Overhead Line Design Handbook V7 | Insulator (Electricity) | Electrical Conductor


Version 7.0
Date August 2009

Table of Contents








Basic Methodology



Clearance and Spacing for Overhead Lines



Tower top geometry






Steady state thermal current rating
Short-circuit thermal current rating


Conductor long term electrical performance
Conductor Limit states




Sag-tension calculation


Design for pollution



Determination of height
Loading on Structures
Limit State Design














Earthing and Insulation of Stay Wires


Conductor Failure Protection


Broken Stay Wire Protection






Electrical Clearances between conductors



Determination of conductor rating






Design for lightning performance

11.4 Electrical and Mechanical Design for Insulators
11.4.1 Design for pollution
11.4.2 Design for power frequency voltages (Wet withstand requirement)
11.4.3 Design for switching surge voltages
11.4.4 Selection of Insulator to meet Electrical Performance
11.4.5 Insulator mechanical design




11.5 Limit State Design Worked Examples
11.5.1 Pole Tip Load Calculation
Distibution Worked Example 3









Conductor Clashing






Risk Management Principle



Prudent Avoidance Principle



Aesthetic Considerations



Electric and Magnetic Fields







Terrain Model


TIMBER POLES Clause F1 General 90 .1 Acceptable Location of Poles in Road Corridors 77 15.1 Pole Locations in Traffic Corridors 72 13.1 Downdraft Winds 84 84 85 85 19 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX D .4 Country Line Road Crossings 79 15.3 Waterway Crossings 73 13.7 Ruling Span 75 14 COST OF OVERHEAD LINE (BY COMPONENTS) 75 15 GUIDELINES FOR POLE LOCATION 77 15.6 Rural Activities in Proximity to Line 74 13.2 Railway and Tramway Crossings 73 13. Downdraft wind regions (Australia Zone II and Zone III and New Zealand Zones Region A 7 ) B4.GUIDELINES ON SERVICE LIFE OF OVERHEAD LINES 88 20 89 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX F .4 Co-ordination with other Services 73 13.2 Special Considerations for Slip based poles 77 15.5 Aerial Lines in the Vicinity of Aircraft 74 13.Alignment 62 13.3 Aerial Lines in the Vicinity of Aircraft 78 15.5 Markers Permanent Markers Temporary Markers Over Crossing Markers 79 79 80 80 16 VEGETATION CLEARANCES 80 17 LIST OF AVAILABLE LINE DESIGN PROGRAMS 83 18 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX B – WIND LOADS Figure B 1 Wind Regions for Australian Design Wind Gust Types B4.

9 Clearances 86 1.2 Clearances 82 83 83 1.2 Characteristic strengths and elastic moduli 21 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX I .8 Electrical 85 1.CONCRETE POLES 22 APPENDIX L .3 Aerial cable 1.1 Bearing strength 104 3.3.3 FOOTINGS AND EMBEDMENT DEPTH IN SOILS 23 LOW VOLTAGE AERIAL BUNDLED CABLE 105 82 1.7 Mechanical 85 1.STRUCTURE FOOTING DESIGN L1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES L2 GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS 90 97 100 100 100 L3 FOOTING DESIGN OF DIRECTLY EMBEDDED OVERHEAD LINE POLES FOR LATERAL LOADS AND MOMENTS 101 3.1 Mechanical design 1.2 Cable tension 1.1.2 general 82 1.12 CC 86 .3.10 references 86 25 86 COVERED CONDUCTOR SYSTEMS 1.3 Clearances 82 82 82 82 1.6 General 85 1.1 Supports 1.4.5 References 84 24 85 HIGH VOLTAGE AERIAL BUNDLED CABLE Shear strength 105 3.4 Facade cable 1.11 general 86 1.Clause F1.

15 references 87 26 88 SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS FOR HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS 88 THERMAL LIMITS General Maximum design operating temperatures Conductor permanent elongation Fault ratings 88 88 89 91 92 .1.14 Clearances 87 1.13 CCt 86 1.

the Handbook has an emphasis on pole type sub-transmission and distribution lines. The application guidelines will apply to both transmission and distribution lines used in Australia. 275 kV.Handbook for the Overhead Line Design Standard 1 INTRODUCTION Scope This Handbook is the second in the Overhead Line Design Standard suite of documents and is a companion to the Standard. commonly referred to as low voltage. . 66 kV and 110/132 kV and transmission voltages are. In particular. Typical sub-transmission voltages in Australia and New Zealand are. The Handbook steps the Designer through the design process with application guidelines. An overview of the steps in the Overhead Line Design process is given in the flowchart below. Typical distribution voltages in Australia and New Zealand are at 33 kV. 220 kV. 330 kV and 500 kV. relevant information and worked examples which comply with the Overhead Line Design Standard. 11 kV and 415/240 volts.

Height and Position Produce Layout Design Establish Final Electrical Parameters Obtain Relevant Approvals Produce Detailed Drawings and Specification Conduct Design Review and Verification Provide Design Support for Construction Conduct Audit and Relevant Tests Document As-Constructed Records Monitor Performance of Overhead Line .Determine Design Inputs / Parameters Select Route Select Conductor Type Select Structure Suite Conduct Route Survey and Draw Ground Line Profile Nominate Structure Type/Strength.

In this evaluation consideration must be given to the lines importance to the system (including any system redundancy). insulation and constructions for use at the various voltage levels to comply with the Overhead Line Design Standard. or target nominal service life expectancy. The overhead line has to perform with suitable levels of reliability and security for the weather loads expected in the region for it’s intended life.1 of the Standard provides a framework for the designer to evaluate and select a standard of design to suit a relevant security level appropriate to a particular line or a line construction class or type. The service life of an overhead line is the period over which it will continue to serve its intended purpose safely. Reliability levels All overhead lines should be designed for a selected reliability level relevant to the lines importance to the system (including consideration of system redundancy). temperature. . its location and exposure to climatic conditions. Design Working and Service Life The design life.1 Basic Methodology The design methodology involves the development of a suite of appropriate structures. of the line is dependent on its exposure to a number of variable factors such as solar radiation. and seismic effects. wind. This may include providing allowance for a reducing load factor over time due to progressive degradation such as soft rot in timber pole elements and corrosion of steel elements. its location. without undue maintenance or repair disproportionate to its cost of replacement and without exceeding any specified serviceability criteria. public safety and design working life. Initially a generic Security Level is selected (as set out in Clause 6.2 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES 2.2. exposure to extreme climatic conditions. and with due consideration for public safety. ice.2 of the Standard) to reflect the importance of the line within the network. precipitation. Security levels Clause 6.2. Structural components of the support must be able to withstand the ultimate design loadings without failure within this period.

0 1.9 1.1 RELIABILITY MULTIPLIER FOR DESIGN WORKING LIFE AND LINE SECURITY LEVELS Minimum reliability load multiplier M rel Line security level Design working life Level I Level II Level III Temporary construction and construction equipment.4 1.0 1.67 0.2 1. The calculated wind loads shall be then multiplied by an appropriate reliability load multiplier based on the required security level and design life as selected from Table 6.67 0.2 provides regional design wind velocities VR for a number of wind regions and design return periods. .0 25 years 0. AS/NZS1170. e. (Higher security transmission lines) Table 6. TABLE 6. The load multipliers tabulated in Table 6. (Higher security distribution lines and normal transmission lines) Level III Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line would cause unacceptable danger to life or significant economic loss to the community and sever vital post disaster services. (Normal distribution lines) Level II Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line would cause negligible danger to life and property and alternative arrangements can be provided if loss of support services occurs. hurdles.4 These Multipliers are applied to loads derived from 50-year return period wind speeds as defined in AS/NZ 1170.2 50 years 1.9 1.g.4 100 years 1. scaffolding and temporary line diversions with design life of less than 6 months 0.1 of the Standard provides Reliability load multipliers for each Security Level relative to a range of design working life options.Level I Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line may be tolerable with respect to social and economic consequences. The design wind loads for an overhead line are be based on 50-year return period wind speeds as defined in AS/NZ 1170.2.77 < 5 years 0.1. As the design working life or security level increase so to do the wind and other applied loads proportionally increase as the load multiplier increases.1 above have been derived from an analysis of all regional values of VR and expressed as a factor (VR /V50)2 against each design life.2 1.77 0.2.

Where more extensive overload occurs due to major wind storm with extensive wind blown debris. whereas the aerial conductors most probably will be brought down. In these cases a higher security level could be adopted for a particular structure or short sections of the line. or line locations where access is difficult (where time and cost to restore the construction can be high). other existing power lines. over roads. 3 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS 3. However the conductor tensions in the adjacent spans will increase dramatically and pose a maintenance work safety issue. telecommunication lines.2 could be used if considered more appropriate however the simplest approach is to increase the design working life.1 Clearance and Spacing for Overhead Lines From safety considerations. On distribution overhead pole lines. rivers.When these load factors are applied. particularly when there is localized failure of the overhead line. In general. a probability of exceedance equivalent to that provided in AS/NZS 1170. tracks. pole deflection (usually rotational and lateral or longitudinal ) combined with partial foundation deformation. This is an important consideration as restoration costs and disruption to supply in the event of structure failure can be considerable. It is most probable when a single pole fails due to ground line failure the conductor system will most probably restrain the pole from falling to the ground. number of circuits and proximity to other lines or infrastructure. or major flooding occurs the containment potential provides some benefit in conserving major structure elements.2 for each of these return periods / design life values will be provided. overhead conductors should maintain requisite clearances to ground.4 of the standard sets out additional security requirements. or the whole line. on major transmission lines longitudinal design loads relevant to residual loads for broken or terminated and aerial phase conductor are provided to meet this requirement. Clause 6. .2.7 of Overhead Line Design Standard]. will occur when abnormal longitudinal loads are applied.1 to giving consideration to the line length. It requires that security requirements shall be provided in all designs to prevent or limit progressive or cascading structure failures in the event of collapse or failure of a support structure resulting from any external cause. special exposed locations such as long span water or valley crossings. . The ground clearance for different voltages at maximum design temperature are given in Table 3 [ Table 3. The standard also refers in Notes to Table 6. Design wind velocities greater than the regional value of V50 values in AS/NZS 1170. When a single pole structure fails and conductors are broken (due to say vehicle impact or storm debris overload) the adjacent pole structures deflect such that they may provide sufficient release of load in the conductors to limit the extent of damage. railways.

5 6. which should be taken into account in determining the phase distance apart at which they should strung. Usually conductors will swing synchronously (in phase) with the wind.5 6. which are partly electrical and partly mechanical.5 7. The conductor separation in the Overhead Line Design Standard is as follows.0 Other clearances given in the Overhead Line Design Standard are: • • • Clearances to Earthed Structures – Table 3.2Y ) 2 ≥ U + k D + li 150 where X is the projected horizontal distance in metres between the conductors at mid span.5 4.0 5.TABLE 3 CLEARANCE FROM GROUND. minimum horizontal spacing between conductors should not be less than 1% of the span length in order to minimize the risk of phases coming into contact with each other during swing. As a rule of thumb.6 Clearances from Structures – Table 3.7 6. but with long spans and small size of conductors.5 5.5 4. .7 5. The spacing of conductors is determined by considerations.5 Insulated conductor with earthed screen U > 1000 V Insulated conductor without earthed screen U > 1000 V Bare or covered conductor 1000 V <U ≤ 33 kV 6.5 132 kV <U ≤ 275 kV 7.5 4.5 33 V <U ≤ 132 kV 6. there is always possibility of the conductors swinging nonsynchronously.5 HV AC Live Line Approach Distances – Table 3. and the size of the conductor and the maximum sag at the centre of the span are factors.7 5. X 2 + (1.8 A coverage of vegetation clearances are given in Appendix …. LINES OTHER THAN INSULATED SERVICE LINES Distance to ground in any direction m Nominal system voltage Over the carriageway of roads U Over land other than the carriageway of roads Over land which due to its steepness or swampiness is not traversable by vehicles more than 3 m in height Bare or insulated conductor or any other cable U ≤ 1000 V OR 5.

normally equal to 0.4.s.2 Y is the projected vertical distance in metres between the conductors at mid span. U is the r. To determine the swing angle from the wind pressure Appendix R of the Detailed Procedure can be used with the following guidelines: (1) The transverse force is derived from the conductor diameter and wind span (2) The vertical force is derived from the conductor weight (N/metre) times the weight span (3) The minimum recommended weight to wind span ratio is 0.7 (4) In general the weight and wind area of the insulator can be ignored The vertical clearance between earthwire and top conductor.3. k is a constant. These clearances are: (A) Maintenance approach and live line working under 100 Pa wind (B) Switching and lightning impulse flashover under 300 Pa wind (C) Power frequency flashover under 500 Pa wind (D) Hand reach under 100 Pa wind These clearances are shown in Figure 2. The shield angle generally varies from about 250 to 400. these may be applied. vector difference in potential (kV) between the two conductors when each is operating at its nominal voltage. Tower top geometry There are a number of electrical clearance which determine the tower top geometry.depending on the configuration of conductors. is governed by the desired lightning performance and angle of shielding. . D is the greater of the two conductor sags in metres at the centre of an equivalent level span and at a conductor operating temperature of 50°C in still air Ii is the length in metres of any free swing suspension insulator associated with either conductor.m. Where experience has shown that other values are appropriate.

FIGURE 2 STRUCTURE GEOMETRY FOR 132 KV LINE SHOWING ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES • Insulator Swing Angles – T Gillespie • Produce worked example for insulator swing angle and blowout • Provide another drawing showing a line post insulator Blowout clearance calculations are useful to determine clearances along the span to structures along the route. The recommended conditions for calculating blowout are: (1) 500 Pa wind on conductor (2) 15 deg C or ambient temperature applicable to the location of line .

The terms for heat gain for cyclic Short-circuit thermal current rating The short-circuit thermal current rating shall be based on adiabatic heating. the magnitude of the current and maximum permissible temperature. 4 SELECTION OF CONDUCTOR The selection of conductor size is primarily governed by two factors: 1. the duration of the transient current. Mechanical strength Electrical requirements Steady state thermal current rating The steady state thermal current rating of a conductor is the maximum current inducing the maximum steady state temperature for a given ambient condition and is based on conductor heat gain equals conductor heat loss that is— Pj + P s = P r + P c where the heat gain terms are Pj which is the joule heating due to the resistance of the conductor and Ps is the solar heat gain The heat loss terms are Pc which is natural and forced convection cooling and Pr is the radiation cooling. and Audible Noise. . that is due to the transient nature of the current flow the conductor heat gain and loss at the surface of the conductor shall be ignored. the thermal conductivity of the conductor. the conductor resistivity. the conductor size may be determined on the corona performance which can cause adverse impacts such as Radio Interference Voltage (RIV). Corona Effect For high voltage lines generally above 100 kV. The surface voltage gradient on the conductor should be around 16 kV/cm or less to limit the generation of corona discharges. The rating is a function of the conductor cross sectional area.(3) 3. the conductor temperature coefficient of resistance. the specific heat capacity of the conductor. Electrical requirement 2. the conductor initial temperature.3 Include the horizontal displacement of a swinging insulator Transpositions Transpositions may be required on long transmission lines or heavily loaded lines to reduce the level of negative sequence voltage unbalance and reduce the interference in adjacent telecommunication circuits.

2. When subjected to increasing loads.7 conductor CBL (see Note 3) . Conductor Limit states The overhead line is considered intact when its conductors and or tension fittings are used at stresses below their damage limit. failure of the conductor and or tension fittings occurs at a level called the failure limit. This level is called the damage limit and conductors and or tension fittings will be in damaged state if the conductors and or tension fittings have exceeded the damage limit.2 of Overhead Line Design Standard] FIGURE 1 LIMIT STATES OF CONDUCTOR DESIGN Table 2 gives the damage and failure limit for a bare conductor. permanent deformation particularly if the failure mode is ductile.5 conductor CBL (see Note 2) 0. Conductors will suffer some degree of annealing (loss of mechanical strength) and this is dependent on the operating and overload temperature on the conductor. If the load is further increased. or – 0. or for wind induced aeolian vibration. The state of system and the damage and failure limits are illustrated in Figure 1 [ Section 2. conductors may exhibit wire and or whole conductor fracture. conductors and or tension fittings may exhibit at some level.1. Mechanical strength The mechanical strength of the conductor is one of the major parameter during the selection of the conductor of the line.Conductor long term electrical performance The long term performance of a conductor is dependent on the degree of electrical and mechanical overload and the weathering effects. The conductors and or tension fittings will be in a failed state if the conductors and or tension fittings have exceeded the failure limit. TABLE 2 DAMAGE AND FAILURE LIMITS OF CONDUCTORS Conductors and tension fittings Damage limit Failure limit Lowest of— Bare – vibration limit (see Note 1).

the sag and tension calculation can be carried out by parabolic formula with sufficient degree of accuracy. switching and lightning overvoltages and the mechanical stresses include the tensile. catenary formula gives more accurate results than parabolic. Air gap clearance refers to the minimum distance which must be maintained between the live conductor and earthed metal parts of the support to avoid flashover. For the case of very long spans. The electrical stresses include power frequency.1 Sag-tension calculation The sag and tension of the conductor are subject to variations due to the changes in temperatures and loading. Parabolic formula: SAG = wL2 8T Catenary formula: SAG = L ⎛ c ⎜ cosh 2c ⎝ ⎞ − 1⎟ ⎠ C = Horizontal Tension / Weight Where: L = horizontal length (m) c = catenary constant (m) T = horizontal tension (N) w = weight of conductor (N/m) 5 INSULATOR DESIGN Insulation is required to withstand the electrical and mechanical stresses applied to it during its lifetime.Selection of Conductors – G Brennan and G Bruce Selection of Conductor Tensions Topics to cover: • Fatigue endurance limit • Lower tensions based on service experience • Lower tensions for short spans • Adjacent span effects 4. The minimum air clearance has to be maintained even under the conditions of system over-voltages with the insulator strings in the deflected position due to the action of wind pressure. The three types of over voltages which can occur on overhead lines are: . compressive or cantilever loadings from conductor tension and weight. For spans of the order of 300 meters and less.

(b) serviceable wind load. Lightning induced 2. Power frequency over voltages Design for pollution For medium to high voltage lines. (a) failure containment load at 1300 Pa Conductor tension at 1300 Pa = 39162 N Component strength factor for ceramic insulator = 0. and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 5000 N . the pollution performance of the insulator usually dictates the amount of insulation is required for the particular voltage.925 * 9.8 = 48952 N Calculate the strength of a composite line post insulator used to support oxygen conductor in a clamp top with a weight of 0. Based on Appendix DD.925 kg/metre. the state to determine the mechanical design is the ultimate strength state. AS 4436 provides guidance on the selection of insulators for polluted conditions.806* 200 N = 1814 N Longitudinal load for 3:1 adjacent span ratio. Mechanical Design of Insulators Explanation of limit states – T Gillespie There are three states for the mechanical design of insulators identified in the Detailed Procedure. (c) The shape of the insulator to assist in reducing the likelihood of contamination collection and facilitate washing. When determining the insulation requirements in a contaminated environment.5) Minimum insulator ultimate strength = 39162 / 0. (b) everyday load Conductor weight = 0. the following criteria need to be considered: (a) Creepage (or leakage) distance. (b) The ability of the material to endure the electrical activity without being degraded. weight span of 200 metres. Switching surges 3. these being the— (a) everyday load. and strung to everyday tension of 20% CBL. WORKED EXAMPLES: Transmission Line Insulator Examples Calculate the strength of a tension ceramic disc insulator used for oxygen conductor strung to everyday tension of 20% CBL. and (c) failure containment load.1. The basic concept is to increase the surface creepage distance so that it is long enough to prevent a pollution flashover across the surface.8 (Table 6.

9 = 5909 N Transverse compressive load = 0.9 (Table 6.925 kg/metre. (a) everyday load .925 * 9.5 inch line post = 50 kN Derating factor = 1-2380 / 50000 = 0.6188 / 50000 = 0.806* 200 N = 1814 N Longitudinal load for 3:1 adjacent span ratio. (c) serviceable wind load at 500 Pa Conductor weight = 0.94 Insulator maximum design cantilever load with transverse load = 5909 / 0.925 * 9. and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 5000 N Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (1814^2 * 5000^2) = 5318 N Insulator ultimate cantilever strength without transverse load = 5318 / 0.94 = 6200 N (d) failure containment load at 1300 Pa Conductor weight = 0.0238*500*200 = 2380 N Simplified method: Compressive strength of 2. For broken conductor condition assume a serviceable wind of 500 Pa.5) Insulator maximum design cantilever load = 5318 / 0.9 = 5909 N Note: The maximum design cantilever load of a post insulator is typically 40 to 50% of the ultimate strength. (2) A 2.5 inch line post = 50 kN Derating factor = 1.806* 200 N = 1814 N Longitudinal load for 3:1 adjacent span ratio. and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 5000 N Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (1814^2 + 5000^2) = 5318 N Insulator ultimate cantilever strength without transverse load = 5318 / 0.87 Insulator maximum design cantilever strength with transverse load = 5909 / 0.0238*1300*200 = 6188 N Simplified method: Compressive strength of 2.9 = 5909 N Transverse compressive load = 0. weight and wind span of 400 metres.87 = 6800 N Comments: (1) The determining state is the failure containment load where the maximum design cantilever strength is 6800 N.5 inch post with a long rod insulator • Limit the line layout to an adjacent span ratio of 2 or less • Use a 3 inch post which has a MDCL of around 9 kN Calculate the strength of a suspension composite long rod used to support oxygen conductor with a weight of 0. and strung to everyday tension of 20% CBL.5 inch post insulator is typically rated at 6 kN MDCL and is not appropriate for this load (3) The design options to support the failure containment load are: • Brace 2.Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (1814^2 * 5000^2) = 5318 N Component strength factor for composite post insulator = 0.

fittings.925 * 9. then the recommended minimum size is 70 kN (minimum breaking load).5) Insulator specified mechanical load = 3628 / 0.8 = 10771 N Refer to Note 1 in Appendix CC which states insulator strength to be greater than conductor CBL or coordination of strength between conductor.806* 400 N = 3628 N Assume no longitudinal load due to free swinging insulator Component strength factor for long rod insulator = 0.7 factor (load relief due to insulator swing) = 15890 N Component strength factor for long rod insulator = 0.925 * 9.5 = 31780 N Comments: (4) The determining state is the failure containment load under broken conductor conditions (5) The minimum recommended size for the suspension insulator is 111 kN (specified mechanical load). The SML is a one minute withstand load.5 (Table 6.Conductor weight = 0.5) Minimum insulator ultimate strength = 8617 / 0.5) Insulator specified mechanical load = 15890 / 0.5 = 7256 N (b) ultimate strength state under 1300 Pa wind Conductor weight = 0. (e) failure containment load at 900 Pa Conductor tension at 900 Pa = 8617 N Component strength factor for ceramic insulator = 0. To achieve a long life for the ceramic disc insulator. crossarm and structure. (6) If a ceramic disc insulator would be used.8 (Table 6.5 = 25793 N (c) failing containment load under broken conductor Longitudinal load = 22700 N * 0. insulator.5 (Table 6. the minimum standard of 70 kN is recommended. (7) The minimum recommended strengths are based on the requirement to achieve a design life comparable to other line components Distribution Line Insulator Examples Calculate the strength of a tension ceramic disc insulator used for moon conductor strung to everyday tension of 20% CBL. .5) Insulator specified mechanical load = 12896 / 0.806* 400 N = 3628 N Assume no longitudinal load due to free swinging insulator Transverse load = 0.0238 * 1300 * 400 N = 12376 Resultant load = SQRT (3628^2 + 12376^2) = 12896 N Component strength factor for long rod insulator = 0.5 (Table 6.

this can be ignored.0143*900*100 = 1287 N Simplified method: Compressive strength of ceramic post = 100 kN Since the transverse compressive load is insignificant compared to the compressive strength of the ceramic post. this can be ignored.8 = 4145 N Transverse compressive load = 0.34 * 9.T Gillespie • • • • Tension string Suspension or I string Line post Pin (G Bailey to provide) .34 * 9.34 kg/metre. and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 3300 N Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (333^2 * 3300^2) = 3316 N Insulator minimum failing load without transverse load = 3316 / 0.Calculate the strength of a ceramic line post insulator used to support moon conductor in a clamp top with a weight of 0.0143*500*100 = 715 N Simplified method: Compressive strength of ceramic post = 100 kN Since the transverse compressive load is insignificant compared to the compressive strength of the ceramic post.8 = 4145 N (g) serviceable wind load at 500 Pa Conductor weight = 0.8 (Table 6.5) Insulator minimum failing load = 3316 / 0.34 * 9. (f) everyday load Conductor weight = 0. (h) failure containment load at 900 Pa Conductor weight = 0. and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 3300 N Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (333^2 * 3300^2) = 3316 N Insulator minimum failing load without transverse load = 3316 / 0. Produce worked examples for the following insulators: . and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 3300 N Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (333^2 * 3300^2) = 3316 N Component strength factor for ceramic post insulator = 0.806* 100 N = 333 N Longitudinal load for 2:1 adjacent span ratio. weight span of 100 metres. and strung to everyday tension of 20% CBL.8 = 4145 N Transverse compressive load = 0.806* 100 N = 333 N Longitudinal load for 2:1 adjacent span ratio.806* 100 N = 333 N Longitudinal load for 2:1 adjacent span ratio (75 and 150 m spans).

Wind load A complete coverage of wind loading is given in Appendix B of the Overhead Line Design Standards. and parallel to the direction of the line.6 BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN 6. h2 Vertical spacing between conductors. These loads can be described as: • • • Vertical load Transverse load Longitudinal load Vertical loads Vertical loads include the weight of conductors. earthwire. crossarms and pole mounted plant. h1 Maximum sag. Longitudinal loads Longitudinal loads are caused by difference in conductor tension on either side of termination structures. The design site wind speed is taken as— Vz where = V50 Md Mz. normal to the direction of line. Transverse loads Transverse loads are caused by wind on conductor and structure and horizontal tension from deviation angle in the line.1. adjacent spans being of different lengths and an abnormal (broken wire) load on the structure. h3 Vertical clearance between earthwire and top conductor.1.cat MsMt . h4 The total height of structure will be determined by: H T = h1 + h2 + h3 + h4 6.1 Determination of height The factors governing the height of structure are: • • • • Minimum permissible ground clearance.2 Loading on Structures The loads on a structure consist of three mutually perpendicular systems of load acting vertical.

maintenance and safety considerations etc. V50 = basic regional wind velocity for the region corresponding to the 50 year return period. Wn = wind load based on a 50 year return period scaled by the appropriate reliability load factor or specified design wind pressure φ = the strength factor which takes into account variability of material.2 for all regions use Table 4. The Limit State design approach uses a reliability based (risk of failure) approach to match component strengths (modified by a factor to reflect strength variability) to the effect of loads calculated on the basis of an acceptably low probability of occurrence. Refer AS/NZS 1170. stringing.cat = gust winds speed multiplier for terrain category at height z. Ms = shielding multiplier.1. Mt = topographic multiplier for gust wind speed.1(A).6Vz2 × 10−3 kPa = 6. φRn > effect of loads ( MRel Wn + ΣγxX) where X = the applied loads pertinent to each loading condition Reliability multiplier – given in Table 3 MRel = γx = are load factors which take into account variability of loads.1Gs + 1.25 Ft Where: Wn = Effect of transverse wind loads Gc = Vertical dead loads resulting from conductors under limit state wind conditions . importance of structure. The design pressure qz shall be calculated as follows: qz Mrel x 0. Rn = the nominal strength of the component Some of the Limit State load cases given in the Overhead Line Design Standard are as follows: The Ultimate Strength Limit State Condition φ Rn > Wn+1. Md = wind direction multiplier.25Gc +1.3 Limit State Design Current practice in Australia for the design of Overhead Line Structural Components is to use a Limit State design approach as set out in ENA C(b)1 Guidelines for Design and Maintenance of Overhead Distribution and Transmission Lines. workmanship etc.Mz.

5 Gc +2.5 to 7 m/sec Avg ambient temp for year 0 Pa Refer Table Z1 Avg ambient temp for year Regional design value .0Q + 1.1Gs +1.Gs = Vertical dead loads resulting from non conductor loads Ft = Intact conductor tension loads under limit state wind conditions φ R = Component design stress for limit state condition The Maintenance Load Condition φ R > 1.5 CBL for linear .7 CBL for nonlinear Initial / Final Final .25 Ft Where: Gc = Vertical dead loads resulting from conductors under everyday condition Gs = Vertical dead loads resulting from non conductor loads Q = Maintenance loads Ft = Intact conductor tension loads under maintenance wind Component Strength Factors Wood Poles – Preserved The relevant component strength factor for a preserved wood poles is dependent on the following characteristics and usage of the pole • Durability class • Strength class • Security class • Design life 7 ACTION ON LINES Conductor Everyday Load Horizontal Tension The recommended weather cases used in design of overhead line conductor tensions are given in Table … Condition Temp Wind Maximum Tension Refer Table Z1 Fatigue Endurance Conditions Design Everyday Condition Ultimate wind Avg temp for coldest month Design at 0.

Servicability wind – electrical Cold Condition Avg ambient temp for year Coldest day of year based on design life Ice Loading – 10 Coldest day of year mm thickness based on design life Snow loading – up to 100 mm thickness Conductor runout Conductor pretension Sagging Maintenance Failure Containment 500 Pa .3 x CBL Initial 0 Pa 0.J McCormack. .7 x CBL for non-linear Final 0 Pa 0. R McLennan • • 900 Pa for conductors 1300 Pa for round surfaces such as poles Modify wind pressures for various drag coefficients for poles and Regions/ Topography – R Fairweather and L Elder Application Table Overhead Line System Line Component or Parameter Ultimate Support System (structures and foundations) Structures – detailed Ultimate wind Applicable Wind Loads Servicability Everyday .5 x CBL for linear . B Clulow and J Giles Include basic limit state wind pressure for distribution designs.B Clulow.3 x CBL Initial 0 Pa Everyday tension plus creep factor 0 Pa 1 to 5 year return period (300 Pa nominal) 30 Pa 0 deg C Temp at time of run out Temp at time of pretension Temp at time of sagging minus creep correction factor Avg ambient temp for year 100 Pa .25 x Ult wind Note: The relevant temperatures for a selection location is available from the Australia Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) website or NIWA for New Zealand Establishment of loads cases .

procedure Pole – detailed procedure Ultimate wind Pole – simplified method 900 Pa in Region A & B Deflection Limit at serviceable wind Deflection Limit at 300 Pa 0 Pa Electrical System Clearances – low wind Clearances – moderate wind Clearances – high wind Clearances – Maintenance 60 to 100 Pa 100 to 300 Pa 500 Pa 60 to 100 Pa Conductors Insulators – tension Insulators – vee string Insulators – post or pin Ultimate or 900 Pa Ultimate conductor transverse or Failure containment Ultimate conductor transverse or Failure containment 500 Pa 0 Pa Fittings 8 SUPPORTS Pole Strength and Deflection Design The recommended limit state wind pressures for distribution designs for a typical life of 50 years in Regions A and B are: Ultimate Loads (WN) • • 900 Pa to conductor 1300 Pa to round pole (this allows for crossarms. pole steps. insulators but not metal clad plant) .

together with additional shear and vertical forces resisted by upwards soil pressure. and single pile or pile group foundations.25 ??. Consideration should also be given to the P delta effects should they occur.7) with a maximum deflection limit at 5% of the pole length. the vertical loads due to the stay reaction forces needs to be taken into account. 9 FOUNDATION DESIGN The foundation is called upon to resist the following types of forces: • • • • Uplift Downthrust Lateral load Overturning moment Foundations for supports may take the form of single foundations in the case of pole type structures and guy anchors or separate footings for each leg of towers. mono-bloc footings. shear forces should be considered. The relevant multiplier for the vertical loads produced by the stay is 1. The Euler buckling failure equations can be found in the relevant codes (eg AS1720). The maximum crack width is typically in the range 0. Servicability Limits Sustained Everyday tension loads on angle and termination poles • • 0 Pa for conductors 0 Pa for round surfaces such as poles Deflection limits for maintenance and clearances • • 100 Pa for conductors 300 Pa for round surfaces such as poles A deflection serviceability limit will apply to concrete poles which may crack under load. φ Rn > Wn+1.1 to 0.1Gs + 1.25Gc +1.25 Ft For stayed poles with long length and small diameter. When separate footings are provided for each leg the predominant loadings are compression and uplift forces. the buckling failure mode of the pole should be considered. pad or raft footings. Common types of single foundations are direct buried poles.These wind pressures allow for span reduction factors. . bored caissons. The loading on single footings is predominantly in the form of overturning moment. which is usually resisted by lateral soil pressure.3 mm (refer Appendix D3. bored pier foundations. however. drag factors and terrain categories 2 to 4. For stayed poles.

Table … Foundation Design Brinch Hanson Formula Precise calculation.8 New Zealand Pole length / 6 Simple Applies to firm soil and small conductors assoc with intermediate poles Applies to firm soil and small conductors assoc with intermediate poles The simplified embedment depth formula is given in Equation 13. requires soil modelling AS4676 Formula C(b) 1 – pre 10% pole length + 0. . auger bored footings with or without expanded base. This also applies to guy foundations. spread footings). such as that outlines in AS4676 have been found to be suitable for intermediate poles in firm soil and with small conductors. Advantage / Comment Disadvantage Complex. Common types of separate footing foundations are (stepped) block footings with or without undercut (pad and chimney. pier or caisson foundations. grillage foundations. shear forces and bearing in the soil.2 (from AS4676).Uplift and compression forces are usually resisted by combinations of dead weight of the foundation bulk. earth surcharges. however more simple techniques. Foundation for poles (distribution lines) – L Elder • Use simple formula Distribution pole foundation design There are various methods used for pole foundation design and these are covered in Table … The Brinch Hanson method is regarded as the superior method for pole structures. and vertical or raked pile foundations.6 Simple 1992 to 0.

b = 0. Fb = 300 kPa Pole dia.22 . Hg = 8 kN Height = 14 m Normal soil cohesive strength.Example: Servicable wind at 500 Pa on conductors and 750 Pa on pole Pole Tip Load.35 Embedment Depth = 2.

10 EARTHING An earthing system of overhead earthwires. option 2 is generally preferred.41 Variation of soil cohesive strengths For low cohesive strength soils.23 m under serviceable wind and 3.8 m Ultimate wind at 900 Pa on conductors and 1300 Pa on pole Pole Tip Load. The dimensioning of earthing systems considers the following requirements: (i) To ensure mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. The structure footing resistance can be controlled .This depth correlates with a traditional rule of thumb of 10% of the pole length + 0. (e) Provide acceptable reliability (lightning performance) on the line. the highest fault current as determined by calculation (iii) Limit lightning induced voltages on earth down leads The transfer of potential by nearby metallic objects may occur due to fault currents flowing in the earth system. (ii) To withstand. (g) Provide a conductive path for fault current. from a thermal point of view. Hg = 14 kN Height = 14 m Normal soil cohesive strength.35 Embedment Depth = 2.5 m under ultimate wind Increase the effective width of pole by installing a sand/cement backfill in the hole – for the above case with 150 kPa soil to achieve the same foundation strength. with 150 kPa soil. (f) Control touch and step potentials around the base of the structure. It is a desirable goal to achieve an average structure footing resistance for the line of less than 10 ohms. b = 0. earth down leads. (h) Avoid damage to properties and equipment. a hole of diameter 700 mm will be required for both serviceable and ultimate wind loads To achieve a consistent above ground height (for clearances). the options are: (1) (2) Increase the embedment depth – for the above case. This can ensure the lightning performance of a line is acceptable and ensure touch and step potentials are at an acceptable level. the embedment depth is 3. Fb = 300 kPa Pole dia. grading rings and counterpoise earthing addresses the following objectives: (d) Ensure protective equipment will operate in faulted situations.

recloser. Connection to CMEN earthing system 8. due consideration needs to be taken to address step and touch potentials. Installation of high resistivity surface layer (eg ashphalt) 6. SWER Earthing For public safety. Installation of grading ring 3. Appropriate insulation of low voltage circuits Replacing a non-conductive pole with a conductive pole When replacing a non-conductive pole with a conductive pole. Installation of NER or NEX on zone transformer to limit earth fault current 7. Installation of overhead and underslung earthwire 2. Insulating base of pole 9. Reduction of footing resistance 4.000 A Fault Clearing Time = 1 sec Fault Rate = 2 x 100 m span without earthwire at 40 faults per 100 km per year Contacts per year = 40 for 4 seconds Footwear = standard distribution Earthing resistance = 1 ohm Soil resistivity = 100 ohm-m . Practical Earthing Schemes – T Gillespie Design for Touch and Step Potential for conductive structures The range of mitigation measures to address touch and step potentials are: 1. Installing high conductivity earthwires 5.during the construction phase of the line by installing additional earth rods or counterpoise wires in the soil away from the structure. air break switch) in a CMEN urban area Voltage = 11 kV Fault Current = 5. a SWER high voltage earth needs to be restricted to around 20 volts or less (Queensland Code of Practice for Works – Earthing) Risk Based Approach to Earthing The risk based approach is covered in the ENA EG-0 Power System Earthing Guide Part 1: Management Principles Risk Based Earthing Examples: 1 HV Distribution Earth (eg Pole mounted transformer. Installing a fence around conductive structure 10.

000 volts.000 Volt (derived by impedance model of footwear and soil resistivity) Prospective Touch Voltage Curve DU for 1 sec clearing = 800 Volts Mitigation Options: (1) Insulate earth (this is standard practice for HV earth downleads but may not be practical for air break switches with exposed metal operating rod and handle) (2) Installation of NER or NEX to limit fault current to typically 1000 A (3) Installation of grading ring – this would lower prospective touch voltage (4) Reduce protection clearing times – at 0.000 Volt (derived by impedance model of footwear and soil resistivity) Prospective Touch Voltage Curve DU for 1 sec clearing = 800 Volts Mitigation Options: (1) Insulate pole (there have been trials on networks but no proven product is available) (2) Installation of NER or NEX to limit fault current to typically 1000 A – prospective touch voltage reduces to 2. This is still above limit (3) Installation of grading ring – this would lower prospective touch voltage to around 5.000 volts. .5 seconds.000 A Fault Clearing Time = 1 sec Fault Rate = 2 x 100 m span without earthwire at 40 faults per 100 km per year Contacts per year = 40 for 4 seconds Footwear = standard distribution Earthing resistance = 10 ohm Soil resistivity = 100 ohm-m Prospective Touch Voltage = 10. This meets limits.Prospective Touch Voltage = 1. (4) Reduce protection clearing times – at 0. The prospective touch voltage is above limit. the prospective touch limit is 4. This is still above limit.5 seconds.000 volts 2 Conductive distribution pole in an urban area Voltage = 11 kV Fault Current = 5.000 volts. the prospective touch limit is 4. (5) Combination of (2) and (3) – still above limit (6) Combination of (2 and (4) – meets limit (7) Installation of underslung earthwire – this reduces prospective touch voltage to less than 800 volts (underslung earthwire is expected to reduce fault current on striken pole to range of 5 to 8% of previous value).

The stay wire insulator shall be placed so its lowest point is not less than 2.4 metres above the ground. Distribution Earthing Systems Multiple Earthed Neutral (MEN) In a low voltage MEN system of earthing the elements of an installation that require earthing are commonly connected to earth.4m of the ground. Earthing and Insulation of Stay Wires Stay wires on lines should have insulators installed to limit the chance of an energised stay wire coming into contact with the public or staff. excluding any underslung earth wire. Common Multiple Earthed Neutral (CMEN) This is where the HV and LV earthing systems are commonly bonded together with the LV MEN customer installation.The installation of underslung earthwire is also effective in addressing touch hazards on all conductive poles on the feeder. Again earth electrode separation should be kept to the length of the electrode or 4m at a minimum. an MEN value of <1ohm is desirable. a conductor falling and energising the stay wire and a broken stay wire coming in contact with live conductors. There are two possible mechanisms that may energise a stay wire. and in addition are connected to the neutral conductor of the supply system. a resistance of 30 ohms or less is desirable. Mitigations methods for either scenario are given below: Conductor Failure Protection Stay wires within 2. A well connected MEN system has a resistance of less than 1 ohms. Where CMEN systems are installed. low impedance earthing system with many connections to the general mass of the earth. The stay wire insulator must also be placed so it is lower than the lowest conductor. Where a separate earthed system is installed.4 metres of the ground should be earthed in accordance with Clause 11 unless they are insulated by means of an insulator placed in the stay wire. The wet flashover voltage of the insulator must be 50% greater than the highest conductor on the pole phase to earth voltage. Broken Stay Wire Protection . This results in a well distributed. With this type of system special consideration should be given to protection against HV earth faults and EPR. Separate Earthed System A separated earthing system is implemented with a pole top transformer by providing high voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) earths on opposite sides of the pole and installing a nonconductive covering for the earthing conductors within 2.

A failed stay wire can fall onto live conductors and bring an energized stay wire closer than 2.4 metres in height from the ground. . The following diagrams showing various broken stay wire scenarios. To protect for these scenarios more than one stay wire insulator may be required.


064 Copper sited in Region Type A.2Y ) 2 ≥ U + k D + li 150 1.25 AAC at 33 kV 3 phase on pin insulators in a delta configuration with a span of 200 m.07 + 0 150 1.05 U = 33 k = 0.052 + (1.2Y ) 2 ≥ 1.591 1.25 AAC and 5.. Refer Figure 10.07 li = 0 X 2 + (1. The lower circuit has a 120° phase differential to the upper circuit. Refer Figure 10.493 Therefore required minimum vertical separation for centre phase is 0.1 Electrical Clearances between conductors Example 1: Single circuit 19/3. The lower circuit conductor is 19/.064 copper at 11 kV.25 AAC at 33 kV 3 phase on pin insulators in a delta configuration with a span of 200 m located directly above the lower circuit.052 + (1.2052 − 1.4 D = 6.3. .493 m.052 Y≥ 0.205 1.1 m between outer phases is used? Sag at 50 degrees C is 6.1. Example 2: Upper circuit 19/3.2Y ) 2 ≥ 33 + 0. where ∴X = 1.2.2 Y ≥ 0.07 m and sited in Region A.2 Y ≥ 1.22 + 0.4 6. What is the mid span vertical separation required between phases if a crossarm with a separation of 2.07 m 19/3.985 1.81 m for 19/.052 + (1.2Y ) 2 ≥ 0.3.1 m between outer phases is used? Sag at 50 degrees C is 6.11 WORKED EXAMPLES 11. What is the mid span vertical separation required between circuits if a crossarm with a separation of 2.

07 + 0 150 (1.9 + 0.138 Y≥ 1.985 1.2 Determination of conductor rating Once a conductor and its maximum operating temperature have been chosen.2 Y ≥ 0.2Y ) 2 ≥ U + k D + li 150 22. Should further detail be required refer to Reference [2].07 (greater of the two sags) li = 0 (Pin insulators) X 2 + (1.s.9 kV ∴X = 0 U = 22.m.138 1. TNSP have agreed on a common method for conducting conductor ratings [Ref 3]. potential of the circuit voltages) k = 0. Guidelines for the use of these parameters are given in Table 4.1.Because the circuits are located vertically above each other the horizontal component is taken as zero and U = Va2 + Vb2 − 2 Va Vb Cos φ from ‘U’ above = ⎛ 33 ⎞ ⎛ 11 ⎞ 33 11 × Cos120° ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 2 × 3 3 ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ 2 2 = 22.4 (Region A) D = 6. The method is based on the heat balance equations where Heat In (Solar Radiation Current Heating) = Heat Out (Convection Cooling from Wind and Radiated Losses).9 (the difference in the vector r.2Y ) 2 ≥ 0 + (1. the conductor rating can be calculated.153 + 0. .2Y ≥ 1. A coverage of the method is given in Reference [1].4 6. Conductor ratings are usually calculated for a combination of ambient temperatures and wind speeds.2Y ) 2 ≥ 0.948 11.

an acceptable outage rate from lightning for overhead lines with overhead earthwires is typically 2 to 5 outages per 100 km per year.c.0 Winter evening normal Mild winter evening temp at location 0. D (b) 5—1998. 4 IEEE 738 Thermal Rating of Conductors 5 IEC 60909 “Calculation of the short-circuit currents in three phase a. Steady. Published in Brisbane by John Wiley and Sons Inc. A moderate ceraunic level is between 30 and 50 thunderdays per year. 3. The electrogeometric model developed by IEEE (and incorporated in lightning prediction programs.0 Winter evening emergency Mild winter evening temp at location 1. Process for design – balance shielding failures vs backflashover performance – T Gillespie Estimation of line outages due to lightning There are 3 types of outages caused by lightning. and high level above 50 thunderdays per year. “Standard Line Ratings Methodology for Transmission Network Services Providers”. shielding failure / direct strike .T. The mechanism of a backflashover is that the lightning current flowing in the overhead earthwire couples inductively and capacitively with the phase conductor . like Flash) can be used to determine the probability of a shielding flashover. Backflashovers are the predominant cause of lighting induced flashovers on overhead lines protected by an earth or shield wire. systems” 6 EN 60865-1 “Calculation of the effects of short-circuit current” 11. 2 MORGAN.5 to 1.3 Design for lightning performance Lightning induced outages are one of the major cause of outages on overhead lines in areas of moderate to high ceraunic activity. The acceptable outage rate due to lightning is therefore one of the most dominant design parameters for an overhead line.5 to 1.0 Summer noon emergency Max summer temp at location 1.1 AMBIENT TEMPERATURES AND WIND SPEEDS FOR CONDUCTOR RATINGS Rating type Ambient temperature (°C) Wind speed (ms −1 ) Summer noon normal Max summer temp at location 0.TABLE 4. Dynamic and FaultCurrent Ratings. A shielding failure occurs when the overhead earthwire fails to intercept the lightning stroke and the voltage developed by the surge current (1/2 stroke current x surge impedance of conductor) exceeds the insulation strength of the insulation. V. backflashover and induced voltage. Thermal Behaviour of Electrical Conductors.0 to 2. In a low to moderate ceraunic activity area. 1991.0 to 2. Current Rating of Bare Overhead Line Conductors published by Standards Association of Australia.0 References 1 Electricity Supply Association of Australia.

(b) Provides a low impedance path for earth faults to ensure there is sufficient fault current to operate protection relays Application of Surge Arresters . The lightning performance of a shielded overhead line is complex and requires mathematical modelling to determine the optimal shielding and backflashover rates.. They are also installed on overhead distribution lines for short distances (typically 800 m) out of a substation to protect the substation equipment from damaging overvoltages. The effective impulse strength of a series wood and insulator path can be calculated as follows: Itotal = [Iwood 2 + Iinsulator 2 ]1/2 . the shielding angle is usually in the range of 30 to 40 degrees. One earthwire is usually sufficient to cater for shielding flashovers on structures below 20 m. the higher the resistance to flashover. Overhead earthwires are used to shield the line from lightning strikes and are usually installed on high reliability lines operating at sub-transmission and transmission voltage levels. The lower the footing resistance. When wood is added to the insulation path. The higher the impulse strength of the insulator/wood combination. and (l) pole footing resistance. the combined insulation strength of the insulator and wood is increased.1 where Iwood = Iinsulator = Impulse strength of wood Impulse strength of insulator When an overhead earthwire is installed on powerlines. A low pole footing resistance not only reduces the probability of lightning induced backflashovers but also offers the following advantages: (a) Reduces risk of injury to persons or animals due to rises in earth potential at the structure and the surrounding soil. The arc quenching properties of wood has been used by Authorities to reduce lightning induced outages on the network. the smaller is the reflection co-efficient and this results in a lower voltage on the structure. With a single earthwire. The magnitude of the voltage is dependent on the structure surge impedance and the ground footing resistance. (j) having wood in the flashover circuit (crossarm or pole).. generally a down lead is run to earth to provide a low resistance path to ground. The prediction of lightning outages is not an exact science and the methods adopted in one Authority may not be appropriate in others. (k) Critical Flashover voltage (CFO) of the insulators.and induces a voltage in it. but higher structures will need two earthwires to achieve effective shielding. It has been found that the parameters which can be varied to achieve the largest influence on the lightning performance of overhead lines are— (i) installation of earthwire. A portion of current also flows down the conductive structure (or earth down lead) to ground and develops a voltage on the structure. Distribution lines are generally unshielded and the major causes of lightning outages are direct strikes and induced voltages from nearby lightning strikes. Refer to Reference [8] for the electrical properties of wood.

Surge arresters can be applied to an overhead line to improve the lightning performance.0 25 Very Heavy Above 3.1 (titled Relationship between severity of pollution at site to various parameters) of Reference [1]. TABLE 5. the following criteria need to be considered: 1. The recommendations are given in Table 5. Surge arresters have been used in the following applications: 11. 2.4. (2) Ratio of leakage distance measured between phase and earth over the r.m.1 (1) Protection of pole mounted plant (2) Protection of underground terminations (3) Protect covered conductor from failure (4) To improve lightning outage rate (5) Where it is difficult or costly to install an overhead earthwire (eg retrofitting an existing line) Electrical and Mechanical Design for Insulators Design for pollution When determining the insulation requirements for an overhead power line or an outdoor substation in a contaminated environment.2 GUIDE FOR SELECTING INSULATORS IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS ESDD range (1) Minimum nominal specific creepage distance (2) g/m mm/kV Light 0 to1. The shape of the insulator to assist in reducing the likelihood of contamination collection and facilitate washing. Table 5. Creepage (or leakage) distance. 3. (3) Consideration should be given to increasing the creepage distances is areas where there are long periods without rainfall or very close to the marine coast .0 to 3.2 reproduces the guidelines in Reference [2]. The ability of the material to endure the electrical activity without being degraded.s phase to phase voltage of the highest voltage of the equipment.2 16 Medium 1.4 11. The basic concept is to increase the surface creepage distance so that it is long enough to prevent a pollution flashover across the surface.0 20 Contamination severity Heavy 2.0 31 (1) ESDD is the equivalent salt deposit density.2 to 2. There are two approaches which can be used to select the appropriate creepage distance for various levels of contamination severity.

4. There are 2 main types of electrical tests conducted on insulators.8 times the lightning impulse flashover voltage.4. When designing for switching surges. In lieu of adequate test data on switching surges a good approximation for the switching surge flashover voltage is 0.4 Selection of Insulator to meet Electrical Performance . The insulator parameter that determines the insulator impulse performance ( i. A good coverage on the design for switching surge is given in AS 1824. Maximum dynamic overvoltage can occur during faults and load rejection. Line insulation is usually selected independent of substation insulation.1 per unit voltage to take into account the effects of voltage drop with loading and there is the possibility that with capacitors on the line.4 per unit which can be regarded as the maximum dynamic overvoltage. 11.2 Design for power frequency voltages (Wet withstand requirement) The line insulation should be designed to withstand the maximum voltage expected on the line. it would be common to install surge arresters on the line to limit the overvoltages to the designed line insulation. particularly on transmission lines. overvoltage can exceed 3 per unit voltage. the neutral is earthed). (2) the capacitance or amount of trapped charges on the line and (3) other equipment connected to the line. switching surge and lightning ) is the arc distance across the insulator. When high speed autoreclosing is installed. (1. especially when the line insulation is longer than the substation insulation.3 Design for switching surge voltages Switching surge overvoltages up to 3 per unit peak voltage can arise when overhead lines are switched. 11. The extent of this overvoltage is dependent on (1) the point of voltage wave when the line is switched. one being the lightning impulse and the other the power frequency flashover (wet and dry).4 per unit is for a three phase power system that is effectively earthed e.e. the powerline could operate up to 1. Overhead powerlines usually operate at 1.2. the type of electrodes and the presence of earth planes. The wet power frequency withstand voltage of the line insulation should be selected to exceed this maximum dynamic overvoltage.g. In these cases. one of the parameters which is difficult to obtain is the switching surge impulse voltage. It is necessary to check substation insulation impulse performance and install surge arresters. Switching tests have been conducted in laboratories and the flashover voltages have been inconsistent and found to be dependent on the shape of the surge.11.4.

2 (kNm tors) 8.Fog Ball Socket .Fog 11 kV Insulators: Pin .Normal Clevis Tongue .Normal Pin . System Highest Voltage = 36 kV Minimum nominal specific creepage distance = 31 mm/kV for extreme contamination Required creepage distance for 36 kV = 1116 mm .Normal Ball Socket .11 Line Post Tie Top Line Post Clamp Top Standoff Line Post with Trunnion Clamp Station Post Composite Long Rod Composite Long Rod 70 Example: Select a suitable disc insulator string for a 33 kV line subject to extreme contamination. Normal disc profiles have a creepage length of 300 mm and fog discs of 400 mm.25 (OML) 25 (MML) 180 360 180 425 95 95 95 150 30 30 30 38 425 150 38 425 150 38 360 95 350 95 38 33 kV Insulators: Min Failing Load (kN) Min Creepage Dist (mm) Dry Lightning Impulse (kVp) Pin .String Insulator Units: Min Failing Load (kN) Min Creepage Dist (mm) Dry Lightning Impulse (kVp) 70 70 70 70 280 360 280 360 95 95 95 95 Wet Power Freq withstand (kVp) 40 40 40 40 7 7 22 18 (cantil) 6 (axial) 12 (cantil) 18 (axial) 12 (cantil) 18 (axial) 8 (cantil) 1.Fog Shackle Type SH.25 (OML) 25 (MML) 534 785 200 200 Wet Power Freq withstand (kVp) 65 95 785 200 95 760 200 900 200 Clevis Tongue .Two part Standoff Line Post with Tie Top Standoff Line Post with Clamp Top Station Post 11 9 (cantil) 11 (axial) 9 (cantil) 11 (axial) 5 (cantil) 1 (kNm tors) 8.

AS 1824. 2. 3. Insulation coordination.1. References 1. System Highest Voltage = 300 kV Minimum nominal specific creepage distance = 25 mm/kV for heavy contamination Required creepage distance for 300 kV = 7500 mm Number of normal discs = 7500/300 = 25 discs Number of fog discs = 7500/400 = 18.Number of normal discs = 1116/300 = 3. AS 4436 Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions.5 Insulator mechanical design The loads on an insulator can be calculated using the Limit State methodology outlined in Section 3.2—1985. Use normal or fog disc profiles where the creepage length is 300 mm normal and 400 mm for fog. IEC 60815. (Identical to ISO Report 815).79 → 3 discs Select a suitable disc insulator string for a 275 kV line subject to heavy contamination. The guidelines for the strength factor are given in Table 3. Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions.75 → 19 discs 11. Part 2: Application guide. .72 → 4 discs Number of fog discs = 1116/400 = 2.4.

5 Limit State Design Worked Examples Basic Formula for Bending Moment Loads PZ TX TX θ/2 θ/2 FT = PZ x D x W d FT PZ D Wd TX θ = = = = = = + 2 T X sin force on the conductor wind pressure conductor diameter wind span horizontal tension structure deviation angle θ 2 .11.

4m 900 Pa on conductor/OHEW.5.11.4m 1.5m d1 1.4m Libra AAC (Tx = 5000N) Pluto AAC (Tx = 13000N) 20o 180m 0.5m F2 (Load from A Phase) F3 (Load from B Phase) F4 (Load from C Phase) d2 d3 Fwφ d4 (Load on pole) 20o deviation Input Pole height Earth wire Conductors Line deviation Wind span Average pole OD Wind pressure = = = = = = = 17. There is also a line deviation of 20 degrees.1 Pole Tip Load Calculation Calculate the tip load on a 33 kV monopole with a Libra earthwire and Pluto phase conductors vertically configured on the pole. and 1300 Pa on pole . F1 (Load from earthwire) 2.

3.25 x13000 x sin 10 = Fwφ ⎛ d + d3 + d4 ⎞ ⎟⎟ + F2.25 x5000 x sin 10 3628 N 900 x 0.0188 x 180 + 2 x 1. F3 .4 X 17. F4 + = 8688 N Pwφ x OD x d 1 = = 1300 X 0. 4 ⎜⎜ 2 d1 ⎠ ⎝ PW x OD x Wd = F2 .F1 Tip Load = = F1 = = + 2 TX sin Fwφ 2 θ 2 900 x 0.009 x 180 + 2 x 1.4 9048 N .

72 . The recommended deflection limits are: • • Serviceable wind loads (typically 750 Pa wind on pole and 500 Pa on conductors) –5% of the pole length out of ground Ultimate wind loads (typically 1300 Pa on pole and 900 Pa on conductors) – 15% of pole length out of ground Consideration for Stayed Pole A stayed pole should be designed to meet the following conditions: (1) Poles should be self supporting under every day load conditions without stay (should not suffer failure due to loss of stay) Everyday load = 16 kN Component strength factor for wood pole = 0.5 for range) Ultimate Strength of Wood Pole = 28.72 (Table 6. deflection limits need to be considered to ensure electrical clearances are met and complaints are minimized from the public.5 + 12 ⎞ 3628 + 8688 ⎜ ⎟ + 17.4 kN Preserved wood pole component strength factor = 0.3.F1 Tip Load = = + ⎛ d + d3 + d4 ⎞ ⎟⎟ + F2. 4 ⎜⎜ 2 d1 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 15 + 13.72 = 39.4 ⎝ ⎠ Fwφ 2 9048 2 = 3628 + 20221 + 4524 = 28. Considerations for Un-stayed Pole For an un-stayed pole.4 kN Wood poles typically decay during their life and designers may choose a pole with a higher strength to achieve a longer design life.4 / 0.4 kN SELECTION OF POLE WOOD POLE Select a pole with a limit state design load of 28.

4 kN Compressive strength of wood pole with 300 mm dia is typically around 250 kN Ratio of compressive load to compressive strength = 11% Ultimate strength of pole to allow for stay load = 20 * 1.4 / 1.Ultimate strength of pole to meet everyday load = 22 kN (2) If ground stay used and attached to top of pole Ultimate tip load due to wind load = 28.414 = 40 kN Component strength factor for stay = 0.4 * 1.11 = 22 kN STEEL POLE Steel pole component strength factor = 1.75 Compressive load in pole due to stay = 28.7 Ultimate strength of stay = 57 kN – select SC/GZ stay of 19/2.4 kN .0 = 28.0 Ultimate Strength of Steel Pole = 28.4 kN Angle of stay = 45 degrees Tension in stay = 28.

F4 Tip Load = = = = = = = = 4817. F3 .7 + 4817.4m Libra AAC (Tx = 2700N) Pluto AAC (Tx = 9000N) 20o 180m 0.4 = 5220 N F1 + ⎛ d + d3 + d4 ⎞ ⎟⎟ + F2. and 750 Pa on pole PW x OD x Wd = F2 .3.COMPARISON TO WORKING STRESS METHOD Pole height Earth wire Conductors Line deviation Wind span Average pole OD Wind pressure = F1 + 2 TX sin θ 2 = 500 x 0.6 kN SELECTION OF POLE WOOD POLE Maximum Working Load on Pole = 15.6 kN Fwφ 2 5220 2 .7 Pwφ x OD x d1 = 750 X 0. 4 ⎜⎜ 2 d1 ⎝ ⎠ 15 + 13.009 x 180 + 2 x 2700 x sin 10 = 1747.7 ⎜ = 1747 7 + 11213 6 + 2610 = 15.5 + 12 ⎞ ⎟ + 17.4m 500 Pa on conductor/OHEW.0188 x 180 + 2 x9000 x sin 10 = N = Fwφ 17.4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ = 1747.7 N 500 x 0.4 X 17.


9 LV Bracket .576 209.stress grade F17 (i. Jarrah.000023 53.2 415 V Cable position: 0.e. depth in ground 2. Consider a 12.6 m above ground Conductor 3: 1.2 m above ground Conductor 2: above top of pole.8 65000 0. 10.8 0.2 m above ground 8700 415 V Cable type: 4 × 95 mm2 LV Aerial Bundled Cable (ABC) to AS/NZS 3560 and strung at 7% of CBL at 15°C.2 m left.2 m (i.35 380 56000 0. 8.4 1.225 m left. The LV ABC conductor is strung to a tension to approximate the conductor sag in a span of 45m at 15°C. Ash type eucalypts) Unseasoned.1—1997 as strength group S4 . unpreserved and unshaved timber Top diameter 300 mm Ground line diameter 400 mm Height above ground 10.2 m right.5 m wood pole on a 15° line deviation with a ruling span (RS) of 45 m.75 AAC (Pluto) to AS 1531 strung at 5% of CBL at 15°C. NOTE: Although the example is based on a timber distribution pole. the structural design principles are similar for other materials or support types.Distribution Worked Example 2 Determine the required pole loads and foundation size for an 11 kV/415 V line in an urban area. 10.ABC 10200 11 kV Conductor positions: Conductor 1: 1. Neighbouring spans are 40 m and 55 m on level ground. DESIGN DATA 1200 1200 11 kV Conductor type: 200 400 19/3.000023 31. Conductor Pluto Dia Mass Area 2 Mod of E Exp Coef CBL (mm) (kg/m) (mm ) (MPa) (/deg C) (kN) 18.e. 10. Conductor 4/95 ABC Dia Mass Area 2 Mod of E Exp Coef 2300 CBL (mm) (kg/m) (mm ) (MPa) (/deg C) (kN) 38.7 m above ground Pole details: Mixed Australian hardwood classified to AS 1720.3 m) Crossarm size: 100 by 150 mm 11 kV insulators are ALP 11/275 .

Wind = 0 kPa Ft = 4.2) Temp. = 15°C.e.2.01 kN 415 V Cable load condition (RS=45 m) Load Every day load condition (Clause 3. Wind = 0. maximum wind tension).1.79 kN Short duration load condition (Clause 3.5Ft Capacity of 11 kV conductor Determine φRn Strength factor φ = 0.25G c + 1. = 15°C.3. Capacity of 415 V cable Determine φRn . therefore for each 11 kV conductor.0 m of firm cohesive soil and 1.1G s + 1.7. 11 kV Conductor load conditions (RS = 45 m) Load Everyday load condition (Clause 3.3. Wind = 0. φRn > load is satisfied.7. = 15°C.47 kN Ultimate strength limit state (Clause 3.3.3) Temp.1 Rn = 31. = 15°C.9 kPa (MWT) Ft = 4.5-1.1) Temp.5 m of loose gravel with sand.9 kN φRn = 22. Wind = 0 kPa (EDT) Ft = 3.2. = 15°C.58 kN Intact conductor tension (Ft ) under average wind (Clause 3. i. every day tension) and for short duration load condition—MWT (i.The soil conditions are specified in three layers: 0-0.87. Wind = 0.9 kPa (MWT) Ft = 9. = 5°C.3.1) Maximum wind load (from any direction) is given by— φRn > Wn + 1. = 15°C.96 kN Failure containment loads (Fc ) (Clause 3.e.3.24 kPa Fc = 4. = 15°C. 0.5 kPa Ft = 2.6.e. capacity: 22.32 kN Intact conductor tension (Ft) under average wind (Clause 3.3 > 6.0 m or more of very stiff cohesive soil.1) Temp.72 kN Sustained load condition (Clause 3.1) Temp.2. Wind = 0 kPa Ft = 1. = 15°C.4. Wind = 0.16 kN Short duration load condition (Clause 3.23 Kn Failure containment loads (Fc ) (Clause 3. Conductor tensions are abbreviated as follows: for everyday load condition—EDT (i.24 kPa Fc = 2. Wind = 0.1) Temp.6.60 kN Sustained load condition (Clause 3. Wind = = 5°C. Wind = 0 kPa (EDT) Ft = 1.87 kN.5 kPa Ft = 6.2) Temp.2.3 kN Conductor short duration load (MWT) = 6.3.7 from Table 3.1) Temp. CALCULATIONS Use the approximate wind pressures based on Clause 3.3) Temp.1) Temp.

98. conductor/cable and hardware: wind on pole = 1. φR n > load is satisfied.1 × 0.Strength factor φ = 0.64 × 8.7 = 62.6 m above ground wind load on 11 kV conductors = 0. φ × k1 = 0.8 m above ground wind on crossarm = 2.64 kN acting at 8.6 + 1.7 from Table 3.3 + 0.2 m above ground and one acting at 10.8 × 10.e. i.029 × 10.5 (from Table 3.032 kN acting at 10 m above ground wind on insulators = 1. This load is small in relation to the compressive strength of the pole and will be ignored for this example.8 kN each.64 × 4.2 = 17.8 × 10.1 = 0.6 + 2 × +0.2 = 8.5 × (0.71 kN and φR n EDT = (0.152 × 0.029 kN each.1 Rn = 53.64 kN acting 4.1(c)) insulator load = 1.285 × 50 × 103 × Z) / 10.575 and k1 = 0.1) to be applied on modulus of rupture determined from AS 1720.285 using NOTE:φ capacity factor depends on grading methodology and support importance.5 kNm 0.1 kPa (Clause 3.24 > 13. i.1(b)) crossarm load = 0.4.575 × 50 × 103 × Z) / 10.4 × 0. Pole capacity in bending taken as equivalent tip load: φRn MWT = (0.136 = 0. Gc will vary for non-level terrain and unequal adjacent pole attachment heights.032 × 10 + 2 × 0.9 × 47. two acting at 10.4. two acting at 10.2 kN from AS/NZS 3560.8 + 0.7 m above ground Therefore.5 × 0.0) k1 = 1.0188 = 0. insulators and other ancillary hardware.3 × 0.24 kN ABC Short Duration Load Condition (MWT) for 415 V cable = 13.4) × 10.78 kN where Z = πD 3 /32 = 0. φ × k1 = 0.5 × 0.1(b)) pole wind load =1.0063 m3 Ultimate transverse wind load Wn will comprise wind loads on pole. i.4 kPa (Clause 3.4.2 + 0.9 × 47. however for equal height poles on flat terrain the conductor vertical loads are— . taking moments about ground line— BM = 4.2 m above ground and one acting at 10.0384 = 1.15 × 2. weight of crossarms.98 kN Capacity: 37. Pole capacity Determine φRn Strength factor φ = 0.57 for EDT .1 (CBL for 4 × 95) φRn = 37.2 = 4.3 kPa (Clause 3.15 for MWT.e.1 φM = φk1 [f’b Z] (all other kmod factors taken as 1.2 Gs will comprise vertical loads due to weight of pole.029 × 10.e.6 m above ground wind load on 415 V ABC = 0.

71 > 14.9kPa × sin(15 / 2) = 2.1 kN The total pole base moment: The equivalent ultimate load at the top of pole: BMtot = = 62. .1G s + 1. Consider an average conductor height of 30m above ground with no line deviation and a ruling span of 300 m.27 kN For 415 V cable: Gc = 0.25 × 0.87/10.e.35 kN By entering the ultimate loads and soil properties obtained from Appendix B for each soil layer.1 × 1. the ESAA BH Pile program output.25Gc + 1.0.032+3 × 0.8 × 3+1.64+0. The conductor is AAAC (Fluorine) with diameter = 9 mm.134 × 0. maintenance and serviceability conditions.87 kNm The equivalent ultimate pole tip load = kN Transverse load due to Ft for each 11 kV conductor = 2 × T 15C.6 m for a foundation diameter of 0. Using a foundation strength factor φ = 0. weight = 0.2 = 14. The above calculations may also be accomplished by following the detail design approach given in Appendix A.2.2 kN Transverse load due to Ft for 415 V cable = 2 × T15C. as shown in Figure 3. The line is in terrain category 2.1.7) 145.1 × 8.5+2.5 Ft 4.8 kN. delivers a minimum depth requirement of 2. Use a RP of 50 years (LR = 1 as per Table A.87 kNm and the ultimate shear load at ground line is: Wn + 1. Determine the conductor loads for a suspension structure in a rural area on level ground.3 kN Capacity: 17.For each 11 kV conductor: Gc = 0.9kPa × sin(15 /2 ) = 1.5 × (2 × 1. NOTE: It is advisable where designers use standard supports containing stay(s) that the structural behaviour is confirmed through the use of a non-linear design program. Foundation capacity Assuming that the pole met the design criteria the foundation can be designed using the ESAA Brinch Hansen Pile program.5 for foundations relying on empirical assessment from Table 3. Distibution Worked Example 3 A limited number of conductor loads are calculated in this example to illustrate the development of conductor tensions using the method given in Appendix A.5 = 17.029+0.6 + 2. a similar calculation may be followed for failure containment. maintenance and serviceability conditions as appropriate. φRn > load is satisfied Similar loads can be calculated for failure containment.2 × 3 × 1.2 + 1.135 kg/m and CBL = 11. i. Once a satisfactory pole and footing design for the maximum wind load condition is achieved.63) + 1.64+1. Use wind and weight spans of 285m within a tension section of 2400 m.2 × 10.8 m.2 × 10.5 of Region B and the wind non-directional.1). the ultimate ground line moment as calculated above is— BMult = Hult = = 145.56 + (1.

3.cat = 1. Height multiplier Mz.1G s + 1. Section 3) Regional wind speed V50 = 44 m/s Ft = 7.5 × 7.79 × 0.25 × 0.3.00 kN Design site wind speed = 44 × 1. = 15°C.3. = 15°C.7.79 = 5.05 kN = (the 0.00 = 10.69 kN 1.06 = 46.55 kN Short duration load condition (Clause 3. Md = 1 (AS/NZS 1170.79 kN Ft = 3. Ultimate conductor loads From Clause 3.47 kN 1.135 × 285 × 9.2.5Ft = 0.2 × 3.2) Temp. Wind = 0 kPa Ft = 2.3.5 × 3.305 × 0.25G c = 1.25Gc + 1.5 kN Failure containment loads From Clause 3.25G c + 1.009 × 0.5.653 kPa Failure containment loads (Clause 3.009 × 0.5Ft For each conductor the contribution is: Wn = 1. Mt = 1.1) Temp.2. all the relevant loads for the ultimate.25G c = 1. Terrain category = 2.06. Wind = 0 kPa Ft = 2.79 kN NOTE: The conductor loads below exclude the weight of insulators and ancillaries.557 kN 1.5 = 0.666 = 0.305 × 285 × 0.23 kN (where 0. mean conductor height = 8 m.305 kPa SRF = 0.25Wn = 1.5 (for a tension section of 2400 m) Ultimate wind pressure on conductor for tension calculation = 1.1Gs + 1.1 failure containment limit state is given by— 0. = 15°C.45 = 2.25Wn + 1. maintenance and serviceability load cases can be calculated in a similar fashion to those in example .47 kN 1.666 = 2.1) Temp.00 AAAC (Fluorine) strung at 20% CBL at 15°C (Ruling span of 300 m) Load condition Load Everyday load condition (Clause 3.135 × 285 × 9.1) Using the above approach.Conductor Tensions for 7/3.1 the ultimate strength limit state the maximum wind load is given by— Wn + 1.36 kN Sustained load condition (Clause 3.5Ft + 1.3) Temp.64 m/s Dynamic wind pressure = 1.45 factor is due to tension reduction resulting from insulator string swing where span/sag = 45 and span/string length = 195 and derived from Figure 3.666 is the SRF for a 285 m span) 1.81/1000 = 0.7.81/1000 = 0.25 × 0.2. = 5°C.2Fb For each conductor the contribution is— 0.25 × 1.2Fb 1. Wind pressure= 0.24 kPa Fc = 3.305 × 285 × 0.2.5Ft = 1.


Primary Conductor Clashing Primary conductor clashing may occur when there is a phase to phase fault on one of two overhead lines connecting the same substations. The increase in fault current may then cause the conductors on this line to clash.5 below shows diagrammatically the feeder. For phase-to-phase faults the conductor movement is more pronounced as the fault current is very high and the protection clearance times are typically long. • Increase the horizontal spacing between conductors. Figure 2. resulting in the loss of two overhead lines. If the fault current is large and experienced for a long enough time the movement can be substantial and cause conductor clashing (particularly on distribution lines). Secondary Conductor Clashing Secondary conductor clashing may occur on a distribution feeder when a recloser trips and isolates an initial fault and the live oscillating conductors upstream of the recloser subsequently clash together. . Conductor clashing can be avoided or mitigated by the following measures: • Introduce a vertical spacing between conductors.6 Conductor Clashing Under short circuit conditions conductors experience forces of attraction and repulsion due to electromagnetic force from the fault current in the conductors. Constructions which are prone to conductor clashing are underslung or suspension. flat pin and transitions from flat to vertical. one end of the faulted line will usually trip first and fault current will then increase significantly on the other unfaulted line. Both phase conductors pendulum simultaneously towards each other and if they get close enough they cause a secondary conductor clashing fault. When the initial phase-to-phase fault occurs the faulted phase conductors repell each other due to the current in the phase conductors. When a phase to phase fault occurs.APPENDICES 11. The repulsion forces can be great enough to exceed wind force design limits. Conductor clashing has a higher probability of occurrence when the fault occurs on two adjacent conductors at the same height and the conductor has low weight. When the recloser trips the fault current and thus the repulsion forces between the conductors is removed the conductors pendulum back into equilibrium. recloser and fault positions.

1978. Stewart J. Clayton R.O.J. Transmission Line Reference Book: 115-138 kV Compact Line Design.D.R & Wilson D. ¾ Reduce protection clearing times To determine whether a line is susceptible to conductor clashing the calculations can be performed with formula provided in the following EPRI publication. . Bathold L..S.. Grant I... EPRI. Longo V.. • Install midspan spacers between conductors.E.• Insert additional poles midspan between conductors.

Install “like with like” structures (if there is an existing tower line. The original recommendation related to electric and magnetic field exposures where prudent avoidance was defined as “doing what can be done without undue inconvenience and at modest expense to avert the possible risk“ 12.2 Prudent Avoidance Principle Where potential risks with unproven consequences are involved a prudent avoidance approach is recommended. This would normally take the form of a negotiated easement detailing any restrictions on land use necessary for reliable operation of the line. 12. select towers for the second line in the corridor) . Some areas may be of high environmental significance such as aboriginal and cultural heritage or sensitive vegetation (mangroves) and the line route will need to avoid these areas where possible. The risk management process used should align with AS/NZS 4360 Risk Management and companion handbook HB 436 Risk Management Guidelines 12.12 ROUTE SELECTION PROCESS Appropriate consideration must be given at the route selection stage to the use of the land proposed for the power line corridor. There are zoning maps available from local government authorities which describe the land usage in the region. Visual amenity can be improved by applying the following design principles: .1 Risk Management Principle The layout design process should include the identification and assessment of risks associated with the construction. On public land the agreement of the management agency must be obtained for the proposed line. Local jurisdiction planning instruments.Use of low height and compact structures .Locate power lines in corridors screened by vegetation or natural landscape . particularly those regulating the clearing of trees. Where power lines traverse private property the approval of the property owner is required.Avoid placing structures which dominate the skyline . maintenance and operation of the proposed line leading to the evaluation and implementation of risk treatment options which ensure that the residual risk is acceptable to the organization. may also influence the selection of the most appropriate route for the power line.3 Aesthetic Considerations Visual amenity is now playing a major role in the selection of structures and other components on an overhead power line to gain community acceptance.

4 Electric and Magnetic Fields The principle of prudent avoidance has been adopted by the electricity industry for dealing with electromagnetic fields from overhead lines (refer Section XXX). The adjacent span ratio is typically less than 3:1 (where there is free movement of conductors on insulators) or 2:1 (where there is no free movement of conductors on insulators) Weight to wind span ratio greater than 0. heritage sites. a larger diameter conductor may need to be selected to ensure the surface voltage gradient is below the corona threshold level. the profiling of the conductors and the calculation of wind. the location of these structures on a line corridor. Where there are 2 or more circuits installed horizontally on the structures. . Rail. Non specular conductor will make the conductor more hydrophilic to water and minimise the water drop corona effects. it may also be prudent to configure the phase conductors in a diagonal arrangement to minimise the electromagnetic fields. sensitive environmental areas. To offset the increase in electric field strength.7 to ensure there are acceptable electrical clearances on structures under wind conditions Acceptable clearance of structures and conductors alignment to objects (eg buildings. weight and ruling spans. These set backs can be reduced where there are kerbing or natural barriers (drain or mounds) Suitable foundation integrity (eg avoid side slopes) Co-ordination with other Authorities and Services (Road. The layout design shall ensure the following outcomes are met: • • • • • • • Acceptable electrical clearances to structures and ground for the voltage of line Maximum adjacent span ratio selected to ensure longitudinal loading on insulators and supports do not cause failures under adverse environmental conditions. existing and future services. Where there are vertically configured double circuit lines. Water. electromagnetic fields can be minimised by diagonal phasing of the phase conductors. 12. etc. 13 LAYOUT DESIGN PROCESS The layout design process involves the selection of a suite of structure types. Telecommunication and Aerial Operations) Designers need to ensure that the ground and environmental conditions are factored into the layout process and need to consider for example the existence of steep slopes.- Use of non specular finish conductor Painting of structures (in particular poles) to match the existing landscape Compacting the phase conductors will improve visual amenity but will increase the surface voltage gradient on the conductors and the noise (radio interference and audible). swimming pools. billboards) Set back on roads appropriate to the speed of the road. Non specular conductor will reduce the initial glare of the conductors and the high corona noise produced when the line is initially energised.

Formatted: Indent: Left: 18 pt Terrain A 3-dimensional GIS-type (Geographic Information System) terrain model is suggested for its flexibility and compatibility with modern electronic surveying equipment and mapping techniques. (See Table 3. whether a point having the feature code is a ground point that will be used to draw a ground profile or a point that should be by-passed when drawing the ground profile (for example the top of an obstacle). Z. The PFL model includes points described by their Station (cumulative distance from an arbitrary reference point along the centerline of the line).Y. If a point having the feature code is an obstacle described by its height above the ground. minimum required vertical clearances above (and below for aerial points) points having the feature code and minimum horizontal clearances to the side of these points for the voltages selected Terrain Model The XYZ model includes points described by their global coordinates X. Terrain data are normally collected electronically (total station. one should decide on broad categories of terrain or obstacle points which have unique requirements. whether to draw a line between that point and the ground or If a point having the feature code is an aerial obstacle which your wires are allowed to pass under. There are two ways to describe an obstacle point.and Z. or 2) locate the top of the obstacle directly with its own coordinates. etc. Before generating a terrain. Also included for each ground or obstacle point are optional surveyor's notes to be displayed on profile or plan views. photogrammetry. Offset (lateral distance from the centerline) and elevation. Above terrain points will be referred to as "obstacle" points. lidar. whether to check vertical clearances both above and below that point. You can either: 1) describe the obstacle by its height above a ground point and the coordinates of that ground point. Survey Information The survey requirements for an overhead line design may include: . These requirements include minimum code clearances to be met above or to the side of the points as well as symbols to be used to display these points on the final drawings. A terrain model normally includes information about the location and type of a large number of terrain or above-terrain points. There are many tools and techniques available for importing and filtering XYZ terrain points data specially for LIDAR data which may contain many millions of points. An XYZ file can be prepared and edited with a text editor or word processor or it can be created by downloading survey data from an automatic instrument.7) Code clearances depend on the voltage of particular conductors.) and are subsequently downloaded into ASCII terrain files.

Points outside the MOPV are not displayed in the profile views. the alignments are defined in the plan view by selecting the PI points. Land use and limitations / constraints 5. is for two widths.1. existing services) 4. For example. Triangulating an XYZ terrain The XYZ terrain model consists of individual points with their coordinates and feature codes . 2) alignment branches. one may draw separate side profiles. you can create an equivalent PFL model. The ground profile line displayed is a line that joins all ground points within a specified offset from the center-line. the alignments consist of straight line segments between PI points (Points of Inflection). one may generate additional interpolated center line and side profile points using a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) model of the terrain or by using breaklines. there is a need for rules to define how the profile is displayed on drawings. whether on screen or on a sheet of paper. railway lines. Once you have at least one alignment defined. Width of the line corridor to be surveyed (which may be different than the easement width) 2. If the jaggedness of the profile line is objectionable. The Triangulated Irregular Network (or TIN) model of the XYZ terrain is a surface made up of triangles having the terrain points at their apexes using Delauney triangles. if one selects a MOCGP of 3m. That offset (MOCGP). In the plan view. When you have multiple alignments you can build lines on all of them. The center-line ground profile is theoretically the intersection of vertical planes going through the center-line and the ground. Or better. any structure or wire with an offset greater than MOPV will not be shown in the profile view. If there is significant side slope (perpendicular to the line) the line profile may look jagged when it joins points of significantly different elevations on alternate sides of the center-line. Once you have an alignment defined on an XYZ terrain model. Values for the Maximum Offset for Profile View (MOPV) and the Maximum Offset for Centerline Ground Profile (MOCGP) are to be selected. the PFL model is limited to a single alignment). Formatted: Bullets and Numbering . If you start with an XYZ terrain model. roads. then the profile line will pass through all the points within 3m of the center-line. Centreline and line deviations 6. Key features to be surveyed (fences. This is not required when using a PFL terrain model since the alignment is implied (however. because the terrain data maybe defined at discrete points within the line corridor. or 3) alignment loops. you can create: 1) other independent unconnected alignments. The center-line is defined in the plan view as the collection of straight line segments connecting alignment corners. gates. Contour interval 3. In addition. Coordinate system and height datum Alignment The alignment (or alignments) of a project need to be defined before any engineering can be performed. However. trees. The points are joined in ascending order of stations. All ground or obstacle points within the MOPV (measured from the center-line) are displayed with the appropriate symbols in the various profile views.

the station. to find the elevations of arbitrary points or to locate points at the intersection of latticed tower legs or guys with the ground. Positive offsets and positive line angles are defined as follows. an optional label or description. offset and elevation of the top of the obstacle. . its offset and elevation. That surface can be used to generate accurate center line and side profiles. the PFL terrain representation was used almost exclusively in power line work. If one travels the line in the direction of increasing stations. a zero line angle and a zero obstacle height. For an obstacle described by its height above a ground point. The locations of terrain or obstacle points are then described relative to that center-line. For an obstacle described by its own coordinates. Y and Z of its two end points. offset and elevation of the ground point directly below the obstacle. an optional label or description. Break Lines Break lines (or break line segments) can be used to enhance XYZ terrain models. Therefore. by tradition. While break lines can be defined and displayed entirely by themselves. the station. the line angle at the location of the point (if the point is on the center-line) and a zero obstacle height. and the height of the obstacle above the ground. The data for a ground point in a PFL model include the feature code. Using break lines to describe existing or planned facilities Surveyors can provide data on portion of a larger terrain described by many thousands of break line segments and an even larger number of XYZ points. the data include the obstacle feature code. including elevations and light incidence. The TIN surface can be rendered in different colors to give a more realistic display of the ground. Prior to the days of electronic surveying and computers. an optional label or description.The primary advantage of a TIN model over the basic XYZ model is that it is a surface and not a collection of points. The station of a point is the cumulative distance from an arbitrary reference point on the center-line to the projection of the point on the center-line and its offset is its lateral distance to the center-line. many of the early line design programs used that representation. the data include the obstacle feature code. However the XYZ model is more powerful as it allows the designer to easily change a line route and to move a structure in the plan view without being constrained by the existing center-line. A break line or break line string consists of break line segments. they are most useful in conjunction with XYZ terrain points and TIN models. Bitmaps (aerial photographs) can be projected onto it to give an even more realistic appearance of the terrain. the line angle at the ground point (if on center-line). PFL Terrain Model The PFL terrain model requires that the center-line of the power line be defined first. the point station. Break line segments which have one end in common are said to be part of the same break line string. The location of each segment in 3-dimensions is fully known from the global coordinates X. Each segment is a straight line with known origin and end points. Some of the break lines correspond to yet unbuilt but planned road improvements. positive offsets are to the right and positive line angles are clockwise.

Maps and raster images can easily be superposed to the plan view. However. You should make sure that the scanned drawing clearly shows labeled station and elevation axes.e. that is stations measured from a point near the origin of the line can easily be calculated and marked with a pen. i. The digitizing process itself. if they are not already shown. With an XYZ model you can better visualize the terrain. Using scanned raster drawings to create PFL terrain model There are basically two approaches to building models of existing lines. there are cases where one would want to quickly build a line model on top of a raster drawing. structure and conductor points from existing drawings or from scanned images of these drawings. will also add errors. you can reference the locations of all your structures to the same coordinate system used for the management of your line (GIS. A limited and less accurate alternative is to get the locations of terrain. with the station axis ideally labeled with true stations. With an XYZ model. XYZ or PFL? Given the choice of working with an XYZ or a PFL terrain model. You can integrate a computer model with other management tools used by your company. The nature of the terrain below and in the vicinity of the line may have changed over the years. The better approach is to resurvey the terrain. These curves may have been drawn with templates not adjusted to the actual ruling spans in the lines. The alignment can easily be changed on top of an XYZ terrain model. Once the drawings are properly positioned in the profile view you need only digitize at locations where you wish to create PFL points.). The original survey may have been inaccurate. databases. A terrain TIN surface can be developed and used for color rendering and the automatic display of contour lines. Raster images can be projected onto the TIN surface for realistic 3-d photo rendering of the terrain. This can be done before scanning by overwriting the axes with a dark pen. They cannot be "equation stations".Also included for each ground or obstacle point are optional surveyor's notes to be displayed on profile or plan views. It is generally not recommended to use existing drawings as templates for building models of older lines because of the potential accumulation of errors at each step of the process. There is no simple way to change the alignment with a PFL terrain model as you do not have the ability to work in the plan view. The as-built locations of the conductor attachment points may not be well reflected by the drawing. through scaling and clicking on lines of finite thicknesses. These drawings can be displayed in the background of the profile view. as well as line angle locations. you should understand that both models are just alternate ways to look at the same 3-dimensional terrain and . True stations. the structure locations and the positions of the conductors with modern equipment. the XYZ model is much better. Stations in a PFL file should be "true stations". etc. While we highly recommend the use of the XYZ model over that of the PFL. to create a XYZ terrain model. The catenary curves showing the positions of the conductors at some temperature may have been based on crude assumptions not reflecting actual sagging conditions and creep effects.

I. any terrain point has a station (distance along the alignment) and an offset (distance from the center line). there are many similarities. The second part of the clearance line consists of vertical spikes indicating required vertical clearances above (or below) specific terrain points or objects within the Maximum Offset for Profile View. in spite of differences in particular numerical values. Design Criteria Design criteria for power lines are often not the same in various countries and in different companies within the same country. "True station" is defined as the total distance measured from the first P.alignment information. clearance lines. 3) the handling of the many phenomena that generate longitudinal loads (broken wires. you can convert an XYZ model to a PFL model or convert a PFL model to an XYZ model. A required clearance line (or several clearance lines if there are side profiles) can be displayed as a dotted line and dotted spikes above the profile. . In fact.I. Equation stations Once an alignment is defined. side profiles are defined by an Offset from the center line and an Offset Tolerance. These criteria also change over time. The line and spikes are displayed for the voltage specified. Modeling of wire system One of the most complex parts of a transmission line is the wire system (conductors and ground wires) in a tension section (from one dead end structure to the next dead end structure). However. The clearance line consists of two parts. All adjacent points (in order of increasing stations) within the Offset Tolerance distance from the Offset line which are not separated by more than the Maximum Separation will be connected to form a side profile. Unlike "True stations". Side profiles. "Equation station" is defined as a relative distance measured either forward or backward along the alignment from an arbitrary point along the alignment. The first part is the basic ground clearance consisting of copies of the centerline and side profiles shifted upward by a specified value. 2) the handling of non-uniform ice loads. "Equation stations" are not continuous. Side profiles are only shown where there are terrain points within the specified Offset Tolerance. prohibited zones and special cost zones Similar to the center line ground profile. The station of the first alignment point can be changed from the default value of zero to any value. in the alignment to which is added the designated station of that first P. Questions arise regarding: 1) the handling of wind load which may not be uniform over the length of the section (wind on individual spans may be larger than the average wind over the section because of varying gust response factors and different wind incidences). Prohibited zones and special cost zones can be defined along an alignment These zones are only taken into account when optimizing the spotting of a line. from very simple requirements for distribution lines to the most highly engineered processes for extra high voltage lines. General design check functions could easily apply to a wide variety of design practices.

in one or more spans. With wind. The general assumptions used at these different levels are discussed in this section. even though actual points along the cable are below the chord. Because it is computer time intensive and is not justified in most situations. i. including detailed models of all supporting structures and all cables. all intermediate supports are assumed to be perfectly flexible in the longitudinal direction. UR is based on the direction of the chord (a straight line). Ruling Span method (RS) modeling . Between RS and FE. The simplest modeling level is based on the concept of the Ruling Span (RS) and it is sufficient in most cases. The most advanced modeling level (Finite Element) is based on a full structural analysis of the entire tension section.e. etc. Therefore. 2) The horizontal component of tension along the wire in all the spans of the tension section between dead ends is constant.e. It is usually considered sufficiently accurate in view of all the other uncertainties and approximations associated with line design. It should always be used at the preliminary design stage. i. and 4) the possibility of interaction between flexible structures and all wires in the tension section. You likely will never have the need for this advanced modeling capability (FE). The catenary lies in the plane defined by the chord length of the span and the resultant wire load per unit length.slack redistribution. The formula for ruling span is: S3 ∑L ∑L 3 L RS = . This method works well with legislated design loads which are generally applied uniformly over a tension section. These are defined herein as Real Span (because it works with actual real lengths of wires in each span) or Finite Element (FE) modeling. FE should only be used in special cases where a very accurate representation of the interaction between the structures and the wires needs to be considered. approximations and assumptions have to be made. Without wind. H is constant throughout the span. These levels are summarized as. There are several modeling levels are available to determine the response of the wire system to some loading criteria. UR. it is assumed that there is no interaction between the wire and other phases of the same electrical circuit or wires in other circuits. there are some intermediate modeling levels. between dead ends. which is assumed to have constant magnitude and direction at any point along the cable in a given span.). This is what you will use most of the time. UR is vertical and oriented downward. for practical design reasons.Usefulness and practicality of method: This is by far the most practical method and it is applicable to the overwhelming majority of line design situations. where H is the horizontal component of tension and UR the load per unit length of cable. The catenary constant is the ratio H / UR. This may not be very accurate in the case of rigid post insulators and short suspension insulators subjected to large vertical loads. Assumptions: 1) The analysis involves a single wire (cable). the geometry of each span is determined as the equilibrium configuration of a span is always a "catenary". UR is not vertical and it defines the swing angle of the span plane. It should be used in all preliminary design situations. 3) Based on the horizontal component of its tension.

you will get different tensions in different spans).e. the corresponding design loads are calculated using the same procedures as used with RS. you can apply different loads in different spans (unbalanced ice. the analysis involves a single wire at a time between dead ends.e. it is assumed that there is no interaction between different wires (other phases). 3) There is no way to account for support displacements in a system where there is a fixed length of wire. Attachment points at the tips of post insulators and at the structure ends of strain.Where: L = length of each span in a tension section LRS = Ruling Span S4 for inclined spans Limitations: 1) All the spans need to be subjected to the same loading.).. suspension and 2-parts insulators are assumed fixed in the vertical direction. suspension and 2-parts insulators are modeled as structural elements. i.e. . the horizontal component of tension is assumed to be the same in all the spans) for the sagging condition. 2) There is no way to study the effect of slack re-allocation due to moving a conductor attachment point or cutting/adding some wire length in a span. Strain. 3) Once the tensions in all the spans of the tension section are determined (unlike with ruling Span. should give you better sags at very high temperature than RS and very good approximations of unbalanced loading situations. etc. for example inserting or raising a structure to fix a clearance problem without resagging the wires. With zero flexibilities. This model is assumed in longitudinal equilibrium (i. For conductors supported by latticed towers with suspension insulators. the supports are fixed. 2) An accurate finite element model of the wire in all the spans between dead ends is used. 4) This level of modeling cannot be used to model an existing line where unequal tensions have been surveyed in various spans of a given tension section. poles and frames) are assumed infinitely rigid unless you chose to insert fictitious springs between the supports and the insulators). The transverse and longitudinal movements of the attachment points depend on their assumed transverse and longitudinal flexibilities (or stiffnesses).e. i. you can reallocate slack between spans and you can move attachment points. Assumptions: 1) As with RS. all supports (towers. broken conductor. i. Finite Element (FE) modeling ignoring interaction between wires Usefulness and practicality of method: With this method. this level of modeling is not capable of analyzing situations with different ice thicknesses in various spans. but can optionally be allowed to move in the transverse and longitudinal directions. Limitations: With this model.for a specified weather case and cable condition or unstressed lengths can be specified.

thus accounting for the possibility of some longitudinal interaction between the phases. Structure flexibility matrices are determined automatically by our software programs for Finite Element structures. a dead end structure is treated as any other structure as far as its flexibility is concerned. you do not consider structure flexibility (unless you specify two flexibility numbers at each support). instead of restricting yourself to longitudinal loads and longitudinal displacements.. there is no additional complexity required if you are already using FE structures. except that all the wires between two limiting infinitely rigid dead end structures (the ends of the model) are analyzed simultaneously. If. Flexibility matrices include flexibility coefficients. 1978). FE with conductors has all the advantages of FE without conductors without its limitations: it accounts for the interaction between the wires and relieves you from having to assume a flexibility value. If a single unit longitudinal load is applied at point I. the corresponding longitudinal displacement J. it is difficult to know what value of longitudinal stiffness should be used. Assumptions and limitations: . A flexibility matrix is just a device to represent the behavior of a flexible structure without having to model it in its entirety when you connect it to supported wires (Peyrot and Goulois. This modeling is the recommended method when you have longitudinal load issues in lines supported by flexible poles and frames. Usefulness and practicality of method: This method only works with FE structures. Therefore. the I. With the above model. For a transmission structure with N attachment points.J NxN symmetrical matrix that includes all the coefficients F is called the structure longitudinal flexibility matrix. The interaction between the wires is accounted for through the flexibility matrices of the supporting structures between the limiting dead ends. Except for some additional computer time. Consider two insulator attachment points. If not a limiting dead end. I and J. the limiting dead end structures are at the ends of the tension sections to the left and to the right of the structure being checked. With this level. This is in fact the flexibility matrix used by software at each structure location when the wire system is modeled at FE considering wires. you consider both transverse and longitudinal unit loads and their corresponding displacements. as the flexibility matrices for all the structures are automatically re-calculated by programs when needed. software determines a flexibility matrix at each structure. Finite Element (FE) modeling accounting for interaction between wires This modeling is similar to modeling above.However: 1) There is still no accounting of the possible mechanical coupling between wires in different phases. for example " I " could be a ground wire attachment point and " J " the structure attachment point of the insulator supporting the lower left phase of a double circuit tower. However. If a dead end structure is is being checked for strength with potentially different loads on each side. These points can arbitrarily be located in space. you get a flexibility matrix of size 2N x 2N.I at point J is the flexibility coefficient F . 2) In the case of post insulators. expect approximately an order of magnitude more computer time when you use FE as compared to RS.

A gigantic finite element model is created automatically from the individual finite element models of the individual supports and the interconnected cables. Guyed structures. is taken into account. However. while all latticed towers are modeled at otherwise. Assumptions for Ruling Span With RS. the horizontal tensions in the left and right spans are assumed to be those of their ruling spans. 1) Interaction between the wires is modeled through structure flexibility matrices which are inherently linear. In fact we will never know what would be an appropriate wind or even a legislated wind with gust response factors to apply simultaneously to all wires and structures. you may be able to work around the prohibitive time and memory demands by specifying that FE only be used for guyed or flexible structures. its flexibility matrix. this is not realistic. . this method can be prohibitively computer intensive as it requires orders of magnitude more computer time and memory than other models. 2) Some regulators require that you apply load factors between the reactions at the ends of the spans and the supporting structures. including their nonlinear behavior. Assumptions: A Finite Element model includes few limiting assumptions unless wind is involved. It may take a very long time to analyze just one load case.If a deadend structure is being checked for loads or is part of a tension section for which tensions are calculated. This method requires that you use FE structures. 1) You will rarely be able to justify the extensive time needed to run a full system model. Limitations: While the idea of accurately modeling an entire line segment by finite element is theoretically attractive. if available. Full system analysis At Finite Element models all the wires and supporting structures of an entire range of tension sections as a single gigantic structure. There is complete interaction between the wires through accurate behavior of the supporting structures. its practicality is limited. may not exhibit the correct behavior. which are also highly nonlinear. Usefulness and practicality of method: Due to the large number of nodes and elements in the gigantic finite element model that is used internally. 2) The effect on the equilibrium of the system of the wind load applied directly to the structures cannot be taken into account. The finite element model is as accurate a model of your physical line as you can hope to get. Thus the nonlinear effects of extremely flexible poles and frames (which may account for 10 to 20 percent of the stresses) cannot be accounted for. This is an impossible situation to model with FE for that matter) since the structures will always respond to the unfactored loads provided by the cables to which they are connected while your may dictate that you analyze and check the strength of these structures under factored loads. 3) While we can apply a uniform wind to an entire model (same velocity and global direction blowing on each and every span of a multi-spans model).

The unit wind load on each span is based on its gust response factor which depends on the span length and average elevation. are made for designated weather cases. Wire Ice density. Such a combination is defined herein as a "weather case". a group for checking various geometric clearances (to ground. the conditions may include: 1) the everyday combination. t: Thickness of ice assumed uniformly deposited on wire.). and various weather cases needed for displaying the cables at various temperatures. if you want your input values of wind velocity and pressure Adjust Model: to be used on all wires and structures regardless of their height above ground Wire Gust Response Gust response factor for all wires.With Finite Element. Therefore. A weather case table typically includes a group of weather cases for checking the strength of the structures. swings. the heavy load case which potentially causes permanent stretch of the various cables. DENS: Wire Ice load. The global wind direction is determined from your choice of Wind Direction (other than NA+ or NA-). i. and consequently all loads and clearance calculations. the complete system is modeled to determine the tensions. for a given project. All cable sag and tension calculations. It is assumed that the wind direction on each span is either normal to the span. between phases. or is the same on all spans. and a group for checking ground wires and conductors tensions. 2) no ice and no wind at an everyday temperature. Default = 1 NESC Constant. blowout. All weather cases which will be used in a particular design must be described. Wire Temp: Conductor or ground wire temperature Weather Load Factor: Factor applied to wind and ice loads. the checks may contain a substantial number of weather cases. There are usually a number of conditions for checking vertical.e. For checking the cables. etc. It also includes the weather case assumed to cause creep. K: Constant K used only used for the NESC District Case Wire Wind Height Select None. Weather cases Many strength and serviceability (clearances) criteria assume that the line is subjected to a given combination of wind. It is in its final after " Creep " condition after it has been assumed exposed to a . Criteria can be developed in standard libraries to be shared among various projects or they can be developed only for a specific project. ice (or snow) and temperature. Wire Ice thickness. Weather Cases include data on: Air density factor: Factor Q Wind velocity or Pressure: Basic (or reference) velocity or pressure. Conditions for cable creep and permanent stretch The cable is assumed to be in its "Initial " condition for the few hours which follow its installation. Wice : Ice load per unit length of wire. lateral and galloping clearances. Typical load cases for distribution and transmission lines are given in Section 6 of this Handbook. Detailed design criteria This section describes the many design criteria that can be used and checked. etc. there is a global wind direction.

Therefore. a weight span can only be defined for a particular combination of weather and cable conditions. the actual weight spans of their heaviest attached cable are compared to corresponding allowable values for three weather conditions. unless the line spends several months in very cold weather. you may need to calculate a weight (or vertical) span. the weight span is equal to the wind span. When structures are checked by the "basic allowable wind and weight spans" method (see Ruling Span). For a given cable tension. When the strength of FE structures is checked. it is actually difficult to locate the low points in the elevation view. Therefore. With traditional hand calculations and some computerized versions of these calculations. When wind is blowing on inclined spans. That weight span changes with different weather and cable conditions. the location of the low point in the elevation view depends on the swing angle of the entire span. For level spans. There are different ways. ……. the validity of a particular method for calculating weight spans should be judged by the ability of the method to predict correct vertical loads. . a "cold". Weight span Depending on the method used to check the strength of your structures. one should clearly understand the assumptions behind any weight span calculation. There are many assumptions which can be used to determine a loading tree. loading trees are established for a certain number of "load cases" and are used for the analysis of the structures. in which case a colder value is appropriate. from very approximate to accurate. For inclined spans the distance between the low points in adjacent spans has no relationship to the wind span. Corresponding to cable sets are sets of structure attachment points and insulators (or attachment devices). A catenary template corresponding to the resultant load per unit length of cable is drawn in the vertical plane and the horizontal distance measured between low points is taken as the weight span. say 10 years. The average temperature of 15 deg. C is often used in Australia. the length of cable between low points may be substantially different from the horizontal distance between these points. Load trees for Finite Element structures. the two ground wire attachment points and attachment devices are made part of Set #1. For example a double circuit tower.particular creep weather condition for a long period of time. For example. In addition. For example. of calculating weight spans. Since weight spans are an indirect measure of vertical loads through the equation VL = UV x VS. and an "iced" condition. Conductor sets A cable "set" (also referred to as a tension section) is defined as a group or ensemble of one to three cables (also called phases) with identical mechanical properties and tensions. an electrical circuit between dead ends is often modeled as one set. These conditions normally include a "wind". the effect of the span swing angle is neglected.the three conductors in the left circuit and their suspension insulators are made part of Deleted: Cable . The final after " Load " (also referred to as " final after common point " ) condition assumes that the cable has been permanently stretched by a specified weather condition. It is normally assumed that the weather case that causes creep consists of a no wind/ no ice condition at some average temperature.

traffic volume. When a set has more than one cable. The only reason for grouping wires together in a set is that come stringing and sagging time you can string the wires through all the attachment points within the set and sag these wires simultaneously. 2 or 3. Instead. as they are cantilevered from structure attachment points. When you string a circuit. If on the other hand you put each wire in independently (3 sets of one wire) then you will need to repeat the stringing and sagging operation three times. However. and crash barriers such as walls. even with the time penalty associated with modeling only one wire per set. trees. rocks. Post insulators are handled differently when attached to Ruling Span structures as opposed to Finite Element structures. With Finite Element structure. then they should be made members of different sets. chicanes. frangibility of the pole. once for each set. road deviation and traffic calming devices (roundabouts. embankments (cut or fill slopes) next to the road. Frangible poles can typically be positioned closer to the road because they absorb the impact of the vehicle to a greater extent than non-frangible poles. One of the reasons we have to include insulators as part of a structure top geometry. With Ruling Span structures. therefore the "phase" or "attachment" numbers can only be 1. If two different cables of the same circuit are not sagged at the same tension or if at any supporting structure the insulators are not identical (for example one tower supports a circuit with an IVI insulator configuration or with three I insulators of different properties). you need to define the location of each insulator tip where the conductor is attached. Poles can be positioned closer to the road where there is a permanent barrier between the poles and the road.1 Pole Locations in Traffic Corridors Pole locations in traffic corridors are influenced by factors including traffic speed. you have the ability to take any "phase" and attach it to any structure "attachment". 13. W-barrier. each cable is identified by a "phase" number and its structure attachment is identified by an "attachment" number. Supply Authorities should endeavor to work with relevant road . road kerbing and parking. is that their allowable swings or load angles are specific to the actual geometry of the structure to which the insulators are attached . post insulators have weight but no geometric dimensions. If more than one attachment point on a structure is made part of a set. two or three phases per set. post insulators have geometric dimensions. etc). Setback requirements will vary with the jurisdiction and various Codes of Practice exist at both local and state government level. it is imperative that the insulators (or attachment devices) at all attachment points of that set be identical. etc. wire rope. there are several advantages to this approach: you can sag each phase separately and can vary individual insulator properties at any location along the tension section. Barriers can take the form of natural items such as kerbs.Set #2 and the three conductors in the right circuit and their V-String insulators are made part of Set #3. This allows you to transpose phases at intervals along your line. There can only be one.

overhead power-lines that cross railways should be minimized where practical. i) AS/NZS 1158. Shires and Main Roads Departments.transport authorities.1. When designing railway crossing AS 4799 should be referred to in addition to requirements by local rail authorities.4 Co-ordination with other Services In order to better utilise service corridors and improve visual amenity joint use of infrastructure with other utilities should be considered where it can be effectively implemented. Special constructions. The design process includes liaison with the local maritime jurisdiction to ascertain likely vessel heights and determination of maximum water levels prior to layout design in order to achieve the required safety clearances.3 Road Lighting . Installation. 13. increased clearances and higher safety factors generally apply in these areas. Other pole location aspects are covered in Appendix … 13.3 Waterway Crossings Navigable waterways that are traversed by overhead power lines must allow for the potential for boat with masts and eliminate this risk of the masts coming in contact with the power lines. . the support conductor structures and fittings should be of high integrity with a long life expectancy. such as Councils. for the installation and ongoing maintenance. Operation and Maintenance ii) Austroads publications and guidelines for Rural and Urban Road Design. These conditions will vary with the jurisdiction and should be ascertained prior to commencing the design layout. Crossings of navigable waterways shall be designed in accordance with AS/NZS ????.Vehicular Traffic (Category V) Lighting – Guide to Design.2 Railway and Tramway Crossings Due to the potential for disruption to the community. Guidance to setbacks and barriers is provided in :. For example. iii) AS/NZS 3845 Road Safety Barrier Systems. to position poles in mutually acceptable positions. Guidance on appropriate signage and marking is also provided in AS/NZS ???? 13. Where railway power-lines crossings are required the installation should be designed to minimize the impact of any future maintenance on the community. Crossings of railway and tramway tracks and property are subject to the requirements and approval of the controlling authority.

movement or storage of large lengths of conductive material. A coverage of the obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS). It may be necessary to place restrictions on activities which might impact on line reliability (including those involving high machinery.It is important to coordinate with nearby utility services to avoid both physical and electrical interference. Particular consideration should be given to step and touch potentials and induced voltages associated with the line which could impact on the operation of other services. Where possible a line route should be selected which avoids areas where they are likely to be affected by such activities. .6 Rural Activities in Proximity to Line The layout design process should identify activities which are likely to occur in proximity to the line and which might impact on the safe and reliable operation of the line.5 Aerial Lines in the Vicinity of Aircraft Where overhead lines are located neat takeoff and landing areas for aircraft. final approach and takeoff (FATO) areas and marking of the overhead line are given in Appendix .1 – Earth Potential Rise Code of practice AS/NZS 3835. propagation of trees or irrigation under or near the line) or to design for additional clearances to accommodate them. LFI can occur where overhead power lines are run in parallel and in close proximity with utillity services that are conductive (ie oil. Risk assessment should be undertaken and risk treatments applied to ensure that the residual risk is acceptable to the organization. arrangements should be made with the relevant utilities to locate assets (in order to avoid damage during construction) and coordinate joint use arrangements where agreed. the positioning of structures may need to be considered to minimise the risk of contact. Overhead power-lines can electrically interfere with other utility services by creating Earth Potential Rise (EPR) and Low Frequency Induction (LFI) hazards .. special precautions need to be considered in the overhead design process. gas and water pipelines.Coordination of power and telecommunications standard 13.2 – Earth Potential Rise Application Guide SAA HB 219 – Earth Potential Rise Worked Examples SAA HB 87 – Joint Use of Poles SAA HB 88 – Unbalanced High Voltage Power Lines Code of Practice SAA HB 100 – Safe Working Practices SAA HB 101 Low Frequency Induction Code of Practice SAA HB 102 Low Frequency Induction Application Guide SAA HB 103 – Crossings Code of Practice CJC 4 . EPR may occur where high voltage earths are installed in the vicinity of these services. 13. take place or may take place. telecommunications equipment and road control equipment). Prior to commencement of line construction. Publications relevant to the coordination of power and telecommunication circuits include : AS/NZS 3835. Where usage of land is such that it is reasonable to expect that agricultural activities involving the handling.

which is averaged internationally is given in Table 4. foundation. towers. TABLE 4 -TYPICAL BREAK DOWN INTO COMPONENT COSTS (All figures are % of total line costs) Components < 150 kV 150 – 300 kV . covered or insulated conductors may be considered to reduce the environmental impact 13. In areas of sensitive vegetation. ⇒ away from material and equipment storage areas ⇒ away from vehicle. use of covered or insulated conductors and mid span spacers. insulators/fittings. machinery and plant storage areas the use of underground cables and covered conductor underground services designs that achieve maximum practical clearances Where there is a significant bushfire risk designers may need to take precautions to ensure that there is low risk of conductor clashing such as increased conductor separation. Each component includes material and erection (construction).7 Ruling Span The Ruling Span means that level dead-end span in which the behaviour of the tension closely follows that of the tension in every span of a series of suspension spans in a tension section. The formula for ruling span is: ∑L ∑L 3 L RS Where: = L = length of each span in a tension section LRS = Ruling Span 14 COST OF OVERHEAD LINE (BY COMPONENTS) The cost of an overhead line can be broken down into different component costs: conductor. The breakdown of transmission lines into component costs. and engineering. The ruling span is often called the mean equivalent span. A tension section is the length of line between 2 termination structures.This may require consideration of: • • • • design layouts that position structures away from regular agricultural activities eg: ⇒ along fence lines instead of across paddocks. earthwire.

9 11.0 11.0 3.6 10.4 31.0 2.5 2.5 11.Single circuit Double circuit Single circuit Double circuit Matr.0 11. Engineering Totals 20.0 33.0 8.0 6.2 11.0 100.0 64.7 27.5 100.1 1.5 36. Erec Total Conductors Earthwires Insulators /fittings Towers Foundation Right of way.0 67.0 16.8 21.5 8.5 5.4 21.0 11.0 21.4 1.0 67. Erec Total Matr.5 2.5 3.0 9.5 9.0 .2 33.5 2.5 64.0 6.5 10. Erec Total Matr.6 25.5 11.7 5.0 3.7 1. Erec Total Matr.2 3.4 8.6 3.0 16.5 2.8 5.3 11.7 12.0 3.5 5.2 5.2 35.8 32.8 31.0 2.2 3.1 1.7 4.3 1.6 2.5 5.5 20.5 32.1 21.2 2.7 6.3 1.5 1.1 2.8 100.5 38.0 36.0 32.0 2.0 100.4 16.4 30.0 4.9 5.5 16.

Having these poles fall over in high pedestrian areas introduces an unacceptable risk. 15. to position poles in mutually acceptable positions. frangibility of the pole. trees. Road Safety Barrier Design AS/NZS 3845. .1. Alternatively. Barriers can take the form of natural items such as kerbs.2 Special Considerations for Slip based poles Slip based poles should not be used in areas with high pedestrian based activity. The poles should be positioned behind the man made crash barriers to be outside the deflective zone of the barrier. guidance to setbacks and barriers are covered in the following Standards. Shires and Main Roads Departments. etc). road deviation and traffic calming devices (roundabouts.15 GUIDELINES FOR POLE LOCATION Normal Carriageway Use Poles shall be setback from carriageways to prevent them from being hit by a vehicle normally traversing the carriageway and to provide clear vision for the driver.1 Acceptable Location of Poles in Road Corridors Supply Authorities should endeavor to work with relevant road transport authorities. High pedestrian areas are schools. Austroads Rural and Urban Road Design. such as Councils. road kerbing and parking. traffic volume. and manmade crash barriers such as walls. wire rope. i) ii) iii) Australian Standard AS1158. 15. W-barrier. The slip based poles are unsuitable for these areas as these poles are deliberately designed to fall over after vehicle impact to lessen the damage to the vehicle occupants. chicanes. • Frangible poles can typically be positioned closer to the road because they absorb the impact of the vehicle to a greater extent than non-frangible poles. • Poles can be positioned closer to the road where there is a permanent barrier between the poles and the road. rocks. embankments (cut or fill slopes) next to the road. Errant Vehicles • Pole set backs are influenced by factors including.3. etc. traffic speed.

shopping centres, major entrances/ exits to sporting or entertainment venues, and train or bus
stations entrances/ exits, .

15.3 Aerial Lines in the Vicinity of Aircraft
Lines Near Takeoff and Landing Areas
Where lines are installed near takeoff and landing areas for aircraft, the structures shall not
interfere with the takeoff and landing of aircraft. That is, for fixed wing aircraft the poles shall
not enter the obstacle restricted area or the obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS) and for helicopter
landing areas the poles shall not enter final approach and takeoff (FATO) areas.
OLS and FATO limits may be ignored where there are other permanent taller structures in the
vicinity of the new line, such as trees or radio masts.
OLS limits are defined in Civil Aviation Safety Regulations (CASR) Part 139 – Aerodromes.
FATO limits are defined in Civil Aviation Advisory Publication 92–2 (1) Guidelines for the
establishment and use of helicopter landing sites.
Military sites have take off and landing restrictions that are different to civilian requirements.
The take off and landing restrictions can be obtained from the relevant site.
The standards do not have limitations on pole placements near hot air balloon take off and landing

Lines in Areas Other Than Takeoff and Landing Areas
In areas, other than takeoff and landing areas, overhead lines shall be located to avoid possible
interference with normal aircraft flight paths. In areas where overhead lines may be significantly
higher than the pole height, which are known flight areas, permanent markers should be fitted.
Areas that may have conductors higher than some of the poles are in valleys, across water ways
and near hills.

Marking of Powerlines in Proximity to Airstrips
Marking of power lines is required in close proximity to airstrips and on spans with exceptionally
high ground clearance across deep valleys. Consideration should also be given to the marking of
power lines in areas where regular low-level flying operations take place.
Guidance on the marking of power lines in Australia for the purposes of air navigation is
provided in :
AS 3891 Air Navigation – Cables and their supporting structures – Mapping and marking
- Part 1: Permanent marking of overhead cables and their supporting structures
- Part 2: Marking of overhead cables for low-level flying
Suggested changes and additions to exiting Section 14?
In general aerial lines shall not be installed so as to cause a hazard with aircraft.

15.4 Country Line Road Crossings
It is not uncommon in country areas for lines to fall and the line to be left suspended above the
ground. That is, the line is left suspended on a fence or held up with part of the failed pole.
There is also a risk that this situation could be in place for longer time periods than in
metropolitan areas. The longer time periods can be caused by a line patrolworker taking longer
to find the fault due to distance or terrain or the general public not being in the vicinity of the fault
to be able to see and report the problem.
When a suspended line is in a remote area, across a high-speed road and the line is of low
visibility the consequences could be catastrophic for the occupants of a vehicle impacting the
Strain poles either side of the road would increase the security of the line but it would not
eliminate the possibility of the line falling and being left suspended above the road.
Low visibility lines are typically SWER one and two bare wire systems.
To reduce the chance of a collision between a motorist and a suspended line consideration shall
be given by the designer to increase the visibility of bare single-phase overhead lines that cross
remote high speed roads. Increased visibility devices should be used on roads where speed limits
are equal to or above 90kmh.
Increased visibility can take the form of pre-form fluorescent wraps or marker balls.
The above practice is not required for three phase bare, ABC, CC or CCT installations as they are
more visible.
The above practice is not required on low speed country roads, as these tend to be near populated
areas or where the driver will have a greater opportunity to break in time to avoid collision with
the wire. The above practice is not required in metropolitan areas.

15.5 Markers
Conductors and structures in locations susceptible to bird strike or inadvertent contact in the
vicinity of the line can be marked to improve their visibility and reduce the risk of contact.
Marking may take the form of reflective or brightly coloured discs, flags or marker balls attached
to the cables or structures. Care should be taken to ensure that markers do not compromise circuit
clearances and overload structures.

Permanent Markers
The fitting of permanent makers is the responsibility of the line owner. Permanent makers may
be in the form of spheres attached to the conductors as described AS3891.
Where spheres are used, account must be taken of their weight and resistance to wind when
determining swing, sag and tension. In simple cases the performance of the conductor may be
determined by approximating the point load of the sphere to a distributed load but software

packages, which more accurately reflect actual condition, are available and should be used where

Temporary Markers
Where aircraft operations such as crop dusting are carried out in the vicinity of overhead lines it is
the responsibility of the aircraft operator to mark the location and direction of the lines. Such
markers may be attached to the conductors or supports (subject to approval of the line owner) or
placed on the ground in the vicinity of the overhead line.

Over Crossing Markers
Where inspection of overhead lines by aircraft is conducted, supports should be marked each side
of any over crossing.

There are situations where there are conflicts with Trees and Powerlines. Trees, shrubs and other
vegetation enhance our lifestyles by providing shade and privacy around our homes, offer a
habitat for birds and wildlife, and add aesthetic value to our gardens. However, vegetation
interfering with powerlines is a proven risk to public safety, the environment and one of the main
causes of power supply problems.
Vegetation Management Principles
The basis for undertaking vegetation clearing is covered in the following principles:

To achieve a balance between environmental responsibilities and ensuring a safe, reliable
and economical electricity supply to our customers.

Recognise that there are sites with vegetation of significance located near powerlines
requiring special consideration and treatment because of their importance to the
community and the environment.

When selecting line routes, establish the most economical, technically acceptable option,
taking into account the ongoing costs of vegetation management, the objectives of
environmental policy, and maintenance of the overhead network.

Vegetation Clearance Zones
Figure …shows the vegetation zones surrounding an overhead powerline. These zones are
described as:
Clearance Zone - is the space that must be clear of vegetation at all times, including the
period between trimming cycles.

Clearance in this zone is discretionary. Vegetation Clearance Zones surrounding Overhead Line Clearances to vegetation are generally established by regulations and industry guidelines in various jurisdictions..is a space beyond the clearance zone that must be trimmed so that the regrowth does not enter the clearance zone within the trimming cycle Risk Management Zone . Low Growth Zone .Regrowth Zone .is a space in which trees or limbs may pose a risk in adverse weather conditions due to factors such as instability and weakness. Additional clearing may be needed to improve the reliability of the overhead line. Typical clearance distances for a high reliability lines operating up to 33 kV are shown in Table 1. depending on the circumstance Figure .is the space below the clearance zone where vegetation is allowed which will not have a height of more than a specified distance. .

The extended clearance may include clearing to the sky (refer Figure . .) and allowance for blow out of the conductors in the mid sections of the line.. Special Considerations for Transmission Lines On Transmission Lines special consideration should be given to extend the vegetation clearing to meet the higher levels of security and reliability for the line.Typical clearance distances for low voltage Aerial Bundled Cable and Insulated Service Cable are shown in Table 2.

17 LIST OF AVAILABLE LINE DESIGN PROGRAMS Structural Programs: • • • • • • • • • • PLS Tower PLS Pole MS Tower Microstran SpaceGass I Tower Catan TL Pro Livewire Poles and Wires Layout Programs: • • • • • • PLS Cadd Catan TL Pro Livewire Poles and Wires SagTen Geotechnical Programs: • • • PLS Caisson Brinch Hanson Foundation Package Livewire Electrical Programs: • • • • EMTP CDEGS IEEE Flash 1.8 Sigma SLP .

This leaves some latitude to the designer to select the V50 value for a selected Security Level as required in Section 6 of the standard. Figure B 1 Wind Regions for Australian Design Wind Gust Types Figure B1 shows a zoning map to determine which storm type should be considered in design for wind. Wind velocities are selected from AS/NZS 1170.18 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX B – WIND LOADS Clause B1 .2 provides for wind zones C. . This contrasts to the multiple narrow 50km wide zones in AS/NZS 1170.2 for the near coastal areas. the regions on this map are delineated by a boundary 200 kilometres from the smoothed coastline. On the mainland.2 as appropriate to the security level selected for the relevant location and wind zone required in the standard Figure B1. It acknowledges that most wind damage in Australia and New Zealand to the overhead line networks occur during severe thunderstorms and provides a more reasonable interpretation of wind regions based performance of overhead line networks over a number of years. Recent experience suggests that these arbitrary 50km zones are not relevant to severe Category 4 and Category 5 cyclonic events as the storm damage paths have been observed to extend 100km inland over a width of some 20km.2 in the definition of wind regions. For example in Zone 1 for Australia where cyclonic events occur AS/NZS 1170. D and B.Australia The provisions in this clause are a major departure from the previous Cb1 and AS/NZS 1170. In these cases it would be appropriate to select a V50 value from region C For the remainder of the non cyclonic regions within Zone 1 such as New South Wales coastal area only one V50 value is provided but a higher return period value may be adopted in some local areas where regular storm damage occurs.

Hence the value of 1. The important aspect that is different is the span reduction factor when compared to that applicable to the larger scale synoptic wind gust events. It should be noted that the selection of the regional wind speed is relevant to the line’s location.2. Downdraft wind gusts are relatively narrow and when they strike the ground observations of vegetation damage suggests a burst swath varying from 100m up to 1000m in width being common occurrences during more severe thunderstorms and hence the wind can envelop one or more spans simultaneously.1 Downdraft Winds The standard provides for all structures to be designed for V50 3 second gust regional wind speeds as defined in AS/NZS 1170. that consideration be given for a lower value direction multiplier.2 being taken as 1.2 to apply additional security due to some uncertainty with wind velocities in the light of the recent incidence of several major Category 5 events.2 include this type of event.For example in the coastal area immediately north of Sydney or the south east Queensland regions it might be prudent to adopt a V100 value or a higher security level as appropriate. in view of the relatively high frequency of severe thunderstorms. based on performance of overhead lines in cyclonic areas over time. B3 Synoptic wind regions In Clause B3 reference is made to wind direction multipliers Md as provided in Table 3.2. variations in wind loading may be required as the line passes through differing wind exposure situations. Cyclonic wind amplification factors Fc and Fd provided in AS/NZS 1170 Clause 3.2 of AS/NZS 1170. B2 New Zealand Apart from the probability in some areas of turbulent effects near large mountains the majority of New Zealand is within Region A7 of AS/NZS 1170.4 are to be taken as 1.0 for all overhead lines. Performance of major transmission lines in these regions over the last 50 years has been very good. B4. However line designs once created usually have repeat applications on other line projects which could have multidirectional characteristics and extreme caution is required if reduced values of Md are used. despite some structure failures occurring. Downdraft wind regions (Australia Zone II and Zone III and New Zealand Zones Region A 7 ) B4. Higher or lower security levels of line design are then adjusted from this value using Security Multipliers from Section 6. The wind velocities provided in AS/NZS 1170. Where an overhead line is of significant length. Some caution needs to be applied to locations on hills in close proximity to sea coasts. In some cases it could be argued that where a line route is in a predominate direction for its entire route and the line design is unique for that line only. Downdraft winds are the predominate wind that governs the design of overhead lines in Australia with the exception of cyclonic coastal regions. These factors are provided in AS/NZS 1170. . and care needs to be exercised where standard designs are applied to multiple sites.0 has been applied for all lines in these areas. For example a line emanating from a coastal substation in a cyclonic region passing inland over a coastal range to an inland supply point could pass through three significant design wind climates that should be incorporated in the line design. Distribution line network failures in such extreme events occur regardless of magnitude of wind velocities primarily as a result of airborne vegetation and building debris.0 to provide for multiple changes in direction of the route of overhead lines.

Drag factors for a range of Solidity Ratios are provided in Table B2.7 p u (2) 1.3 Wind Forces on Conductors .9 0. II.5 2. cable television boosters.1 Wind Pressures on Lattice Steel Towers The standard provides detailed guidance on the derivation of wind loadings on structures.9 1. do not differ greatly from one region to the next in New Zealand. particularly on compact tower superstructures and beams on horizontal configuration single circuit towers. To simplify this. B5. respectively. V. III. The basic regional wind pressure (pb ) as selected from Table E1 below for the relevant wind region from AS1170.TABLE E1 BASIC REGIONAL PRESSURES Country Geographic region (1) New Zealand I.2 Wind Pressure on Poles Many utility poles have ancillary items attached to them either in a temporary or permanent capacity.cat for the common range of structure in open terrain and heights < 50m is 1. Where these items are added at some time after the initial overhead line was constructed. Care needs to be taken in calculation of these rations to ensure adequate allowance is made for connection gusset plates and actual member sizes used.4 A B 0. Unless a line has a very high security requirement it is recommended that no special loadings be generally considered. the symbols for each region being those given in the respective wind-load Standards. 2 The basic regional wind speeds.2 NOTES: 1 Geographic regions are shown separately for New Zealand and Australia. IV. and communications cables.7 0. Wind Pressures For distribution overhead lines a simplified approach to wind loadings can be applied particularly as most lines are located in Category 3 or Category 4 exposure and significant shielding from vegetation and structures occurs. B5. B5.2 and limit-state being considered and ps and p u represent the corresponding basic pressures for the serviceability and strength limit-states. namely 45 m/s and 48 m/s. the regions have been grouped around two values. support structures need to be reviewed to ensure that public safety margins are not jeopardised. VII Australia Basic regional pressures (kPa) for limit states W P s (2) 0.2 1. An important issue to consider is the angle of incident of the wind. Studies have shown that for a square based tower an angle of incidence of 22. VI.The standard provides a Span Reduction Factor (SRF) to be applied as provided in Figure B 6 Terrain -Height Multiplier Mz.0 B4.5 degrees to the plane at right angles to the direction of the line will be critical for the design of main tower leg members. banners. from which the basic pressures are derived. This can include banner support brackets. B5.2 Tornadoes The standard identifies that these events do occur in some parts of the country but that they are relatively rare random events and of low intensity < F2 strength when compared to those in United States of America and Argentina.

temperature transponders. Retrospective installation or aerial markers may justify design checks particularly where placed on earthwires.4 Wind forces on insulators and fittings While this is standard design consideration allowance needs to be made for any other devices and apparatus that may be provided on conductors. need to be considered. .The Span Reduction Factor for each wind climate region is a significant issue for design of structures. In Zone 11. In these cases a SRF of 1. In Wind Zone 1 and Zone 111 the designer needs to consider both downdraft SRF as well as synoptic SRF although the downdraft will be found to be the controlling condition. and surge arrestors. only downdraft conditions apply and is significant in the design of distribution pole lines where average spanning will be typically in the 50 -300m range. In locations where a structure position cannot be relocated to avoid a high risk situation then a higher duty/strength structure is usually the simplest option.0 is required. and these details provide application guidelines to be considered during the line layout process in particular to minimise potential risks of wind overload due to topographical influences. B5. B6 Topographical Effects This is an informative section of Appendix B and is based on localised performance of lines over time. Item such as aerial markers at regular intervals along a conductor or earthwire spans near feeder and waterway crossings and airports.

19 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX D . Clause D1 GENERAL of the standard defines the Design working life or service life of a structure as the period (generally in years) over which it will continue to serve its intended purpose safely. concrete and timber pole structures and lattice steel towers based on a range of ‘above-ground’ exposure classes as set out in Table D1. The information contained in this Appendix is given as a reasonable basis for the economic evaluation of alternative support systems. The selection of the appropriate Design Working Life for each design suite of supports and type of support can have a significant influence on the reliability of the structure and public safety. TABLE D1 ABOVE-GROUND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION (AUSTRALIA) Climatic zone (see Figure D1) Arid Temperate (4) Tropical Geographic region (1) Inland Near-coastal Coastal Inland Near-coastal Coastal Inland Near-coastal Coastal Industrial proximity (2) Exposure class (3) Non-industrial A1 Industrial — — Non-industrial B1 B1 B2 A2 Industrial — — Non-industrial B1 B1 B2 B1 Industrial — — B2 B1 B2 . the information presented is drawn from a number of industry reference groups and research experts and reflects best estimates for general application in design of overhead lines for a range of construction types. due to ‘wear and tear’ or environmental effects. Experience in these coastal regions suggests that metallic fittings will be the weakest link over time and may need to be replaced more than once during the economic life of the structure. The design life. of a structure is dependent on a number of variable factors.0 km of the sea will be subjected to more severe exposure and would normally require either special protection or a shorter service life. or target nominal service life expectancy. Section 6 –Table 6. Structures and fittings located within 1. This recognizes that cumulative deterioration of the structure over time will occur.GUIDELINES ON SERVICE LIFE OF OVERHEAD LINES (Informative) While this is an informative appendix. in order to maintain structural integrity within adequate design margins adequate maintenance and possible minor repairs will be required from time to time to maintain the structure in a safe and useable condition over its service life. Therefore. the selection of a particular structure type for given site conditions. Clause D2 SUGGESTED NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE and Tables D2 and D4 provide recommended nominal service lives for steel. or the selection of suitable materials or protective treatment. without undue maintenance or repair disproportionate to its cost of replacement and without exceeding any specified serviceability criteria. The information provided is considered conservative for each exposure condition assumed. the detail design of a particular structure.1 sets out security levels and design working life combinations for the selection of security load multipliers to be applied to design loadings.

20 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX F .TIMBER POLES .(See Note 4) Any — C TABLE D2 SUGGESTED RANGE OF NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE OF STEEL STRUCTURES AND CONCRETE POLES Suggested nominal service life (years) Galvanized steel(5) Exposure class 200 g/m 2(1) 400 g/m Concrete 2(1) 600 g/m 2(1) C (2) A1 60–100+ 100+ 100++ 100+ A2 25–60 60–100 75–100+ 80–100 B1 12–25 25–50 35–75 60–80 B2 8–25 15–50 35–75 50–60 C ( 3) 3–12 (6) 6–25 (6) 9–35 (6) 50 (4) TABLE D4 SUGGESTED RANGE OF NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE OF TIMBER POLES Zone (see Figure D3) Service life expectancy (years) H5 treated timber to AS 1604 Desapped untreated timber 1 Class 1 45–55 Class 2 35–45 Class 3 25–35 Class 4 40–50 Class 1 25–35 Class 2 15–25 2 50+ 50+ 30–40 50+ 30–40 25–35 3 50+ 50+ 40–50 50+ 50+ 30–40 These service life expectancies are indicative ranges and should be used in conjunction with local service experience and exposure in order provide a basis for design.

silvertop H S2 3 SS Tallowwood H S2 1 TW ash.2 Characteristic strengths and elastic moduli Strength groups for timber poles are as given in AS 2878 and as summarised below. broad. TABLE G1 TIMBER SPECIES. poplar H (S2) 3* PG gum. New England H S3 2 NA bloodwood. narrow-leaved red H S2 1 NI ironbark. southern H S2 2 SM mahogany. white topped H S2 2* WT gum.1 or NZS 3606.TABLE G1 (continued) Clause F1 General This clause sets out the design properties and design methods for timber poles and components in accordance with AS 1720. coast grey H S1 1 CB gum. NATURAL DURABILITY RATINGS AND BRAND MARKS Standard trade common name Softwood (S) or Strength group Natural durability hardwood (H) (Unseasoned) ratings Species brand box. grey H S2 1* GB box. white H (S2) 2* WX box. red H S2 1 RI mahogany. grey H S1 1 GG ironbark. brown H S3 2* BD (Continued) . red H (S2) 2 RM mahogany. grey H S1 1 GI blackbutt H S2 2 BB box.leaved red H S1 1 BU ironbark. spotted H S2 2 SG ironbark. silvertop H S3 3 ST blackbutt. blue-leaved H S2 3* SL stringybark. white H S2 1 WM stringybark. Clause F1. Those in parenthesis have provisional status as specified in AS 2878. salmon H (S2) 3* SA gum. STRENGTH GROUPS.

red Softwood (S) or Strength group Natural durability hardwood (H) (Unseasoned) ratings H S3 1* Species brand RW box. hoop S S6 4 HP pine. white H S3 2 WS stringybark. manna H S4 4 MN gum. brown H S3 3 BS stringybark. yellow H S3 1 YB gum. radiata S S6 4 PR pine Corsican S (S7) 4* PC (Continued) . yellow H (S4) 1 YG peppermint. rose H S3 3 RO gum. Douglas (Oregon)—North America S S5 4 DF fir. broad. messmate H S3 3 MS stringybark. slash S S5 4 PS fir.leaved H S3 3 BT satinay H S3 1 S stringybark. Sydney H (S4) 3 SP RR gum. alpine H S4 4 AA ash. mountain H S4 4 MO gum. black H (S5) 3* BP pine. forest red H S3 2 FR gum.Standard trade common name bloodwood. Douglas (Oregon)—elsewhere S S6 4 DF pine. southern blue H S3 3 BG gum. Caribbean S (S6) 4 PB pine. brush H S3 3 BH box. Sydney blue H S3 3* SY peppermint. Maiden's H S3 3* MG gum. red H S3 2* RX box. mountain grey H S3 3 MT gum. river red H S5 2 peppermint. narrow-leaved H S4 3 NL peppermint. yellow H S3 2 YS turpentine H S3 1 TP ash. mountain H S4 4 MA brownbarrel H S4 4 BL gum. cypress white S S5 1* WC pine. loblolly S S6 4 PL pine. red H S3 3 RS stringybark. maritime S (S6) 4 PM pine.

the sub soil requires some distance to provide fixity to develop restraint.5 75 60 50 40 30 25 20 Short duration modulus of elasticity (E) 21500 18500 16000 14000 12000 10500 9100 F2 Design Capacity Using the design method set out in the standard and timber pole characteristic properties as indicated above.Softwood (S) or Strength group Natural durability hardwood (H) (Unseasoned) ratings Standard trade common name pine.3 3.1 and F.3. patula S (S7) pine.7 3.2. Clayey soils will shrink away from the pole as they dry out. the following design bending strength capacities result for each strength group and assumed ground line pole diameter. long-leaf S Species brand 4* PP (<S7) 4* PW — 4* PI — 4* PF * These durability ratings are not listed in AS 5604 and have been assigned the classification in AS 2209. This is due to several factors. Canary Island S pine. NOTES: 1 See AS 5604 for definitions of timber natural durability ratings. TABLE F.1 POLE TIMBERS GRADED TO AS 2209 — RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRENGTH GROUPS AND CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES (MPa) Strength group Stress grade Bending (f ′b )(3) S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 F34 F27 F22 F17 F14 F11 F8 100 80 65 50 40 35 25 Tension parallel to grain (f ′ t )(3) Hardwood Softwood 60 50 40 30 25 20 15 — — — 26 21 17 13 Shear (f ′ s ) (3) Compression parallel to grain (f ′ c ) (3) 7.0 4. Provisional strength groups are shown in brackets.3. and .2. The characteristic strengths and elastic moduli for untrimmed poles that conform in quality to the grade requirements specified in AS 2209 are as specified in Tables F.3.1 2. These are assigned in those cases where the evidence was inadequate to allow positive grouping at the time AS 2878 was published. ponderosa S pine. It should be noted that the maximum bending moment will occur at a point around 200 mm below ground level in average soil backfill conditions. 2 The strength groups assigned in the above table are those given in AS 2878 for unseasoned timber. Forest Products or state forestry authorities. Strength groups and joint group classifications are assigned to species in accordance with AS 1720.2 6. 3 For information on species not listed refer to CSIRO.1 5. unless verified by testing of samples from the same grade.

significant degradation in the zone 300mm below ground surface level will occur over time. In deep cracking/ reactive clays this 200mm allowance could be deeper unless breast logs or stabilized backfill is used.1 F4.2 and F4.3 L GL Butt L Pole planting depth see comments on Appendix L . Assumed tip loading position Tip dt hr Ground level 200mm dg db Assumed critical cross section for design dgl Refer tabulated Ultimate bending moment capacities Tables F4.

1 71.00.7 10.5 68.. use 0.5 461.0 325 257.e.4 198.3 32.4 138.90.6 812.7 500 938.8 112.00.2 425 576.3 168.9 41.TABLE F4.3 192.3 16.3 600 1622.0 101.8 206.57 for permanent loads.3 20.2 273.7 288.6 400 480.1 ULTIMATE BENDING STRENGTH AT GROUND LINE PRESSURE IMPREGNATED NATURAL ROUND HARDWOOD POLES (kNm) Strength group S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 Pole diameter at GL (mm) 100 80 65 50 40 35 150 25.85. 6 k 1 = 1.0 128.1 14.1 30.8 4 k 20 immaturity factor applied for poles of diameter less than 200 mm.1 648. 7 k 21 = 1.3 230.8 450 684.7 384. 5 φ = 0.9 103.6 42.1 16.1 90.7 375 396.0 24.9 643.8 342.2 374. steam processing—assumed for all CCA poles.0 281.5 811.2 402.7 46.5 322.2 29.6 550 1249.6 201.5 12.2 350 322.7 300 202.8 751.5 328.4 375. shaving factor (in critical zone. preservative treated Eucalypt.2 624.9 567.0 158.4 55. i.4 81.4 240. 25 year expected maintenance free service life.3 93.2 1297.9 523.1 8.2 131.1 200 60.2 26.8 1054.8 101. .5 54.4 547.5 78.0 21. 9 k d = 1.0 257.2 469.0 225 85.8 499.3 167.5 444.3 58.8 437.6 209. change to 0.1 39.5 475 804.5 999.1 48. −1 m < GL < +2 m).1 Characteristic bending strength (MPa) 275 156.00. ‘normal’ use.3 161.2 20.6 128. 8 k 22 = 0.1 316.2 125.8 162.1 62.5 312.75 for critical importance.9 175 40.8 239.0 610.9 76.9 250 117.8 34.8 257.

80. shaving factor (in critical zone.8 253. no processing.5 205.0 100. 6 k d = 0.3 153.8 399.8 230.0 257.2 10. −1 m < GL < +2 m).4 450 547.2 62. change to 0.8 325 206. use 0. 25 year expected maintenance free service life.9 192.5 438.8 499.1 12. 4 k 21 = 0.8 219.4 54.2 NOTES: 1 k 20 immaturity factor applied for poles of diameter less than 200 mm. i.2 ULTIMATE BENDING STRENGTH AT GROUND LINE UNTREATED.1 61.4 128.9 Characteristic bending strength (MPa) 40 35 550 999.4 262. 2 φ = 0.9 37.0 250 93. 5 k 22 = 1.0 355.6 799.8 103.0 134.6 475 643.8 134.2 13.9 16.3 200 48.00.4 126.5 300.0 43.9 600 1297.1 7.6 249.7 649.7 300 162.0 81.5 50.9 400 384.3 165.2 24.9 56.9 519.e.2 16.8 105.3 16.6 32.2 843.75 for critical importance.4 500 751.8 488. SHAVED/UNPROCESSED HARDWOOD POLES (kNm) Strength group S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 Pole diameter at GL (mm) 100 80 65 50 150 20.0 299. ‘normal’ use.9 11.9 275 125.2 27.1 8.1 38.5 161.8 1038.5 307.2 129.9 158.2 369.0 191.5 31.8 44.9 273.4 24.1 418.0 600.0 90.1 454.85.7 110.00.2 375 316.4 81.57 for permanent loads.6 648..0 46.5 72.2 350 257.8 225 68.8 20.2 375.1 103.6 206.0 19.5 322.9 515. .6 225.1 64.5 34.1 82.9 349.TABLE F4.6 184.9 75. 3 k 1 = 1.1 175 32.90. preservative treated Eucalypt.2 25.6 425 461.1 167.

3 444.8 168. SHAVED SOFTWOOD POLES (kNm) Strength group S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 Characteristic bending strength (MPa) Pole diameter at GL (mm) 100 80 65 50 40 35 150 18.9 232.9 225 72.7 11.0 425 490.3 550 1062.2 7.7 399. 4 k 21 = 0.1 424.1 849.3 218. change to 0.2 25. 6 k d = 1.9 265.9 109.5 450 581.1 896. shaving factor in critical zone (−1 m < GL < +2 m).3 142.5 551.0 86.7 600 1378.1 273.3 6.8 200 51.9 9.4 109. preservative treated Eucalypt.5 95.6 475 684.TABLE F4.9 1103.4 531.6 269.4 137.90.3 325 219.1 175.3 689.7 465.2 86.4 518.9 34.8 64. use 0.7 76.9 39.6 326.1 46.6 204.4 378.0 638.8 24. steam processing—assumed for all CCA poles.7 239.2 547.3 134.5 250 99.6 20.0 319.5 500 798.4 143.57 for permanent loads.4 175 30.4 53.0 15.2 68.5 20.7 342. 5 k 22 = 0.2 47.7 117.5 245.5 300 172.75 for critical importance.0 318.3 36.3 66.6 482.7 690.9 60.7 219.8 400 408.0 171.0 196.9 33.4 12.9 136.7 58.4 29.3 10.7 350 273.0 177.6 NOTES: 1 k 20 immaturity factor applied for poles of diameter less than 200 mm.8 106.6 87. ‘normal’ use. .1 40.9 112.9 275 371.1 392.3 14.7 79. 3 k 1 = 1.85.2 279.1 290.3 163.7 203.4 17. 25 year expected maintenance free service life.3 ULTIMATE BENDING STRENGTH AT GROUND LINE PRESSURE IMPREGNATED.8 49.8 375 336.1 25. 2 φ = 0.

Some pole designs have prestressed tendons or partially prestressed tendons that provide permanent compression of the pole element under most loading conditions and result in most cases in a more durable pole product. concrete aggregate sizes and water absorption limits. reinforcing bar. Clause I 5 Concrete Cover . This type of cracking may take 6 – 9 months of exposure to permanent load to develop discernable creep related cracking and field experience indicates that the creep will continue and cracks widen further with time with the potential for corrosion of exposed steel reinforcement. The most important requirements for concrete pole designs apart from strength are concrete durability and control of deflections and related crack widths. (3) Width <0. Even though bending stresses may be low.1 mm Exposure Classification C.2 Deflection and rotation – identifies the potential problem but it is a significant issue on stayed poles or poles subjected to permanent bending moments. Deflection of pole elements with permanent bending stresses should be checked and assessed for potential cracking that may exceed the specified limits. B1.25mm is therefore set to provide a conservative but important serviceability standard for concrete poles.2 mm Exposure Classification B2. Concrete cover is the other important consideration for providing concrete durability.25mm are acceptable for average exposure conditions In addition Appendix D of the Standard also sets out the following crack width recommendations in relation to design service life requirements for a range of general exposure classifications: (1) Width <0.25 mm. A2. .CONCRETE POLES Design of Concrete Poles Concrete poles produced in Australia and New Zealand are either designed as a normal reinforced concrete cast product based on calculated design or as a centrifugally spun cast product that has a proprietary design correlated and supported by extensive testing. concrete strain/creep over time can result in crack widths that may not effectively autogenous self seal. The design provisions of the standard are general application clauses covering all types of design. (2) Width <0. All concrete will develop barely measurable minute cracks and most self seal. In more severe exposure sites (Classification C particularly) other design considerations need to be taken as set out in Appendix D.3 Crack width sets out that crack widths at the serviceability limit state shall not exceed 0. Clause I 4. but more specifically to poles designed by calculation as set pout in Clause I 3.21 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX I . Crack widths from handling stains and construction or other flexural loadings <0.sets out minimum cover requirements for varying exposure conditions.3 mm Exposure Classifications A1. The crack width limit of 0. Clause I 4.

Prototype testing is the most important test in ensuring flexural and shear strength characteristics of any pole and it is important in these tests to model the design loading assumptions as close as possible. Water absorption testing (Appendix O) on prototype pole is essential where concrete cover of 19mm and less is provided. Testing of Concrete Poles Clause 8.With the high characteristic compressive strengths that can be achieve through mix design. so that a comparative base line test deflection characteristic is established for production control through further routine sample tests. but should also be accompanied by a horizontal test if horizontal routine testing is carried out. and if load tests are carried out in the horizontal mode then additional loading in the longitudinal plane should be considered in order to reflect deflected vertical self weight mass eccentric loading stresses. Keep in mind that with all dimensions there must be an acceptance tolerance and +/. ie 19mm nominal cover could be reduced to possibly 15mm and durability then becomes a significant issue. 2. Vertical prototype load tests if possible.2 of the Standard sets out Load Testing requirements for pole type structures. . Where large volumes of similar type/length /strength poles are in mass production these tests form a very important check on design and consistency of manufacturing standards In particular it sets out the following requirements: 1. Routine Sample poles shall be tested to determine whether structurally similar poles are deemed to comply with the requirements for strength and serviceability of this Standard.3mm occurring. then additional effort needs to be placed on the curing process once the pole product is stripped from the moulds. This means that if concrete cover is expected to be on dimensional tolerance limit or greater.2mm is sometimes difficult to achieve during high mechanical compaction of concrete and it is more than likely that at some locations on a pole element it could result in tolerances of +/.5. As an example there is some standard prestressed concrete pole products produced in Japan that have characteristic strength of typically 60MPa and 9 mm cover over tendons and they are cured by full immersion in water for 10 days. Load testing of prototype poles may be used as an acceptable alternative to strength calculations to verify flexural bending and shear capacity strengths for pole type elements. are preferred to enable realistically model loading characteristics. Deflection characteristics of repetitive sample pole tests compared to prototype test deflections provides a useful tool for monitoring quality of pole product manufacture. the provision of high and consistent standards of initial concrete curing will greatly enhance long and durable service life of pole elements. concrete compaction (particularly by centrifugal spinning). P-delta (load/deflection) considerations are very important for concrete pole testing due to their inherent flexibility. Service experience in Europe with some of the earliest centrifugally spun poles has shown that even in cold climates with ice and snow exposure that there are some poles still in excellent service condition after over 90 years.

flexural stresses from off road transporters. or can be expected to occur after seasonal rainfall. the self weight load will most likely close resultant cracks. Handling Stresses While the standard does not cover the area of handling stresses. In spun poles the internal wall can have in part minimum fines in the surface zone and hence durability of the internal concrete may need to be enhanced by sealing off the butt to prevent ground water ingress. and lifting /erection stresses. transport and handling stresses can result in pole damage can easily occur. . Butt sealing of hollow poles is recommended for most applications. significant thermal differentials from air temperature variations during the day will cause pressure variations internally and can cause ground water to be pumped inside the void if any below ground opening exists. Pole Manufacture Related Design Issues It is most important in the production control for concrete pole manufacture to not only ensure consistency of the concrete mix but also in the measured volume of concrete batched and added to the moulds to ensure design wall thickness is provided. the normal approach adopted is for construction and transport induced stresses be restricted to be less than normal design stresses. particularly in through difficult terrain and where longer pole elements are used. Cracks in non prestressed poles above 40% load capacity most likely will not close up after release of load on test. On such line projects. possible snigging along the ground at very difficult sites. If the total internal void in circular concrete poles is sealed off top and bottom and with through tubes for bolting. It should be noted that the advantage of prestressing and partial prestressing tendons in pole designs provides control of cracking under all normal service loading conditions likely to be experienced.Crack development during load testing must be carefully monitored and significant or accelerated crack width development with small load increase could signify structural design weakness at loads below 50% of ultimate capacity. particularly where high ground water tables are known to exist. need to be included as a specific design loading case. However on cross country lines. however if the pole were to experience this level of loading in service.

In distribution line construction simple subsurface application design guidelines are commonly applied. However this may not always be practical and some simplified assessments may be required to establish some indicative yet conservative parameters.STRUCTURE FOOTING DESIGN AND GUIDELINES FOR THE GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS L1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES While this is an informative appendix in the standard it establishes some important principles for acceptable design methods associated with overhead line footings and their foundations. the designer also has the option to design each footing for sitespecific loadings and actual subsurface conditions or to develop standard designs that can be used at sites within application guidelines for various possible sub soil conditions. On major transmission lines it can be expected that a higher level of specialist engineering will be applied to the geotechnical design of footings and their foundations and hence some form of subsurface investigation could be expected to be carried out along the easement of transmission lines. the designer should exercise sound engineering judgment in determining which method is most appropriate for the standard of construction required. The method that is adopted for design and the application of assumed soil properties . Reference could also be made to American Society of Agricultural Engineers ANSI/ASAE EP486. must take into consideration the expertise and experience of the on site construction supervisor. While several alternative approaches can be used for the design of footings and the interpretation of the foundation conditions. L2 GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS The standard provides some typical detailed information on a range of soil types that may be encountered on any overhead line in Tables L1 –L4. The values in Table L4 are based on research data and pull out tests on test piles.22 APPENDIX L . Table L4 can be used in the absence of more detailed site information as a conservative guide. In the later case a higher level of engineering design usually can be expected. and their use should be assessed against any known properties from soil tests for a particular region or site. Reference is also made in the standard to relevant references for design methods such as IEEE Std 6912001 ‘Guide for Transmission Structure Foundation Design and Testing’. . boring machine operator and any full time network owner inspector utilised on site. to obtain geotechnical parameters required to design the transmission structure footings. When designing overhead line foundations. except for the heavier steel or concrete pole construction sometimes used on special aesthetic lines and sub transmission type lines.1 OCT 00 Shallow Post Foundation Design for distribution pole structure footing design.

In addition simple design methods have been in use for distribution pole overhead lines throughout Australia and New Zealand and overseas for many years and these overhead lines have performed well over time. Secondly. per unit of depth including increases. American Society of Agricultural Engineers ANSI/ASAE EP486.1 OCT 00 Shallow Post Foundation Design and as approved OCT 2000 by American National Standards Institute. For each case. kN·m S = allowable lateral bearing soil pressure. There are three commonly used methods 1. it is assumed that the resistance to deformation increases linearly with depth below the ground surface. This design method utilizes two soil assumptions. kN . while theoretically applied in some areas for major pole or single bored pier footings they are not commonly used for directly embedded pole type distribution overhead line construction. This increasing resistance to deformation is due to the confining pressure of the soil overburden.( m) d = minimum pole embedment depth to resist applied forces with a maximum soil pressure of S ( m) Ma= moment applied to foundation at ground surface. 8Ma d Sb 6Va + Where d = b = effective width of the pole in the soil perpendicular to the direction of movement. it is assumed that the soil resistance to deformation is proportional to displacement for the range of deformations used in design.L3 FOOTING DESIGN OF DIRECTLY EMBEDDED OVERHEAD LINE POLES FOR LATERAL LOADS AND MOMENTS The Brinch Hansen methodology provided in this clause and other methods referenced such as Broms ASCE 1964. For the simple unrestrained top pole the following pressure diagram refers. the maximum soil pressure is limited to the allowable lateral pressure. kPa/m Va = shear force applied to foundation at ground surface. This suggests that either the design loadings have not generally reached the failure limit state at a particular structure such as to cause failure or that the footing design methods adopted have been conservative. as they require a level of engineering that is not always available to that sector of the electricity supply industry and in particular to distribution lines. First.

the embedment length is calculated by Equation E1.8] for h r ≥18 . Empirical Design Formula This method is based purely on the height above ground for a given pole diameter at ground level and has no direct relationship with the loads applied to the pole. embedment depth.2.2 and F4. . .3. For poles where the height from the ground line (GL) to the conductors is less than 18 m. E1 = Min[(1 + 0. the embedment length is calculated by Equation E2. Assumed tip loading position Tip dt h r L Assumed critical cross section for design dgl Ground level 200mm dg Refer tabulated Ultimate bending moment capacities Tables F4.6] for h r <18 . Equations E1 and E2 are specified as follows: L GL = Min[(1 + 0. . For longer poles. E2 where L GL = min.1 × h r) × (d g/250).6 m.1 F4. with a maximum of 4. up to 21 m in height. in metres . .8 m. with a maximum of 3.3 L GL db Pole planting depth see comments on Appendix L Butt The embedment lengths LGL are based on a simplified method.1 × h r) × (d g/330).4. as defined in Equations E1 and E2 and relate purely to pole height above ground hr .

5 1.0 3. in metres Table EI gives numerical values for the planting depths for the common range of pole dimensions.2 3.8 1.8 2.3 2.9 2.6 3.6 1.5 18 150 1.6 4.6 3.4 2.2 3.5 3.7 1.8 1.1 2.1 3.4 1.9 2.1 2.3 3.6 3.6 3.9 3.7 600 3.0 2.6 3.9 1.6 3.6 2.6 3.3 2.9 3.8 1.4 1.6 3.6 3.4 2.3 3.3 1.2 2.6 3.1 2.6 3.2 1.5 3.4 1.6 2.2 1.3 1.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.1 1.5 2.6 1.6 3.6 3.5 1.6 450 2.6 4.5 3.2 550 3.5 3.2 2.4 2.1 3.5 2.3 1.7 2.6 1.6 3.3 2.0 3.6 3.4 425 2.7 225 1.0 2.3 300 1.6 3.5 325 2.6 3.5 200 1.2 3. TABLE E1 MINIMUM EMBEDMENT DEPTH LGL (m) Height from GL (ground line) to conductor (m) Pole dia.8 475 3.1 3.1 2.7 2.0 3.6 3.5 2.0 1.4 1.9 2.7 3. at GL (mm) 6 7.8 3.1 1.6 3.3 3.6 3.7 2.4 1.6 4.2 400 2. in metres d g = diameter of the pole at the ground line (GL).9 250 1.3 175 1.5 9 10.2 2.5 15 16.5 12 13.3 3.9 2.6 1.hr = height from the ground line to the conductors.8 .6 3.0 375 2.9 2.8 350 2.6 3.6 3.6 1.6 4.4 2.1 275 1.8 3.0 500 3.8 1.6 3.6 3.3 2.6 3.1 1.6 3.6 3.8 2.6 3.9 3.1 1.5 3.6 2.5 3.5 2.6 3.9 3.3 3.6 3.5 1.0 3.6 3.6 2.6 3.6 3.1 2.4 3.

1. the centre of rotation of the footing as located at two thirds of depth below the ground surface. This can be readily assessed on site by simple standard penetrometer test (AS 1289. The method relies primarily on varying the embedment depth and its projected area to engage the required resistance of the foundation to overturning and sliding 3. and the vertical distribution of the bearing pressure below the centre of rotation is a skewed parabola for which the resultant horizontal reaction force is located at eight ninths of the embedment depth below ground level.3.1.2) at the appropriate depth. with bearing strengths based on degree of firmness or resistance to indentation.1 Bearing strength 3. The boundaries between the classes are in fact quite arbitrary but correlate well with permissible bearing stress values quoted in the technical literature. The assumptions made are : 1.3 ASCE Method (EX AS/NZS 4676) This method also assumes soil pressures increasing linearly below ground surface and calculation of embedment depth is based on ultimate limit design principles and utilises soil properties for generalised cases likely to be experienced in the field.1.1 Serviceability limit state Table I1 has been prepared using a simple broad classification of soil types. .F.1 FOUNDATION PROPERTIES 3.5 f b. 2 embedment the vertical distribution of bearing pressure above the centre of rotation is in the form of symmetrical parabola with its axis of symmetry located at one third of the embedment depth below the ground surface with its maximum value taken as 1.

Consequently. The values obtained from such tests indicate an average shear strength value of about half the bearing strength value obtained from a bearing plate test. the shear strength may be determined directly in a laboratory shear-box test or by the vane test in the field.b for ultimate limit state.1. this degree of deformation might be inappropriate.TABLE I1 BEARING STRENGTH OF SOILS AT THE SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE Class Very soft Soil description Soft Silty clays and sands. In these circumstances.3. NOTE: 3.2 Strength limit state The behaviour of soils under high levels of stress can vary from plastic for very soft soils to brittle for very hard materials such as rock. or fb . coarse sand s.1 Design Method Based on the above assumptions.4 fb where fb is the value obtained from Table I1. Therefore. Because there are a large number of variables involved.1. it is more practicable to adopt the ‘permissible’ bearing strength concepts used for the serviceability limit state and extend them by suitable factoring. loose dry sands f b ≤ 60 Strength (f b ) kPa Wet clays. Therefore.6 H R + 12. I3.b for serviceability limit state fb = the nominal maximum bearing strength of the foundation material (kPa) fbu = 1.g. damp sands Dry clays.2 Shear strength For soils with fb less than 150 kPa.2 CM 2C .5fb b = the effective width of the footing. suitable reduction of these values may be necessary. or both. which will reduce the bearing pressures and. compact sands Gravels. Consequently ultimate compressive strengths can be reliably determined only for some rocks and certain very stiff cohesive soils.5 times the value obtained from Table I1. or the footing diameter. the embedment depth (D) may be determined from the following equation: D= 3. For poles supporting services that are sensitive to displacements at their supporting points (e.2(1) where C = fbu. the shear strength of a soil should be taken as not greater than 0. . microwave antennas). the deformations. 3. clayey sands. dry clays 100 < f b ≤ 150 150 < f b ≤ 240 240 < f b The above values are based on foundation deformations of approximately 12 mm under serviceability loads on building structures. This may be achieved by increasing the embedment depth. silty loams. .3 FOOTINGS AND EMBEDMENT DEPTH IN SOILS 3. 3. sandy clays.96 H R2 + 16. the bearing strength for the strength limit state (fbu) should be taken as 1. consequently. wet or loose sands 60 < f b ≤ 100 Firm Very firm Hard Damp clays. projected on a plane . there is a wide scatter of results although the soils may exhibit the same bearing strength.

perpendicular to the direction of the resultant horizontal force
acting on the pole (m)


the overturning moment acting on the pole at ground level (kNm)


HR .h r


the resultant of the horizontal forces acting on
the pole (kN)



the height above ground level at which HR acts (m)

Embedment support is most commonly achieved by boring an oversize hole to the required
depth and after installing the pole, backfilling the space between the pole and the perimeter
of the hole. Hence the nature and condition of the backfilling material becomes an
important consideration in the choice of an appropriate value for the parameter b.
The following are recommended:

If the backfill is properly prepared concrete, b may be taken as the diameter of the
bored hole.


If the backfill is the excavated material, b should be taken as the diameter of the pole
and, unless full recompaction of the fill can be assured, the value of fb should be
reduced from its ‘undisturbed’ value.

(iii) If the backfill is cement-stabilized soil, b may be taken as the mean value of the
diameters of the pole and the bored hole.
The physical representation of the assumptions and the relevant equation parameters are
illustrated in Figure I3.1. The derivation of the equation is given in Paragraph I4 of this
For poles, particularly guyed or stayed poles, the minimum plan area of the footing required
at its lowest extremity (Afb ) is calculated from the following equation:

Afb = ( Fv + Fgt ) / f b



the sum of the vertical components of the guy or stay tensions



the sum of the vertical forces acting on the pole from loads other than F gt


Fixed embedment depth

For this arrangement, the following assumptions are made:

The embedment depth (D) is a fixed proportion (k) of the height of
the top of the pole above ground level (h p ) i.e. D = kh p .
The centroid of area of the upper (breast) bearer is located at 0.3 m
below ground level.
The centroid of area of the lower (toe) bearer is located at 0.1 m
above the bottom of the footing.
The foundation pressure acting on the bearers is distributed
uniformly over their contact surfaces with a maximum magnitude of
0.85 f b.

Based on the above assumptions, the reaction force on upper bearer (Rb1) is given by —

Rb1 = H R ( Khp + hr − 0.1) /( khp − 0.4)

. . . I3.3(1)

the reaction force on the lower bearer is given by

Rb2 = Rb1 − H R ; and

. . . I3.3(2)

the face areas of the bearers (Ab ) are calculated from

Ab = Rb / 0.85 f bu

. . . I3.3(3)

where the symbols are illustrated in Figure I3.2.

(AS/NZS 4676)


Referring to Figure I3.1 for static equilibrium:

The sum of the horizontal forces is zero

i.e. HR + R2 –R1 = 0
Reaction R1 =

Projected width of pole times the area of the upper pressure

⎡4 ⎛
D⎞ ⎤
= b ⎢ ⎜ f bu . ⎟ ⎥
⎣3 ⎝


4 b f bu D

The sum of the moments about any point in the vertical plane
containing H R and the reactions is zero. Taking moments about the
line of action of R 2

HR (hr + 8D/9) –R1 (5D/9) = 0

. . . I4(1)

Expanding and multiplying throughout by 9 —
9HR hr + 8HR D –5R1 D = 0
Substituting the value from (a) for R1 gives —

9 H R hr + 8 H R D − 5 D

(4b. f bu .D)

. . . I4(2)

Multiplying throughout by –9/20 and rearranging gives—

b. f bu .D 2 − 3.6 H R D − 4.05 H R hr = 0
which is a simple quadratic of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0
Solving for D—

D = 3.6 H R +

12.96( H R )2 + 16.2. b. f bu .H R . hr
2b. f bu

. . . I4(3)

Substituting C for b.fbu and M for HR h r—

3.6 H R + 12.96( H R )2 + 16.2.CM

. . . I4(4)


Table I2 has been prepared from Equation I4(3) for an fb value of 150 kPa and various
values of H, b and h r. Note that the tabulated depths include the additional 0.2 m to allow
for soil shrinkage in the ground line zone. As can be seen from the equation, linear
interpolation or extrapolation cannot be used for values different from those tabulated;
however, the tabulated values will be conservative for foundation materials with fb greater
than 150 kPa but should not be taken as less than 0.5 m.
Embedment depths for materials with a bearing strength less than 150 kPa should be
calculated directly from Equation I4(3), to which a further 0.2 m has to be added. Practical
considerations of foundation materials and available excavating equipment will determine
which combination of hole diameter and embedment depth that will be economically viable
at each location.


7 1.7 3.1 1.2 1.2 2.0 1.4 1.2 1.5 9.8 1.4 3.2 2.5 m in any soil.9 1.7 0.0 1.5 2.3 1.1 1.0 1.7 1.9 1.5 1.9 2.0 0.1 2.3 22.5 2.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 NOTES: 1 Tabulated depths include the 0.0 0.6 1.9 1.4 2.60 0.4 1.6 0.7 3.75 0.5 H = 3.2 2.7 2.6 3.0 1.5 2.2 m additional depth required by Clause 6.4 2.4 1.3 0.0 0.3 1.0 1.9 0.8 1.8 3.1 TABLE I2(A) 2 POLE EMBEDMENT DEPTHS FOR SOILS WITH f b = 150 kPa Embedment depth (D) (Note 1) m.1 1.4 2.2 1.9 1.1 4.3 1.8 0.1 2.9 3.6 2.7 1.1 2.6 3.3 1.7 1.5 1.8 1.1 1.8 2.3 2.5 1.1 0.5 1.7 1.7 2.0 1.2 1.8 2.3 2.5 1.30 0.0 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.1 2.6 10.7 12.0 1.5 1.0 1.4 2.5 1.6 1.4 2 The embedment depth should be not less than 0.7 1.2 1.9 4.4 7.8 1.1 1.0 0.4 1.3 2.8 1.3 1.3 0.60 0.1 18.2 2.0 2.7 1.2 2.5 1.9 1.6 1.1 1.5 0.9 0.5 1.7 1.8 2.0 0.8 1.8 13.5 3.7 1.7 1.2 19.0 1.5 3.7 0.0 0.5 1.45 0.8 1.1 2.9 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 1.2 2. .0 H = 6.0 0.5 1.9 1.8 1.0 2.5 2.0 16.1 1.6 2.9 3.2 1.9 1.8 1.2 1.5 1.1 1.4 1.3 0.45 0.9 0.3 1.9 1.0 1.8 0.4 1.6 2.1 1. for horizontal force (H) kN Effective height h (m) H = 1.3 2.9 15.3 1.6 2.7 2.6 3.3 2.75 0.9 1.8 1.4 1.45 0.3 2.6 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.6 2.9 1.1 1.4 2.0 2.3 1.2 1.6 3.4 2.3 2.0 1.0 1.9 1.8 1.2 1.6 1.8 3.6 1.4 1.9 0.1 1.1 3.8 1.2 1.2 2.5 1.2 2.6 1.1 1.8 2.3 2.2 6.0 H = 10 b=0.6 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.7 1.45 0.7 1.6 2.2 1.2 2.9 0.1 2.0 2.

2 4.9 3.9 2.9 3.4 4.0 4.8 4.8 2.4 3.1 2.5 4.7 12.6 0.3 2.8 5.0 4.8 1.4 2.0 2.6 4.7 4.8 3.4 2.3 3.2 2.1 16.8 3.3 2.4 4.0 3.0 4.5 3.3 2.5 22.1 2.6 3.6 2.9 1.8 2.7 3.2 4.4 3.5 3.2 2.0 3.1 3.4 3.4 3.2 1.9 3.8 2.4 2 The embedment depth should be not less than 0.0 4.5 2.3 3.7 3.8 3.0 2.0 3.6 3.6 0.6 3.2 4.6 3.8 3.0 3.3 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.8 3.5 2.6 4.0 4.5 4.2 2.2 4. for horizontal force (H) kN H = 16 H = 24 H = 32 H = 40 b = 0.5 10.2 4.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 2.0 2.4 2.2 0.2 3.1 1.3 2.6 3.1 2.1 3.9 6.9 2.1 5.1 2.75 0.1 3.6 4.5 2.8 2.9 2.3 3.5 3.7 2.6 2.0 3.4 1.2 4.5 4.0 5.9 3.5 2.2 5.2 1.7 2.8 3.5 4.8 2.1 7.2 1.2 m additional depth required by Clause 6.3 3.8 13.6 4.3 2.1 3.45 0.3 4.45 0.8 3.8 4.8 3.6 3.8 2.5 1.4 4.3 3.1 1.9 1.1 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.1 3.8 5.1 2.1 2.6 4.7 3.3 9.2 2.5 4.4 2.45 0.4 4.6 3.9 3.1 2.9 1.6 1.8 3.6 3.4 4.5 3.2 3.4 2.1 1.7 2.0 4.0 4.8 4.3 0.75 0.8 1.8 2.3 2.6 1.4 2.7 2.8 4.9 3. .3 3.2 1.0 3.5 2.2 18.3 4.5 3.5 4.5 3.1 2.9 2.3 3.7 4.2 2.0 5.1 2.5 m in any soil.5 3.1 2.7 NOTES: 1 Tabulated depths include the 0.0 2.4 2.9 1.6 0.8 3.5 3.7 3.5 2.6 2.5 3.75 0.4 2.0 2.9 5.9 1.1 5.7 4.7 2.1 2.0 2.5 3.6 2.9 2.7 3.5 2.5 3.8 3.6 3.7 1.8 2.6 5.5 5.2 4.8 2.2 6.0 3.0 4.5 3.0 3.TABLE I2(B) POLE EMBEDMENT DEPTHS FOR SOILS WITH f b = 150 kPa Effective height h (m) Embedment depth (D) m.0 2.9 1.3 2.2 0.8 3.4 19.3 2.9 5.7 5.8 4.75 0.8 2.6 0.7 2.8 4.9 1.3 3.0 4.2 2.9 1.0 4.7 3.0 15.6 2.1 2.1 1.7 5.4 3.3 3.0 1.8 2.4 2.5 3.0 3.0 5.1 3.6 4.2 3.8 3.9 0.1 3.3 3.6 5.8 5.8 4.6 4.6 3.1 1.5 4.5 5.3 3.1 1.6 2.4 5.1 3.

. Method 2 is completely arbitrary and while resulting in solutions that have been seemingly conservative. There are however other methods and refinements that have evolved based on research reports. It also provides a method where soft soil conditions require the installation of bearing logs/ blocks to develop strength. Method 3 is the most appropriate practical and recommended method. The basic methods have been in use for many years and have performed well and are supported by full scale and scale model load tests. Such methods should be used with caution and should be correlated with the assumed soil characteristics of where the research was carried out. These methods for the most part have been the subject of investigation and research over many years by Cigre. This section of the standard provides basic design methods that have been used around the world over many years. The reality is that in the past the majority of poles have been for lightly loaded and concurrent with some conservative planting depths for the design load applied .that the lines have performed well as you would expect.There are close similarities between Method 1 and 3 and later was adopted as a more practical solution in AS/NZS 4676. L2. Some also imply a higher level of engineering interpretation that may have some practical difficulty in being able to be applied during construction. conservative and provide a reasonable minimum standard for adoption. The design methods provided in the standard are simple. Not all are adequately supported by exhaustive testing programs due to the variable nature of the soil conditions modelled and the nature of the loads being considered. EPRI and post graduate research projects. FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR LATTICE STEEL TOWERS.

3. or (b) a cable attached to the facades of buildings. . Clearances The clearance requirements of Sections 8. (iii) The third element to fail should be the pole hardware supporting the strain clamp. 1.5 kN.4 Facade cable The mounting of LVABC on the facades (frontages) of buildings was the original and still the most common method of using LVABC in France. 1.1. cable failure and pole failure.2. Australia’s capital and provincial cities have many such laneways and narrow streets. comealongs. Its initial use was in narrow laneways and streets where poles could not be used.3) should take into account the working ratings of cable tensioning equipment such as lugalls. This is based on a maximum working conductor stress of 40 MPa on 95 mm2 LVABC. especially if an insulation piercing connector is fitted near the support.2 Cable tension In addition to the requirements of Section 7 the following considerations apply: (a) Under the short duration load of Clause 3. should comply with the requirements of AS 3766. Also for 3 or 4 core cables experience has shown that the cores are difficult to separate to fit Insulation Piercing Connectors at cable tensions exceeding 4. Before LVABC is attached to the facade agreement on the following issues should be reached with all the building owners: (a) Liability for all expenses resulting from the attachment of the cable to the facade. This is the limit for transferring the conductor tension through the insulation to the strain clamp and is based on French experience with heavily filled XLPE compounds. The cable should not be allowed to slip through the suspension clamp as this causes insulation damage. (iv) This should be followed by pole footing failure.2 general LVABC may be used as— (a) an aerial cable suspended between two or more supports. (i) The first element to fail should be the suspension support by failure of the suspension clamp or the pole hardware supporting the suspension clamp. etc. 9 and 10 for Insulated Conductor. U ≤ 1000 V apply to LVABC.2. including pole fittings. (ii) The second element to fail should be mains and service tee connections to minimize the number of live cables lying on the ground.23 LOW VOLTAGE AERIAL BUNDLED CABLE 1.3. (b) The highest horizontal tension used for the everyday load (Clause 3.3 Aerial cable 1. strain clamps and suspension clamps.1 Supports Mechanical support fittings. the tangential tension in the cable should not exceed 28% CBL. 1.

The cable is lifted onto the wall brackets and has sufficient tension so that there are no unsightly sags between supports. 1. 1. Mechanical barriers or enclosures may be used to reduce these clearances. the strength of the fittings and the length of straight runs.5 Comments This should be increased if local conditions make it possible for bundle to be touched or damaged . (f) Notification to the supply authority in advance of modification or demolition of the facade. (ii) Intermediate wall supports are spaced at 500 to 700 mm intervals. TABLE 16.1 CLEARANCES FOR FACADE SYSTEMS Clearance Facade situation A Clearance vertically from ground or path level Minimum permissible clearances m 2. ‘Tensioned’ construction is seldom used but is applicable where the facade cable crosses over laneways or other discontinuities. (ii) Intermediate wall supports are spaced at 3 to 6 m intervals.4. The minimum clearance from any part of the facade of the building which supports it. (d) Liabilities for any damage done to the facade resulting from the attachment of the cable system.1.1 Mechanical design Care should be taken to protect the building fabric from damage due to external influences on the cable. (a) (b) ‘Non-tensioned’ construction is used in most installations and the cable is only tight enough to remove any twists.4 kN is recommended for 4 × 95 mm2. (e) Supply authority access to the cable and fittings.4. (i) Strain clamps are used for all runs and in-line strains are used so that no run between strain clamps is more than 60 m.(b) Conditions relating to building owners painting the LVABC and any attachments to further harmonize the cable with the facade. The cable on the facade may be either ‘tensioned’ or ‘non-tensioned’. (c) Liabilities for damage to the cable system resulting from failure of the building or its facade. the requirements of Sections 8 and 9 apply. The choice is dependent on the type of facade. An everyday tension of 1. (i) Strain clamps are recommended for all runs but should be used to terminate cable for all runs over 10 m. Tensions for other sizes should be chosen to give equivalent sag to this. to any position the cable may assume due to the influence of load current and solar radiation.2 Clearances Where the cable is in excess of 300 mm from the facade of the building which supports it. should be as specified in Table 16. In-line strains are used so that no run between strain clamps is more than 60 m.


Above windows and



Each side of and below



Each side of doors and



From metallic parts of
buildings, e.g. downpipes


This may be reduced to
0.2 m only where it is
physically impossible to
obtain 0.3 m

Whichever is wider


1.5 References
SEBIRE, J. and GEELAN, G. Mechanical Design and Co-ordinated Mechanical Failure of Low
Voltage ABC Lines. Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney Australia.
MORGAN, V.T. The Current Rating of Aerial Bundled Cables. Distribution 2000, May 1991,
Sydney Australia.
SEBIRE, J. The Facade Mounting of Low Voltage ABC. Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney
MCLEOD, D., DEMKO, M. and GRIFFIN, M. Design of Low Voltage Networks Using LVABC.
Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney Australia.
MURRAY, T. and KREMER, H. Design Aspects of LVABC Lines in Severe Environments.
Distribution 2000, November 1993, Melbourne Australia.



1.6 General
HVABC is fully insulated for the service voltage. There are three types, as follows:

Metallic Screened High Voltage Aerial Bundled Cable (to AS/NZS 3599.1)—MSHVABC


Non-metallic Screened High Voltage Aerial Bundled Cable (to AS/NZS 3599.2)—


Self-supporting High Voltage Aerial Bundled Cable (not currently covered by an
Australian Standard).

In Self-supporting High Voltage Aerial Bundled Cable the mechanical load has to be transferred
to the insulated conductors and is supported at intermediate structures on line insulators rated
for the nominal operating voltage. Cables at low tension are tensioned with clamps similar to
LVABC strain clamps but at higher tensions the bundle is opened out and bare conductor
terminations are fitted to the core conductors.
The rest of this Clause covers MSHVABC and NMSHVABC only, which use a support
conductor to carry the mechanical load.
1.7 Mechanical
MSHVABC and NMSHVABC consist of three cores wrapped around a support conductor. In
both types the support conductor mechanically supports the cable bundle and in NMSHVABC it
also provides electrical earthing.
The cable bundle is supported at intermediate supports on suspension clamps with the support
conductor firmly clamped and the cores clamped sufficiently to prevent the cores slipping
relative to the support conductor. Measures should be taken to maintain the insulation screens of
the three cores of NMSHVABC and the metallic screens of MSHVABC within the prospective
touch voltage limits in Section 11 by earthing at appropriate intervals.
On strain or tension structures the support conductor is separated from the bundle and
terminated using standard bare conductor fittings. In both cable types measures should be taken
to prevent the cores slipping relative to the support conductor and again measures should be
taken to maintain the insulation screens or metallic screens within appropriate potentials.
At intermediate supports consideration may also be given to using line fittings specifically
designed to cause the cable to separate from its support at a predetermined load, such as that
caused by a falling tree or limb.
1.8 Electrical
In MSHVABC the fault return path is provided by the metallic screens in each core, but
measures should be taken to ensure that the support conductor is not damaged by the passage of
fault current to the extent that it cannot support the cable for mechanical loading and ground
clearance considerations.
In NMSHVABC the support conductor should be effectively earthed to ensure that it—

maintains the outer semi-conducting insulation screen potentials at acceptable levels
under all operating conditions; and


provides a defined path for any fault current.

Also, measures should be taken to ensure that the support conductor is not damaged by the
passage of fault current to the extent that it cannot support the cable for mechanical loading and
ground clearance considerations.

1.9 Clearances
The clearance requirements of Sections 8, 9 and 10 for U ≥ 1000 V, Insulated with Earthed
Screen, apply to HVABC.
1.10 references
WILLIAMSON, C.E., CHEALES, J.A., and MCLEOD, D. Overview of Insulated HV Overhead
Systems and Applications. Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney Australia.
COULTER, R., SEBIRE, J. and MCLEOD, D. Some Design Aspects of High Voltage Nonmetallic Screened Aerial Bundled Cable Systems. Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney
KENT, H., CLAY, J., RICHTER, K. and MCLEOD, D. Economic and Technical
Considerations of High Voltage Insulated Overhead Lines. Distribution 2000, November 1993,
Melbourne Australia.
SEBIRE, J., PIASENTIN, S. and SOUPROUNOVICH, K. The Development, Introduction and
Experience with HVABC in the State Electricity Commission of Victoria. Distribution 2000,
November 1993, Melbourne Australia.



1.11 general
Covered conductor manufactured to AS/NZS 3675 may be used in a similar manner to an open
wire 11 to 33 kV bare overhead system, except that the following should apply:

The system should include adequate protection to prevent burndown at support points.
Such matters as lightning surge protection, fault clearing times and the need for fault
current limitation should be considered.


When attaching covered conductors to insulators, special measures should be taken to
manage radio interference voltage and leakage currents, particularly in high pollution


Clearance between phases may be reduced (See Clause 10.3 Note 3).


Clearance to trees may be reduced.


Consideration may be given to reducing the permissible limits of approach for safe
working conditions.

Covered conductor to AS/NZS 3675 contains a water blocking compound to prevent the
migration of water under the covering and between the wires. Covered conductors have
previously been used in Australia without water blocking. These conductors suffered corrosion
of the conductor under the covering and eventual failure. The corrosion also contributed to
conductor burndown.
1.12 CC
CC can withstand intermittent contact with conductive material between phases or to ground,
e.g. trees and branches, but should not remain in permanent contact.
1.13 CCt
CCT has the following additional features:

Clearance between phases and to trees may be further reduced compared with CC

RICHTER. Distribution 2000. A. A. J. D. 9 and 10 for U ≥ 1000 V. account should be taken of— (i) abrasion due to the species of tree and its growing pattern. Development and Introduction of Aerial Insulated Unscreened Conductor (IUC) in South Australia. K. Sydney Australia.. Distribution 2000. November 1993. KATO. . J. May 1991..14 Clearances The clearance requirements of Sections 8.. Melbourne Australia. consideration should be given to using CCT which has an outer layer of tracking resistance material. ELFORD. November 1993. D. 1. (c) Better performance in polluted environments. The clearance requirements of Sections 8.. Overview of Insulated HV Overhead Systems and Applications. R. Melbourne Australia. (ii) frequency and strength of prevailing winds. C. Melbourne Australia. HINKKURI. RICHTER. H. D. Melbourne Australia.. ELFORD. K. K. Distribution 2000. Distribution 2000. Design Considerations for Covered Conductor (CC) Distribution. H. ON THE DESIGN AND EXPERIENCE WITH HIGH VOLTAGE COVERED CONDUCTOR SYSTEMS. MCLEOD. apply to CCT. NAGASAKA. especially at nominal voltages of 22 kV and above.E. (e) Suitable for use in ‘spacer cable’ systems. CHEALES. K. CLAY.F.15 references WILLIAMSON.(b) CCT has electrical and mechanical characteristics which permit it to remain in contact with tree limbs for an extended period of time. apply to CC. May 1991. November 1993. J.. Bare or Covered. Sydney Australia. Melbourne Australia. providing that the covering thickness is appropriate to the operating voltage. In determining the period.. KENT. R. An Overview on Overhead Insulated Systems in South Australia. LEHTINEN. Distribution 2000. and MCPHEE. Economic and Technical Considerations of High Voltage Insulated Overhead Lines.. and MCLEOD. AND NOPONEN. Distribution 2000. Insulated without earthed screen. November 1993. November 1993. (d) Suitable for use in the Insulated Unscreened Conductor (IUC) system. and MATSUMOTO. KATO. and (iii) operating temperature. 1. K. 9 and 10 for U ≥ 1000 V. Distribution 2000. and MCLEOD. however. Development of 22 kV Covered Conductor for SECV..A. I.

= good performance 2. = average performance 3. TABLE D1 SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS FOR HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS Conductor type Salt spray pollution Industrial pollution Open ocean Bay. inlets and salt lakes Acidic Alkaline AAC 1 1 1 3 AAAC/6201 1 1 2 3 AAAC/1120 1 1 1 3 ACSR/GZ 3 2 2 3 ACSR/AZ 2 1 2 3 ACSR/AC 1 1 2 3 SC/GZ 3 2 3 2 SC/AC 1 1 1 3 OPGW 1 1 2 3 HDCu 1 1 2 1 NOTES: 1. THERMAL LIMITS General Knowledge of the behaviour of conductors when subjected to various heating conditions is essential when designing and operating overhead lines. (b) Ensure that all fittings are compatible so that electrolytic corrosion does not occur. which has been known to produce severe effects. for salt spray pollution the relative distances from the source depend upon the prevailing winds and the terrain. . = poor performance When selecting a conductor for a hostile environment the following factors should be considered: (a) Full or partial greasing of the conductor significantly improves corrosion resistance. for example. (d) The aluminium coating on SC/AC is very soft and should be treated carefully if it is to provide adequate corrosion protection. should also be taken into account. Special circumstances such as crop dusting. The corrosion resistance of SC/AC is very dependent on the thickness of the coating.26 SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS FOR HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS This Appendix provides an indication of the relative corrosion performance of various conductor types. (c) Insulated/covered conductor systems may provide protection against corrosion provided the conductors are completely sealed by the insulation/covering and do not provide traps for corrosive solutions nor allow ingress of moisture. The recommendations should be modified by local experience.

For 30/7 ACSR the ultimate tensile strength would be reduced approximately 7%. if a conductor is heated to 150°C under emergency conditions for 24 hours a year for 30 years it is much the same as heating the conductor continuously at that temperature for 720 hours. both the maximum temperature and the duration of the emergency load should be taken into account in determining the annealing of the aluminium wires. the tension in a line reduces with increasing temperature so the effect is less severe. These curves demonstrate the permanent loss of tensile strength when a conductor operates at an elevated temperature. This permits an approximate loss of strength of 3% of the original tensile strength after 1000 hours operation at this temperature. For ratings for emergency conditions (e. where it is possible to control the loads in the lines to a great extent. Annealing is caused by the heating of a material generally followed by a cooling period. For main grid transmission lines. D2 and D3 for AAC 1350. and ACSR is 100°C. The magnitude of this wire size dependence is considered. Isothermal annealing curves are illustrated in Figures D1. More recent research indicates that the annealing characteristics of a conductor depend not only on temperature and time of exposure but also on the diameter of the wires in the conductor. In general. If ratings for emergency conditions are to be applied then the combined effects of elevated temperature and sustained high conductor tension on the sag of the line should be taken into account. . but it has less loss of strength for the same temperature. For radial transmission lines and sub-transmission lines. The loss of tensile strength results in increased sag.g. the maximum temperature limit of 100°C should be applied. changes of conductivity will be insignificant compared with the changes of tensile strength. Copper has similar annealing properties which are not as well documented as those for aluminium.Maximum design operating temperatures The design maximum operating temperature is a function of the acceptable level of permanent loss of tensile strength (annealing) of the conductor. the emergency condition rating concept may be applied. D2 and D3 show that the heating period is not a major factor until this temperature is exceeded. at this stage. For this example the loss of ultimate strength in AAC would be approximately 15%. the material experiences a change in its microstructure and for metals. The recommended maximum temperature limit for normal operation of AAC. D2 and D3 will comprise a range of values for a given period with the smallest wire size suffering the greatest loss in strength and the largest size the least. when one circuit has to carry more than normal current for a short time). For example. Practically. The steel provides most of the strength of the conductor and is essentially unaffected by the temperature. to be of a lower order than the effect of temperature. The annealing effect is cumulative. this not only results in a loss in tensile strength but also an increase in conductivity. Typically the loss of strength curves shown in Figures D1. During the annealing process. AAAC. Figures D1. AAAC/1120 and AAAC/6201 respectively. The following comments are applicable for aluminium conductors. It is appropriate to establish the maximum design temperature at which a conductor can operate while maintaining acceptable levels of degradation of tensile properties. The effect is less significant for ACSR where an increase in temperature results in a load transfer from the aluminium to the steel.

FIGURE D1 PERCENTAGE OF ORIGINAL TENSILE STRENGTH FOR ALLOY 1350 vs AGEING TIME FIGURE D2 PERCENTAGE OF ORIGINAL TENSILE STRENGTH FOR ALLOY 1120 vs AGEING TIME . Maximum Design Temperatures of 50°C to 65°C are commonly used.For distribution lines where a lower standard of load control and monitoring usually applies it is recommended that an additional margin be applied.

conductor stress and conductor constants is given as: ε = kt c1σc2ec3(θ−20) . M. CIGRE Electra 75. Postgraduate Thesis. 1993. b) Subtract an allowance on the maximum design temperature. To compensate for conductor inelastic stretch it is necessary to carry out one or a combination of the following: a) Add a margin on the statutory ground clearance requirements. The permanent elongation consists of. Methodology for Assessment of Serviceability of Aged Transmission Line Conductors. DRURY. c) Prestress conductors prior to final sagging. Wollongong University. G.FIGURE D3 PERCENTAGE OF ORIGINAL TENSILE STRENGTH FOR ALLOY 6201 vs AGEING TIME Conductor permanent elongation Further information on designing for conductor permanent elongation is contained in the following references: Permanent Elongation of Conductors Predictor Equations and Evaluation Methods. in the short term. primarily wire radial and tangential movement during the early loading period and in the longer term. Postgraduate Thesis. F. Wollongong University. D. Permanent elongation begins at the instant of applied axial tensile load and continues at a decreasing rate providing tension and temperature remain constant. conductor temperature and exposure duration. The Effect of Prestressing on Inelastic (Creep) Behaviour of Australian Made Base Overhead Conductors. temperature. Conductor permanent elongation is non-recoverable or inelastic material plastic deformation that is a logarithmic function of conductor stress. 1989. Conductor permanent elongation expressed as a function of time.. d) Over-tension conductors. primary metallurgical logarithmic creep. BRENNAN.

c2 and c3 are constants Conductor creep is cumulative for a given set of operating conditions of time.D1 . Annealing It is assumed that the electrical protection for the line will operate and that the duration of the fault will be short. in the order of a few cycles to a number of seconds for distribution feeder protection comprising initial clearance plus reclose clearance times. For such periods it may be assumed that no heat will be dissipated from the conductor. arcing. secondary faults. etc. conductor damage. and b) the sagging of the conductor into another conductor below it. A reasonable approximation of the final temperature of the conductor is given by: T2 ⎡ Ar RJ 2 r ⎤ ⎥ DC ⎦ 1 ⎡ 1⎤ ⎢ = 20 − + ⎢T1 − 20 + ⎥ e ⎣ Ar ⎣ Ar ⎦ where T2 = final temperature in °C T1 = initial temperature in °C . . . c1. c1 t eq ( i ) ⎡ σ ( i −1) ⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ σ1 ⎦ teq(i) = the equivalent time in years for unit strain at stress level σ(i) σ(i-1) = the stress level in MPa associated with time interval t(i!1) σ(i) = the stress level in MPa associated with time interval teq (i) t(i-1) = time interval in years associated with stress level σ(i–1) i = interval c 2t( i −1 ) where Fault ratings General The main factors to consider when determining the fault rating of a line are— a) the annealing of the conductor resulting from overheating due to the magnitude and duration of the fault current. and c) movement of conductors due to electromagnetic forces leading to conductor clashing.In most cases the conductor exposure period at elevated temperatures is very small relative to an everyday exposure temperature assessed to be 20°C hence the above equation may be reduced to: t = kt c1σc2 ε = unit strain in mm/km t = time in years σ = conductor average stress in MPa θ = conductor average temperature in °C where k. temperature and stress.

Aluminium loses approximately 10% of its tensile strength at a temperature of 210°C with a significant proportion of the annealing taking place during the cooling period following a fault.4 0. 1969.2. It anneals rapidly at temperatures exceeding 340°C and commences melting at approximately 645°C.1.00360 R (at 20°C) * Ωmm 28.00390 0. The mechanical properties of the steel core of ACSR are affected very little at these temperatures. — Draft IEEE Standard.e.70 × 10 −3 8.00381 0. .9 × 10 −4 1. From equation D2 the fault rating can be determined once an allowable final temperature has been determined. 1971.5 × 10 −4 4. 116(8).70 × 10 −3 2.00360 0.5 × 10 −4 2. Zinc melts at approximately 420°C. 118(3/4). ‘Calculating the Current-Temperature relationship of Bare Overhead Conductors’. — V T Morgan. This annealing is cumulative over the life of the conductor.Ar = temperature coefficient of resistance in °C–1 R = resistivity in ohm mm at 20°C D = density in g/mm3 J = current density in A/mm2 t = duration in seconds (includes reclosure times) C = specific heat = C20 = specific heat at 20°C in Jg-1 °C-1 Ac = temperature coefficient of specific heat ⎧ ⎡ ⎛ T + T2 ⎞ ⎤⎫ C 20 ⎨1 + Ac ⎢⎜ 1 ⎟ − 20⎥ ⎬ ⎣⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦⎭ ⎩ Transposing equation D1 gives D2 2 J t ⎡ ⎛ T + T2 ⎞⎤ ⎡ − 20 ⎟⎥ DC 20 ⎢1 + Ac ⎜ 1 ⎢ T2 − 20 + ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣ ln ⎢ Ar R ⎢ T − 20 + ⎢⎣ 1 = 1 Ar 1 Ar ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥⎦ .5 × 10 −4 4.0 × 10 −4 1.9 0. ‘Rating of Conductors for Short-Duration Currents’.77 × 10 −6 190 × 10 −6 85 × 10 −6 D* g/mm 3 2.89 × 10 −3 7.8 × 10 −3 6. AS 1222.5 0. Proc IEE. AS 1222. Proc IEE. . AS 1746.3 × 10 −6 29.59 × 10 −3 C20 ** Jg −1°C −1 0. Constants for specific conductor types are contained in the relevant Australian Standards. .8 × 10 −6 17.00440 0. ** Values are median values of data sourced from several references including: — V T Morgan.00403 0. AS 1531. D2 TABLE D2 CONDUCTOR CONSTANTS Constants Units AAAC/ 1120 AAC AAAC/ 6201A HD copper SC/GZ SC/AC Ar (at 20°C) * °C−1 0. ‘Rating of Bare Overhead Conductors for Intermittent and Cyclic Currents’.3 × 10 −6 32. 1361-1376.9 0.70 × 10 −3 2.0 × 10 −4 * Value taken from the appropriate Australian Standard. i.5 A c** °C−1 4. 555-570. 1993.9 0. Copper loses 10% of its tensile strength at a temperature of 220°C.

E ‘Short time annealing characteristics of electrical conductors’. AAAC/1120. Reference: Roehmann.To provide for a loss of conductor tensile strength of less than 5% due to fault conditions over its life. 100 160°C 300 to 500 150°C 100 220°C Conductor type ACSR/AZ. a suitable compromise on structure design. 1978) Section A3 ‘Simulation and Tests of Motion Due to Fault Currents’—gives equations which may be used to determine conductor swing and the mechanical forces due to fault currents. ACSR/AC AAAC/6201A SC/GZ. Movement of conductors under fault The movement of conductors due to the electromagnetic forces generated by large short time current is a complex matter for which a simple satisfactory solution is not available. It is recommended that the appropriate non-flashover distance from AS 2067 for the system voltage be used for this clearance. Dec 1963. Sag under fault Overhead lines have been known to sag into subsidiary lines or undercrossings under fault. TABLE D3 GUIDELINES FOR 5% LOSS OF TENSILE STRENGTH FOR TOTAL FAULT CLEARING TIME (INCLUDING RECLOSES) Approximate size (mm²) Maximum temperature HDCu 60 200°C AAC. By taking these criteria and the degree of reliability required into account. The Transmission Line Reference Book—115-138 kV Compact Line Design (EPRI EL-100-V3. If this is to be avoided it may be advisable for the line to be designed to have a positive clearance to the lower conductor. conductor configuration and economics can be achieved . ACSR/GZ. The rate of cooling is dependent on the thermal mass of the conductor. LF and Hazan. therefore lower maximum temperatures are applicable to conductors of large cross-section. SC/AC OPGW 400°C *** ***Dependent on construction. the following temperatures should not be exceeded. AIEE Trans 82/3 p1061. Research Project 260.

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