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OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN HANDBOOK

Version 7.0
Date August 2009

Table of Contents

1

INTRODUCTION

7

2

DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES

9

2.1
3

Basic Methodology
ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS

9
11

3.1

Clearance and Spacing for Overhead Lines

11

3.2

Tower top geometry

13

3.3

Transpositions

15

4

SELECTION OF CONDUCTOR
Steady state thermal current rating
Short-circuit thermal current rating

15
15
15

Conductor long term electrical performance
Conductor Limit states

16
16

4.1

17

Sag-tension calculation

5

INSULATOR DESIGN
Design for pollution

17
18

6

BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN
6.1.1
Determination of height
6.1.2
Loading on Structures
6.1.3
Limit State Design

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22
22
23

7

ACTION ON LINES

24

8

SUPPORTS

26

9

FOUNDATION DESIGN

27

10

EARTHING

30

Earthing and Insulation of Stay Wires

33

Conductor Failure Protection

33

Broken Stay Wire Protection

33

11

WORKED EXAMPLES

36

11.1

Electrical Clearances between conductors

36

11.2

Determination of conductor rating

37

References

38

11.3

38

Design for lightning performance

11.4 Electrical and Mechanical Design for Insulators
11.4.1 Design for pollution
11.4.2 Design for power frequency voltages (Wet withstand requirement)
11.4.3 Design for switching surge voltages
11.4.4 Selection of Insulator to meet Electrical Performance
11.4.5 Insulator mechanical design

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40
41
41
41
43

References

43

11.5 Limit State Design Worked Examples
11.5.1 Pole Tip Load Calculation
CALCULATIONS
Distibution Worked Example 3

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45
52
54

SWING ANGLE CALCULATIONS

56

APPENDICES

57

APPENDICES

57

11.6

Conductor Clashing

57

12

ROUTE SELECTION PROCESS

59

12.1

Risk Management Principle

59

12.2

Prudent Avoidance Principle

59

12.3

Aesthetic Considerations

59

12.4

Electric and Magnetic Fields

60

13

LAYOUT DESIGN PROCESS

60

Terrain

61

Terrain Model

61

2 Railway and Tramway Crossings 73 13. Downdraft wind regions (Australia Zone II and Zone III and New Zealand Zones Region A 7 ) B4.6 Rural Activities in Proximity to Line 74 13.Alignment 62 13.5 Aerial Lines in the Vicinity of Aircraft 74 13.4 Co-ordination with other Services 73 13.GUIDELINES ON SERVICE LIFE OF OVERHEAD LINES 88 20 89 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX F .4 Country Line Road Crossings 79 15.1 Downdraft Winds 84 84 85 85 19 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX D .1 Pole Locations in Traffic Corridors 72 13.1 Acceptable Location of Poles in Road Corridors 77 15.2 Special Considerations for Slip based poles 77 15.TIMBER POLES Clause F1 General 90 .3 Waterway Crossings 73 13.5 Markers Permanent Markers Temporary Markers Over Crossing Markers 79 79 80 80 16 VEGETATION CLEARANCES 80 17 LIST OF AVAILABLE LINE DESIGN PROGRAMS 83 18 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX B – WIND LOADS Figure B 1 Wind Regions for Australian Design Wind Gust Types B4.7 Ruling Span 75 14 COST OF OVERHEAD LINE (BY COMPONENTS) 75 15 GUIDELINES FOR POLE LOCATION 77 15.3 Aerial Lines in the Vicinity of Aircraft 78 15.

1 Bearing strength 104 3.CONCRETE POLES 22 APPENDIX L .Clause F1.2 Clearances 82 83 83 1.3.1 Mechanical design 1.11 general 86 1.STRUCTURE FOOTING DESIGN L1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES L2 GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS 90 97 100 100 100 L3 FOOTING DESIGN OF DIRECTLY EMBEDDED OVERHEAD LINE POLES FOR LATERAL LOADS AND MOMENTS 101 3.12 CC 86 .2 Shear strength 105 3.3.1 Supports 1.2 Cable tension 1.4 Facade cable 1.5 References 84 24 85 HIGH VOLTAGE AERIAL BUNDLED CABLE 1.2 Characteristic strengths and elastic moduli 21 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX I .3.3 FOOTINGS AND EMBEDMENT DEPTH IN SOILS 23 LOW VOLTAGE AERIAL BUNDLED CABLE 105 82 1.6 General 85 1.3 Aerial cable 1.3 Clearances 82 82 82 82 1.9 Clearances 86 1.10 references 86 25 86 COVERED CONDUCTOR SYSTEMS 1.2 general 82 1.7 Mechanical 85 1.4.1.4.8 Electrical 85 1.

13 CCt 86 1.14 Clearances 87 1.1.15 references 87 26 88 SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS FOR HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS 88 THERMAL LIMITS General Maximum design operating temperatures Conductor permanent elongation Fault ratings 88 88 89 91 92 .

220 kV.Handbook for the Overhead Line Design Standard 1 INTRODUCTION Scope This Handbook is the second in the Overhead Line Design Standard suite of documents and is a companion to the Standard. 11 kV and 415/240 volts. . 66 kV and 110/132 kV and transmission voltages are. The Handbook steps the Designer through the design process with application guidelines. commonly referred to as low voltage. 275 kV. Typical sub-transmission voltages in Australia and New Zealand are. The application guidelines will apply to both transmission and distribution lines used in Australia. In particular. 330 kV and 500 kV. the Handbook has an emphasis on pole type sub-transmission and distribution lines. relevant information and worked examples which comply with the Overhead Line Design Standard. An overview of the steps in the Overhead Line Design process is given in the flowchart below. Typical distribution voltages in Australia and New Zealand are at 33 kV.

Determine Design Inputs / Parameters Select Route Select Conductor Type Select Structure Suite Conduct Route Survey and Draw Ground Line Profile Nominate Structure Type/Strength. Height and Position Produce Layout Design Establish Final Electrical Parameters Obtain Relevant Approvals Produce Detailed Drawings and Specification Conduct Design Review and Verification Provide Design Support for Construction Conduct Audit and Relevant Tests Document As-Constructed Records Monitor Performance of Overhead Line .

Reliability levels All overhead lines should be designed for a selected reliability level relevant to the lines importance to the system (including consideration of system redundancy). and seismic effects. The overhead line has to perform with suitable levels of reliability and security for the weather loads expected in the region for it’s intended life. . Design Working and Service Life The design life. ice. Initially a generic Security Level is selected (as set out in Clause 6. precipitation. insulation and constructions for use at the various voltage levels to comply with the Overhead Line Design Standard. public safety and design working life. wind. The service life of an overhead line is the period over which it will continue to serve its intended purpose safely.2. without undue maintenance or repair disproportionate to its cost of replacement and without exceeding any specified serviceability criteria. its location and exposure to climatic conditions.2.2 of the Standard) to reflect the importance of the line within the network. of the line is dependent on its exposure to a number of variable factors such as solar radiation. In this evaluation consideration must be given to the lines importance to the system (including any system redundancy). Structural components of the support must be able to withstand the ultimate design loadings without failure within this period. or target nominal service life expectancy. This may include providing allowance for a reducing load factor over time due to progressive degradation such as soft rot in timber pole elements and corrosion of steel elements. its location. Security levels Clause 6. exposure to extreme climatic conditions. and with due consideration for public safety. temperature.1 Basic Methodology The design methodology involves the development of a suite of appropriate structures.2 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES 2.1 of the Standard provides a framework for the designer to evaluate and select a standard of design to suit a relevant security level appropriate to a particular line or a line construction class or type.

2 1.4 1.0 25 years 0.Level I Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line may be tolerable with respect to social and economic consequences. TABLE 6.2 1. (Normal distribution lines) Level II Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line would cause negligible danger to life and property and alternative arrangements can be provided if loss of support services occurs.9 1. e. The load multipliers tabulated in Table 6. The calculated wind loads shall be then multiplied by an appropriate reliability load multiplier based on the required security level and design life as selected from Table 6.4 100 years 1.67 0. hurdles. (Higher security distribution lines and normal transmission lines) Level III Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line would cause unacceptable danger to life or significant economic loss to the community and sever vital post disaster services.4 These Multipliers are applied to loads derived from 50-year return period wind speeds as defined in AS/NZ 1170. scaffolding and temporary line diversions with design life of less than 6 months 0.1 RELIABILITY MULTIPLIER FOR DESIGN WORKING LIFE AND LINE SECURITY LEVELS Minimum reliability load multiplier M rel Line security level Design working life Level I Level II Level III Temporary construction and construction equipment.2 provides regional design wind velocities VR for a number of wind regions and design return periods.2. As the design working life or security level increase so to do the wind and other applied loads proportionally increase as the load multiplier increases.1 of the Standard provides Reliability load multipliers for each Security Level relative to a range of design working life options. The design wind loads for an overhead line are be based on 50-year return period wind speeds as defined in AS/NZ 1170. AS/NZS1170.0 1.2 50 years 1.9 1.77 0. (Higher security transmission lines) Table 6.1 above have been derived from an analysis of all regional values of VR and expressed as a factor (VR /V50)2 against each design life.0 1.1.2.77 < 5 years 0.67 0. .g.

tracks. or line locations where access is difficult (where time and cost to restore the construction can be high). or the whole line. In these cases a higher security level could be adopted for a particular structure or short sections of the line. . whereas the aerial conductors most probably will be brought down. telecommunication lines. It is most probable when a single pole fails due to ground line failure the conductor system will most probably restrain the pole from falling to the ground. Design wind velocities greater than the regional value of V50 values in AS/NZS 1170. special exposed locations such as long span water or valley crossings. On distribution overhead pole lines. number of circuits and proximity to other lines or infrastructure.When these load factors are applied.2 for each of these return periods / design life values will be provided. This is an important consideration as restoration costs and disruption to supply in the event of structure failure can be considerable. or major flooding occurs the containment potential provides some benefit in conserving major structure elements.4 of the standard sets out additional security requirements.1 Clearance and Spacing for Overhead Lines From safety considerations. on major transmission lines longitudinal design loads relevant to residual loads for broken or terminated and aerial phase conductor are provided to meet this requirement. However the conductor tensions in the adjacent spans will increase dramatically and pose a maintenance work safety issue.7 of Overhead Line Design Standard]. In general. over roads. rivers. will occur when abnormal longitudinal loads are applied. Clause 6. . Where more extensive overload occurs due to major wind storm with extensive wind blown debris.2 could be used if considered more appropriate however the simplest approach is to increase the design working life. It requires that security requirements shall be provided in all designs to prevent or limit progressive or cascading structure failures in the event of collapse or failure of a support structure resulting from any external cause. overhead conductors should maintain requisite clearances to ground. other existing power lines. particularly when there is localized failure of the overhead line. When a single pole structure fails and conductors are broken (due to say vehicle impact or storm debris overload) the adjacent pole structures deflect such that they may provide sufficient release of load in the conductors to limit the extent of damage. pole deflection (usually rotational and lateral or longitudinal ) combined with partial foundation deformation.2.1 to giving consideration to the line length. a probability of exceedance equivalent to that provided in AS/NZS 1170. railways. 3 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS 3. The ground clearance for different voltages at maximum design temperature are given in Table 3 [ Table 3. The standard also refers in Notes to Table 6.

6 Clearances from Structures – Table 3. The spacing of conductors is determined by considerations.5 6.0 Other clearances given in the Overhead Line Design Standard are: • • • Clearances to Earthed Structures – Table 3. there is always possibility of the conductors swinging nonsynchronously. . Usually conductors will swing synchronously (in phase) with the wind. As a rule of thumb. The conductor separation in the Overhead Line Design Standard is as follows.TABLE 3 CLEARANCE FROM GROUND.5 7. X 2 + (1.2Y ) 2 ≥ U + k D + li 150 where X is the projected horizontal distance in metres between the conductors at mid span. which should be taken into account in determining the phase distance apart at which they should strung.7 6.8 A coverage of vegetation clearances are given in Appendix ….5 4.5 6.7 5. which are partly electrical and partly mechanical.5 5.5 Insulated conductor with earthed screen U > 1000 V Insulated conductor without earthed screen U > 1000 V Bare or covered conductor 1000 V <U ≤ 33 kV 6.5 HV AC Live Line Approach Distances – Table 3. LINES OTHER THAN INSULATED SERVICE LINES Distance to ground in any direction m Nominal system voltage Over the carriageway of roads U Over land other than the carriageway of roads Over land which due to its steepness or swampiness is not traversable by vehicles more than 3 m in height Bare or insulated conductor or any other cable U ≤ 1000 V OR 5.5 4.5 4.0 5.5 33 V <U ≤ 132 kV 6. but with long spans and small size of conductors. minimum horizontal spacing between conductors should not be less than 1% of the span length in order to minimize the risk of phases coming into contact with each other during swing. and the size of the conductor and the maximum sag at the centre of the span are factors.7 5.5 132 kV <U ≤ 275 kV 7.

3. Tower top geometry There are a number of electrical clearance which determine the tower top geometry.7 (4) In general the weight and wind area of the insulator can be ignored The vertical clearance between earthwire and top conductor. is governed by the desired lightning performance and angle of shielding. . vector difference in potential (kV) between the two conductors when each is operating at its nominal voltage. Where experience has shown that other values are appropriate. These clearances are: (A) Maintenance approach and live line working under 100 Pa wind (B) Switching and lightning impulse flashover under 300 Pa wind (C) Power frequency flashover under 500 Pa wind (D) Hand reach under 100 Pa wind These clearances are shown in Figure 2. To determine the swing angle from the wind pressure Appendix R of the Detailed Procedure can be used with the following guidelines: (1) The transverse force is derived from the conductor diameter and wind span (2) The vertical force is derived from the conductor weight (N/metre) times the weight span (3) The minimum recommended weight to wind span ratio is 0.s. U is the r. The shield angle generally varies from about 250 to 400.depending on the configuration of conductors.2 Y is the projected vertical distance in metres between the conductors at mid span. k is a constant. D is the greater of the two conductor sags in metres at the centre of an equivalent level span and at a conductor operating temperature of 50°C in still air Ii is the length in metres of any free swing suspension insulator associated with either conductor. normally equal to 0.4.m. these may be applied.

The recommended conditions for calculating blowout are: (1) 500 Pa wind on conductor (2) 15 deg C or ambient temperature applicable to the location of line .FIGURE 2 STRUCTURE GEOMETRY FOR 132 KV LINE SHOWING ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES • Insulator Swing Angles – T Gillespie • Produce worked example for insulator swing angle and blowout • Provide another drawing showing a line post insulator Blowout clearance calculations are useful to determine clearances along the span to structures along the route.

that is due to the transient nature of the current flow the conductor heat gain and loss at the surface of the conductor shall be ignored. the thermal conductivity of the conductor. Mechanical strength Electrical requirements Steady state thermal current rating The steady state thermal current rating of a conductor is the maximum current inducing the maximum steady state temperature for a given ambient condition and is based on conductor heat gain equals conductor heat loss that is— Pj + P s = P r + P c where the heat gain terms are Pj which is the joule heating due to the resistance of the conductor and Ps is the solar heat gain The heat loss terms are Pc which is natural and forced convection cooling and Pr is the radiation cooling. . the specific heat capacity of the conductor. Electrical requirement 2. The terms for heat gain for cyclic Short-circuit thermal current rating The short-circuit thermal current rating shall be based on adiabatic heating. The rating is a function of the conductor cross sectional area. The surface voltage gradient on the conductor should be around 16 kV/cm or less to limit the generation of corona discharges. the duration of the transient current.3 Include the horizontal displacement of a swinging insulator Transpositions Transpositions may be required on long transmission lines or heavily loaded lines to reduce the level of negative sequence voltage unbalance and reduce the interference in adjacent telecommunication circuits.(3) 3. the conductor temperature coefficient of resistance. Corona Effect For high voltage lines generally above 100 kV. the conductor resistivity. and Audible Noise. the conductor initial temperature. the magnitude of the current and maximum permissible temperature. the conductor size may be determined on the corona performance which can cause adverse impacts such as Radio Interference Voltage (RIV). 4 SELECTION OF CONDUCTOR The selection of conductor size is primarily governed by two factors: 1.

failure of the conductor and or tension fittings occurs at a level called the failure limit. Conductors will suffer some degree of annealing (loss of mechanical strength) and this is dependent on the operating and overload temperature on the conductor. or – 0. This level is called the damage limit and conductors and or tension fittings will be in damaged state if the conductors and or tension fittings have exceeded the damage limit.1. If the load is further increased. conductors may exhibit wire and or whole conductor fracture. Mechanical strength The mechanical strength of the conductor is one of the major parameter during the selection of the conductor of the line. The state of system and the damage and failure limits are illustrated in Figure 1 [ Section 2.Conductor long term electrical performance The long term performance of a conductor is dependent on the degree of electrical and mechanical overload and the weathering effects.2 of Overhead Line Design Standard] FIGURE 1 LIMIT STATES OF CONDUCTOR DESIGN Table 2 gives the damage and failure limit for a bare conductor.7 conductor CBL (see Note 3) . Conductor Limit states The overhead line is considered intact when its conductors and or tension fittings are used at stresses below their damage limit. conductors and or tension fittings may exhibit at some level.2. or for wind induced aeolian vibration.5 conductor CBL (see Note 2) 0. The conductors and or tension fittings will be in a failed state if the conductors and or tension fittings have exceeded the failure limit. TABLE 2 DAMAGE AND FAILURE LIMITS OF CONDUCTORS Conductors and tension fittings Damage limit Failure limit Lowest of— Bare – vibration limit (see Note 1). permanent deformation particularly if the failure mode is ductile. When subjected to increasing loads.

The minimum air clearance has to be maintained even under the conditions of system over-voltages with the insulator strings in the deflected position due to the action of wind pressure. the sag and tension calculation can be carried out by parabolic formula with sufficient degree of accuracy. For spans of the order of 300 meters and less. For the case of very long spans. catenary formula gives more accurate results than parabolic. The three types of over voltages which can occur on overhead lines are: .Selection of Conductors – G Brennan and G Bruce Selection of Conductor Tensions Topics to cover: • Fatigue endurance limit • Lower tensions based on service experience • Lower tensions for short spans • Adjacent span effects 4. switching and lightning overvoltages and the mechanical stresses include the tensile.1 Sag-tension calculation The sag and tension of the conductor are subject to variations due to the changes in temperatures and loading. Parabolic formula: SAG = wL2 8T Catenary formula: SAG = L ⎛ c ⎜ cosh 2c ⎝ ⎞ − 1⎟ ⎠ C = Horizontal Tension / Weight Where: L = horizontal length (m) c = catenary constant (m) T = horizontal tension (N) w = weight of conductor (N/m) 5 INSULATOR DESIGN Insulation is required to withstand the electrical and mechanical stresses applied to it during its lifetime. Air gap clearance refers to the minimum distance which must be maintained between the live conductor and earthed metal parts of the support to avoid flashover. The electrical stresses include power frequency. compressive or cantilever loadings from conductor tension and weight.

AS 4436 provides guidance on the selection of insulators for polluted conditions.1. Mechanical Design of Insulators Explanation of limit states – T Gillespie There are three states for the mechanical design of insulators identified in the Detailed Procedure. the pollution performance of the insulator usually dictates the amount of insulation is required for the particular voltage. (a) failure containment load at 1300 Pa Conductor tension at 1300 Pa = 39162 N Component strength factor for ceramic insulator = 0. (b) serviceable wind load. (c) The shape of the insulator to assist in reducing the likelihood of contamination collection and facilitate washing. the state to determine the mechanical design is the ultimate strength state.806* 200 N = 1814 N Longitudinal load for 3:1 adjacent span ratio.8 (Table 6.925 kg/metre. the following criteria need to be considered: (a) Creepage (or leakage) distance. weight span of 200 metres. Power frequency over voltages Design for pollution For medium to high voltage lines.8 = 48952 N Calculate the strength of a composite line post insulator used to support oxygen conductor in a clamp top with a weight of 0. Lightning induced 2. (b) everyday load Conductor weight = 0. Switching surges 3. Based on Appendix DD. and (c) failure containment load. (b) The ability of the material to endure the electrical activity without being degraded.5) Minimum insulator ultimate strength = 39162 / 0. and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 5000 N . WORKED EXAMPLES: Transmission Line Insulator Examples Calculate the strength of a tension ceramic disc insulator used for oxygen conductor strung to everyday tension of 20% CBL. When determining the insulation requirements in a contaminated environment. and strung to everyday tension of 20% CBL.925 * 9. The basic concept is to increase the surface creepage distance so that it is long enough to prevent a pollution flashover across the surface. these being the— (a) everyday load.

9 (Table 6.925 * 9.0238*1300*200 = 6188 N Simplified method: Compressive strength of 2.94 Insulator maximum design cantilever load with transverse load = 5909 / 0.806* 200 N = 1814 N Longitudinal load for 3:1 adjacent span ratio. and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 5000 N Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (1814^2 + 5000^2) = 5318 N Insulator ultimate cantilever strength without transverse load = 5318 / 0. (2) A 2.5 inch post insulator is typically rated at 6 kN MDCL and is not appropriate for this load (3) The design options to support the failure containment load are: • Brace 2.6188 / 50000 = 0. For broken conductor condition assume a serviceable wind of 500 Pa.9 = 5909 N Note: The maximum design cantilever load of a post insulator is typically 40 to 50% of the ultimate strength.94 = 6200 N (d) failure containment load at 1300 Pa Conductor weight = 0. and strung to everyday tension of 20% CBL.87 = 6800 N Comments: (1) The determining state is the failure containment load where the maximum design cantilever strength is 6800 N. (c) serviceable wind load at 500 Pa Conductor weight = 0.806* 200 N = 1814 N Longitudinal load for 3:1 adjacent span ratio.5 inch line post = 50 kN Derating factor = 1-2380 / 50000 = 0.9 = 5909 N Transverse compressive load = 0.925 kg/metre.0238*500*200 = 2380 N Simplified method: Compressive strength of 2.9 = 5909 N Transverse compressive load = 0.925 * 9. weight and wind span of 400 metres. and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 5000 N Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (1814^2 * 5000^2) = 5318 N Insulator ultimate cantilever strength without transverse load = 5318 / 0.Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (1814^2 * 5000^2) = 5318 N Component strength factor for composite post insulator = 0.5 inch post with a long rod insulator • Limit the line layout to an adjacent span ratio of 2 or less • Use a 3 inch post which has a MDCL of around 9 kN Calculate the strength of a suspension composite long rod used to support oxygen conductor with a weight of 0.87 Insulator maximum design cantilever strength with transverse load = 5909 / 0.5) Insulator maximum design cantilever load = 5318 / 0. (a) everyday load .5 inch line post = 50 kN Derating factor = 1.

925 * 9.5 = 25793 N (c) failing containment load under broken conductor Longitudinal load = 22700 N * 0. (e) failure containment load at 900 Pa Conductor tension at 900 Pa = 8617 N Component strength factor for ceramic insulator = 0.5 (Table 6.925 * 9. insulator. (7) The minimum recommended strengths are based on the requirement to achieve a design life comparable to other line components Distribution Line Insulator Examples Calculate the strength of a tension ceramic disc insulator used for moon conductor strung to everyday tension of 20% CBL.5 (Table 6. crossarm and structure. To achieve a long life for the ceramic disc insulator. .806* 400 N = 3628 N Assume no longitudinal load due to free swinging insulator Transverse load = 0.5) Insulator specified mechanical load = 15890 / 0. (6) If a ceramic disc insulator would be used.806* 400 N = 3628 N Assume no longitudinal load due to free swinging insulator Component strength factor for long rod insulator = 0.8 (Table 6. The SML is a one minute withstand load.Conductor weight = 0.5 = 7256 N (b) ultimate strength state under 1300 Pa wind Conductor weight = 0.0238 * 1300 * 400 N = 12376 Resultant load = SQRT (3628^2 + 12376^2) = 12896 N Component strength factor for long rod insulator = 0.7 factor (load relief due to insulator swing) = 15890 N Component strength factor for long rod insulator = 0.5) Minimum insulator ultimate strength = 8617 / 0.5) Insulator specified mechanical load = 3628 / 0. the minimum standard of 70 kN is recommended. fittings.5 = 31780 N Comments: (4) The determining state is the failure containment load under broken conductor conditions (5) The minimum recommended size for the suspension insulator is 111 kN (specified mechanical load). then the recommended minimum size is 70 kN (minimum breaking load).5) Insulator specified mechanical load = 12896 / 0.5 (Table 6.8 = 10771 N Refer to Note 1 in Appendix CC which states insulator strength to be greater than conductor CBL or coordination of strength between conductor.

34 * 9. and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 3300 N Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (333^2 * 3300^2) = 3316 N Insulator minimum failing load without transverse load = 3316 / 0. (h) failure containment load at 900 Pa Conductor weight = 0.8 = 4145 N Transverse compressive load = 0.T Gillespie • • • • Tension string Suspension or I string Line post Pin (G Bailey to provide) . this can be ignored.806* 100 N = 333 N Longitudinal load for 2:1 adjacent span ratio.5) Insulator minimum failing load = 3316 / 0. and strung to everyday tension of 20% CBL.34 * 9.8 (Table 6. this can be ignored. weight span of 100 metres.34 * 9.0143*500*100 = 715 N Simplified method: Compressive strength of ceramic post = 100 kN Since the transverse compressive load is insignificant compared to the compressive strength of the ceramic post.806* 100 N = 333 N Longitudinal load for 2:1 adjacent span ratio.806* 100 N = 333 N Longitudinal load for 2:1 adjacent span ratio (75 and 150 m spans).34 kg/metre. and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 3300 N Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (333^2 * 3300^2) = 3316 N Insulator minimum failing load without transverse load = 3316 / 0.Calculate the strength of a ceramic line post insulator used to support moon conductor in a clamp top with a weight of 0.0143*900*100 = 1287 N Simplified method: Compressive strength of ceramic post = 100 kN Since the transverse compressive load is insignificant compared to the compressive strength of the ceramic post. Produce worked examples for the following insulators: .8 = 4145 N (g) serviceable wind load at 500 Pa Conductor weight = 0.8 = 4145 N Transverse compressive load = 0. and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 3300 N Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (333^2 * 3300^2) = 3316 N Component strength factor for ceramic post insulator = 0. (f) everyday load Conductor weight = 0.

h4 The total height of structure will be determined by: H T = h1 + h2 + h3 + h4 6. Transverse loads Transverse loads are caused by wind on conductor and structure and horizontal tension from deviation angle in the line. adjacent spans being of different lengths and an abnormal (broken wire) load on the structure.1. The design site wind speed is taken as— Vz where = V50 Md Mz.2 Loading on Structures The loads on a structure consist of three mutually perpendicular systems of load acting vertical.1 Determination of height The factors governing the height of structure are: • • • • Minimum permissible ground clearance. and parallel to the direction of the line. crossarms and pole mounted plant. h1 Maximum sag.cat MsMt . earthwire. Wind load A complete coverage of wind loading is given in Appendix B of the Overhead Line Design Standards. These loads can be described as: • • • Vertical load Transverse load Longitudinal load Vertical loads Vertical loads include the weight of conductors.1. h3 Vertical clearance between earthwire and top conductor. h2 Vertical spacing between conductors.6 BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN 6. Longitudinal loads Longitudinal loads are caused by difference in conductor tension on either side of termination structures. normal to the direction of line.

6Vz2 × 10−3 kPa = 6. Rn = the nominal strength of the component Some of the Limit State load cases given in the Overhead Line Design Standard are as follows: The Ultimate Strength Limit State Condition φ Rn > Wn+1. stringing.Mz. Wn = wind load based on a 50 year return period scaled by the appropriate reliability load factor or specified design wind pressure φ = the strength factor which takes into account variability of material.25 Ft Where: Wn = Effect of transverse wind loads Gc = Vertical dead loads resulting from conductors under limit state wind conditions .cat = gust winds speed multiplier for terrain category at height z. The Limit State design approach uses a reliability based (risk of failure) approach to match component strengths (modified by a factor to reflect strength variability) to the effect of loads calculated on the basis of an acceptably low probability of occurrence. maintenance and safety considerations etc.1Gs + 1.2 for all regions use Table 4. φRn > effect of loads ( MRel Wn + ΣγxX) where X = the applied loads pertinent to each loading condition Reliability multiplier – given in Table 3 MRel = γx = are load factors which take into account variability of loads.3 Limit State Design Current practice in Australia for the design of Overhead Line Structural Components is to use a Limit State design approach as set out in ENA C(b)1 Guidelines for Design and Maintenance of Overhead Distribution and Transmission Lines. V50 = basic regional wind velocity for the region corresponding to the 50 year return period.25Gc +1. Md = wind direction multiplier. importance of structure. The design pressure qz shall be calculated as follows: qz Mrel x 0. workmanship etc. Ms = shielding multiplier.1. Refer AS/NZS 1170. Mt = topographic multiplier for gust wind speed.1(A).

7 CBL for nonlinear Initial / Final Final .1Gs +1.5 Gc +2.5 CBL for linear .Gs = Vertical dead loads resulting from non conductor loads Ft = Intact conductor tension loads under limit state wind conditions φ R = Component design stress for limit state condition The Maintenance Load Condition φ R > 1.0Q + 1.25 Ft Where: Gc = Vertical dead loads resulting from conductors under everyday condition Gs = Vertical dead loads resulting from non conductor loads Q = Maintenance loads Ft = Intact conductor tension loads under maintenance wind Component Strength Factors Wood Poles – Preserved The relevant component strength factor for a preserved wood poles is dependent on the following characteristics and usage of the pole • Durability class • Strength class • Security class • Design life 7 ACTION ON LINES Conductor Everyday Load Horizontal Tension The recommended weather cases used in design of overhead line conductor tensions are given in Table … Condition Temp Wind Maximum Tension Refer Table Z1 Fatigue Endurance Conditions Design Everyday Condition Ultimate wind Avg temp for coldest month Design at 0.5 to 7 m/sec Avg ambient temp for year 0 Pa Refer Table Z1 Avg ambient temp for year Regional design value .

B Clulow. B Clulow and J Giles Include basic limit state wind pressure for distribution designs. .7 x CBL for non-linear Final 0 Pa 0. R McLennan • • 900 Pa for conductors 1300 Pa for round surfaces such as poles Modify wind pressures for various drag coefficients for poles and Regions/ Topography – R Fairweather and L Elder Application Table Overhead Line System Line Component or Parameter Ultimate Support System (structures and foundations) Structures – detailed Ultimate wind Applicable Wind Loads Servicability Everyday .25 x Ult wind Note: The relevant temperatures for a selection location is available from the Australia Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) website or NIWA for New Zealand Establishment of loads cases .3 x CBL Initial 0 Pa Everyday tension plus creep factor 0 Pa 1 to 5 year return period (300 Pa nominal) 30 Pa 0 deg C Temp at time of run out Temp at time of pretension Temp at time of sagging minus creep correction factor Avg ambient temp for year 100 Pa .5 x CBL for linear .Servicability wind – electrical Cold Condition Avg ambient temp for year Coldest day of year based on design life Ice Loading – 10 Coldest day of year mm thickness based on design life Snow loading – up to 100 mm thickness Conductor runout Conductor pretension Sagging Maintenance Failure Containment 500 Pa .3 x CBL Initial 0 Pa 0.J McCormack.

procedure Pole – detailed procedure Ultimate wind Pole – simplified method 900 Pa in Region A & B Deflection Limit at serviceable wind Deflection Limit at 300 Pa 0 Pa Electrical System Clearances – low wind Clearances – moderate wind Clearances – high wind Clearances – Maintenance 60 to 100 Pa 100 to 300 Pa 500 Pa 60 to 100 Pa Conductors Insulators – tension Insulators – vee string Insulators – post or pin Ultimate or 900 Pa Ultimate conductor transverse or Failure containment Ultimate conductor transverse or Failure containment 500 Pa 0 Pa Fittings 8 SUPPORTS Pole Strength and Deflection Design The recommended limit state wind pressures for distribution designs for a typical life of 50 years in Regions A and B are: Ultimate Loads (WN) • • 900 Pa to conductor 1300 Pa to round pole (this allows for crossarms. insulators but not metal clad plant) . pole steps.

When separate footings are provided for each leg the predominant loadings are compression and uplift forces.25 ??. pad or raft footings. Common types of single foundations are direct buried poles. The maximum crack width is typically in the range 0. shear forces should be considered. however. and single pile or pile group foundations. the buckling failure mode of the pole should be considered. The loading on single footings is predominantly in the form of overturning moment.1 to 0.7) with a maximum deflection limit at 5% of the pole length. 9 FOUNDATION DESIGN The foundation is called upon to resist the following types of forces: • • • • Uplift Downthrust Lateral load Overturning moment Foundations for supports may take the form of single foundations in the case of pole type structures and guy anchors or separate footings for each leg of towers. drag factors and terrain categories 2 to 4. bored caissons. For stayed poles.1Gs + 1.25 Ft For stayed poles with long length and small diameter. bored pier foundations. mono-bloc footings. The Euler buckling failure equations can be found in the relevant codes (eg AS1720). . Consideration should also be given to the P delta effects should they occur.3 mm (refer Appendix D3. together with additional shear and vertical forces resisted by upwards soil pressure.These wind pressures allow for span reduction factors.25Gc +1. φ Rn > Wn+1. which is usually resisted by lateral soil pressure. Servicability Limits Sustained Everyday tension loads on angle and termination poles • • 0 Pa for conductors 0 Pa for round surfaces such as poles Deflection limits for maintenance and clearances • • 100 Pa for conductors 300 Pa for round surfaces such as poles A deflection serviceability limit will apply to concrete poles which may crack under load. the vertical loads due to the stay reaction forces needs to be taken into account. The relevant multiplier for the vertical loads produced by the stay is 1.

Foundation for poles (distribution lines) – L Elder • Use simple formula Distribution pole foundation design There are various methods used for pole foundation design and these are covered in Table … The Brinch Hanson method is regarded as the superior method for pole structures. shear forces and bearing in the soil. . earth surcharges. such as that outlines in AS4676 have been found to be suitable for intermediate poles in firm soil and with small conductors. pier or caisson foundations. and vertical or raked pile foundations. Common types of separate footing foundations are (stepped) block footings with or without undercut (pad and chimney. auger bored footings with or without expanded base.2 (from AS4676).Uplift and compression forces are usually resisted by combinations of dead weight of the foundation bulk. Table … Foundation Design Brinch Hanson Formula Precise calculation. grillage foundations. Advantage / Comment Disadvantage Complex.8 New Zealand Pole length / 6 Simple Applies to firm soil and small conductors assoc with intermediate poles Applies to firm soil and small conductors assoc with intermediate poles The simplified embedment depth formula is given in Equation 13. however more simple techniques. This also applies to guy foundations. requires soil modelling AS4676 Formula C(b) 1 – pre 10% pole length + 0.6 Simple 1992 to 0. spread footings).

22 .Example: Servicable wind at 500 Pa on conductors and 750 Pa on pole Pole Tip Load. Hg = 8 kN Height = 14 m Normal soil cohesive strength. Fb = 300 kPa Pole dia. b = 0.35 Embedment Depth = 2.

the options are: (1) (2) Increase the embedment depth – for the above case. (h) Avoid damage to properties and equipment. The dimensioning of earthing systems considers the following requirements: (i) To ensure mechanical strength and corrosion resistance.5 m under ultimate wind Increase the effective width of pole by installing a sand/cement backfill in the hole – for the above case with 150 kPa soil to achieve the same foundation strength. (e) Provide acceptable reliability (lightning performance) on the line. (g) Provide a conductive path for fault current. The structure footing resistance can be controlled .35 Embedment Depth = 2. grading rings and counterpoise earthing addresses the following objectives: (d) Ensure protective equipment will operate in faulted situations. This can ensure the lightning performance of a line is acceptable and ensure touch and step potentials are at an acceptable level. option 2 is generally preferred. (f) Control touch and step potentials around the base of the structure.This depth correlates with a traditional rule of thumb of 10% of the pole length + 0. 10 EARTHING An earthing system of overhead earthwires. a hole of diameter 700 mm will be required for both serviceable and ultimate wind loads To achieve a consistent above ground height (for clearances). from a thermal point of view. with 150 kPa soil. earth down leads. Hg = 14 kN Height = 14 m Normal soil cohesive strength. It is a desirable goal to achieve an average structure footing resistance for the line of less than 10 ohms. Fb = 300 kPa Pole dia. the embedment depth is 3.8 m Ultimate wind at 900 Pa on conductors and 1300 Pa on pole Pole Tip Load.23 m under serviceable wind and 3. (ii) To withstand. b = 0. the highest fault current as determined by calculation (iii) Limit lightning induced voltages on earth down leads The transfer of potential by nearby metallic objects may occur due to fault currents flowing in the earth system.41 Variation of soil cohesive strengths For low cohesive strength soils.

Appropriate insulation of low voltage circuits Replacing a non-conductive pole with a conductive pole When replacing a non-conductive pole with a conductive pole. Installation of overhead and underslung earthwire 2. Practical Earthing Schemes – T Gillespie Design for Touch and Step Potential for conductive structures The range of mitigation measures to address touch and step potentials are: 1. Installing a fence around conductive structure 10. Installation of NER or NEX on zone transformer to limit earth fault current 7.during the construction phase of the line by installing additional earth rods or counterpoise wires in the soil away from the structure. due consideration needs to be taken to address step and touch potentials.000 A Fault Clearing Time = 1 sec Fault Rate = 2 x 100 m span without earthwire at 40 faults per 100 km per year Contacts per year = 40 for 4 seconds Footwear = standard distribution Earthing resistance = 1 ohm Soil resistivity = 100 ohm-m . Installing high conductivity earthwires 5. Insulating base of pole 9. air break switch) in a CMEN urban area Voltage = 11 kV Fault Current = 5. Reduction of footing resistance 4. a SWER high voltage earth needs to be restricted to around 20 volts or less (Queensland Code of Practice for Works – Earthing) Risk Based Approach to Earthing The risk based approach is covered in the ENA EG-0 Power System Earthing Guide Part 1: Management Principles Risk Based Earthing Examples: 1 HV Distribution Earth (eg Pole mounted transformer. Installation of high resistivity surface layer (eg ashphalt) 6. Installation of grading ring 3. recloser. SWER Earthing For public safety. Connection to CMEN earthing system 8.

5 seconds. (5) Combination of (2) and (3) – still above limit (6) Combination of (2 and (4) – meets limit (7) Installation of underslung earthwire – this reduces prospective touch voltage to less than 800 volts (underslung earthwire is expected to reduce fault current on striken pole to range of 5 to 8% of previous value).000 A Fault Clearing Time = 1 sec Fault Rate = 2 x 100 m span without earthwire at 40 faults per 100 km per year Contacts per year = 40 for 4 seconds Footwear = standard distribution Earthing resistance = 10 ohm Soil resistivity = 100 ohm-m Prospective Touch Voltage = 10. (4) Reduce protection clearing times – at 0.000 volts. the prospective touch limit is 4.5 seconds. . The prospective touch voltage is above limit.000 Volt (derived by impedance model of footwear and soil resistivity) Prospective Touch Voltage Curve DU for 1 sec clearing = 800 Volts Mitigation Options: (1) Insulate earth (this is standard practice for HV earth downleads but may not be practical for air break switches with exposed metal operating rod and handle) (2) Installation of NER or NEX to limit fault current to typically 1000 A (3) Installation of grading ring – this would lower prospective touch voltage (4) Reduce protection clearing times – at 0. This meets limits.000 volts. This is still above limit. the prospective touch limit is 4. This is still above limit (3) Installation of grading ring – this would lower prospective touch voltage to around 5.000 volts 2 Conductive distribution pole in an urban area Voltage = 11 kV Fault Current = 5.000 volts.000 Volt (derived by impedance model of footwear and soil resistivity) Prospective Touch Voltage Curve DU for 1 sec clearing = 800 Volts Mitigation Options: (1) Insulate pole (there have been trials on networks but no proven product is available) (2) Installation of NER or NEX to limit fault current to typically 1000 A – prospective touch voltage reduces to 2.Prospective Touch Voltage = 1.

The installation of underslung earthwire is also effective in addressing touch hazards on all conductive poles on the feeder. The stay wire insulator shall be placed so its lowest point is not less than 2. low impedance earthing system with many connections to the general mass of the earth. Where a separate earthed system is installed. The wet flashover voltage of the insulator must be 50% greater than the highest conductor on the pole phase to earth voltage. and in addition are connected to the neutral conductor of the supply system.4m of the ground. excluding any underslung earth wire. Common Multiple Earthed Neutral (CMEN) This is where the HV and LV earthing systems are commonly bonded together with the LV MEN customer installation. There are two possible mechanisms that may energise a stay wire. a resistance of 30 ohms or less is desirable. Earthing and Insulation of Stay Wires Stay wires on lines should have insulators installed to limit the chance of an energised stay wire coming into contact with the public or staff. Distribution Earthing Systems Multiple Earthed Neutral (MEN) In a low voltage MEN system of earthing the elements of an installation that require earthing are commonly connected to earth. Mitigations methods for either scenario are given below: Conductor Failure Protection Stay wires within 2. With this type of system special consideration should be given to protection against HV earth faults and EPR. A well connected MEN system has a resistance of less than 1 ohms.4 metres of the ground should be earthed in accordance with Clause 11 unless they are insulated by means of an insulator placed in the stay wire. Separate Earthed System A separated earthing system is implemented with a pole top transformer by providing high voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) earths on opposite sides of the pole and installing a nonconductive covering for the earthing conductors within 2. Again earth electrode separation should be kept to the length of the electrode or 4m at a minimum. Broken Stay Wire Protection . a conductor falling and energising the stay wire and a broken stay wire coming in contact with live conductors. The stay wire insulator must also be placed so it is lower than the lowest conductor.4 metres above the ground. an MEN value of <1ohm is desirable. Where CMEN systems are installed. This results in a well distributed.

4 metres in height from the ground.A failed stay wire can fall onto live conductors and bring an energized stay wire closer than 2. The following diagrams showing various broken stay wire scenarios. To protect for these scenarios more than one stay wire insulator may be required. .

.

3.2Y ) 2 ≥ 33 + 0.2Y ) 2 ≥ 0.052 + (1.81 m for 19/.493 Therefore required minimum vertical separation for centre phase is 0.052 Y≥ 0.052 + (1.1.07 m and sited in Region A. Refer Figure 10.3.1 m between outer phases is used? Sag at 50 degrees C is 6.11 WORKED EXAMPLES 11.25 AAC and 5.2 Y ≥ 1.064 copper at 11 kV. The lower circuit conductor is 19/.4 D = 6.2Y ) 2 ≥ 1. Example 2: Upper circuit 19/3.493 m.052 + (1. Refer Figure 10.07 + 0 150 1. What is the mid span vertical separation required between phases if a crossarm with a separation of 2.05 U = 33 k = 0.064 Copper sited in Region Type A..985 1.2 Y ≥ 0. where ∴X = 1.25 AAC at 33 kV 3 phase on pin insulators in a delta configuration with a span of 200 m located directly above the lower circuit.25 AAC at 33 kV 3 phase on pin insulators in a delta configuration with a span of 200 m.205 1. .2.07 li = 0 X 2 + (1.07 m 19/3. The lower circuit has a 120° phase differential to the upper circuit.4 6.1 Electrical Clearances between conductors Example 1: Single circuit 19/3.22 + 0.1 m between outer phases is used? Sag at 50 degrees C is 6.2Y ) 2 ≥ U + k D + li 150 1.591 1. What is the mid span vertical separation required between circuits if a crossarm with a separation of 2.2052 − 1.

138 Y≥ 1.153 + 0.4 (Region A) D = 6.948 11.s.2 Determination of conductor rating Once a conductor and its maximum operating temperature have been chosen.4 6.985 1. Conductor ratings are usually calculated for a combination of ambient temperatures and wind speeds.9 (the difference in the vector r. the conductor rating can be calculated.2Y ) 2 ≥ U + k D + li 150 22.9 + 0. TNSP have agreed on a common method for conducting conductor ratings [Ref 3].07 (greater of the two sags) li = 0 (Pin insulators) X 2 + (1.1. The method is based on the heat balance equations where Heat In (Solar Radiation Current Heating) = Heat Out (Convection Cooling from Wind and Radiated Losses).07 + 0 150 (1.2Y ≥ 1.2 Y ≥ 0. A coverage of the method is given in Reference [1]. potential of the circuit voltages) k = 0.2Y ) 2 ≥ 0.m. Should further detail be required refer to Reference [2].Because the circuits are located vertically above each other the horizontal component is taken as zero and U = Va2 + Vb2 − 2 Va Vb Cos φ from ‘U’ above = ⎛ 33 ⎞ ⎛ 11 ⎞ 33 11 × Cos120° ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 2 × 3 3 ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ 2 2 = 22.2Y ) 2 ≥ 0 + (1.9 kV ∴X = 0 U = 22.138 1. Guidelines for the use of these parameters are given in Table 4. .

0 References 1 Electricity Supply Association of Australia. 1991.1 AMBIENT TEMPERATURES AND WIND SPEEDS FOR CONDUCTOR RATINGS Rating type Ambient temperature (°C) Wind speed (ms −1 ) Summer noon normal Max summer temp at location 0. Thermal Behaviour of Electrical Conductors.0 Winter evening normal Mild winter evening temp at location 0. V. In a low to moderate ceraunic activity area. “Standard Line Ratings Methodology for Transmission Network Services Providers”. like Flash) can be used to determine the probability of a shielding flashover. backflashover and induced voltage.TABLE 4. The acceptable outage rate due to lightning is therefore one of the most dominant design parameters for an overhead line. 3. an acceptable outage rate from lightning for overhead lines with overhead earthwires is typically 2 to 5 outages per 100 km per year.0 Summer noon emergency Max summer temp at location 1. 4 IEEE 738 Thermal Rating of Conductors 5 IEC 60909 “Calculation of the short-circuit currents in three phase a. Current Rating of Bare Overhead Line Conductors published by Standards Association of Australia.0 to 2. A shielding failure occurs when the overhead earthwire fails to intercept the lightning stroke and the voltage developed by the surge current (1/2 stroke current x surge impedance of conductor) exceeds the insulation strength of the insulation. A moderate ceraunic level is between 30 and 50 thunderdays per year. Dynamic and FaultCurrent Ratings.5 to 1.0 Winter evening emergency Mild winter evening temp at location 1. Published in Brisbane by John Wiley and Sons Inc. Process for design – balance shielding failures vs backflashover performance – T Gillespie Estimation of line outages due to lightning There are 3 types of outages caused by lightning. D (b) 5—1998. The mechanism of a backflashover is that the lightning current flowing in the overhead earthwire couples inductively and capacitively with the phase conductor .5 to 1. 2 MORGAN. The electrogeometric model developed by IEEE (and incorporated in lightning prediction programs.0 to 2.c. and high level above 50 thunderdays per year. systems” 6 EN 60865-1 “Calculation of the effects of short-circuit current” 11.T. Steady. shielding failure / direct strike .3 Design for lightning performance Lightning induced outages are one of the major cause of outages on overhead lines in areas of moderate to high ceraunic activity. Backflashovers are the predominant cause of lighting induced flashovers on overhead lines protected by an earth or shield wire.

. the combined insulation strength of the insulator and wood is increased. (j) having wood in the flashover circuit (crossarm or pole). With a single earthwire. the smaller is the reflection co-efficient and this results in a lower voltage on the structure.1 where Iwood = Iinsulator = Impulse strength of wood Impulse strength of insulator When an overhead earthwire is installed on powerlines. One earthwire is usually sufficient to cater for shielding flashovers on structures below 20 m..and induces a voltage in it. Overhead earthwires are used to shield the line from lightning strikes and are usually installed on high reliability lines operating at sub-transmission and transmission voltage levels. (b) Provides a low impedance path for earth faults to ensure there is sufficient fault current to operate protection relays Application of Surge Arresters . The lightning performance of a shielded overhead line is complex and requires mathematical modelling to determine the optimal shielding and backflashover rates. The arc quenching properties of wood has been used by Authorities to reduce lightning induced outages on the network. but higher structures will need two earthwires to achieve effective shielding. (k) Critical Flashover voltage (CFO) of the insulators. They are also installed on overhead distribution lines for short distances (typically 800 m) out of a substation to protect the substation equipment from damaging overvoltages. and (l) pole footing resistance. Distribution lines are generally unshielded and the major causes of lightning outages are direct strikes and induced voltages from nearby lightning strikes. The higher the impulse strength of the insulator/wood combination. The magnitude of the voltage is dependent on the structure surge impedance and the ground footing resistance. the shielding angle is usually in the range of 30 to 40 degrees. A portion of current also flows down the conductive structure (or earth down lead) to ground and develops a voltage on the structure. It has been found that the parameters which can be varied to achieve the largest influence on the lightning performance of overhead lines are— (i) installation of earthwire. The effective impulse strength of a series wood and insulator path can be calculated as follows: Itotal = [Iwood 2 + Iinsulator 2 ]1/2 . generally a down lead is run to earth to provide a low resistance path to ground. The prediction of lightning outages is not an exact science and the methods adopted in one Authority may not be appropriate in others. the higher the resistance to flashover. When wood is added to the insulation path. The lower the footing resistance. A low pole footing resistance not only reduces the probability of lightning induced backflashovers but also offers the following advantages: (a) Reduces risk of injury to persons or animals due to rises in earth potential at the structure and the surrounding soil. Refer to Reference [8] for the electrical properties of wood.

0 to 3.s phase to phase voltage of the highest voltage of the equipment.4.m.0 25 Very Heavy Above 3.2 16 Medium 1. 2. The basic concept is to increase the surface creepage distance so that it is long enough to prevent a pollution flashover across the surface.2 to 2. 3.1 (1) Protection of pole mounted plant (2) Protection of underground terminations (3) Protect covered conductor from failure (4) To improve lightning outage rate (5) Where it is difficult or costly to install an overhead earthwire (eg retrofitting an existing line) Electrical and Mechanical Design for Insulators Design for pollution When determining the insulation requirements for an overhead power line or an outdoor substation in a contaminated environment.4 11.Surge arresters can be applied to an overhead line to improve the lightning performance.2 reproduces the guidelines in Reference [2]. The shape of the insulator to assist in reducing the likelihood of contamination collection and facilitate washing. TABLE 5. Surge arresters have been used in the following applications: 11. the following criteria need to be considered: 1. The ability of the material to endure the electrical activity without being degraded.0 31 (1) ESDD is the equivalent salt deposit density. There are two approaches which can be used to select the appropriate creepage distance for various levels of contamination severity. (2) Ratio of leakage distance measured between phase and earth over the r. Creepage (or leakage) distance.0 20 Contamination severity Heavy 2. (3) Consideration should be given to increasing the creepage distances is areas where there are long periods without rainfall or very close to the marine coast . The recommendations are given in Table 5. Table 5.1 (titled Relationship between severity of pollution at site to various parameters) of Reference [1].2 GUIDE FOR SELECTING INSULATORS IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS ESDD range (1) Minimum nominal specific creepage distance (2) g/m mm/kV Light 0 to1.

Maximum dynamic overvoltage can occur during faults and load rejection.4 Selection of Insulator to meet Electrical Performance .e. A good coverage on the design for switching surge is given in AS 1824. When high speed autoreclosing is installed.11.2.4 per unit is for a three phase power system that is effectively earthed e.g. the neutral is earthed). one of the parameters which is difficult to obtain is the switching surge impulse voltage.4 per unit which can be regarded as the maximum dynamic overvoltage. When designing for switching surges. The wet power frequency withstand voltage of the line insulation should be selected to exceed this maximum dynamic overvoltage. Line insulation is usually selected independent of substation insulation. one being the lightning impulse and the other the power frequency flashover (wet and dry).4.4.2 Design for power frequency voltages (Wet withstand requirement) The line insulation should be designed to withstand the maximum voltage expected on the line. switching surge and lightning ) is the arc distance across the insulator. There are 2 main types of electrical tests conducted on insulators. The insulator parameter that determines the insulator impulse performance ( i. In lieu of adequate test data on switching surges a good approximation for the switching surge flashover voltage is 0.1 per unit voltage to take into account the effects of voltage drop with loading and there is the possibility that with capacitors on the line. the powerline could operate up to 1. (2) the capacitance or amount of trapped charges on the line and (3) other equipment connected to the line. especially when the line insulation is longer than the substation insulation.4. it would be common to install surge arresters on the line to limit the overvoltages to the designed line insulation. the type of electrodes and the presence of earth planes. overvoltage can exceed 3 per unit voltage. (1. Overhead powerlines usually operate at 1. The extent of this overvoltage is dependent on (1) the point of voltage wave when the line is switched. 11.3 Design for switching surge voltages Switching surge overvoltages up to 3 per unit peak voltage can arise when overhead lines are switched. Switching tests have been conducted in laboratories and the flashover voltages have been inconsistent and found to be dependent on the shape of the surge.8 times the lightning impulse flashover voltage. It is necessary to check substation insulation impulse performance and install surge arresters. particularly on transmission lines. 11. In these cases.

25 (OML) 25 (MML) 534 785 200 200 Wet Power Freq withstand (kVp) 65 95 785 200 95 760 200 900 200 Clevis Tongue .Fog Ball Socket .11 Line Post Tie Top Line Post Clamp Top Standoff Line Post with Trunnion Clamp Station Post Composite Long Rod Composite Long Rod 70 Example: Select a suitable disc insulator string for a 33 kV line subject to extreme contamination. System Highest Voltage = 36 kV Minimum nominal specific creepage distance = 31 mm/kV for extreme contamination Required creepage distance for 36 kV = 1116 mm . Normal disc profiles have a creepage length of 300 mm and fog discs of 400 mm.Normal Pin .Two part Standoff Line Post with Tie Top Standoff Line Post with Clamp Top Station Post 11 9 (cantil) 11 (axial) 9 (cantil) 11 (axial) 5 (cantil) 1 (kNm tors) 8.String Insulator Units: Min Failing Load (kN) Min Creepage Dist (mm) Dry Lightning Impulse (kVp) 70 70 70 70 280 360 280 360 95 95 95 95 Wet Power Freq withstand (kVp) 40 40 40 40 7 7 22 18 (cantil) 6 (axial) 12 (cantil) 18 (axial) 12 (cantil) 18 (axial) 8 (cantil) 1.Fog 11 kV Insulators: Pin .Fog Shackle Type SH.2 (kNm tors) 8.Normal Ball Socket .25 (OML) 25 (MML) 180 360 180 425 95 95 95 150 30 30 30 38 425 150 38 425 150 38 360 95 350 95 38 33 kV Insulators: Min Failing Load (kN) Min Creepage Dist (mm) Dry Lightning Impulse (kVp) Pin .Normal Clevis Tongue .

AS 1824.79 → 3 discs Select a suitable disc insulator string for a 275 kV line subject to heavy contamination.1.Number of normal discs = 1116/300 = 3. References 1. Use normal or fog disc profiles where the creepage length is 300 mm normal and 400 mm for fog.4. 2. 3. Part 2: Application guide. System Highest Voltage = 300 kV Minimum nominal specific creepage distance = 25 mm/kV for heavy contamination Required creepage distance for 300 kV = 7500 mm Number of normal discs = 7500/300 = 25 discs Number of fog discs = 7500/400 = 18.75 → 19 discs 11.5 Insulator mechanical design The loads on an insulator can be calculated using the Limit State methodology outlined in Section 3.72 → 4 discs Number of fog discs = 1116/400 = 2. . Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions. The guidelines for the strength factor are given in Table 3. (Identical to ISO Report 815). AS 4436 Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions. Insulation coordination.2—1985. IEC 60815.

11.5 Limit State Design Worked Examples Basic Formula for Bending Moment Loads PZ TX TX θ/2 θ/2 FT = PZ x D x W d FT PZ D Wd TX θ = = = = = = + 2 T X sin force on the conductor wind pressure conductor diameter wind span horizontal tension structure deviation angle θ 2 .

and 1300 Pa on pole . F1 (Load from earthwire) 2.4m Libra AAC (Tx = 5000N) Pluto AAC (Tx = 13000N) 20o 180m 0. There is also a line deviation of 20 degrees.5.5m F2 (Load from A Phase) F3 (Load from B Phase) F4 (Load from C Phase) d2 d3 Fwφ d4 (Load on pole) 20o deviation Input Pole height Earth wire Conductors Line deviation Wind span Average pole OD Wind pressure = = = = = = = 17.4m 900 Pa on conductor/OHEW.4m 1.1 Pole Tip Load Calculation Calculate the tip load on a 33 kV monopole with a Libra earthwire and Pluto phase conductors vertically configured on the pole.11.5m d1 1.

0188 x 180 + 2 x 1. F4 + = 8688 N Pwφ x OD x d 1 = = 1300 X 0.25 x13000 x sin 10 = Fwφ ⎛ d + d3 + d4 ⎞ ⎟⎟ + F2. 4 ⎜⎜ 2 d1 ⎠ ⎝ PW x OD x Wd = F2 . F3 .009 x 180 + 2 x 1.4 9048 N .4 X 17. 3.25 x5000 x sin 10 3628 N 900 x 0.F1 Tip Load = = F1 = = + 2 TX sin Fwφ 2 θ 2 900 x 0.

4 ⎜⎜ 2 d1 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 15 + 13.F1 Tip Load = = + ⎛ d + d3 + d4 ⎞ ⎟⎟ + F2.4 / 0. deflection limits need to be considered to ensure electrical clearances are met and complaints are minimized from the public. Considerations for Un-stayed Pole For an un-stayed pole.72 = 39.72 .4 kN Wood poles typically decay during their life and designers may choose a pole with a higher strength to achieve a longer design life.5 for range) Ultimate Strength of Wood Pole = 28.4 ⎝ ⎠ Fwφ 2 9048 2 = 3628 + 20221 + 4524 = 28.4 kN SELECTION OF POLE WOOD POLE Select a pole with a limit state design load of 28.4 kN Preserved wood pole component strength factor = 0. The recommended deflection limits are: • • Serviceable wind loads (typically 750 Pa wind on pole and 500 Pa on conductors) –5% of the pole length out of ground Ultimate wind loads (typically 1300 Pa on pole and 900 Pa on conductors) – 15% of pole length out of ground Consideration for Stayed Pole A stayed pole should be designed to meet the following conditions: (1) Poles should be self supporting under every day load conditions without stay (should not suffer failure due to loss of stay) Everyday load = 16 kN Component strength factor for wood pole = 0.3.72 (Table 6.5 + 12 ⎞ 3628 + 8688 ⎜ ⎟ + 17.

4 / 1.11 = 22 kN STEEL POLE Steel pole component strength factor = 1.4 * 1.4 kN Compressive strength of wood pole with 300 mm dia is typically around 250 kN Ratio of compressive load to compressive strength = 11% Ultimate strength of pole to allow for stay load = 20 * 1.414 = 40 kN Component strength factor for stay = 0.4 kN Angle of stay = 45 degrees Tension in stay = 28.4 kN .7 Ultimate strength of stay = 57 kN – select SC/GZ stay of 19/2.75 Compressive load in pole due to stay = 28.0 = 28.0 Ultimate Strength of Steel Pole = 28.Ultimate strength of pole to meet everyday load = 22 kN (2) If ground stay used and attached to top of pole Ultimate tip load due to wind load = 28.

0188 x 180 + 2 x9000 x sin 10 = N = Fwφ 17.5 + 12 ⎞ ⎟ + 17. F4 Tip Load = = = = = = = = 4817.7 Pwφ x OD x d1 = 750 X 0.009 x 180 + 2 x 2700 x sin 10 = 1747.4m Libra AAC (Tx = 2700N) Pluto AAC (Tx = 9000N) 20o 180m 0.3.7 ⎜ = 1747 7 + 11213 6 + 2610 = 15. 4 ⎜⎜ 2 d1 ⎝ ⎠ 15 + 13.4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ = 1747. and 750 Pa on pole PW x OD x Wd = F2 .4m 500 Pa on conductor/OHEW.6 kN Fwφ 2 5220 2 . F3 .7 N 500 x 0.4 = 5220 N F1 + ⎛ d + d3 + d4 ⎞ ⎟⎟ + F2.4 X 17.COMPARISON TO WORKING STRESS METHOD Pole height Earth wire Conductors Line deviation Wind span Average pole OD Wind pressure = F1 + 2 TX sin θ 2 = 500 x 0.7 + 4817.6 kN SELECTION OF POLE WOOD POLE Maximum Working Load on Pole = 15.

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5 m wood pole on a 15° line deviation with a ruling span (RS) of 45 m.ABC 10200 11 kV Conductor positions: Conductor 1: 1.000023 53.e.2 415 V Cable position: 0.1—1997 as strength group S4 .2 m (i.75 AAC (Pluto) to AS 1531 strung at 5% of CBL at 15°C. depth in ground 2.35 380 56000 0.000023 31.e.2 m above ground 8700 415 V Cable type: 4 × 95 mm2 LV Aerial Bundled Cable (ABC) to AS/NZS 3560 and strung at 7% of CBL at 15°C. The LV ABC conductor is strung to a tension to approximate the conductor sag in a span of 45m at 15°C. Neighbouring spans are 40 m and 55 m on level ground. Jarrah. 10.Distribution Worked Example 2 Determine the required pole loads and foundation size for an 11 kV/415 V line in an urban area.2 m left.225 m left. Ash type eucalypts) Unseasoned.9 LV Bracket . unpreserved and unshaved timber Top diameter 300 mm Ground line diameter 400 mm Height above ground 10.8 0.2 m right. 10.8 65000 0.576 209.2 m above ground Conductor 2: above top of pole. 10. DESIGN DATA 1200 1200 11 kV Conductor type: 200 400 19/3. Consider a 12. Conductor 4/95 ABC Dia Mass Area 2 Mod of E Exp Coef 2300 CBL (mm) (kg/m) (mm ) (MPa) (/deg C) (kN) 38. 8.4 1.stress grade F17 (i. Conductor Pluto Dia Mass Area 2 Mod of E Exp Coef CBL (mm) (kg/m) (mm ) (MPa) (/deg C) (kN) 18.3 m) Crossarm size: 100 by 150 mm 11 kV insulators are ALP 11/275 . NOTE: Although the example is based on a timber distribution pole.6 m above ground Conductor 3: 1.7 m above ground Pole details: Mixed Australian hardwood classified to AS 1720. the structural design principles are similar for other materials or support types.

87. 0.87 kN.72 kN Sustained load condition (Clause 3.24 kPa Fc = 2. Capacity of 415 V cable Determine φRn .4.1) Temp. = 15°C. = 15°C. Wind = 0 kPa Ft = 4.7 from Table 3.47 kN Ultimate strength limit state (Clause 3. Wind = 0. Wind = 0 kPa (EDT) Ft = 3.6. i.e.1) Temp. Wind = 0.5 kPa Ft = 2.3) Temp. = 5°C.1) Temp.24 kPa Fc = 4.2) Temp. Conductor tensions are abbreviated as follows: for everyday load condition—EDT (i. = 15°C.01 kN 415 V Cable load condition (RS=45 m) Load Every day load condition (Clause 3.9 kPa (MWT) Ft = 9.3.7.3) Temp.5Ft Capacity of 11 kV conductor Determine φRn Strength factor φ = 0. every day tension) and for short duration load condition—MWT (i.7.1) Temp.3.3. 11 kV Conductor load conditions (RS = 45 m) Load Everyday load condition (Clause 3. = 15°C.1 Rn = 31. = 5°C. capacity: 22. Wind = 0.3.2. = 15°C.1.96 kN Failure containment loads (Fc ) (Clause 3.3 kN Conductor short duration load (MWT) = 6. φRn > load is satisfied.60 kN Sustained load condition (Clause 3.5-1.3.5 m of loose gravel with sand.79 kN Short duration load condition (Clause 3.3 > 6.58 kN Intact conductor tension (Ft ) under average wind (Clause 3.0 m of firm cohesive soil and 1.2.6.3.e. Wind = 0. maximum wind tension).0 m or more of very stiff cohesive soil.9 kN φRn = 22.1) Temp.25G c + 1.2.1) Maximum wind load (from any direction) is given by— φRn > Wn + 1.2. Wind = 0 kPa Ft = 1.5 kPa Ft = 6.9 kPa (MWT) Ft = 4.e.The soil conditions are specified in three layers: 0-0.3.2) Temp. Wind = 0 kPa (EDT) Ft = 1.2. = 15°C. = 15°C. Wind = 0. CALCULATIONS Use the approximate wind pressures based on Clause 3.1) Temp.32 kN Intact conductor tension (Ft) under average wind (Clause 3. therefore for each 11 kV conductor.23 Kn Failure containment loads (Fc ) (Clause 3.16 kN Short duration load condition (Clause 3. = 15°C.1G s + 1.2. Wind = 0.

Strength factor φ = 0.0188 = 0.e.4.64 × 4.285 using NOTE:φ capacity factor depends on grading methodology and support importance.57 for EDT .1 φM = φk1 [f’b Z] (all other kmod factors taken as 1. i. i.6 + 1.98 kN Capacity: 37.6 m above ground wind load on 11 kV conductors = 0.1(b)) pole wind load =1. φ × k1 = 0.5 kNm 0.3 kPa (Clause 3.1 × 0.029 × 10.7 m above ground Therefore.1 = 0.032 kN acting at 10 m above ground wind on insulators = 1.9 × 47.8 m above ground wind on crossarm = 2.e.24 kN ABC Short Duration Load Condition (MWT) for 415 V cable = 13. φ × k1 = 0.136 = 0.e.1) to be applied on modulus of rupture determined from AS 1720.575 and k1 = 0.5 × 0.64 kN acting at 8.15 × 2.5 × 0.8 + 0.1(c)) insulator load = 1.4) × 10.2 = 17. however for equal height poles on flat terrain the conductor vertical loads are— . Gc will vary for non-level terrain and unequal adjacent pole attachment heights. Pole capacity Determine φRn Strength factor φ = 0.1 kPa (Clause 3.5 (from Table 3.4 kPa (Clause 3.0063 m3 Ultimate transverse wind load Wn will comprise wind loads on pole.1(b)) crossarm load = 0.1 (CBL for 4 × 95) φRn = 37.4. conductor/cable and hardware: wind on pole = 1. taking moments about ground line— BM = 4.9 × 47. i.71 kN and φR n EDT = (0.7 from Table 3.8 × 10. two acting at 10.6 m above ground wind load on 415 V ABC = 0.285 × 50 × 103 × Z) / 10.24 > 13.1 Rn = 53.575 × 50 × 103 × Z) / 10.8 × 10.7 = 62.15 for MWT.2 + 0.2 m above ground and one acting at 10.3 + 0.152 × 0.029 × 10. This load is small in relation to the compressive strength of the pole and will be ignored for this example.2 = 8. φR n > load is satisfied.2 m above ground and one acting at 10.78 kN where Z = πD 3 /32 = 0. Pole capacity in bending taken as equivalent tip load: φRn MWT = (0. weight of crossarms.2 = 4.64 kN acting 4.2 Gs will comprise vertical loads due to weight of pole.2 kN from AS/NZS 3560.8 kN each.029 kN each.0) k1 = 1.4. insulators and other ancillary hardware.0384 = 1.032 × 10 + 2 × 0.6 + 2 × +0. two acting at 10.3 × 0.64 × 8.5 × (0.4 × 0.98.

134 × 0. delivers a minimum depth requirement of 2. The above calculations may also be accomplished by following the detail design approach given in Appendix A.5 = 17.27 kN For 415 V cable: Gc = 0.35 kN By entering the ultimate loads and soil properties obtained from Appendix B for each soil layer.5+2.032+3 × 0.3 kN Capacity: 17.1 × 8.63 kN Transverse load due to Ft for each 11 kV conductor = 2 × T 15C. Determine the conductor loads for a suspension structure in a rural area on level ground.e. the ESAA BH Pile program output.1 kN The total pole base moment: The equivalent ultimate load at the top of pole: BMtot = = 62. The conductor is AAAC (Fluorine) with diameter = 9 mm.6 + 2. φRn > load is satisfied Similar loads can be calculated for failure containment. Using a foundation strength factor φ = 0.2.6 m for a foundation diameter of 0. Use wind and weight spans of 285m within a tension section of 2400 m.1 × 1. . i.9kPa × sin(15 /2 ) = 1.5 for foundations relying on empirical assessment from Table 3.8 kN.71 > 14.1G s + 1. The line is in terrain category 2. maintenance and serviceability conditions as appropriate. Distibution Worked Example 3 A limited number of conductor loads are calculated in this example to illustrate the development of conductor tensions using the method given in Appendix A.029+0.25Gc + 1.87 kNm The equivalent ultimate pole tip load = 145. Foundation capacity Assuming that the pole met the design criteria the foundation can be designed using the ESAA Brinch Hansen Pile program.2 × 3 × 1. weight = 0. a similar calculation may be followed for failure containment.2 kN Transverse load due to Ft for 415 V cable = 2 × T15C.1). Use a RP of 50 years (LR = 1 as per Table A.5 Ft 4.2 = 14. Once a satisfactory pole and footing design for the maximum wind load condition is achieved.25 × 0.64+1.7) 145.0.8 m.135 kg/m and CBL = 11.5 of Region B and the wind non-directional.56 + (1.87/10. maintenance and serviceability conditions. Consider an average conductor height of 30m above ground with no line deviation and a ruling span of 300 m.8 × 3+1.2 × 10.1.2 × 10.5 × (2 × 1. NOTE: It is advisable where designers use standard supports containing stay(s) that the structural behaviour is confirmed through the use of a non-linear design program.64+0.63) + 1.87 kNm and the ultimate shear load at ground line is: Wn + 1.3.For each 11 kV conductor: Gc = 0.9kPa × sin(15 / 2) = 2. as shown in Figure 3.0.2 + 1. the ultimate ground line moment as calculated above is— BMult = Hult = = 145.

653 kPa Failure containment loads (Clause 3.cat = 1.79 × 0.69 kN 1.1G s + 1.2.5 kN Failure containment loads From Clause 3.23 kN (where 0.06 = 46.25 × 1.1) Temp.25G c = 1.305 kPa SRF = 0.135 × 285 × 9.2. = 15°C. Height multiplier Mz. = 15°C.666 = 2.5 × 7.05 kN = (the 0. Ultimate conductor loads From Clause 3.2Fb For each conductor the contribution is— 0. Wind = 0 kPa Ft = 2.5 = 0.1 the ultimate strength limit state the maximum wind load is given by— Wn + 1.3.45 factor is due to tension reduction resulting from insulator string swing where span/sag = 45 and span/string length = 195 and derived from Figure 3.79 kN NOTE: The conductor loads below exclude the weight of insulators and ancillaries.009 × 0.009 × 0. mean conductor height = 8 m. Terrain category = 2.1 failure containment limit state is given by— 0.2 × 3.81/1000 = 0.55 kN Short duration load condition (Clause 3.3) Temp.5 (for a tension section of 2400 m) Ultimate wind pressure on conductor for tension calculation = 1.47 kN 1.1) Temp. all the relevant loads for the ultimate.25Gc + 1.25Wn = 1.25Wn + 1.2.135 × 285 × 9.7. Md = 1 (AS/NZS 1170.64 m/s Dynamic wind pressure = 1. = 5°C. maintenance and serviceability load cases can be calculated in a similar fashion to those in example .06.5Ft For each conductor the contribution is: Wn = 1. Wind pressure= 0.1) Using the above approach.666 = 0.305 × 0.2.24 kPa Fc = 3.00 AAAC (Fluorine) strung at 20% CBL at 15°C (Ruling span of 300 m) Load condition Load Everyday load condition (Clause 3.557 kN 1.7.3.2) Temp. = 15°C.5Ft = 0.1Gs + 1.Conductor Tensions for 7/3.25 × 0.3.5 × 3.81/1000 = 0.5.79 = 5.5Ft = 1.3. Wind = 0 kPa Ft = 2.666 is the SRF for a 285 m span) 1. Mt = 1.36 kN Sustained load condition (Clause 3.25G c = 1.305 × 285 × 0.00 kN Design site wind speed = 44 × 1.47 kN 1.305 × 285 × 0. Section 3) Regional wind speed V50 = 44 m/s Ft = 7.25G c + 1.45 = 2.25 × 0.00 = 10.5Ft + 1.2Fb 1.79 kN Ft = 3.

0238 X 300 = 3570 N VERTICAL FORCE FV = 0.8 MM WIND SPAN: 300 M WEIGHT TO WIND SPAN RATIO: 0.925 KG/METRE CONDUCTOR DIAMETER: 23.5 M HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT = SIN (SWING ANGLE) X TOTAL INCLINED LENGTH = .SWING ANGLE CALCULATIONS CALCULATE THE SWING ANGLE OF OXYGEN cONDUCTOR SUBJECTED TO 500 PA WIND: WIND PRESSURE: 500 PA CONDUCTOR WEIGHT: 0. INCLINED SAG AT 500 PA WIND = 12 M TOTAL INCLINED LENGTH = 13.7 = 1905 N SWING ANGLE = ARCTAN (FT / FV) = BLOW OUT CALCULATIONS (SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE) CALCULATE THE BLOW OUT OF OXYGEN cONDUCTOR ON A 300 M SPAN SUBJECTED TO 500 PA WIND: SWINGING INSULATOR LENGTH = 1.5 M FROM A SAG TENSION CALCULATION.925 X 9.806 X 300 X 0.7 TRANSVERSE FORCE FT = 500 X 0.

flat pin and transitions from flat to vertical. Figure 2. For phase-to-phase faults the conductor movement is more pronounced as the fault current is very high and the protection clearance times are typically long.6 Conductor Clashing Under short circuit conditions conductors experience forces of attraction and repulsion due to electromagnetic force from the fault current in the conductors. Secondary Conductor Clashing Secondary conductor clashing may occur on a distribution feeder when a recloser trips and isolates an initial fault and the live oscillating conductors upstream of the recloser subsequently clash together. Both phase conductors pendulum simultaneously towards each other and if they get close enough they cause a secondary conductor clashing fault.5 below shows diagrammatically the feeder. • Increase the horizontal spacing between conductors. one end of the faulted line will usually trip first and fault current will then increase significantly on the other unfaulted line. The increase in fault current may then cause the conductors on this line to clash. When the recloser trips the fault current and thus the repulsion forces between the conductors is removed the conductors pendulum back into equilibrium.APPENDICES 11. recloser and fault positions. Conductor clashing has a higher probability of occurrence when the fault occurs on two adjacent conductors at the same height and the conductor has low weight. Conductor clashing can be avoided or mitigated by the following measures: • Introduce a vertical spacing between conductors. When a phase to phase fault occurs. Primary Conductor Clashing Primary conductor clashing may occur when there is a phase to phase fault on one of two overhead lines connecting the same substations. Constructions which are prone to conductor clashing are underslung or suspension. When the initial phase-to-phase fault occurs the faulted phase conductors repell each other due to the current in the phase conductors. . The repulsion forces can be great enough to exceed wind force design limits. If the fault current is large and experienced for a long enough time the movement can be substantial and cause conductor clashing (particularly on distribution lines). resulting in the loss of two overhead lines.

Bathold L.E.D. EPRI. Stewart J.S. Longo V.. 1978. Clayton R.R & Wilson D..O...• Insert additional poles midspan between conductors. ¾ Reduce protection clearing times To determine whether a line is susceptible to conductor clashing the calculations can be performed with formula provided in the following EPRI publication. Transmission Line Reference Book: 115-138 kV Compact Line Design. • Install midspan spacers between conductors. Grant I.. .J.

Use of low height and compact structures .12 ROUTE SELECTION PROCESS Appropriate consideration must be given at the route selection stage to the use of the land proposed for the power line corridor. 12.2 Prudent Avoidance Principle Where potential risks with unproven consequences are involved a prudent avoidance approach is recommended. may also influence the selection of the most appropriate route for the power line. maintenance and operation of the proposed line leading to the evaluation and implementation of risk treatment options which ensure that the residual risk is acceptable to the organization. On public land the agreement of the management agency must be obtained for the proposed line.Avoid placing structures which dominate the skyline . Where power lines traverse private property the approval of the property owner is required. There are zoning maps available from local government authorities which describe the land usage in the region. The original recommendation related to electric and magnetic field exposures where prudent avoidance was defined as “doing what can be done without undue inconvenience and at modest expense to avert the possible risk“ 12. Local jurisdiction planning instruments. Some areas may be of high environmental significance such as aboriginal and cultural heritage or sensitive vegetation (mangroves) and the line route will need to avoid these areas where possible. The risk management process used should align with AS/NZS 4360 Risk Management and companion handbook HB 436 Risk Management Guidelines 12. select towers for the second line in the corridor) .3 Aesthetic Considerations Visual amenity is now playing a major role in the selection of structures and other components on an overhead power line to gain community acceptance.1 Risk Management Principle The layout design process should include the identification and assessment of risks associated with the construction. Visual amenity can be improved by applying the following design principles: . particularly those regulating the clearing of trees.Install “like with like” structures (if there is an existing tower line.Locate power lines in corridors screened by vegetation or natural landscape . This would normally take the form of a negotiated easement detailing any restrictions on land use necessary for reliable operation of the line.

. To offset the increase in electric field strength. Water. electromagnetic fields can be minimised by diagonal phasing of the phase conductors. 13 LAYOUT DESIGN PROCESS The layout design process involves the selection of a suite of structure types. Rail. The adjacent span ratio is typically less than 3:1 (where there is free movement of conductors on insulators) or 2:1 (where there is no free movement of conductors on insulators) Weight to wind span ratio greater than 0. Non specular conductor will make the conductor more hydrophilic to water and minimise the water drop corona effects. Non specular conductor will reduce the initial glare of the conductors and the high corona noise produced when the line is initially energised. billboards) Set back on roads appropriate to the speed of the road. These set backs can be reduced where there are kerbing or natural barriers (drain or mounds) Suitable foundation integrity (eg avoid side slopes) Co-ordination with other Authorities and Services (Road. swimming pools. a larger diameter conductor may need to be selected to ensure the surface voltage gradient is below the corona threshold level. etc. Telecommunication and Aerial Operations) Designers need to ensure that the ground and environmental conditions are factored into the layout process and need to consider for example the existence of steep slopes. it may also be prudent to configure the phase conductors in a diagonal arrangement to minimise the electromagnetic fields.7 to ensure there are acceptable electrical clearances on structures under wind conditions Acceptable clearance of structures and conductors alignment to objects (eg buildings. The layout design shall ensure the following outcomes are met: • • • • • • • Acceptable electrical clearances to structures and ground for the voltage of line Maximum adjacent span ratio selected to ensure longitudinal loading on insulators and supports do not cause failures under adverse environmental conditions.4 Electric and Magnetic Fields The principle of prudent avoidance has been adopted by the electricity industry for dealing with electromagnetic fields from overhead lines (refer Section XXX). heritage sites. the location of these structures on a line corridor. Where there are vertically configured double circuit lines.- Use of non specular finish conductor Painting of structures (in particular poles) to match the existing landscape Compacting the phase conductors will improve visual amenity but will increase the surface voltage gradient on the conductors and the noise (radio interference and audible). Where there are 2 or more circuits installed horizontally on the structures. weight and ruling spans. existing and future services. sensitive environmental areas. 12. the profiling of the conductors and the calculation of wind.

Before generating a terrain. (See Table 3.Y. Offset (lateral distance from the centerline) and elevation.7) Code clearances depend on the voltage of particular conductors. You can either: 1) describe the obstacle by its height above a ground point and the coordinates of that ground point. These requirements include minimum code clearances to be met above or to the side of the points as well as symbols to be used to display these points on the final drawings.Formatted: Indent: Left: 18 pt Terrain A 3-dimensional GIS-type (Geographic Information System) terrain model is suggested for its flexibility and compatibility with modern electronic surveying equipment and mapping techniques. photogrammetry. Also included for each ground or obstacle point are optional surveyor's notes to be displayed on profile or plan views. There are many tools and techniques available for importing and filtering XYZ terrain points data specially for LIDAR data which may contain many millions of points. lidar. or 2) locate the top of the obstacle directly with its own coordinates.and Z. A terrain model normally includes information about the location and type of a large number of terrain or above-terrain points. The PFL model includes points described by their Station (cumulative distance from an arbitrary reference point along the centerline of the line). one should decide on broad categories of terrain or obstacle points which have unique requirements. Survey Information The survey requirements for an overhead line design may include: . etc. whether to draw a line between that point and the ground or If a point having the feature code is an aerial obstacle which your wires are allowed to pass under.) and are subsequently downloaded into ASCII terrain files. Above terrain points will be referred to as "obstacle" points. An XYZ file can be prepared and edited with a text editor or word processor or it can be created by downloading survey data from an automatic instrument. whether to check vertical clearances both above and below that point. Z. There are two ways to describe an obstacle point. Terrain data are normally collected electronically (total station. If a point having the feature code is an obstacle described by its height above the ground. whether a point having the feature code is a ground point that will be used to draw a ground profile or a point that should be by-passed when drawing the ground profile (for example the top of an obstacle). minimum required vertical clearances above (and below for aerial points) points having the feature code and minimum horizontal clearances to the side of these points for the voltages selected Terrain Model The XYZ model includes points described by their global coordinates X.

because the terrain data maybe defined at discrete points within the line corridor. The center-line ground profile is theoretically the intersection of vertical planes going through the center-line and the ground. the alignments are defined in the plan view by selecting the PI points. railway lines. the alignments consist of straight line segments between PI points (Points of Inflection). Values for the Maximum Offset for Profile View (MOPV) and the Maximum Offset for Centerline Ground Profile (MOCGP) are to be selected. However. or 3) alignment loops. you can create: 1) other independent unconnected alignments. If you start with an XYZ terrain model. Once you have an alignment defined on an XYZ terrain model. Width of the line corridor to be surveyed (which may be different than the easement width) 2. Once you have at least one alignment defined. The center-line is defined in the plan view as the collection of straight line segments connecting alignment corners. Contour interval 3. 2) alignment branches. then the profile line will pass through all the points within 3m of the center-line.1. Triangulating an XYZ terrain The XYZ terrain model consists of individual points with their coordinates and feature codes . All ground or obstacle points within the MOPV (measured from the center-line) are displayed with the appropriate symbols in the various profile views. gates. The ground profile line displayed is a line that joins all ground points within a specified offset from the center-line. the PFL model is limited to a single alignment). there is a need for rules to define how the profile is displayed on drawings. That offset (MOCGP). Formatted: Bullets and Numbering . existing services) 4. trees. In addition. The Triangulated Irregular Network (or TIN) model of the XYZ terrain is a surface made up of triangles having the terrain points at their apexes using Delauney triangles. When you have multiple alignments you can build lines on all of them. Points outside the MOPV are not displayed in the profile views. If there is significant side slope (perpendicular to the line) the line profile may look jagged when it joins points of significantly different elevations on alternate sides of the center-line. This is not required when using a PFL terrain model since the alignment is implied (however. whether on screen or on a sheet of paper. one may draw separate side profiles. Or better. In the plan view. The points are joined in ascending order of stations. Coordinate system and height datum Alignment The alignment (or alignments) of a project need to be defined before any engineering can be performed. roads. If the jaggedness of the profile line is objectionable. you can create an equivalent PFL model. Centreline and line deviations 6. Land use and limitations / constraints 5. if one selects a MOCGP of 3m. one may generate additional interpolated center line and side profile points using a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) model of the terrain or by using breaklines. Key features to be surveyed (fences. any structure or wire with an offset greater than MOPV will not be shown in the profile view. is for two widths. For example.

the data include the obstacle feature code. If one travels the line in the direction of increasing stations. The station of a point is the cumulative distance from an arbitrary reference point on the center-line to the projection of the point on the center-line and its offset is its lateral distance to the center-line. The location of each segment in 3-dimensions is fully known from the global coordinates X. a zero line angle and a zero obstacle height.The primary advantage of a TIN model over the basic XYZ model is that it is a surface and not a collection of points. an optional label or description. Break Lines Break lines (or break line segments) can be used to enhance XYZ terrain models. and the height of the obstacle above the ground. Bitmaps (aerial photographs) can be projected onto it to give an even more realistic appearance of the terrain. offset and elevation of the top of the obstacle. the line angle at the ground point (if on center-line). Using break lines to describe existing or planned facilities Surveyors can provide data on portion of a larger terrain described by many thousands of break line segments and an even larger number of XYZ points. an optional label or description. Some of the break lines correspond to yet unbuilt but planned road improvements. PFL Terrain Model The PFL terrain model requires that the center-line of the power line be defined first. . Each segment is a straight line with known origin and end points. the PFL terrain representation was used almost exclusively in power line work. the line angle at the location of the point (if the point is on the center-line) and a zero obstacle height. its offset and elevation. offset and elevation of the ground point directly below the obstacle. Break line segments which have one end in common are said to be part of the same break line string. the point station. A break line or break line string consists of break line segments. However the XYZ model is more powerful as it allows the designer to easily change a line route and to move a structure in the plan view without being constrained by the existing center-line. to find the elevations of arbitrary points or to locate points at the intersection of latticed tower legs or guys with the ground. That surface can be used to generate accurate center line and side profiles. The data for a ground point in a PFL model include the feature code. The locations of terrain or obstacle points are then described relative to that center-line. Y and Z of its two end points. Positive offsets and positive line angles are defined as follows. the station. Prior to the days of electronic surveying and computers. by tradition. an optional label or description. many of the early line design programs used that representation. For an obstacle described by its height above a ground point. For an obstacle described by its own coordinates. the data include the obstacle feature code. the station. While break lines can be defined and displayed entirely by themselves. Therefore. The TIN surface can be rendered in different colors to give a more realistic display of the ground. including elevations and light incidence. positive offsets are to the right and positive line angles are clockwise. they are most useful in conjunction with XYZ terrain points and TIN models.

There is no simple way to change the alignment with a PFL terrain model as you do not have the ability to work in the plan view. While we highly recommend the use of the XYZ model over that of the PFL.). databases. True stations. XYZ or PFL? Given the choice of working with an XYZ or a PFL terrain model. These drawings can be displayed in the background of the profile view. you can reference the locations of all your structures to the same coordinate system used for the management of your line (GIS. structure and conductor points from existing drawings or from scanned images of these drawings.Also included for each ground or obstacle point are optional surveyor's notes to be displayed on profile or plan views. through scaling and clicking on lines of finite thicknesses. there are cases where one would want to quickly build a line model on top of a raster drawing. The better approach is to resurvey the terrain. This can be done before scanning by overwriting the axes with a dark pen. These curves may have been drawn with templates not adjusted to the actual ruling spans in the lines.e. Raster images can be projected onto the TIN surface for realistic 3-d photo rendering of the terrain. You can integrate a computer model with other management tools used by your company. to create a XYZ terrain model. They cannot be "equation stations". i. It is generally not recommended to use existing drawings as templates for building models of older lines because of the potential accumulation of errors at each step of the process. The catenary curves showing the positions of the conductors at some temperature may have been based on crude assumptions not reflecting actual sagging conditions and creep effects. the structure locations and the positions of the conductors with modern equipment. Using scanned raster drawings to create PFL terrain model There are basically two approaches to building models of existing lines. the XYZ model is much better. you should understand that both models are just alternate ways to look at the same 3-dimensional terrain and . With an XYZ model you can better visualize the terrain. With an XYZ model. if they are not already shown. will also add errors. The original survey may have been inaccurate. with the station axis ideally labeled with true stations. etc. You should make sure that the scanned drawing clearly shows labeled station and elevation axes. Once the drawings are properly positioned in the profile view you need only digitize at locations where you wish to create PFL points. that is stations measured from a point near the origin of the line can easily be calculated and marked with a pen. as well as line angle locations. The as-built locations of the conductor attachment points may not be well reflected by the drawing. Stations in a PFL file should be "true stations". A terrain TIN surface can be developed and used for color rendering and the automatic display of contour lines. However. The digitizing process itself. A limited and less accurate alternative is to get the locations of terrain. The alignment can easily be changed on top of an XYZ terrain model. The nature of the terrain below and in the vicinity of the line may have changed over the years. Maps and raster images can easily be superposed to the plan view.

The second part of the clearance line consists of vertical spikes indicating required vertical clearances above (or below) specific terrain points or objects within the Maximum Offset for Profile View. A required clearance line (or several clearance lines if there are side profiles) can be displayed as a dotted line and dotted spikes above the profile. 3) the handling of the many phenomena that generate longitudinal loads (broken wires. Modeling of wire system One of the most complex parts of a transmission line is the wire system (conductors and ground wires) in a tension section (from one dead end structure to the next dead end structure). Equation stations Once an alignment is defined. General design check functions could easily apply to a wide variety of design practices. in the alignment to which is added the designated station of that first P. However. "True station" is defined as the total distance measured from the first P. prohibited zones and special cost zones Similar to the center line ground profile. Unlike "True stations". The first part is the basic ground clearance consisting of copies of the centerline and side profiles shifted upward by a specified value.alignment information. from very simple requirements for distribution lines to the most highly engineered processes for extra high voltage lines. "Equation stations" are not continuous. Side profiles. All adjacent points (in order of increasing stations) within the Offset Tolerance distance from the Offset line which are not separated by more than the Maximum Separation will be connected to form a side profile.I. any terrain point has a station (distance along the alignment) and an offset (distance from the center line). in spite of differences in particular numerical values. Design Criteria Design criteria for power lines are often not the same in various countries and in different companies within the same country. you can convert an XYZ model to a PFL model or convert a PFL model to an XYZ model. Side profiles are only shown where there are terrain points within the specified Offset Tolerance. 2) the handling of non-uniform ice loads. These criteria also change over time.I. there are many similarities. . Questions arise regarding: 1) the handling of wind load which may not be uniform over the length of the section (wind on individual spans may be larger than the average wind over the section because of varying gust response factors and different wind incidences). clearance lines. Prohibited zones and special cost zones can be defined along an alignment These zones are only taken into account when optimizing the spotting of a line. "Equation station" is defined as a relative distance measured either forward or backward along the alignment from an arbitrary point along the alignment. The line and spikes are displayed for the voltage specified. In fact. The clearance line consists of two parts. The station of the first alignment point can be changed from the default value of zero to any value. side profiles are defined by an Offset from the center line and an Offset Tolerance.

You likely will never have the need for this advanced modeling capability (FE). 2) The horizontal component of tension along the wire in all the spans of the tension section between dead ends is constant. for practical design reasons. and 4) the possibility of interaction between flexible structures and all wires in the tension section. there are some intermediate modeling levels. Ruling Span method (RS) modeling . including detailed models of all supporting structures and all cables. The catenary constant is the ratio H / UR. approximations and assumptions have to be made.slack redistribution. it is assumed that there is no interaction between the wire and other phases of the same electrical circuit or wires in other circuits. The catenary lies in the plane defined by the chord length of the span and the resultant wire load per unit length. etc. The formula for ruling span is: S3 ∑L ∑L 3 L RS = . i. H is constant throughout the span.e. The general assumptions used at these different levels are discussed in this section. i. It should always be used at the preliminary design stage. which is assumed to have constant magnitude and direction at any point along the cable in a given span. UR is vertical and oriented downward. even though actual points along the cable are below the chord. UR is based on the direction of the chord (a straight line). 3) Based on the horizontal component of its tension. between dead ends. Without wind.). This may not be very accurate in the case of rigid post insulators and short suspension insulators subjected to large vertical loads. UR is not vertical and it defines the swing angle of the span plane. FE should only be used in special cases where a very accurate representation of the interaction between the structures and the wires needs to be considered. Between RS and FE. UR. Because it is computer time intensive and is not justified in most situations. These are defined herein as Real Span (because it works with actual real lengths of wires in each span) or Finite Element (FE) modeling. With wind. in one or more spans. This method works well with legislated design loads which are generally applied uniformly over a tension section. where H is the horizontal component of tension and UR the load per unit length of cable. all intermediate supports are assumed to be perfectly flexible in the longitudinal direction. the geometry of each span is determined as the equilibrium configuration of a span is always a "catenary". The most advanced modeling level (Finite Element) is based on a full structural analysis of the entire tension section.e. Therefore. The simplest modeling level is based on the concept of the Ruling Span (RS) and it is sufficient in most cases. It is usually considered sufficiently accurate in view of all the other uncertainties and approximations associated with line design. This is what you will use most of the time. There are several modeling levels are available to determine the response of the wire system to some loading criteria. Assumptions: 1) The analysis involves a single wire (cable).Usefulness and practicality of method: This is by far the most practical method and it is applicable to the overwhelming majority of line design situations. These levels are summarized as. It should be used in all preliminary design situations.

e. for example inserting or raising a structure to fix a clearance problem without resagging the wires. 2) An accurate finite element model of the wire in all the spans between dead ends is used. broken conductor.. Finite Element (FE) modeling ignoring interaction between wires Usefulness and practicality of method: With this method. 3) There is no way to account for support displacements in a system where there is a fixed length of wire. suspension and 2-parts insulators are assumed fixed in the vertical direction. 2) There is no way to study the effect of slack re-allocation due to moving a conductor attachment point or cutting/adding some wire length in a span.e.). 3) Once the tensions in all the spans of the tension section are determined (unlike with ruling Span. etc. Limitations: With this model. Strain. should give you better sags at very high temperature than RS and very good approximations of unbalanced loading situations. Assumptions: 1) As with RS. This model is assumed in longitudinal equilibrium (i. i. you can reallocate slack between spans and you can move attachment points. the analysis involves a single wire at a time between dead ends.Where: L = length of each span in a tension section LRS = Ruling Span S4 for inclined spans Limitations: 1) All the spans need to be subjected to the same loading. For conductors supported by latticed towers with suspension insulators. all supports (towers. it is assumed that there is no interaction between different wires (other phases).for a specified weather case and cable condition or unstressed lengths can be specified. i. i. the corresponding design loads are calculated using the same procedures as used with RS. The transverse and longitudinal movements of the attachment points depend on their assumed transverse and longitudinal flexibilities (or stiffnesses). this level of modeling is not capable of analyzing situations with different ice thicknesses in various spans. With zero flexibilities.e. Attachment points at the tips of post insulators and at the structure ends of strain. you can apply different loads in different spans (unbalanced ice. poles and frames) are assumed infinitely rigid unless you chose to insert fictitious springs between the supports and the insulators). suspension and 2-parts insulators are modeled as structural elements.e. you will get different tensions in different spans). the supports are fixed. . the horizontal component of tension is assumed to be the same in all the spans) for the sagging condition. 4) This level of modeling cannot be used to model an existing line where unequal tensions have been surveyed in various spans of a given tension section. but can optionally be allowed to move in the transverse and longitudinal directions.

FE with conductors has all the advantages of FE without conductors without its limitations: it accounts for the interaction between the wires and relieves you from having to assume a flexibility value. 1978). I and J. for example " I " could be a ground wire attachment point and " J " the structure attachment point of the insulator supporting the lower left phase of a double circuit tower. the corresponding longitudinal displacement J. If. a dead end structure is treated as any other structure as far as its flexibility is concerned. With the above model. These points can arbitrarily be located in space. Finite Element (FE) modeling accounting for interaction between wires This modeling is similar to modeling above. you do not consider structure flexibility (unless you specify two flexibility numbers at each support). Assumptions and limitations: . If a dead end structure is is being checked for strength with potentially different loads on each side. Therefore. the limiting dead end structures are at the ends of the tension sections to the left and to the right of the structure being checked. 2) In the case of post insulators. Usefulness and practicality of method: This method only works with FE structures. A flexibility matrix is just a device to represent the behavior of a flexible structure without having to model it in its entirety when you connect it to supported wires (Peyrot and Goulois. If not a limiting dead end.. Except for some additional computer time.J NxN symmetrical matrix that includes all the coefficients F is called the structure longitudinal flexibility matrix. Flexibility matrices include flexibility coefficients. For a transmission structure with N attachment points. the I.However: 1) There is still no accounting of the possible mechanical coupling between wires in different phases. instead of restricting yourself to longitudinal loads and longitudinal displacements. expect approximately an order of magnitude more computer time when you use FE as compared to RS. Structure flexibility matrices are determined automatically by our software programs for Finite Element structures. it is difficult to know what value of longitudinal stiffness should be used. If a single unit longitudinal load is applied at point I. The interaction between the wires is accounted for through the flexibility matrices of the supporting structures between the limiting dead ends. as the flexibility matrices for all the structures are automatically re-calculated by programs when needed. thus accounting for the possibility of some longitudinal interaction between the phases. except that all the wires between two limiting infinitely rigid dead end structures (the ends of the model) are analyzed simultaneously. there is no additional complexity required if you are already using FE structures. you consider both transverse and longitudinal unit loads and their corresponding displacements. However. Consider two insulator attachment points. With this level. you get a flexibility matrix of size 2N x 2N. This modeling is the recommended method when you have longitudinal load issues in lines supported by flexible poles and frames.I at point J is the flexibility coefficient F . This is in fact the flexibility matrix used by software at each structure location when the wire system is modeled at FE considering wires. software determines a flexibility matrix at each structure.

including their nonlinear behavior. Assumptions for Ruling Span With RS. you may be able to work around the prohibitive time and memory demands by specifying that FE only be used for guyed or flexible structures.If a deadend structure is being checked for loads or is part of a tension section for which tensions are calculated. Thus the nonlinear effects of extremely flexible poles and frames (which may account for 10 to 20 percent of the stresses) cannot be accounted for. 1) You will rarely be able to justify the extensive time needed to run a full system model. In fact we will never know what would be an appropriate wind or even a legislated wind with gust response factors to apply simultaneously to all wires and structures. Limitations: While the idea of accurately modeling an entire line segment by finite element is theoretically attractive. while all latticed towers are modeled at otherwise. 1) Interaction between the wires is modeled through structure flexibility matrices which are inherently linear. However. is taken into account. Assumptions: A Finite Element model includes few limiting assumptions unless wind is involved. its flexibility matrix. the horizontal tensions in the left and right spans are assumed to be those of their ruling spans. It may take a very long time to analyze just one load case. Guyed structures. Usefulness and practicality of method: Due to the large number of nodes and elements in the gigantic finite element model that is used internally. There is complete interaction between the wires through accurate behavior of the supporting structures. . 2) The effect on the equilibrium of the system of the wind load applied directly to the structures cannot be taken into account. this method can be prohibitively computer intensive as it requires orders of magnitude more computer time and memory than other models. A gigantic finite element model is created automatically from the individual finite element models of the individual supports and the interconnected cables. which are also highly nonlinear. 2) Some regulators require that you apply load factors between the reactions at the ends of the spans and the supporting structures. may not exhibit the correct behavior. this is not realistic. its practicality is limited. if available. The finite element model is as accurate a model of your physical line as you can hope to get. This is an impossible situation to model with FE for that matter) since the structures will always respond to the unfactored loads provided by the cables to which they are connected while your may dictate that you analyze and check the strength of these structures under factored loads. 3) While we can apply a uniform wind to an entire model (same velocity and global direction blowing on each and every span of a multi-spans model). Full system analysis At Finite Element models all the wires and supporting structures of an entire range of tension sections as a single gigantic structure. This method requires that you use FE structures.

lateral and galloping clearances.With Finite Element. The unit wind load on each span is based on its gust response factor which depends on the span length and average elevation. there is a global wind direction. are made for designated weather cases. For checking the cables. between phases. K: Constant K used only used for the NESC District Case Wire Wind Height Select None. The global wind direction is determined from your choice of Wind Direction (other than NA+ or NA-). 2) no ice and no wind at an everyday temperature. swings. and various weather cases needed for displaying the cables at various temperatures. A weather case table typically includes a group of weather cases for checking the strength of the structures. It also includes the weather case assumed to cause creep. the complete system is modeled to determine the tensions. It is assumed that the wind direction on each span is either normal to the span. or is the same on all spans.). It is in its final after " Creep " condition after it has been assumed exposed to a . Therefore. There are usually a number of conditions for checking vertical. and a group for checking ground wires and conductors tensions. Weather cases Many strength and serviceability (clearances) criteria assume that the line is subjected to a given combination of wind. DENS: Wire Ice load. Criteria can be developed in standard libraries to be shared among various projects or they can be developed only for a specific project. Weather Cases include data on: Air density factor: Factor Q Wind velocity or Pressure: Basic (or reference) velocity or pressure. Such a combination is defined herein as a "weather case". Wire Ice thickness. for a given project. the heavy load case which potentially causes permanent stretch of the various cables. i. Wire Temp: Conductor or ground wire temperature Weather Load Factor: Factor applied to wind and ice loads. Detailed design criteria This section describes the many design criteria that can be used and checked. the conditions may include: 1) the everyday combination. t: Thickness of ice assumed uniformly deposited on wire. All weather cases which will be used in a particular design must be described. Wire Ice density. the checks may contain a substantial number of weather cases. etc. blowout. ice (or snow) and temperature. Conditions for cable creep and permanent stretch The cable is assumed to be in its "Initial " condition for the few hours which follow its installation. and consequently all loads and clearance calculations. a group for checking various geometric clearances (to ground. Wice : Ice load per unit length of wire. Default = 1 NESC Constant. etc.e. if you want your input values of wind velocity and pressure Adjust Model: to be used on all wires and structures regardless of their height above ground Wire Gust Response Gust response factor for all wires. All cable sag and tension calculations. Typical load cases for distribution and transmission lines are given in Section 6 of this Handbook.

……. When structures are checked by the "basic allowable wind and weight spans" method (see Ruling Span). Therefore. and an "iced" condition. Weight span Depending on the method used to check the strength of your structures. loading trees are established for a certain number of "load cases" and are used for the analysis of the structures. Since weight spans are an indirect measure of vertical loads through the equation VL = UV x VS. For example a double circuit tower. a weight span can only be defined for a particular combination of weather and cable conditions. The final after " Load " (also referred to as " final after common point " ) condition assumes that the cable has been permanently stretched by a specified weather condition.particular creep weather condition for a long period of time. When wind is blowing on inclined spans. C is often used in Australia.the three conductors in the left circuit and their suspension insulators are made part of Deleted: Cable . the location of the low point in the elevation view depends on the swing angle of the entire span. the effect of the span swing angle is neglected. it is actually difficult to locate the low points in the elevation view. Corresponding to cable sets are sets of structure attachment points and insulators (or attachment devices). the validity of a particular method for calculating weight spans should be judged by the ability of the method to predict correct vertical loads. the length of cable between low points may be substantially different from the horizontal distance between these points. For inclined spans the distance between the low points in adjacent spans has no relationship to the wind span. There are many assumptions which can be used to determine a loading tree. the two ground wire attachment points and attachment devices are made part of Set #1. In addition. one should clearly understand the assumptions behind any weight span calculation. a "cold". in which case a colder value is appropriate. unless the line spends several months in very cold weather. you may need to calculate a weight (or vertical) span. These conditions normally include a "wind". For a given cable tension. When the strength of FE structures is checked. . With traditional hand calculations and some computerized versions of these calculations. For example. say 10 years. That weight span changes with different weather and cable conditions. from very approximate to accurate. For example. For level spans. Conductor sets A cable "set" (also referred to as a tension section) is defined as a group or ensemble of one to three cables (also called phases) with identical mechanical properties and tensions. Therefore. A catenary template corresponding to the resultant load per unit length of cable is drawn in the vertical plane and the horizontal distance measured between low points is taken as the weight span. The average temperature of 15 deg. Load trees for Finite Element structures. the actual weight spans of their heaviest attached cable are compared to corresponding allowable values for three weather conditions. It is normally assumed that the weather case that causes creep consists of a no wind/ no ice condition at some average temperature. There are different ways. the weight span is equal to the wind span. of calculating weight spans. an electrical circuit between dead ends is often modeled as one set.

as they are cantilevered from structure attachment points. With Finite Element structure. Barriers can take the form of natural items such as kerbs. two or three phases per set. This allows you to transpose phases at intervals along your line. There can only be one. and crash barriers such as walls. etc). Supply Authorities should endeavor to work with relevant road . embankments (cut or fill slopes) next to the road. it is imperative that the insulators (or attachment devices) at all attachment points of that set be identical. then they should be made members of different sets. Instead. The only reason for grouping wires together in a set is that come stringing and sagging time you can string the wires through all the attachment points within the set and sag these wires simultaneously. If two different cables of the same circuit are not sagged at the same tension or if at any supporting structure the insulators are not identical (for example one tower supports a circuit with an IVI insulator configuration or with three I insulators of different properties). is that their allowable swings or load angles are specific to the actual geometry of the structure to which the insulators are attached . road kerbing and parking. If more than one attachment point on a structure is made part of a set. When a set has more than one cable. each cable is identified by a "phase" number and its structure attachment is identified by an "attachment" number. etc. Poles can be positioned closer to the road where there is a permanent barrier between the poles and the road. One of the reasons we have to include insulators as part of a structure top geometry. frangibility of the pole. rocks. road deviation and traffic calming devices (roundabouts. Setback requirements will vary with the jurisdiction and various Codes of Practice exist at both local and state government level.Set #2 and the three conductors in the right circuit and their V-String insulators are made part of Set #3. Frangible poles can typically be positioned closer to the road because they absorb the impact of the vehicle to a greater extent than non-frangible poles. even with the time penalty associated with modeling only one wire per set. When you string a circuit. 2 or 3. post insulators have geometric dimensions. If on the other hand you put each wire in independently (3 sets of one wire) then you will need to repeat the stringing and sagging operation three times. traffic volume. However. W-barrier. there are several advantages to this approach: you can sag each phase separately and can vary individual insulator properties at any location along the tension section. you need to define the location of each insulator tip where the conductor is attached. post insulators have weight but no geometric dimensions. With Ruling Span structures. you have the ability to take any "phase" and attach it to any structure "attachment". Post insulators are handled differently when attached to Ruling Span structures as opposed to Finite Element structures. once for each set. chicanes.1 Pole Locations in Traffic Corridors Pole locations in traffic corridors are influenced by factors including traffic speed. wire rope. 13. trees. therefore the "phase" or "attachment" numbers can only be 1.

overhead power-lines that cross railways should be minimized where practical. When designing railway crossing AS 4799 should be referred to in addition to requirements by local rail authorities.3 Road Lighting . for the installation and ongoing maintenance. to position poles in mutually acceptable positions.3 Waterway Crossings Navigable waterways that are traversed by overhead power lines must allow for the potential for boat with masts and eliminate this risk of the masts coming in contact with the power lines. Where railway power-lines crossings are required the installation should be designed to minimize the impact of any future maintenance on the community. . These conditions will vary with the jurisdiction and should be ascertained prior to commencing the design layout.transport authorities. Shires and Main Roads Departments. increased clearances and higher safety factors generally apply in these areas. Operation and Maintenance ii) Austroads publications and guidelines for Rural and Urban Road Design. Special constructions. For example. Guidance to setbacks and barriers is provided in :. Crossings of railway and tramway tracks and property are subject to the requirements and approval of the controlling authority. Guidance on appropriate signage and marking is also provided in AS/NZS ???? 13. The design process includes liaison with the local maritime jurisdiction to ascertain likely vessel heights and determination of maximum water levels prior to layout design in order to achieve the required safety clearances. iii) AS/NZS 3845 Road Safety Barrier Systems. Crossings of navigable waterways shall be designed in accordance with AS/NZS ????.4 Co-ordination with other Services In order to better utilise service corridors and improve visual amenity joint use of infrastructure with other utilities should be considered where it can be effectively implemented.1. Other pole location aspects are covered in Appendix … 13. i) AS/NZS 1158. the support conductor structures and fittings should be of high integrity with a long life expectancy. 13.2 Railway and Tramway Crossings Due to the potential for disruption to the community. Installation. such as Councils.Vehicular Traffic (Category V) Lighting – Guide to Design.

telecommunications equipment and road control equipment). take place or may take place. propagation of trees or irrigation under or near the line) or to design for additional clearances to accommodate them. the positioning of structures may need to be considered to minimise the risk of contact. . movement or storage of large lengths of conductive material. A coverage of the obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS). special precautions need to be considered in the overhead design process. 13. Risk assessment should be undertaken and risk treatments applied to ensure that the residual risk is acceptable to the organization. EPR may occur where high voltage earths are installed in the vicinity of these services. gas and water pipelines. Where usage of land is such that it is reasonable to expect that agricultural activities involving the handling. Particular consideration should be given to step and touch potentials and induced voltages associated with the line which could impact on the operation of other services. It may be necessary to place restrictions on activities which might impact on line reliability (including those involving high machinery. Prior to commencement of line construction. Where possible a line route should be selected which avoids areas where they are likely to be affected by such activities.It is important to coordinate with nearby utility services to avoid both physical and electrical interference.. LFI can occur where overhead power lines are run in parallel and in close proximity with utillity services that are conductive (ie oil.6 Rural Activities in Proximity to Line The layout design process should identify activities which are likely to occur in proximity to the line and which might impact on the safe and reliable operation of the line.2 – Earth Potential Rise Application Guide SAA HB 219 – Earth Potential Rise Worked Examples SAA HB 87 – Joint Use of Poles SAA HB 88 – Unbalanced High Voltage Power Lines Code of Practice SAA HB 100 – Safe Working Practices SAA HB 101 Low Frequency Induction Code of Practice SAA HB 102 Low Frequency Induction Application Guide SAA HB 103 – Crossings Code of Practice CJC 4 . final approach and takeoff (FATO) areas and marking of the overhead line are given in Appendix .1 – Earth Potential Rise Code of practice AS/NZS 3835. Publications relevant to the coordination of power and telecommunication circuits include : AS/NZS 3835.5 Aerial Lines in the Vicinity of Aircraft Where overhead lines are located neat takeoff and landing areas for aircraft.Coordination of power and telecommunications standard 13. Overhead power-lines can electrically interfere with other utility services by creating Earth Potential Rise (EPR) and Low Frequency Induction (LFI) hazards . arrangements should be made with the relevant utilities to locate assets (in order to avoid damage during construction) and coordinate joint use arrangements where agreed.

Each component includes material and erection (construction). and engineering.This may require consideration of: • • • • design layouts that position structures away from regular agricultural activities eg: ⇒ along fence lines instead of across paddocks. machinery and plant storage areas the use of underground cables and covered conductor underground services designs that achieve maximum practical clearances Where there is a significant bushfire risk designers may need to take precautions to ensure that there is low risk of conductor clashing such as increased conductor separation. use of covered or insulated conductors and mid span spacers. foundation. insulators/fittings. towers. covered or insulated conductors may be considered to reduce the environmental impact 13. In areas of sensitive vegetation. The formula for ruling span is: ∑L ∑L 3 L RS Where: = L = length of each span in a tension section LRS = Ruling Span 14 COST OF OVERHEAD LINE (BY COMPONENTS) The cost of an overhead line can be broken down into different component costs: conductor. which is averaged internationally is given in Table 4. A tension section is the length of line between 2 termination structures. TABLE 4 -TYPICAL BREAK DOWN INTO COMPONENT COSTS (All figures are % of total line costs) Components < 150 kV 150 – 300 kV . earthwire. The ruling span is often called the mean equivalent span. The breakdown of transmission lines into component costs. ⇒ away from material and equipment storage areas ⇒ away from vehicle.7 Ruling Span The Ruling Span means that level dead-end span in which the behaviour of the tension closely follows that of the tension in every span of a series of suspension spans in a tension section.

0 3.7 5.9 5.0 2.5 5.5 2.8 32.5 3.5 9.0 100.5 2.5 5.8 5.5 8.5 32.1 1.5 11.0 11.0 6.5 10.2 35.0 3.8 100.5 100.5 20.0 2.0 67.5 1.0 11.6 2.5 64. Engineering Totals 20.7 1.4 30.0 21.2 3.6 25.7 12.8 31.0 32.3 1.0 64.6 3.0 67.7 4.5 2.0 4.0 100.3 1.0 .Single circuit Double circuit Single circuit Double circuit Matr.4 16.0 36. Erec Total Matr.1 1.0 11.0 6.4 21.7 6.2 5.0 3.0 16.2 11.0 8.1 21.7 27.4 8.1 2.6 10.0 9.5 16.0 16.2 33. Erec Total Conductors Earthwires Insulators /fittings Towers Foundation Right of way.9 11.5 5.2 3.5 11.5 38.4 1.3 11. Erec Total Matr.0 2.0 33.8 21. Erec Total Matr.4 31.5 2.2 2.5 36.

wire rope.1 Acceptable Location of Poles in Road Corridors Supply Authorities should endeavor to work with relevant road transport authorities. etc). Errant Vehicles • Pole set backs are influenced by factors including. Shires and Main Roads Departments. The poles should be positioned behind the man made crash barriers to be outside the deflective zone of the barrier. i) ii) iii) Australian Standard AS1158. frangibility of the pole. • Frangible poles can typically be positioned closer to the road because they absorb the impact of the vehicle to a greater extent than non-frangible poles. 15.2 Special Considerations for Slip based poles Slip based poles should not be used in areas with high pedestrian based activity. such as Councils. 15. • Poles can be positioned closer to the road where there is a permanent barrier between the poles and the road. traffic speed. road deviation and traffic calming devices (roundabouts. . Alternatively. road kerbing and parking. rocks.1. The slip based poles are unsuitable for these areas as these poles are deliberately designed to fall over after vehicle impact to lessen the damage to the vehicle occupants. Austroads Rural and Urban Road Design. embankments (cut or fill slopes) next to the road. to position poles in mutually acceptable positions. High pedestrian areas are schools. Barriers can take the form of natural items such as kerbs. Having these poles fall over in high pedestrian areas introduces an unacceptable risk. guidance to setbacks and barriers are covered in the following Standards. trees. etc.15 GUIDELINES FOR POLE LOCATION Normal Carriageway Use Poles shall be setback from carriageways to prevent them from being hit by a vehicle normally traversing the carriageway and to provide clear vision for the driver. and manmade crash barriers such as walls.3. Road Safety Barrier Design AS/NZS 3845. traffic volume. W-barrier. chicanes.

shopping centres, major entrances/ exits to sporting or entertainment venues, and train or bus
stations entrances/ exits, .

15.3 Aerial Lines in the Vicinity of Aircraft
Lines Near Takeoff and Landing Areas
Where lines are installed near takeoff and landing areas for aircraft, the structures shall not
interfere with the takeoff and landing of aircraft. That is, for fixed wing aircraft the poles shall
not enter the obstacle restricted area or the obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS) and for helicopter
landing areas the poles shall not enter final approach and takeoff (FATO) areas.
OLS and FATO limits may be ignored where there are other permanent taller structures in the
vicinity of the new line, such as trees or radio masts.
OLS limits are defined in Civil Aviation Safety Regulations (CASR) Part 139 – Aerodromes.
FATO limits are defined in Civil Aviation Advisory Publication 92–2 (1) Guidelines for the
establishment and use of helicopter landing sites.
Military sites have take off and landing restrictions that are different to civilian requirements.
The take off and landing restrictions can be obtained from the relevant site.
The standards do not have limitations on pole placements near hot air balloon take off and landing
area.

Lines in Areas Other Than Takeoff and Landing Areas
In areas, other than takeoff and landing areas, overhead lines shall be located to avoid possible
interference with normal aircraft flight paths. In areas where overhead lines may be significantly
higher than the pole height, which are known flight areas, permanent markers should be fitted.
Areas that may have conductors higher than some of the poles are in valleys, across water ways
and near hills.

Marking of Powerlines in Proximity to Airstrips
Marking of power lines is required in close proximity to airstrips and on spans with exceptionally
high ground clearance across deep valleys. Consideration should also be given to the marking of
power lines in areas where regular low-level flying operations take place.
Guidance on the marking of power lines in Australia for the purposes of air navigation is
provided in :
AS 3891 Air Navigation – Cables and their supporting structures – Mapping and marking
- Part 1: Permanent marking of overhead cables and their supporting structures
- Part 2: Marking of overhead cables for low-level flying
Suggested changes and additions to exiting Section 14?
In general aerial lines shall not be installed so as to cause a hazard with aircraft.

15.4 Country Line Road Crossings
It is not uncommon in country areas for lines to fall and the line to be left suspended above the
ground. That is, the line is left suspended on a fence or held up with part of the failed pole.
There is also a risk that this situation could be in place for longer time periods than in
metropolitan areas. The longer time periods can be caused by a line patrolworker taking longer
to find the fault due to distance or terrain or the general public not being in the vicinity of the fault
to be able to see and report the problem.
When a suspended line is in a remote area, across a high-speed road and the line is of low
visibility the consequences could be catastrophic for the occupants of a vehicle impacting the
wires.
Strain poles either side of the road would increase the security of the line but it would not
eliminate the possibility of the line falling and being left suspended above the road.
Low visibility lines are typically SWER one and two bare wire systems.
To reduce the chance of a collision between a motorist and a suspended line consideration shall
be given by the designer to increase the visibility of bare single-phase overhead lines that cross
remote high speed roads. Increased visibility devices should be used on roads where speed limits
are equal to or above 90kmh.
Increased visibility can take the form of pre-form fluorescent wraps or marker balls.
The above practice is not required for three phase bare, ABC, CC or CCT installations as they are
more visible.
The above practice is not required on low speed country roads, as these tend to be near populated
areas or where the driver will have a greater opportunity to break in time to avoid collision with
the wire. The above practice is not required in metropolitan areas.

15.5 Markers
Conductors and structures in locations susceptible to bird strike or inadvertent contact in the
vicinity of the line can be marked to improve their visibility and reduce the risk of contact.
Marking may take the form of reflective or brightly coloured discs, flags or marker balls attached
to the cables or structures. Care should be taken to ensure that markers do not compromise circuit
clearances and overload structures.

Permanent Markers
The fitting of permanent makers is the responsibility of the line owner. Permanent makers may
be in the form of spheres attached to the conductors as described AS3891.
Where spheres are used, account must be taken of their weight and resistance to wind when
determining swing, sag and tension. In simple cases the performance of the conductor may be
determined by approximating the point load of the sphere to a distributed load but software

packages, which more accurately reflect actual condition, are available and should be used where
practicable.

Temporary Markers
Where aircraft operations such as crop dusting are carried out in the vicinity of overhead lines it is
the responsibility of the aircraft operator to mark the location and direction of the lines. Such
markers may be attached to the conductors or supports (subject to approval of the line owner) or
placed on the ground in the vicinity of the overhead line.

Over Crossing Markers
Where inspection of overhead lines by aircraft is conducted, supports should be marked each side
of any over crossing.

16 VEGETATION CLEARANCES
There are situations where there are conflicts with Trees and Powerlines. Trees, shrubs and other
vegetation enhance our lifestyles by providing shade and privacy around our homes, offer a
habitat for birds and wildlife, and add aesthetic value to our gardens. However, vegetation
interfering with powerlines is a proven risk to public safety, the environment and one of the main
causes of power supply problems.
Vegetation Management Principles
The basis for undertaking vegetation clearing is covered in the following principles:

To achieve a balance between environmental responsibilities and ensuring a safe, reliable
and economical electricity supply to our customers.

Recognise that there are sites with vegetation of significance located near powerlines
requiring special consideration and treatment because of their importance to the
community and the environment.

When selecting line routes, establish the most economical, technically acceptable option,
taking into account the ongoing costs of vegetation management, the objectives of
environmental policy, and maintenance of the overhead network.

Vegetation Clearance Zones
Figure …shows the vegetation zones surrounding an overhead powerline. These zones are
described as:
Clearance Zone - is the space that must be clear of vegetation at all times, including the
period between trimming cycles.

. Clearance in this zone is discretionary.Regrowth Zone ..is a space in which trees or limbs may pose a risk in adverse weather conditions due to factors such as instability and weakness. Low Growth Zone .is the space below the clearance zone where vegetation is allowed which will not have a height of more than a specified distance.is a space beyond the clearance zone that must be trimmed so that the regrowth does not enter the clearance zone within the trimming cycle Risk Management Zone . Vegetation Clearance Zones surrounding Overhead Line Clearances to vegetation are generally established by regulations and industry guidelines in various jurisdictions. Typical clearance distances for a high reliability lines operating up to 33 kV are shown in Table 1. Additional clearing may be needed to improve the reliability of the overhead line. depending on the circumstance Figure .

Special Considerations for Transmission Lines On Transmission Lines special consideration should be given to extend the vegetation clearing to meet the higher levels of security and reliability for the line. The extended clearance may include clearing to the sky (refer Figure .) and allowance for blow out of the conductors in the mid sections of the line.Typical clearance distances for low voltage Aerial Bundled Cable and Insulated Service Cable are shown in Table 2.. .

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.18 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX B – WIND LOADS Clause B1 . This leaves some latitude to the designer to select the V50 value for a selected Security Level as required in Section 6 of the standard. On the mainland.2 as appropriate to the security level selected for the relevant location and wind zone required in the standard Figure B1.2 in the definition of wind regions. Figure B 1 Wind Regions for Australian Design Wind Gust Types Figure B1 shows a zoning map to determine which storm type should be considered in design for wind.2 provides for wind zones C. the regions on this map are delineated by a boundary 200 kilometres from the smoothed coastline. Wind velocities are selected from AS/NZS 1170. This contrasts to the multiple narrow 50km wide zones in AS/NZS 1170.2 for the near coastal areas.Australia The provisions in this clause are a major departure from the previous Cb1 and AS/NZS 1170. It acknowledges that most wind damage in Australia and New Zealand to the overhead line networks occur during severe thunderstorms and provides a more reasonable interpretation of wind regions based performance of overhead line networks over a number of years. For example in Zone 1 for Australia where cyclonic events occur AS/NZS 1170. D and B. Recent experience suggests that these arbitrary 50km zones are not relevant to severe Category 4 and Category 5 cyclonic events as the storm damage paths have been observed to extend 100km inland over a width of some 20km. In these cases it would be appropriate to select a V50 value from region C For the remainder of the non cyclonic regions within Zone 1 such as New South Wales coastal area only one V50 value is provided but a higher return period value may be adopted in some local areas where regular storm damage occurs.

Downdraft wind regions (Australia Zone II and Zone III and New Zealand Zones Region A 7 ) B4. based on performance of overhead lines in cyclonic areas over time. despite some structure failures occurring. that consideration be given for a lower value direction multiplier. These factors are provided in AS/NZS 1170. It should be noted that the selection of the regional wind speed is relevant to the line’s location. Where an overhead line is of significant length.2. Some caution needs to be applied to locations on hills in close proximity to sea coasts.1 Downdraft Winds The standard provides for all structures to be designed for V50 3 second gust regional wind speeds as defined in AS/NZS 1170. However line designs once created usually have repeat applications on other line projects which could have multidirectional characteristics and extreme caution is required if reduced values of Md are used. and care needs to be exercised where standard designs are applied to multiple sites. Hence the value of 1. B3 Synoptic wind regions In Clause B3 reference is made to wind direction multipliers Md as provided in Table 3.2 of AS/NZS 1170. B4. For example a line emanating from a coastal substation in a cyclonic region passing inland over a coastal range to an inland supply point could pass through three significant design wind climates that should be incorporated in the line design.For example in the coastal area immediately north of Sydney or the south east Queensland regions it might be prudent to adopt a V100 value or a higher security level as appropriate. Performance of major transmission lines in these regions over the last 50 years has been very good. variations in wind loading may be required as the line passes through differing wind exposure situations.2. The wind velocities provided in AS/NZS 1170. Higher or lower security levels of line design are then adjusted from this value using Security Multipliers from Section 6.0 has been applied for all lines in these areas.2 being taken as 1. In some cases it could be argued that where a line route is in a predominate direction for its entire route and the line design is unique for that line only. Downdraft wind gusts are relatively narrow and when they strike the ground observations of vegetation damage suggests a burst swath varying from 100m up to 1000m in width being common occurrences during more severe thunderstorms and hence the wind can envelop one or more spans simultaneously. Downdraft winds are the predominate wind that governs the design of overhead lines in Australia with the exception of cyclonic coastal regions.2 include this type of event.2 to apply additional security due to some uncertainty with wind velocities in the light of the recent incidence of several major Category 5 events. Cyclonic wind amplification factors Fc and Fd provided in AS/NZS 1170 Clause 3. . in view of the relatively high frequency of severe thunderstorms.4 are to be taken as 1.0 for all overhead lines. Distribution line network failures in such extreme events occur regardless of magnitude of wind velocities primarily as a result of airborne vegetation and building debris. B2 New Zealand Apart from the probability in some areas of turbulent effects near large mountains the majority of New Zealand is within Region A7 of AS/NZS 1170. The important aspect that is different is the span reduction factor when compared to that applicable to the larger scale synoptic wind gust events.0 to provide for multiple changes in direction of the route of overhead lines.

9 0. the symbols for each region being those given in the respective wind-load Standards. VII Australia Basic regional pressures (kPa) for limit states W P s (2) 0.9 1. Care needs to be taken in calculation of these rations to ensure adequate allowance is made for connection gusset plates and actual member sizes used. support structures need to be reviewed to ensure that public safety margins are not jeopardised. respectively. An important issue to consider is the angle of incident of the wind.2 and limit-state being considered and ps and p u represent the corresponding basic pressures for the serviceability and strength limit-states. 2 The basic regional wind speeds.2 1. VI. cable television boosters. the regions have been grouped around two values. B5. This can include banner support brackets. V. To simplify this.4 A B 0.7 p u (2) 1.1 Wind Pressures on Lattice Steel Towers The standard provides detailed guidance on the derivation of wind loadings on structures. Studies have shown that for a square based tower an angle of incidence of 22. The basic regional wind pressure (pb ) as selected from Table E1 below for the relevant wind region from AS1170.The standard provides a Span Reduction Factor (SRF) to be applied as provided in Figure B 6 Terrain -Height Multiplier Mz. banners.7 0. do not differ greatly from one region to the next in New Zealand. III.5 2.5 degrees to the plane at right angles to the direction of the line will be critical for the design of main tower leg members.0 B4. namely 45 m/s and 48 m/s.3 Wind Forces on Conductors . Where these items are added at some time after the initial overhead line was constructed. B5. particularly on compact tower superstructures and beams on horizontal configuration single circuit towers.cat for the common range of structure in open terrain and heights < 50m is 1. II. from which the basic pressures are derived. and communications cables. B5.TABLE E1 BASIC REGIONAL PRESSURES Country Geographic region (1) New Zealand I. Wind Pressures For distribution overhead lines a simplified approach to wind loadings can be applied particularly as most lines are located in Category 3 or Category 4 exposure and significant shielding from vegetation and structures occurs. B5. Drag factors for a range of Solidity Ratios are provided in Table B2.2 NOTES: 1 Geographic regions are shown separately for New Zealand and Australia.2 Tornadoes The standard identifies that these events do occur in some parts of the country but that they are relatively rare random events and of low intensity < F2 strength when compared to those in United States of America and Argentina. IV. Unless a line has a very high security requirement it is recommended that no special loadings be generally considered.2 Wind Pressure on Poles Many utility poles have ancillary items attached to them either in a temporary or permanent capacity.

In Wind Zone 1 and Zone 111 the designer needs to consider both downdraft SRF as well as synoptic SRF although the downdraft will be found to be the controlling condition.0 is required. . and these details provide application guidelines to be considered during the line layout process in particular to minimise potential risks of wind overload due to topographical influences. and surge arrestors.4 Wind forces on insulators and fittings While this is standard design consideration allowance needs to be made for any other devices and apparatus that may be provided on conductors. In locations where a structure position cannot be relocated to avoid a high risk situation then a higher duty/strength structure is usually the simplest option. need to be considered. temperature transponders. In these cases a SRF of 1. Item such as aerial markers at regular intervals along a conductor or earthwire spans near feeder and waterway crossings and airports. B5. B6 Topographical Effects This is an informative section of Appendix B and is based on localised performance of lines over time. In Zone 11. only downdraft conditions apply and is significant in the design of distribution pole lines where average spanning will be typically in the 50 -300m range. Retrospective installation or aerial markers may justify design checks particularly where placed on earthwires.The Span Reduction Factor for each wind climate region is a significant issue for design of structures.

Section 6 –Table 6. the selection of a particular structure type for given site conditions. in order to maintain structural integrity within adequate design margins adequate maintenance and possible minor repairs will be required from time to time to maintain the structure in a safe and useable condition over its service life.1 sets out security levels and design working life combinations for the selection of security load multipliers to be applied to design loadings. or the selection of suitable materials or protective treatment. TABLE D1 ABOVE-GROUND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION (AUSTRALIA) Climatic zone (see Figure D1) Arid Temperate (4) Tropical Geographic region (1) Inland Near-coastal Coastal Inland Near-coastal Coastal Inland Near-coastal Coastal Industrial proximity (2) Exposure class (3) Non-industrial A1 Industrial — — Non-industrial B1 B1 B2 A2 Industrial — — Non-industrial B1 B1 B2 B1 Industrial — — B2 B1 B2 .19 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX D . without undue maintenance or repair disproportionate to its cost of replacement and without exceeding any specified serviceability criteria. due to ‘wear and tear’ or environmental effects. Therefore. Clause D1 GENERAL of the standard defines the Design working life or service life of a structure as the period (generally in years) over which it will continue to serve its intended purpose safely. concrete and timber pole structures and lattice steel towers based on a range of ‘above-ground’ exposure classes as set out in Table D1. Structures and fittings located within 1. The information provided is considered conservative for each exposure condition assumed. the information presented is drawn from a number of industry reference groups and research experts and reflects best estimates for general application in design of overhead lines for a range of construction types. the detail design of a particular structure. The information contained in this Appendix is given as a reasonable basis for the economic evaluation of alternative support systems.GUIDELINES ON SERVICE LIFE OF OVERHEAD LINES (Informative) While this is an informative appendix.0 km of the sea will be subjected to more severe exposure and would normally require either special protection or a shorter service life. Experience in these coastal regions suggests that metallic fittings will be the weakest link over time and may need to be replaced more than once during the economic life of the structure. The design life. Clause D2 SUGGESTED NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE and Tables D2 and D4 provide recommended nominal service lives for steel. or target nominal service life expectancy. The selection of the appropriate Design Working Life for each design suite of supports and type of support can have a significant influence on the reliability of the structure and public safety. of a structure is dependent on a number of variable factors. This recognizes that cumulative deterioration of the structure over time will occur.

(See Note 4) Any — C TABLE D2 SUGGESTED RANGE OF NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE OF STEEL STRUCTURES AND CONCRETE POLES Suggested nominal service life (years) Galvanized steel(5) Exposure class 200 g/m 2(1) 400 g/m Concrete 2(1) 600 g/m 2(1) C (2) A1 60–100+ 100+ 100++ 100+ A2 25–60 60–100 75–100+ 80–100 B1 12–25 25–50 35–75 60–80 B2 8–25 15–50 35–75 50–60 C ( 3) 3–12 (6) 6–25 (6) 9–35 (6) 50 (4) TABLE D4 SUGGESTED RANGE OF NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE OF TIMBER POLES Zone (see Figure D3) Service life expectancy (years) H5 treated timber to AS 1604 Desapped untreated timber 1 Class 1 45–55 Class 2 35–45 Class 3 25–35 Class 4 40–50 Class 1 25–35 Class 2 15–25 2 50+ 50+ 30–40 50+ 30–40 25–35 3 50+ 50+ 40–50 50+ 50+ 30–40 These service life expectancies are indicative ranges and should be used in conjunction with local service experience and exposure in order provide a basis for design. 20 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX F .TIMBER POLES .

broad. silvertop H S3 3 ST blackbutt. poplar H (S2) 3* PG gum. blue-leaved H S2 3* SL stringybark. southern H S2 2 SM mahogany. grey H S2 1* GB box. New England H S3 2 NA bloodwood. salmon H (S2) 3* SA gum. white H (S2) 2* WX box. white topped H S2 2* WT gum.TABLE G1 (continued) Clause F1 General This clause sets out the design properties and design methods for timber poles and components in accordance with AS 1720.1 or NZS 3606. STRENGTH GROUPS. silvertop H S2 3 SS Tallowwood H S2 1 TW ash.leaved red H S1 1 BU ironbark. white H S2 1 WM stringybark. NATURAL DURABILITY RATINGS AND BRAND MARKS Standard trade common name Softwood (S) or Strength group Natural durability hardwood (H) (Unseasoned) ratings Species brand box. Those in parenthesis have provisional status as specified in AS 2878. spotted H S2 2 SG ironbark. red H S2 1 RI mahogany. grey H S1 1 GI blackbutt H S2 2 BB box. grey H S1 1 GG ironbark. coast grey H S1 1 CB gum. Clause F1.2 Characteristic strengths and elastic moduli Strength groups for timber poles are as given in AS 2878 and as summarised below. brown H S3 2* BD (Continued) . red H (S2) 2 RM mahogany. narrow-leaved red H S2 1 NI ironbark. TABLE G1 TIMBER SPECIES.

black H (S5) 3* BP pine. red Softwood (S) or Strength group Natural durability hardwood (H) (Unseasoned) ratings H S3 1* Species brand RW box. yellow H S3 2 YS turpentine H S3 1 TP ash. narrow-leaved H S4 3 NL peppermint. white H S3 2 WS stringybark. brush H S3 3 BH box. Douglas (Oregon)—elsewhere S S6 4 DF pine. cypress white S S5 1* WC pine. forest red H S3 2 FR gum. alpine H S4 4 AA ash. river red H S5 2 peppermint. mountain grey H S3 3 MT gum. brown H S3 3 BS stringybark. radiata S S6 4 PR pine Corsican S (S7) 4* PC (Continued) . rose H S3 3 RO gum. broad. loblolly S S6 4 PL pine. mountain H S4 4 MA brownbarrel H S4 4 BL gum. Caribbean S (S6) 4 PB pine. mountain H S4 4 MO gum. hoop S S6 4 HP pine. red H S3 3 RS stringybark. maritime S (S6) 4 PM pine. Douglas (Oregon)—North America S S5 4 DF fir. Sydney H (S4) 3 SP RR gum. manna H S4 4 MN gum. Maiden's H S3 3* MG gum. red H S3 2* RX box. yellow H S3 1 YB gum. yellow H (S4) 1 YG peppermint. Sydney blue H S3 3* SY peppermint. southern blue H S3 3 BG gum. slash S S5 4 PS fir. messmate H S3 3 MS stringybark.Standard trade common name bloodwood.leaved H S3 3 BT satinay H S3 1 S stringybark.

1 2. This is due to several factors.Softwood (S) or Strength group Natural durability hardwood (H) (Unseasoned) ratings Standard trade common name pine. It should be noted that the maximum bending moment will occur at a point around 200 mm below ground level in average soil backfill conditions. These are assigned in those cases where the evidence was inadequate to allow positive grouping at the time AS 2878 was published. 2 The strength groups assigned in the above table are those given in AS 2878 for unseasoned timber. The characteristic strengths and elastic moduli for untrimmed poles that conform in quality to the grade requirements specified in AS 2209 are as specified in Tables F. long-leaf S Species brand 4* PP (<S7) 4* PW — 4* PI — 4* PF * These durability ratings are not listed in AS 5604 and have been assigned the classification in AS 2209.3 3.3.1 5. and .7 3. NOTES: 1 See AS 5604 for definitions of timber natural durability ratings. patula S (S7) pine.2. the following design bending strength capacities result for each strength group and assumed ground line pole diameter.5 75 60 50 40 30 25 20 Short duration modulus of elasticity (E) 21500 18500 16000 14000 12000 10500 9100 F2 Design Capacity Using the design method set out in the standard and timber pole characteristic properties as indicated above.2 6. the sub soil requires some distance to provide fixity to develop restraint.0 4. ponderosa S pine.2.1 and F. TABLE F.1 POLE TIMBERS GRADED TO AS 2209 — RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRENGTH GROUPS AND CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES (MPa) Strength group Stress grade Bending (f ′b )(3) S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 F34 F27 F22 F17 F14 F11 F8 100 80 65 50 40 35 25 Tension parallel to grain (f ′ t )(3) Hardwood Softwood 60 50 40 30 25 20 15 — — — 26 21 17 13 Shear (f ′ s ) (3) Compression parallel to grain (f ′ c ) (3) 7. Canary Island S pine. Forest Products or state forestry authorities.3. unless verified by testing of samples from the same grade. Strength groups and joint group classifications are assigned to species in accordance with AS 1720.3. Provisional strength groups are shown in brackets. 3 For information on species not listed refer to CSIRO. Clayey soils will shrink away from the pole as they dry out.

In deep cracking/ reactive clays this 200mm allowance could be deeper unless breast logs or stabilized backfill is used.2 and F4.1 F4.significant degradation in the zone 300mm below ground surface level will occur over time.3 L GL Butt L Pole planting depth see comments on Appendix L . Assumed tip loading position Tip dt hr Ground level 200mm dg db Assumed critical cross section for design dgl Refer tabulated Ultimate bending moment capacities Tables F4.

steam processing—assumed for all CCA poles.0 128.8 34.0 158. 5 φ = 0.5 444.4 55.8 450 684.7 375 396.5 328.8 342.9 41.8 101.2 29.6 128.e.0 21.2 131.2 624.0 281.5 999.8 437.0 24. 8 k 22 = 0.3 167.1 48.8 257.00.3 32.4 547.0 610.0 101.7 500 938.7 46. ‘normal’ use.1 39.2 469.8 1054.4 138.2 273.8 206.1 16. 6 k 1 = 1.5 68.5 322.9 523.3 16.4 81.1 30. 25 year expected maintenance free service life.6 400 480.00.6 201.2 20.90.5 461.4 198.8 162. .2 350 322.5 54.7 300 202.3 168.8 239. preservative treated Eucalypt.7 384.1 316.5 312.9 76.2 1297.5 78.8 499.7 288.3 58.3 93.9 175 40.0 325 257.57 for permanent loads.2 26.5 12. i.4 240.9 103.0 257.7 10. 7 k 21 = 1.1 71.9 250 117.75 for critical importance.3 192.4 375. change to 0.00.85.6 812.8 751.8 4 k 20 immaturity factor applied for poles of diameter less than 200 mm.8 112.1 ULTIMATE BENDING STRENGTH AT GROUND LINE PRESSURE IMPREGNATED NATURAL ROUND HARDWOOD POLES (kNm) Strength group S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 Pole diameter at GL (mm) 100 80 65 50 40 35 150 25. −1 m < GL < +2 m).0 225 85.2 374.TABLE F4.1 8.5 811.1 62.3 600 1622.3 161.2 402.5 475 804.1 200 60. use 0.3 230.9 643. 9 k d = 1..6 209. shaving factor (in critical zone.9 567.6 550 1249.1 648.2 125.6 42.3 20.1 14.1 90.2 425 576.1 Characteristic bending strength (MPa) 275 156.

8 134.0 250 93.3 16.0 600.4 262.6 648. 3 k 1 = 1.2 375. preservative treated Eucalypt.4 450 547.5 72.2 13.1 103.00.0 191.6 225..5 34.5 307.2 350 257.9 400 384.4 126.2 375 316.0 299.5 300.2 10.e.6 32. SHAVED/UNPROCESSED HARDWOOD POLES (kNm) Strength group S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 Pole diameter at GL (mm) 100 80 65 50 150 20.9 192.9 75.0 43.9 16.8 44.1 167.1 82.1 418.8 325 206.7 649.8 253.2 24.6 249.3 153.9 Characteristic bending strength (MPa) 40 35 550 999.0 46.90. 6 k d = 0.6 475 643.4 81. 5 k 22 = 1. no processing.80.6 184.1 175 32.8 105.2 27.2 843. 2 φ = 0.5 205.0 81.2 25.0 19. 4 k 21 = 0.8 499.4 54.1 8.9 37.9 349.8 399.8 230.0 100.1 38. ‘normal’ use.3 200 48.5 161.1 454.85.8 225 68. i.8 219.6 206. shaving factor (in critical zone.7 110.2 129.8 1038.9 273.4 500 751.5 50.75 for critical importance.1 64. .9 515.9 519.6 799.9 56.5 322. 25 year expected maintenance free service life.0 355.8 488. −1 m < GL < +2 m).9 275 125.0 257.9 158.3 165.5 438.1 7.4 24.2 62. change to 0.57 for permanent loads.2 16.0 90.0 134.6 425 461.2 ULTIMATE BENDING STRENGTH AT GROUND LINE UNTREATED.7 300 162.00.1 61. use 0.TABLE F4.1 12.9 11.4 128.9 600 1297.8 103.5 31.2 NOTES: 1 k 20 immaturity factor applied for poles of diameter less than 200 mm.2 369.8 20.

3 134.9 33.9 112. steam processing—assumed for all CCA poles. 4 k 21 = 0.4 518.1 40. .2 68.1 273.8 371.4 531. 6 k d = 1.8 375 336.7 690.4 29.4 143.6 482.8 200 51.00.9 1103.8 400 408.1 424.5 20.3 10.8 168.90.6 20.7 239.3 66.1 849.6 NOTES: 1 k 20 immaturity factor applied for poles of diameter less than 200 mm.6 269.00.7 219.1 290. 25 year expected maintenance free service life.5 500 798.0 15.5 245.7 79.9 34.0 319.7 350 273.1 175. SHAVED SOFTWOOD POLES (kNm) Strength group S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 Characteristic bending strength (MPa) Pole diameter at GL (mm) 100 80 65 50 40 35 150 18.1 46.8 106.7 465.5 450 581. use 0.3 550 1062.9 275 132. 5 k 22 = 0.1 896.0 638.7 11.9 232.1 392.4 12.9 39.7 203.4 17.3 36.2 7.3 14.4 109.9 60.7 399.4 378.4 175 30.5 250 99.7 117.85.7 58.2 547.0 425 490.2 25. shaving factor in critical zone (−1 m < GL < +2 m).75 for critical importance.3 325 219.57 for permanent loads.9 136.0 177.3 163.8 24.9 265.TABLE F4.0 318.5 300 172.6 87.85.8 64.7 600 1378.3 142.9 225 72.6 326.4 137.1 25.3 ULTIMATE BENDING STRENGTH AT GROUND LINE PRESSURE IMPREGNATED.5 551. preservative treated Eucalypt. ‘normal’ use.7 76. change to 0.0 196. 3 k 1 = 1. 2 φ = 0.6 475 684.2 47.0 171.9 9.7 342.2 279.0 86.9 109.8 49.4 53.2 86.3 444.3 689.3 6.5 95.3 218.6 204.

Some pole designs have prestressed tendons or partially prestressed tendons that provide permanent compression of the pole element under most loading conditions and result in most cases in a more durable pole product. Clause I 4. This type of cracking may take 6 – 9 months of exposure to permanent load to develop discernable creep related cracking and field experience indicates that the creep will continue and cracks widen further with time with the potential for corrosion of exposed steel reinforcement.21 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX I .1 mm Exposure Classification C. In more severe exposure sites (Classification C particularly) other design considerations need to be taken as set out in Appendix D.25mm is therefore set to provide a conservative but important serviceability standard for concrete poles. Clause I 5 Concrete Cover .CONCRETE POLES Design of Concrete Poles Concrete poles produced in Australia and New Zealand are either designed as a normal reinforced concrete cast product based on calculated design or as a centrifugally spun cast product that has a proprietary design correlated and supported by extensive testing.2 Deflection and rotation – identifies the potential problem but it is a significant issue on stayed poles or poles subjected to permanent bending moments.25 mm. Deflection of pole elements with permanent bending stresses should be checked and assessed for potential cracking that may exceed the specified limits. All concrete will develop barely measurable minute cracks and most self seal.3 Crack width sets out that crack widths at the serviceability limit state shall not exceed 0.2 mm Exposure Classification B2. Concrete cover is the other important consideration for providing concrete durability. concrete aggregate sizes and water absorption limits.sets out minimum cover requirements for varying exposure conditions.3 mm Exposure Classifications A1. reinforcing bar. The crack width limit of 0. Clause I 4. A2. The design provisions of the standard are general application clauses covering all types of design. (2) Width <0. Crack widths from handling stains and construction or other flexural loadings <0. B1. concrete strain/creep over time can result in crack widths that may not effectively autogenous self seal.25mm are acceptable for average exposure conditions In addition Appendix D of the Standard also sets out the following crack width recommendations in relation to design service life requirements for a range of general exposure classifications: (1) Width <0. . (3) Width <0. The most important requirements for concrete pole designs apart from strength are concrete durability and control of deflections and related crack widths. but more specifically to poles designed by calculation as set pout in Clause I 3. Even though bending stresses may be low.

concrete compaction (particularly by centrifugal spinning). ie 19mm nominal cover could be reduced to possibly 15mm and durability then becomes a significant issue. Vertical prototype load tests if possible. Keep in mind that with all dimensions there must be an acceptance tolerance and +/. Water absorption testing (Appendix O) on prototype pole is essential where concrete cover of 19mm and less is provided.2 of the Standard sets out Load Testing requirements for pole type structures.5. 2. Load testing of prototype poles may be used as an acceptable alternative to strength calculations to verify flexural bending and shear capacity strengths for pole type elements. so that a comparative base line test deflection characteristic is established for production control through further routine sample tests.With the high characteristic compressive strengths that can be achieve through mix design. . Routine Sample poles shall be tested to determine whether structurally similar poles are deemed to comply with the requirements for strength and serviceability of this Standard. are preferred to enable realistically model loading characteristics. Testing of Concrete Poles Clause 8. As an example there is some standard prestressed concrete pole products produced in Japan that have characteristic strength of typically 60MPa and 9 mm cover over tendons and they are cured by full immersion in water for 10 days. Where large volumes of similar type/length /strength poles are in mass production these tests form a very important check on design and consistency of manufacturing standards In particular it sets out the following requirements: 1. Service experience in Europe with some of the earliest centrifugally spun poles has shown that even in cold climates with ice and snow exposure that there are some poles still in excellent service condition after over 90 years. Deflection characteristics of repetitive sample pole tests compared to prototype test deflections provides a useful tool for monitoring quality of pole product manufacture. P-delta (load/deflection) considerations are very important for concrete pole testing due to their inherent flexibility.3mm occurring. Prototype testing is the most important test in ensuring flexural and shear strength characteristics of any pole and it is important in these tests to model the design loading assumptions as close as possible.2mm is sometimes difficult to achieve during high mechanical compaction of concrete and it is more than likely that at some locations on a pole element it could result in tolerances of +/. the provision of high and consistent standards of initial concrete curing will greatly enhance long and durable service life of pole elements. This means that if concrete cover is expected to be on dimensional tolerance limit or greater. but should also be accompanied by a horizontal test if horizontal routine testing is carried out. then additional effort needs to be placed on the curing process once the pole product is stripped from the moulds. and if load tests are carried out in the horizontal mode then additional loading in the longitudinal plane should be considered in order to reflect deflected vertical self weight mass eccentric loading stresses.

Butt sealing of hollow poles is recommended for most applications. It should be noted that the advantage of prestressing and partial prestressing tendons in pole designs provides control of cracking under all normal service loading conditions likely to be experienced. transport and handling stresses can result in pole damage can easily occur. Handling Stresses While the standard does not cover the area of handling stresses. However on cross country lines.Crack development during load testing must be carefully monitored and significant or accelerated crack width development with small load increase could signify structural design weakness at loads below 50% of ultimate capacity. . significant thermal differentials from air temperature variations during the day will cause pressure variations internally and can cause ground water to be pumped inside the void if any below ground opening exists. the self weight load will most likely close resultant cracks. particularly where high ground water tables are known to exist. and lifting /erection stresses. Pole Manufacture Related Design Issues It is most important in the production control for concrete pole manufacture to not only ensure consistency of the concrete mix but also in the measured volume of concrete batched and added to the moulds to ensure design wall thickness is provided. On such line projects. the normal approach adopted is for construction and transport induced stresses be restricted to be less than normal design stresses. flexural stresses from off road transporters. particularly in through difficult terrain and where longer pole elements are used. need to be included as a specific design loading case. Cracks in non prestressed poles above 40% load capacity most likely will not close up after release of load on test. possible snigging along the ground at very difficult sites. or can be expected to occur after seasonal rainfall. however if the pole were to experience this level of loading in service. In spun poles the internal wall can have in part minimum fines in the surface zone and hence durability of the internal concrete may need to be enhanced by sealing off the butt to prevent ground water ingress. If the total internal void in circular concrete poles is sealed off top and bottom and with through tubes for bolting.

must take into consideration the expertise and experience of the on site construction supervisor.STRUCTURE FOOTING DESIGN AND GUIDELINES FOR THE GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS L1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES While this is an informative appendix in the standard it establishes some important principles for acceptable design methods associated with overhead line footings and their foundations. When designing overhead line foundations. . and their use should be assessed against any known properties from soil tests for a particular region or site. except for the heavier steel or concrete pole construction sometimes used on special aesthetic lines and sub transmission type lines.1 OCT 00 Shallow Post Foundation Design for distribution pole structure footing design. In the later case a higher level of engineering design usually can be expected. Reference is also made in the standard to relevant references for design methods such as IEEE Std 6912001 ‘Guide for Transmission Structure Foundation Design and Testing’.22 APPENDIX L . the designer also has the option to design each footing for sitespecific loadings and actual subsurface conditions or to develop standard designs that can be used at sites within application guidelines for various possible sub soil conditions. boring machine operator and any full time network owner inspector utilised on site. The values in Table L4 are based on research data and pull out tests on test piles. the designer should exercise sound engineering judgment in determining which method is most appropriate for the standard of construction required. In distribution line construction simple subsurface application design guidelines are commonly applied. On major transmission lines it can be expected that a higher level of specialist engineering will be applied to the geotechnical design of footings and their foundations and hence some form of subsurface investigation could be expected to be carried out along the easement of transmission lines. While several alternative approaches can be used for the design of footings and the interpretation of the foundation conditions. The method that is adopted for design and the application of assumed soil properties . Reference could also be made to American Society of Agricultural Engineers ANSI/ASAE EP486. However this may not always be practical and some simplified assessments may be required to establish some indicative yet conservative parameters. L2 GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS The standard provides some typical detailed information on a range of soil types that may be encountered on any overhead line in Tables L1 –L4. Table L4 can be used in the absence of more detailed site information as a conservative guide. to obtain geotechnical parameters required to design the transmission structure footings.

it is assumed that the soil resistance to deformation is proportional to displacement for the range of deformations used in design. per unit of depth including increases. There are three commonly used methods 1. Secondly. First. For the simple unrestrained top pole the following pressure diagram refers. while theoretically applied in some areas for major pole or single bored pier footings they are not commonly used for directly embedded pole type distribution overhead line construction.( m) d = minimum pole embedment depth to resist applied forces with a maximum soil pressure of S ( m) Ma= moment applied to foundation at ground surface. This increasing resistance to deformation is due to the confining pressure of the soil overburden. as they require a level of engineering that is not always available to that sector of the electricity supply industry and in particular to distribution lines.L3 FOOTING DESIGN OF DIRECTLY EMBEDDED OVERHEAD LINE POLES FOR LATERAL LOADS AND MOMENTS The Brinch Hansen methodology provided in this clause and other methods referenced such as Broms ASCE 1964. This design method utilizes two soil assumptions.1 OCT 00 Shallow Post Foundation Design and as approved OCT 2000 by American National Standards Institute. 8Ma d Sb 6Va + Where d = b = effective width of the pole in the soil perpendicular to the direction of movement. it is assumed that the resistance to deformation increases linearly with depth below the ground surface. In addition simple design methods have been in use for distribution pole overhead lines throughout Australia and New Zealand and overseas for many years and these overhead lines have performed well over time. the maximum soil pressure is limited to the allowable lateral pressure. kN . For each case. American Society of Agricultural Engineers ANSI/ASAE EP486. kN·m S = allowable lateral bearing soil pressure. kPa/m Va = shear force applied to foundation at ground surface. This suggests that either the design loadings have not generally reached the failure limit state at a particular structure such as to cause failure or that the footing design methods adopted have been conservative.

Equations E1 and E2 are specified as follows: L GL = Min[(1 + 0.3 L GL db Pole planting depth see comments on Appendix L Butt The embedment lengths LGL are based on a simplified method. E2 where L GL = min. Assumed tip loading position Tip dt h r L Assumed critical cross section for design dgl Ground level 200mm dg Refer tabulated Ultimate bending moment capacities Tables F4. .1 F4. For longer poles.4. embedment depth.1 × h r) × (d g/330). . For poles where the height from the ground line (GL) to the conductors is less than 18 m. Empirical Design Formula This method is based purely on the height above ground for a given pole diameter at ground level and has no direct relationship with the loads applied to the pole.8 m. the embedment length is calculated by Equation E2.2. the embedment length is calculated by Equation E1.6 m.8] for h r ≥18 . E1 = Min[(1 + 0. . up to 21 m in height. with a maximum of 3. with a maximum of 4.1 × h r) × (d g/250).6] for h r <18 .2 and F4. as defined in Equations E1 and E2 and relate purely to pole height above ground hr .3. in metres . .

1 2.6 2.0 3.1 2.7 1.9 3.4 2.1 1.7 3.6 3.6 3.8 1.6 3.6 3.1 275 1.3 3.8 2.5 1.2 550 3.6 3.5 1.0 3.9 3.8 475 3.6 3.6 3.9 2.9 2.1 1.6 3.3 2.9 2.6 3.6 3.3 1.1 1.5 3.9 3.7 225 1.6 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.0 3.5 2.4 2.2 3.4 1.6 3.6 3.3 1.6 3.8 350 2.0 375 2.5 2.1 3.5 3.5 2.5 3.6 1.8 3.6 2.6 3.2 2.3 2.7 600 3.5 3.6 3.0 1.5 18 150 1.6 1.6 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.8 2.6 4.6 3.3 300 1.3 2.6 4.6 3.6 3.6 4.1 3.8 .3 175 1.2 2.1 2.9 2.6 4.1 3.0 2.4 1.6 3.6 2.4 1.6 1.6 3.6 3.6 3.4 1.5 325 2. in metres Table EI gives numerical values for the planting depths for the common range of pole dimensions.2 2.4 1.3 1.6 3.4 2.7 2.6 3.6 1. TABLE E1 MINIMUM EMBEDMENT DEPTH LGL (m) Height from GL (ground line) to conductor (m) Pole dia.6 3.2 1.0 2.0 3.6 3. in metres d g = diameter of the pole at the ground line (GL).5 12 13.8 3.5 200 1.9 250 1.2 1.4 2.2 400 2.8 1.6 2.9 3.6 3.7 2.2 3.6 1.5 1.4 425 2.6 450 2.5 9 10.0 500 3. at GL (mm) 6 7.3 3.6 3.2 3.5 15 16.5 2.3 3.hr = height from the ground line to the conductors.1 2.6 3.7 2.8 1.1 1.3 3.6 3.9 1.6 3.9 2.3 2.1 2.6 3.8 1.6 3.

1 Bearing strength 3. . and the vertical distribution of the bearing pressure below the centre of rotation is a skewed parabola for which the resultant horizontal reaction force is located at eight ninths of the embedment depth below ground level. The method relies primarily on varying the embedment depth and its projected area to engage the required resistance of the foundation to overturning and sliding 3.F. This can be readily assessed on site by simple standard penetrometer test (AS 1289. The boundaries between the classes are in fact quite arbitrary but correlate well with permissible bearing stress values quoted in the technical literature. The assumptions made are : 1.3 ASCE Method (EX AS/NZS 4676) This method also assumes soil pressures increasing linearly below ground surface and calculation of embedment depth is based on ultimate limit design principles and utilises soil properties for generalised cases likely to be experienced in the field.2) at the appropriate depth. with bearing strengths based on degree of firmness or resistance to indentation.1.3.5 f b. 2 embedment the vertical distribution of bearing pressure above the centre of rotation is in the form of symmetrical parabola with its axis of symmetry located at one third of the embedment depth below the ground surface with its maximum value taken as 1. the centre of rotation of the footing as located at two thirds of depth below the ground surface.1 FOUNDATION PROPERTIES 3.1.1.1 Serviceability limit state Table I1 has been prepared using a simple broad classification of soil types.

the shear strength may be determined directly in a laboratory shear-box test or by the vane test in the field. suitable reduction of these values may be necessary.1 Design Method Based on the above assumptions.b for ultimate limit state.96 H R2 + 16.b for serviceability limit state fb = the nominal maximum bearing strength of the foundation material (kPa) fbu = 1.4 fb where fb is the value obtained from Table I1. or the footing diameter. Because there are a large number of variables involved. or fb . 3. it is more practicable to adopt the ‘permissible’ bearing strength concepts used for the serviceability limit state and extend them by suitable factoring. .2 Strength limit state The behaviour of soils under high levels of stress can vary from plastic for very soft soils to brittle for very hard materials such as rock. microwave antennas). the deformations. Consequently.1. sandy clays. NOTE: 3. The values obtained from such tests indicate an average shear strength value of about half the bearing strength value obtained from a bearing plate test. In these circumstances. 3.1. clayey sands. wet or loose sands 60 < f b ≤ 100 Firm Very firm Hard Damp clays. or both.3. which will reduce the bearing pressures and. the embedment depth (D) may be determined from the following equation: D= 3. For poles supporting services that are sensitive to displacements at their supporting points (e.2 Shear strength For soils with fb less than 150 kPa.2 CM 2C . This may be achieved by increasing the embedment depth. projected on a plane .g. the shear strength of a soil should be taken as not greater than 0. . Consequently ultimate compressive strengths can be reliably determined only for some rocks and certain very stiff cohesive soils. there is a wide scatter of results although the soils may exhibit the same bearing strength.5fb b = the effective width of the footing.3 FOOTINGS AND EMBEDMENT DEPTH IN SOILS 3. loose dry sands f b ≤ 60 Strength (f b ) kPa Wet clays.5 times the value obtained from Table I1. damp sands Dry clays. Therefore. Therefore. the bearing strength for the strength limit state (fbu) should be taken as 1. this degree of deformation might be inappropriate.TABLE I1 BEARING STRENGTH OF SOILS AT THE SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE Class Very soft Soil description Soft Silty clays and sands. consequently. silty loams. dry clays 100 < f b ≤ 150 150 < f b ≤ 240 240 < f b The above values are based on foundation deformations of approximately 12 mm under serviceability loads on building structures. I3.6 H R + 12.2(1) where C = fbu. coarse sand s. compact sands Gravels.

perpendicular to the direction of the resultant horizontal force
acting on the pole (m)
M

=

the overturning moment acting on the pole at ground level (kNm)

=

HR .h r
HR

=

the resultant of the horizontal forces acting on
the pole (kN)

hr

=

the height above ground level at which HR acts (m)

Embedment support is most commonly achieved by boring an oversize hole to the required
depth and after installing the pole, backfilling the space between the pole and the perimeter
of the hole. Hence the nature and condition of the backfilling material becomes an
important consideration in the choice of an appropriate value for the parameter b.
The following are recommended:
(i)

If the backfill is properly prepared concrete, b may be taken as the diameter of the
bored hole.

(ii)

If the backfill is the excavated material, b should be taken as the diameter of the pole
and, unless full recompaction of the fill can be assured, the value of fb should be
reduced from its ‘undisturbed’ value.

(iii) If the backfill is cement-stabilized soil, b may be taken as the mean value of the
diameters of the pole and the bored hole.
The physical representation of the assumptions and the relevant equation parameters are
illustrated in Figure I3.1. The derivation of the equation is given in Paragraph I4 of this
Appendix.
For poles, particularly guyed or stayed poles, the minimum plan area of the footing required
at its lowest extremity (Afb ) is calculated from the following equation:

Afb = ( Fv + Fgt ) / f b

where
Fgt

=

the sum of the vertical components of the guy or stay tensions

Fv

=

the sum of the vertical forces acting on the pole from loads other than F gt

(a)

Fixed embedment depth

For this arrangement, the following assumptions are made:
1
2
3
4

The embedment depth (D) is a fixed proportion (k) of the height of
the top of the pole above ground level (h p ) i.e. D = kh p .
The centroid of area of the upper (breast) bearer is located at 0.3 m
below ground level.
The centroid of area of the lower (toe) bearer is located at 0.1 m
above the bottom of the footing.
The foundation pressure acting on the bearers is distributed
uniformly over their contact surfaces with a maximum magnitude of
0.85 f b.

Based on the above assumptions, the reaction force on upper bearer (Rb1) is given by —

Rb1 = H R ( Khp + hr − 0.1) /( khp − 0.4)

. . . I3.3(1)

the reaction force on the lower bearer is given by

Rb2 = Rb1 − H R ; and

. . . I3.3(2)

the face areas of the bearers (Ab ) are calculated from

Ab = Rb / 0.85 f bu

. . . I3.3(3)

where the symbols are illustrated in Figure I3.2.

FIGURE I3.2 FORCES ON FOOTINGS AND FOUNDATIONS (FIXED EMBEDMENT)
(AS/NZS 4676)

DERIVATION OF EMBEDMENT FORMULA

Referring to Figure I3.1 for static equilibrium:
1

The sum of the horizontal forces is zero

i.e. HR + R2 –R1 = 0
Reaction R1 =

Projected width of pole times the area of the upper pressure
distribution

⎡4 ⎛
D⎞ ⎤
= b ⎢ ⎜ f bu . ⎟ ⎥
3⎠⎦
⎣3 ⎝

=

4 b f bu D
9
2

The sum of the moments about any point in the vertical plane
containing H R and the reactions is zero. Taking moments about the
line of action of R 2

HR (hr + 8D/9) –R1 (5D/9) = 0

. . . I4(1)

Expanding and multiplying throughout by 9 —
9HR hr + 8HR D –5R1 D = 0
Substituting the value from (a) for R1 gives —

9 H R hr + 8 H R D − 5 D

(4b. f bu .D)
=0
9

. . . I4(2)

Multiplying throughout by –9/20 and rearranging gives—

b. f bu .D 2 − 3.6 H R D − 4.05 H R hr = 0
which is a simple quadratic of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0
Solving for D—

D = 3.6 H R +

12.96( H R )2 + 16.2. b. f bu .H R . hr
2b. f bu

. . . I4(3)

Substituting C for b.fbu and M for HR h r—
D=

3.6 H R + 12.96( H R )2 + 16.2.CM
2C

. . . I4(4)

TABLES OF MINIMUM EMBEDMENT DEPTHS

Table I2 has been prepared from Equation I4(3) for an fb value of 150 kPa and various
values of H, b and h r. Note that the tabulated depths include the additional 0.2 m to allow
for soil shrinkage in the ground line zone. As can be seen from the equation, linear
interpolation or extrapolation cannot be used for values different from those tabulated;
however, the tabulated values will be conservative for foundation materials with fb greater
than 150 kPa but should not be taken as less than 0.5 m.
Embedment depths for materials with a bearing strength less than 150 kPa should be
calculated directly from Equation I4(3), to which a further 0.2 m has to be added. Practical
considerations of foundation materials and available excavating equipment will determine
which combination of hole diameter and embedment depth that will be economically viable
at each location.

.

1 1.9 1.8 3.7 1.8 3.7 1.1 1.4 1.2 2.60 0.7 0.1 0.4 3.60 0.2 2.0 1.1 4.1 1.0 2.4 NOTES: 1 Tabulated depths include the 0.8 13.0 1.0 1.3 1.0 0.3 0.6 3.9 1.3 22.7 12.5 2.2 m additional depth required by Clause 6.4 1. for horizontal force (H) kN Effective height h (m) H = 1.5 9.0 1.1 TABLE I2(A) 2 POLE EMBEDMENT DEPTHS FOR SOILS WITH f b = 150 kPa Embedment depth (D) (Note 1) m.9 1.1 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.8 1.0 1.5 1.8 0.3 2.1 1.2 1.4 2.5 1.8 1.9 1.6 1.1 1.5 1.9 0.3 1.2 1.1 2.0 2.1 1.0 1.2 1.7 1.4 7.0 1.6 1.2 2.7 2.8 1.0 1.8 1.6 2.9 1.0 1.0 16.7 1.1 1.0 0.6 1.6 1.6 3.1 2.9 0.6 0.5 1.2 1. .9 3.2 1.1 1.4 2.0 1.2 2.1 2.6 1.9 0.4 1.5 1.5 1.9 1.8 2.9 0.0 2.8 1.3 1.5 1.4 2.0 1.5 H = 3.5 2.6 3.4 2.7 0.2 1.3 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.7 3.0 0.8 1.3 0.0 1.5 3.2 2.1 2.75 0.7 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.7 1.3 0.5 1.3 1.7 1.2 1.6 3.1 2.2 19.0 1.9 1.45 0.1 1.5 1.5 3.2 6.3 1.5 2.2 1.4 2.45 0.9 2.3 2.5 1.7 1.8 1.4 2 The embedment depth should be not less than 0.8 2.45 0.45 0.8 2.0 1.1 2.1 1.75 0.6 2.0 2.0 H = 6.1 3.4 1.3 2.4 1.9 3.8 1.3 2.6 1.8 2.3 1.6 2.9 1.4 1.3 2.2 1.3 2.7 3.7 2.7 1.0 0.2 2.6 2.2 1.2 1.5 2.1 18.5 2.3 2.0 H = 10 b=0.8 1.8 1.6 10.7 2.2 2.7 1.4 2.5 0.4 2.6 2.9 1.6 2.0 1.4 1.9 1.9 15.5 1.6 1.0 0.7 1.4 2.9 1.3 1.9 0.1 1.6 0.5 1.8 1.30 0.3 1.5 1.5 m in any soil.9 2.2 2.5 1.4 1.8 0.9 4.3 1.3 1.2 2.1 1.0 0.4 1.8 1.

2 4.4 3.1 3.8 2.8 2.3 3.7 2.5 3.7 4.3 3.8 5.2 1.2 3.0 2.2 4.6 2.0 3.6 3.1 7.6 2.2 4.6 4.2 0.7 4.9 3.3 3.0 2.5 3.6 3.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 13.4 3.3 3.9 5.2 0.5 3.5 4.4 2.8 3.3 3.5 3.4 2.5 5.8 3.5 4.6 0.5 4.8 3.8 4.7 3.4 4.8 4.6 3.3 3.2 4.1 1.0 3.3 3.4 2.6 1.9 1.7 2.4 3.3 2.1 2.1 1.5 4.6 3.3 3.2 3.8 5.6 4.8 3.0 3.2 2.9 2.6 4.1 2.7 2.1 3.9 1.8 3.7 1.5 3.2 6.1 2.1 1.0 3.6 3.0 2.0 4.7 5.0 5.2 3.6 3.TABLE I2(B) POLE EMBEDMENT DEPTHS FOR SOILS WITH f b = 150 kPa Effective height h (m) Embedment depth (D) m.4 3.7 NOTES: 1 Tabulated depths include the 0.0 3.0 4.7 12.5 1.1 1.75 0.5 2.2 1.1 3.1 3.8 3.0 4.3 2.3 4.6 4.8 2.4 4.2 2.3 4.75 0.2 4.1 3.3 3.2 4.1 3.8 3.6 2.6 5.1 1.5 3.3 2.7 3.4 4.2 1.1 2.4 2.4 3.6 2.5 22.0 4.2 2.3 3.0 2.4 5.8 4.7 2.8 2.1 2.4 2.3 2.5 5.9 1.2 4.0 1.1 5.0 4.4 1.8 4.6 4.4 2.9 3.2 2.3 2.5 2.3 3.8 3.6 0.9 2.1 3.6 4.1 2.0 4.5 3.9 3.0 4.9 6.7 3.5 2.0 2.3 2.7 4.1 2.2 5.5 10.6 3.4 2.4 19.6 2.5 4.1 2.7 3.2 m additional depth required by Clause 6.45 0.7 2.3 2.1 16.5 2.9 5.5 4.0 3.45 0.2 2.7 3.0 4.8 4.8 3.8 4.0 4.5 2.8 2.0 2.3 2.9 1.9 3.6 4.5 2.7 2. .7 5.4 2 The embedment depth should be not less than 0.0 3.1 2.9 1.9 0.8 3.1 2.2 1.5 2.0 3.8 3.4 2.75 0.9 2.0 3.3 3.9 1.4 3.7 3. for horizontal force (H) kN H = 16 H = 24 H = 32 H = 40 b = 0.8 3.3 3.8 1.0 5.4 2.9 2.3 9.6 1.1 3.5 3.1 3.3 3.9 2.1 2.8 2.6 0.45 0.5 3.8 1.8 2.6 3.4 4.0 2.75 0.5 4.0 15.6 3.5 3.1 1.5 m in any soil.6 5.9 1.1 3.0 4.2 18.6 2.6 3.5 3.6 3.3 2.8 2.8 4.1 5.5 3.2 2.9 3.3 0.9 3.5 3.4 4.9 1.1 2.0 5.9 3.8 3.8 2.3 3.3 2.6 0.8 5.

conservative and provide a reasonable minimum standard for adoption. Method 2 is completely arbitrary and while resulting in solutions that have been seemingly conservative. This section of the standard provides basic design methods that have been used around the world over many years. Some also imply a higher level of engineering interpretation that may have some practical difficulty in being able to be applied during construction. Such methods should be used with caution and should be correlated with the assumed soil characteristics of where the research was carried out. There are however other methods and refinements that have evolved based on research reports.that the lines have performed well as you would expect. These methods for the most part have been the subject of investigation and research over many years by Cigre. The reality is that in the past the majority of poles have been for lightly loaded and concurrent with some conservative planting depths for the design load applied . L2. The design methods provided in the standard are simple.There are close similarities between Method 1 and 3 and later was adopted as a more practical solution in AS/NZS 4676. FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR LATTICE STEEL TOWERS. EPRI and post graduate research projects. . Method 3 is the most appropriate practical and recommended method. It also provides a method where soft soil conditions require the installation of bearing logs/ blocks to develop strength. Not all are adequately supported by exhaustive testing programs due to the variable nature of the soil conditions modelled and the nature of the loads being considered. The basic methods have been in use for many years and have performed well and are supported by full scale and scale model load tests.

3 Clearances The clearance requirements of Sections 8.2.1 Supports Mechanical support fittings. Australia’s capital and provincial cities have many such laneways and narrow streets. Its initial use was in narrow laneways and streets where poles could not be used. (i) The first element to fail should be the suspension support by failure of the suspension clamp or the pole hardware supporting the suspension clamp.2 general LVABC may be used as— (a) an aerial cable suspended between two or more supports.2. or (b) a cable attached to the facades of buildings. the tangential tension in the cable should not exceed 28% CBL. This is based on a maximum working conductor stress of 40 MPa on 95 mm2 LVABC. (iv) This should be followed by pole footing failure. Also for 3 or 4 core cables experience has shown that the cores are difficult to separate to fit Insulation Piercing Connectors at cable tensions exceeding 4.3.1. including pole fittings. (b) The highest horizontal tension used for the everyday load (Clause 3. The cable should not be allowed to slip through the suspension clamp as this causes insulation damage.3.3 Aerial cable 1.3) should take into account the working ratings of cable tensioning equipment such as lugalls. strain clamps and suspension clamps. 1.3. should comply with the requirements of AS 3766. 1. (ii) The second element to fail should be mains and service tee connections to minimize the number of live cables lying on the ground. . (iii) The third element to fail should be the pole hardware supporting the strain clamp. comealongs. especially if an insulation piercing connector is fitted near the support. 9 and 10 for Insulated Conductor. Before LVABC is attached to the facade agreement on the following issues should be reached with all the building owners: (a) Liability for all expenses resulting from the attachment of the cable to the facade. 1.3. This is the limit for transferring the conductor tension through the insulation to the strain clamp and is based on French experience with heavily filled XLPE compounds.5 kN.3.23 LOW VOLTAGE AERIAL BUNDLED CABLE 1. 1. U ≤ 1000 V apply to LVABC.4 Facade cable The mounting of LVABC on the facades (frontages) of buildings was the original and still the most common method of using LVABC in France. cable failure and pole failure. etc.2 Cable tension In addition to the requirements of Section 7 the following considerations apply: (a) Under the short duration load of Clause 3.

1. (c) Liabilities for damage to the cable system resulting from failure of the building or its facade. should be as specified in Table 16.2 Clearances Where the cable is in excess of 300 mm from the facade of the building which supports it. An everyday tension of 1. The choice is dependent on the type of facade.(b) Conditions relating to building owners painting the LVABC and any attachments to further harmonize the cable with the facade. The cable is lifted onto the wall brackets and has sufficient tension so that there are no unsightly sags between supports. (ii) Intermediate wall supports are spaced at 3 to 6 m intervals. (ii) Intermediate wall supports are spaced at 500 to 700 mm intervals. (f) Notification to the supply authority in advance of modification or demolition of the facade.4. the strength of the fittings and the length of straight runs.4. (i) Strain clamps are recommended for all runs but should be used to terminate cable for all runs over 10 m. the requirements of Sections 8 and 9 apply. (d) Liabilities for any damage done to the facade resulting from the attachment of the cable system.1.4 kN is recommended for 4 × 95 mm2. The minimum clearance from any part of the facade of the building which supports it. 1. (a) (b) ‘Non-tensioned’ construction is used in most installations and the cable is only tight enough to remove any twists. (i) Strain clamps are used for all runs and in-line strains are used so that no run between strain clamps is more than 60 m. ‘Tensioned’ construction is seldom used but is applicable where the facade cable crosses over laneways or other discontinuities. Tensions for other sizes should be chosen to give equivalent sag to this. Mechanical barriers or enclosures may be used to reduce these clearances.1 Mechanical design Care should be taken to protect the building fabric from damage due to external influences on the cable.5 Comments This should be increased if local conditions make it possible for bundle to be touched or damaged . (e) Supply authority access to the cable and fittings. The cable on the facade may be either ‘tensioned’ or ‘non-tensioned’. In-line strains are used so that no run between strain clamps is more than 60 m. TABLE 16.1 CLEARANCES FOR FACADE SYSTEMS Clearance Facade situation A Clearance vertically from ground or path level Minimum permissible clearances m 2. to any position the cable may assume due to the influence of load current and solar radiation.

B

Above windows and
doors

0.3

C

Each side of and below
windows

0.5

D

Each side of doors and
balconies

1.0

E

From metallic parts of
buildings, e.g. downpipes

0.05

This may be reduced to
0.2 m only where it is
physically impossible to
obtain 0.3 m

Whichever is wider

FIGURE 16.1 MINIMUM PERMISSIBLE CLEARANCES FOR TABLE 15.1

1.5 References
SEBIRE, J. and GEELAN, G. Mechanical Design and Co-ordinated Mechanical Failure of Low
Voltage ABC Lines. Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney Australia.
MORGAN, V.T. The Current Rating of Aerial Bundled Cables. Distribution 2000, May 1991,
Sydney Australia.
SEBIRE, J. The Facade Mounting of Low Voltage ABC. Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney
Australia.
MCLEOD, D., DEMKO, M. and GRIFFIN, M. Design of Low Voltage Networks Using LVABC.
Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney Australia.
MURRAY, T. and KREMER, H. Design Aspects of LVABC Lines in Severe Environments.
Distribution 2000, November 1993, Melbourne Australia.

24

HIGH VOLTAGE AERIAL BUNDLED CABLE

1.6 General
HVABC is fully insulated for the service voltage. There are three types, as follows:
(a)

Metallic Screened High Voltage Aerial Bundled Cable (to AS/NZS 3599.1)—MSHVABC

(b)

Non-metallic Screened High Voltage Aerial Bundled Cable (to AS/NZS 3599.2)—
NMSHVABC

(c)

Self-supporting High Voltage Aerial Bundled Cable (not currently covered by an
Australian Standard).

In Self-supporting High Voltage Aerial Bundled Cable the mechanical load has to be transferred
to the insulated conductors and is supported at intermediate structures on line insulators rated
for the nominal operating voltage. Cables at low tension are tensioned with clamps similar to
LVABC strain clamps but at higher tensions the bundle is opened out and bare conductor
terminations are fitted to the core conductors.
The rest of this Clause covers MSHVABC and NMSHVABC only, which use a support
conductor to carry the mechanical load.
1.7 Mechanical
MSHVABC and NMSHVABC consist of three cores wrapped around a support conductor. In
both types the support conductor mechanically supports the cable bundle and in NMSHVABC it
also provides electrical earthing.
The cable bundle is supported at intermediate supports on suspension clamps with the support
conductor firmly clamped and the cores clamped sufficiently to prevent the cores slipping
relative to the support conductor. Measures should be taken to maintain the insulation screens of
the three cores of NMSHVABC and the metallic screens of MSHVABC within the prospective
touch voltage limits in Section 11 by earthing at appropriate intervals.
On strain or tension structures the support conductor is separated from the bundle and
terminated using standard bare conductor fittings. In both cable types measures should be taken
to prevent the cores slipping relative to the support conductor and again measures should be
taken to maintain the insulation screens or metallic screens within appropriate potentials.
At intermediate supports consideration may also be given to using line fittings specifically
designed to cause the cable to separate from its support at a predetermined load, such as that
caused by a falling tree or limb.
1.8 Electrical
In MSHVABC the fault return path is provided by the metallic screens in each core, but
measures should be taken to ensure that the support conductor is not damaged by the passage of
fault current to the extent that it cannot support the cable for mechanical loading and ground
clearance considerations.
In NMSHVABC the support conductor should be effectively earthed to ensure that it—
(a)

maintains the outer semi-conducting insulation screen potentials at acceptable levels
under all operating conditions; and

(b)

provides a defined path for any fault current.

Also, measures should be taken to ensure that the support conductor is not damaged by the
passage of fault current to the extent that it cannot support the cable for mechanical loading and
ground clearance considerations.

1.9 Clearances
The clearance requirements of Sections 8, 9 and 10 for U ≥ 1000 V, Insulated with Earthed
Screen, apply to HVABC.
1.10 references
WILLIAMSON, C.E., CHEALES, J.A., and MCLEOD, D. Overview of Insulated HV Overhead
Systems and Applications. Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney Australia.
COULTER, R., SEBIRE, J. and MCLEOD, D. Some Design Aspects of High Voltage Nonmetallic Screened Aerial Bundled Cable Systems. Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney
Australia.
KENT, H., CLAY, J., RICHTER, K. and MCLEOD, D. Economic and Technical
Considerations of High Voltage Insulated Overhead Lines. Distribution 2000, November 1993,
Melbourne Australia.
SEBIRE, J., PIASENTIN, S. and SOUPROUNOVICH, K. The Development, Introduction and
Experience with HVABC in the State Electricity Commission of Victoria. Distribution 2000,
November 1993, Melbourne Australia.

25

COVERED CONDUCTOR SYSTEMS

1.11 general
Covered conductor manufactured to AS/NZS 3675 may be used in a similar manner to an open
wire 11 to 33 kV bare overhead system, except that the following should apply:
(a)

The system should include adequate protection to prevent burndown at support points.
Such matters as lightning surge protection, fault clearing times and the need for fault
current limitation should be considered.

(b)

When attaching covered conductors to insulators, special measures should be taken to
manage radio interference voltage and leakage currents, particularly in high pollution
areas.

(c)

Clearance between phases may be reduced (See Clause 10.3 Note 3).

(d)

Clearance to trees may be reduced.

(e)

Consideration may be given to reducing the permissible limits of approach for safe
working conditions.

Covered conductor to AS/NZS 3675 contains a water blocking compound to prevent the
migration of water under the covering and between the wires. Covered conductors have
previously been used in Australia without water blocking. These conductors suffered corrosion
of the conductor under the covering and eventual failure. The corrosion also contributed to
conductor burndown.
1.12 CC
CC can withstand intermittent contact with conductive material between phases or to ground,
e.g. trees and branches, but should not remain in permanent contact.
1.13 CCt
CCT has the following additional features:
(a)

Clearance between phases and to trees may be further reduced compared with CC

apply to CC. K. AND NOPONEN. LEHTINEN. ELFORD. . Melbourne Australia. November 1993. An Overview on Overhead Insulated Systems in South Australia. Distribution 2000. The clearance requirements of Sections 8. RICHTER. especially at nominal voltages of 22 kV and above.E. KENT. K. November 1993. Insulated without earthed screen. Economic and Technical Considerations of High Voltage Insulated Overhead Lines..A. however. November 1993. and MATSUMOTO. ELFORD. J. K. May 1991.(b) CCT has electrical and mechanical characteristics which permit it to remain in contact with tree limbs for an extended period of time. Bare or Covered. MCLEOD. Overview of Insulated HV Overhead Systems and Applications. RICHTER. Development of 22 kV Covered Conductor for SECV. (ii) frequency and strength of prevailing winds. and MCPHEE. Distribution 2000. KATO.15 references WILLIAMSON. (c) Better performance in polluted environments.F. and MCLEOD. Sydney Australia. Melbourne Australia. Distribution 2000... J.. 1. Distribution 2000.. 9 and 10 for U ≥ 1000 V. R. Sydney Australia. H. Distribution 2000.14 Clearances The clearance requirements of Sections 8. and (iii) operating temperature. Development and Introduction of Aerial Insulated Unscreened Conductor (IUC) in South Australia. I. K. Melbourne Australia. H. A. (d) Suitable for use in the Insulated Unscreened Conductor (IUC) system. K. November 1993. and MCLEOD. CLAY. (e) Suitable for use in ‘spacer cable’ systems. consideration should be given to using CCT which has an outer layer of tracking resistance material. CHEALES. D. 1. Melbourne Australia. HINKKURI. Distribution 2000.. Melbourne Australia. D.. R. 9 and 10 for U ≥ 1000 V. May 1991. D. Distribution 2000.. In determining the period. C. KATO. ON THE DESIGN AND EXPERIENCE WITH HIGH VOLTAGE COVERED CONDUCTOR SYSTEMS. apply to CCT. providing that the covering thickness is appropriate to the operating voltage. J. A. November 1993.. account should be taken of— (i) abrasion due to the species of tree and its growing pattern. NAGASAKA. Design Considerations for Covered Conductor (CC) Distribution.

should also be taken into account. = good performance 2.26 SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS FOR HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS This Appendix provides an indication of the relative corrosion performance of various conductor types. . (d) The aluminium coating on SC/AC is very soft and should be treated carefully if it is to provide adequate corrosion protection. TABLE D1 SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS FOR HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS Conductor type Salt spray pollution Industrial pollution Open ocean Bay. = average performance 3. The recommendations should be modified by local experience. which has been known to produce severe effects. = poor performance When selecting a conductor for a hostile environment the following factors should be considered: (a) Full or partial greasing of the conductor significantly improves corrosion resistance. Special circumstances such as crop dusting. (b) Ensure that all fittings are compatible so that electrolytic corrosion does not occur. The corrosion resistance of SC/AC is very dependent on the thickness of the coating. THERMAL LIMITS General Knowledge of the behaviour of conductors when subjected to various heating conditions is essential when designing and operating overhead lines. for example. (c) Insulated/covered conductor systems may provide protection against corrosion provided the conductors are completely sealed by the insulation/covering and do not provide traps for corrosive solutions nor allow ingress of moisture. for salt spray pollution the relative distances from the source depend upon the prevailing winds and the terrain. inlets and salt lakes Acidic Alkaline AAC 1 1 1 3 AAAC/6201 1 1 2 3 AAAC/1120 1 1 1 3 ACSR/GZ 3 2 2 3 ACSR/AZ 2 1 2 3 ACSR/AC 1 1 2 3 SC/GZ 3 2 3 2 SC/AC 1 1 1 3 OPGW 1 1 2 3 HDCu 1 1 2 1 NOTES: 1.

For radial transmission lines and sub-transmission lines. if a conductor is heated to 150°C under emergency conditions for 24 hours a year for 30 years it is much the same as heating the conductor continuously at that temperature for 720 hours. For main grid transmission lines. but it has less loss of strength for the same temperature. In general. For example. both the maximum temperature and the duration of the emergency load should be taken into account in determining the annealing of the aluminium wires. For 30/7 ACSR the ultimate tensile strength would be reduced approximately 7%. changes of conductivity will be insignificant compared with the changes of tensile strength. The recommended maximum temperature limit for normal operation of AAC. this not only results in a loss in tensile strength but also an increase in conductivity. AAAC. the emergency condition rating concept may be applied. This permits an approximate loss of strength of 3% of the original tensile strength after 1000 hours operation at this temperature. These curves demonstrate the permanent loss of tensile strength when a conductor operates at an elevated temperature. The loss of tensile strength results in increased sag. Copper has similar annealing properties which are not as well documented as those for aluminium. Annealing is caused by the heating of a material generally followed by a cooling period. For ratings for emergency conditions (e. If ratings for emergency conditions are to be applied then the combined effects of elevated temperature and sustained high conductor tension on the sag of the line should be taken into account. when one circuit has to carry more than normal current for a short time). Typically the loss of strength curves shown in Figures D1.g. to be of a lower order than the effect of temperature. D2 and D3 for AAC 1350. D2 and D3 show that the heating period is not a major factor until this temperature is exceeded. AAAC/1120 and AAAC/6201 respectively. It is appropriate to establish the maximum design temperature at which a conductor can operate while maintaining acceptable levels of degradation of tensile properties. . For this example the loss of ultimate strength in AAC would be approximately 15%.Maximum design operating temperatures The design maximum operating temperature is a function of the acceptable level of permanent loss of tensile strength (annealing) of the conductor. The magnitude of this wire size dependence is considered. The annealing effect is cumulative. at this stage. the tension in a line reduces with increasing temperature so the effect is less severe. where it is possible to control the loads in the lines to a great extent. The steel provides most of the strength of the conductor and is essentially unaffected by the temperature. The effect is less significant for ACSR where an increase in temperature results in a load transfer from the aluminium to the steel. the material experiences a change in its microstructure and for metals. During the annealing process. D2 and D3 will comprise a range of values for a given period with the smallest wire size suffering the greatest loss in strength and the largest size the least. the maximum temperature limit of 100°C should be applied. Isothermal annealing curves are illustrated in Figures D1. More recent research indicates that the annealing characteristics of a conductor depend not only on temperature and time of exposure but also on the diameter of the wires in the conductor. and ACSR is 100°C. Practically. The following comments are applicable for aluminium conductors. Figures D1.

FIGURE D1 PERCENTAGE OF ORIGINAL TENSILE STRENGTH FOR ALLOY 1350 vs AGEING TIME FIGURE D2 PERCENTAGE OF ORIGINAL TENSILE STRENGTH FOR ALLOY 1120 vs AGEING TIME . Maximum Design Temperatures of 50°C to 65°C are commonly used.For distribution lines where a lower standard of load control and monitoring usually applies it is recommended that an additional margin be applied.

Permanent elongation begins at the instant of applied axial tensile load and continues at a decreasing rate providing tension and temperature remain constant. Wollongong University. temperature. To compensate for conductor inelastic stretch it is necessary to carry out one or a combination of the following: a) Add a margin on the statutory ground clearance requirements. d) Over-tension conductors. Methodology for Assessment of Serviceability of Aged Transmission Line Conductors. Postgraduate Thesis. D. Postgraduate Thesis. DRURY. b) Subtract an allowance on the maximum design temperature. 1989. The permanent elongation consists of. The Effect of Prestressing on Inelastic (Creep) Behaviour of Australian Made Base Overhead Conductors. F.FIGURE D3 PERCENTAGE OF ORIGINAL TENSILE STRENGTH FOR ALLOY 6201 vs AGEING TIME Conductor permanent elongation Further information on designing for conductor permanent elongation is contained in the following references: Permanent Elongation of Conductors Predictor Equations and Evaluation Methods. CIGRE Electra 75. Wollongong University. G. 1993. Conductor permanent elongation expressed as a function of time. conductor temperature and exposure duration. Conductor permanent elongation is non-recoverable or inelastic material plastic deformation that is a logarithmic function of conductor stress. M. BRENNAN. c) Prestress conductors prior to final sagging. primarily wire radial and tangential movement during the early loading period and in the longer term. conductor stress and conductor constants is given as: ε = kt c1σc2ec3(θ−20) .. primary metallurgical logarithmic creep. in the short term.

temperature and stress. For such periods it may be assumed that no heat will be dissipated from the conductor. and c) movement of conductors due to electromagnetic forces leading to conductor clashing. and b) the sagging of the conductor into another conductor below it. . . c1 t eq ( i ) ⎡ σ ( i −1) ⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ σ1 ⎦ teq(i) = the equivalent time in years for unit strain at stress level σ(i) σ(i-1) = the stress level in MPa associated with time interval t(i!1) σ(i) = the stress level in MPa associated with time interval teq (i) t(i-1) = time interval in years associated with stress level σ(i–1) i = interval c 2t( i −1 ) where Fault ratings General The main factors to consider when determining the fault rating of a line are— a) the annealing of the conductor resulting from overheating due to the magnitude and duration of the fault current.D1 . in the order of a few cycles to a number of seconds for distribution feeder protection comprising initial clearance plus reclose clearance times. A reasonable approximation of the final temperature of the conductor is given by: T2 ⎡ Ar RJ 2 r ⎤ ⎥ DC ⎦ 1 ⎡ 1⎤ ⎢ = 20 − + ⎢T1 − 20 + ⎥ e ⎣ Ar ⎣ Ar ⎦ where T2 = final temperature in °C T1 = initial temperature in °C .In most cases the conductor exposure period at elevated temperatures is very small relative to an everyday exposure temperature assessed to be 20°C hence the above equation may be reduced to: t = kt c1σc2 ε = unit strain in mm/km t = time in years σ = conductor average stress in MPa θ = conductor average temperature in °C where k. secondary faults. c2 and c3 are constants Conductor creep is cumulative for a given set of operating conditions of time. arcing. etc. conductor damage. Annealing It is assumed that the electrical protection for the line will operate and that the duration of the fault will be short. c1.

— Draft IEEE Standard.70 × 10 −3 2.0 × 10 −4 1.5 × 10 −4 4.77 × 10 −6 190 × 10 −6 85 × 10 −6 D* g/mm 3 2.9 0. D2 TABLE D2 CONDUCTOR CONSTANTS Constants Units AAAC/ 1120 AAC AAAC/ 6201A HD copper SC/GZ SC/AC Ar (at 20°C) * °C−1 0.70 × 10 −3 8.00360 R (at 20°C) * Ωmm 28. AS 1531.9 0.8 × 10 −3 6. .00390 0.3 × 10 −6 29.2. ‘Rating of Bare Overhead Conductors for Intermittent and Cyclic Currents’. . 118(3/4).00403 0. .0 × 10 −4 * Value taken from the appropriate Australian Standard. This annealing is cumulative over the life of the conductor. From equation D2 the fault rating can be determined once an allowable final temperature has been determined.9 0.9 × 10 −4 1. 1993.00440 0. ‘Rating of Conductors for Short-Duration Currents’. — V T Morgan.5 × 10 −4 4. AS 1746.4 0. 1969.5 0. Proc IEE.3 × 10 −6 32. Proc IEE. ‘Calculating the Current-Temperature relationship of Bare Overhead Conductors’.89 × 10 −3 7. Constants for specific conductor types are contained in the relevant Australian Standards.5 A c** °C−1 4.5 × 10 −4 2. AS 1222. ** Values are median values of data sourced from several references including: — V T Morgan. The mechanical properties of the steel core of ACSR are affected very little at these temperatures. 1361-1376. Aluminium loses approximately 10% of its tensile strength at a temperature of 210°C with a significant proportion of the annealing taking place during the cooling period following a fault. i. It anneals rapidly at temperatures exceeding 340°C and commences melting at approximately 645°C. Copper loses 10% of its tensile strength at a temperature of 220°C.70 × 10 −3 2. 555-570.59 × 10 −3 C20 ** Jg −1°C −1 0.1.e. Zinc melts at approximately 420°C.00360 0.00381 0. AS 1222.8 × 10 −6 17.Ar = temperature coefficient of resistance in °C–1 R = resistivity in ohm mm at 20°C D = density in g/mm3 J = current density in A/mm2 t = duration in seconds (includes reclosure times) C = specific heat = C20 = specific heat at 20°C in Jg-1 °C-1 Ac = temperature coefficient of specific heat ⎧ ⎡ ⎛ T + T2 ⎞ ⎤⎫ C 20 ⎨1 + Ac ⎢⎜ 1 ⎟ − 20⎥ ⎬ ⎣⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦⎭ ⎩ Transposing equation D1 gives D2 2 J t ⎡ ⎛ T + T2 ⎞⎤ ⎡ − 20 ⎟⎥ DC 20 ⎢1 + Ac ⎜ 1 ⎢ T2 − 20 + ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣ ln ⎢ Ar R ⎢ T − 20 + ⎢⎣ 1 = 1 Ar 1 Ar ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥⎦ . 116(8). 1971.

ACSR/GZ. SC/AC OPGW 400°C *** ***Dependent on construction. AIEE Trans 82/3 p1061. The rate of cooling is dependent on the thermal mass of the conductor. Research Project 260.To provide for a loss of conductor tensile strength of less than 5% due to fault conditions over its life. If this is to be avoided it may be advisable for the line to be designed to have a positive clearance to the lower conductor. Dec 1963. Sag under fault Overhead lines have been known to sag into subsidiary lines or undercrossings under fault. Reference: Roehmann. ACSR/AC AAAC/6201A SC/GZ. It is recommended that the appropriate non-flashover distance from AS 2067 for the system voltage be used for this clearance. 1978) Section A3 ‘Simulation and Tests of Motion Due to Fault Currents’—gives equations which may be used to determine conductor swing and the mechanical forces due to fault currents. E ‘Short time annealing characteristics of electrical conductors’. therefore lower maximum temperatures are applicable to conductors of large cross-section. LF and Hazan. TABLE D3 GUIDELINES FOR 5% LOSS OF TENSILE STRENGTH FOR TOTAL FAULT CLEARING TIME (INCLUDING RECLOSES) Approximate size (mm²) Maximum temperature HDCu 60 200°C AAC. conductor configuration and economics can be achieved . AAAC/1120. 100 160°C 300 to 500 150°C 100 220°C Conductor type ACSR/AZ. a suitable compromise on structure design. The Transmission Line Reference Book—115-138 kV Compact Line Design (EPRI EL-100-V3. By taking these criteria and the degree of reliability required into account. Movement of conductors under fault The movement of conductors due to the electromagnetic forces generated by large short time current is a complex matter for which a simple satisfactory solution is not available. the following temperatures should not be exceeded.