y. S. Bian, Z. Zheng, Optics Express, To be published.


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Nanolasers
Dielectric nanowire lasers
~ diffraction limit

The first laser (1960)

[1]

Nanotechology

[1] Nature 421, 241-245 (2003).

Plasmon nanolasers << diffraction limit

Directional emissions
similar to the FP lasers
High field confinement in
the gain media region
Low-threshold operation

2D [2]

[2] Nature 461, 629-632 (2009).

3D [3]

[3] Nature 460, 1110-1112 (2009).

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2D plasmon nanolasers
Plasmon nanolaser

Hybrid plasmonic waveguides

Low loss propagation


Subwavelength
confinement

r
h

A lower index buffer (e.g. air)


helps to further enhance the field
CdS n=2.4
enhancement in that region
MgF2 n=1.4
An air gap is impossible to
fabricate
Ag n=-9.2+0.3i

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Design of coplanar plasmon nanolaser


1

r
h CdS

tm

Ag
MgF2
y

10

10

Threshold (m)

Air gap

10

15

20

h (nm)

25

30

=490nm, tm=2r, h:2~30nm

Based on an edge-coupled hybrid plasmonic waveguide


Strong field enhancement and low loss caused by the air gap
Easy to fabricate
Edge plasmonic mode
Low pump threshold
*Y. S. Bian, Z. Zheng, 2010 Frontiers in Optics
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Round corner effect for the plasmon laser


1
Threshold (m)

rc

tm

h r
0

3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5

10

20

30

rc (nm)

40

50

A strong field enhancement occurs in the gap region


The enhancement is further strengthened in the center of the gap
The pump threshold shows a monotonical reduction with increased radius
Compared to the case with sharp corners, the threshold could be lowered by 50% at
appropriate corner radius

COMSOL settings
Perpendicular waves of RF module- mode analysis
Scattering boundary condition

*Y. S. Bian, Z. Zheng, 2010 Frontiers in Optics

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60

Integrated plasmonic sensors w/ nanostructure


Conventional plasmonic sensing device

On-chip SPR sensor based on nanohole array and microfluidic


Colinear optical detection
Denser integration
Smaller footprint
Multiplexing biosensing
High sensitivity
Mass transport limitation

Nature Biotech 26, 417-426 (2008)

Target molecular diffusion rate


<<Binding or reaction rate
Target depletion zone
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Plasmonic lens
Plasmonic microzone plate lens

Plasmonic slits array lens


Subwavelength focusing
High field intensity
Large field gradient

Appl. Phy. Lett. 91, 061124 (2007)

Nano Lett. 9, 235-238 (2009)

Focused beam or evanescent field


Optical field gradient
Optical force

Large optical force

Trapping and manipulating targets

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Proposed plasmonic nano-slit array


Focused beam or
evanescent field

Optical
field gradient

Optical force

Trapping and
manipulating targets

Optimized nano-slit structure for trapping in micro-fluidic


Hz of TM mode

w1 = 250 nm

w1 ,w2 = 50, 62 nm

w1 ,w2, w3= 50, 62,160 nm

Divergent beam focused beam


Focal length f ~ 0.6 m

*X. Zhao, Z. Zheng, 2010 Frontiers in Optics


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Optical gradient force of nano-slit lens


Time average optical force
Maxwell stress tensor

Tij

Fi
t

T
j

ij t

n j dS

h 0 Ei r , t E j r, t h 0 H i r , t H j r , t
t

ij h 0 Ei ' r , t Ei ' r , t t h 0 H i ' r , t H i ' r , t t


2
i'
i'

Optical force (N/m)

Sensing object: nanorods with a diameter of 50 nm


8.0x10

-14

6.0x10

-14

4.0x10

-14

2.0x10

-14

x=0
x=0.3
x=0.6

repulsive force

0.0
-2.0x10

-14

-4.0x10

-14

-6.0x10

-14

0.2

attractive force
0.6

1.0

1.4

1.8

2.2

Y position of the nanorod (m)

Input power density=1.28mW/mm2

When X=0, Y> f attractive force Y<f repulsive force


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Impact and effect of slit in micro-fluidic

Optical force could increase target concentration near focal point


More target molecular diffused to the sensing surface

Alleviate mass transport limit

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Conclusions
Design and optimization of the nanophotonic devices are
critical in realizing advanced photonic integrations in the
future.
Comsol can be used for simulating various types of
nanophotonic devices involving different materials and
dimensions.
Increased functionalities of the nanophotonic devices also
demand simulators capable of handling complex multiphysics
simulations.

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Thank

you!

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