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Module I: Leadership Excellence

SYLLABUS: Leadership /Self Leadership /Self Leadership

A process af influence
First step in the journey toward achievement of an understanding
and improvement of our own self-leadership
Leadership is not just an outward process we can and do lead
Sources of leadership EPS
External leadership
Giving of orders
Rewards and punishments
Participative leadership
Goals are set jointly by a manager and a subordinate
Self-imposed processe at the others
Leadership has been described as "a process of social influence in which
a person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of
a common task. For example, some understand a leader simply as
somebody whom people follow, or as somebody who guides or directs
others, while others define leadership as "organizing a group of people to
achieve a common goal".
Studies of leadership have produced theories involving traits, situational
interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and values,[3]charisma, and
intelligence, among others.
1. Autocratic or authoritarian

Under the autocratic leadership style, all decision-making powers are

centralized in the leader, as with dictators.
Leaders do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates.
It permits quick decision-making, as only one person decides for the whole
group and keeps each decision to him/herself until he/she feels it needs to
be shared with the rest of the group.
2. Participative or democratic
The democratic leadership style consists of the leader sharing the
decision-making abilities with group members by promoting the interests
of the group members and by practicing social equality. This has also been
called shared leadership.
3. Laissez-faire or free-rein
A person may be in a leadership position without providing leadership,
leaving the group to fend for itself. Subordinates are given a free hand in
deciding their own policies and methods. The subordinates are motivated
to be creative and innovative.
4. Narcissistic
Narcissistic leadership is a leadership style in which the leader is only
interested in him/herself. Their priority is themselves - at the expense of
their people/group members. This leader exhibits the characteristics of a
narcissist: arrogance, dominance and hostility. It is a common leadership
style. The narcissism may range from anywhere between healthy and
destructive. To critics, "narcissistic leadership (preferably destructive) is
driven by unyielding arrogance, self-absorption, and a
personal egotistic need for power and admiration."
5. Toxic
A toxic leader is someone who has responsibility over a group of people or
an organization, and who abuses the leaderfollower relationship by
leaving the group or organization in a worse-off condition than when
he/she joined it.
6. Task-oriented and relationship-oriented
Task-oriented leadership is a style in which the leader is focused on the
tasks that need to be performed in order to meet a certain production
goal. Task-oriented leaders are generally more concerned with producing a

step-by-step solution for given problem or goal, strictly making sure these
deadlines are met, results and reaching target outcomes.
Relationship-oriented leadership is a contrasting style in which the leader
is more focused on the relationships amongst the group and is generally
more concerned with the overall well-being and satisfaction of group
members.[62] Relationship-oriented leaders emphasize communication
within the group, shows trust and confidence in group members, and
shows appreciation for work done.
Task-oriented leaders are typically less concerned with the idea of catering
to group members, and more concerned with acquiring a certain solution
to meet a production goal. For this reason, they typically are able to make
sure that deadlines are met, yet their group members' well-being may
suffer.[61] Relationship-oriented leaders are focused on developing the
team and the relationships in it. The positives to having this kind of
environment are that team members are more motivated and have
support, however, the emphasis on relations as opposed to getting a job
done might make productivity suffer.
The concept of Self-Leadership
Social cognitive theory
Human behaviour is a complex process with many parts
The human ability to learn by observing
We have a perception of ourselves as effective
Intrinsic motivation theory
Natural rewards we enjoy doing things we like

Self-leadership is the practice of intentionally influencing your

thinking, feeling and behaviors to achieve your objective/s (Bryant &
Kazan 2012)

Self-leaders have a drive for autonomy, can make decisions, are

more creative and persist, even in the face of adversity.

Some of the intentional behaviours that characterise Self-leadership

are; self-awareness, self-goal setting, self-motivation, positive selftalk, assertive communication and the ability to receive and act on

Becoming a Self-leader and maintaining Self-leadership is a selfdevelopment activity; but organizations that encourage Selfleadership reap the benefit.

An expanded definition is: Self-leadership is having a developed

sense of who you are, what you can do, where you are going
coupled with the ability to influence your communication, emotions
and behaviors on the way to getting there.

The self leadership describes the voluntary action of an individual

on the dimensions so he can fully take the place it deserves in the
different dimensions of his life, for example family, social circle and
his workplace.

In the approach by the self leadership, setting this up to be an

integral part of the process of reflection and evolution of the
individual, it is a change of the individual by the individual
interaction with its environment . So it is primarily a place to
himself, balance between freedom to discover and use, and its
accountability to stakeholders in his life he chooses to consider or to

Bryant & Kazan propose that Self-leadership should be the foundation of

any organizational development or program. To skip the Self-leadership
piece is to leave out a significant part of the puzzle of developing a
learning organization.

The steps of SELF-LEADERSHIP :

The awareness of its individual professional roles, based on the

model of Lenhardt : specialist, manager or leader . This awareness to
report to external projections and personal desires to give rise to both
the consciousness of its own complexity, but also the dichotomy
between the individual and the roles he plays.

Awareness of its preferential behavior Jungian sense, but also the

energy cost of its operations as the change that could operate there .

Awareness of internal engines, whether his career anchors , or

dating patterns over which the individual relies to evolve. These are
then reported to the lifecycle of the person at a time depending on
their age and level of maturity in his current work.

The definition of upgrade options in an integrated approach and

systemic reflection on their implementation by the notion of network.

Self-Leadership In Practice:
1. Self-leadership has been more broadly defined as "the
process" of influencing oneself to establish the self-direction
and self-motivation needed to perform.
2. Research across a variety of settings, from the educational
domain to the airline industry, has shown that the practice of
effective self-leadership by employees can lead to a plethora
of benefits including improved job satisfaction, self-efficacy,
and mental performance.

3. Self-Leadership involves "leading oneself" via the utilization of

both behavioral and mental techniques. Behavioral selfleadership techniques involve self-observation, self-goalsetting, management of antecedents to behavior (e.g., cues),
modification of consequents to behavior (e.g., selfreinforcement, self-punishment), and the finding of natural
rewards in tasks performed.
4. Mental self-leadership techniques involve examination and
alteration of self-dialogue, beliefs and assumptions, mental
imagery, and thought patterns (habits in ones thinking).

Leadership Competencies OOS

Leading the organization: CP-PVR

managing change

solving problems and making decisions

managing politics and influencing others

taking risks and innovating

setting vision and strategy

managing the work

enhancing business skills and knowledge

understanding and navigating the organization

Leading the self: UAE-AC

demonstrating ethics and integrity

displaying drive and purpose

exhibiting leadership stature

increasing your capacity to learn

managing yourself

increasing self-awareness

developing adaptability

Leading others: CDDR-TG

communicating effectively

developing others

valuing diversity and difference

building and maintaining relationships

managing effective teams and work groups

Leadership Competencies (EXTRAS)




Behaves in an
honest, fair, and
ethical manner.
Shows consistency
in words and
actions. Models
high standards of

Team Building:
Inspires and
fosters team
spirit, pride, and
trust. Facilitates
cooperation and
motivates team
members to
accomplish group

Human Capital
Builds and
workforce based
on organizational
goals, budget
and staffing
needs. Ensures
employees are


and keeps upto-date on
local, national,
policies and
trends that
affect the

Skills: Treats
others with
sensitivity, and
respect. Considers
and responds
appropriately to
the needs and
feelings of
different people in
Learning: Assesses
and recognizes
own strengths and
pursues selfdevelopment.
Resilience: Deals
effectively with
pressure; remains
optimistic and
persistent, even
under adversity.
Recovers quickly
from setbacks.
Makes clear and
convincing oral
Listens effectively;
information as
Writes in a clear,

Anticipates and
meets the needs
of both internal
and external
Delivers highquality products
and services; is
committed to
Understands and
regulations, and
policies related
to specialized
Holds self and
accountable for
measurable highquality, timely,
and cost
effective results.
objectives, sets
priorities, and
delegates work.
responsibility for

appraised, and
rewarded; takes
action to address
Manages a multisector workforce
and a variety of
work situations.
Diversity: Fosters
an inclusive
workplace where
diversity and
differences are
valued and
leveraged to
achieve the
vision and
mission of the
creative tension
and differences
of opinions.
Anticipates and
takes steps to
prevent counterproductive
Manages and
resolves conflicts
disagreements in
a constructive

and shape
views; is
aware of the
impact on the
Vision: Takes a
view and
builds a
shared vision
with others;
acts as a
catalyst for
others to
vision into
objectives and
priorities, and
with the longterm interest
of the
in a global
Capitalizes on
and manages

organized, and
convincing manner
for the intended

Complies with
control systems
and rules.


Public Service
Shows a
commitment to
Flexibility: Is open
Makes wellserve the public.
to change and new informed,
Ensures that
effective, and
actions meet
rapidly adapts to
timely decisions, public needs;
new information,
even when data
are limited or
conditions, or
solutions produce objectives and
practices with
public interests.
perceives the
Problem Solving:
impact and
Identifies and
implications of
Others: Develops
the ability of
problems; weighs
others to perform
relevance and
Influencing /
and contribute to
accuracy of
the organization
by providing
generates and
others; builds
ongoing feedback
and by providing
through give and opportunities to
solutions; makes
take; gains
learn through
recommendations. cooperation from formal and
others to obtain
informal methods
information and
accomplish goals

hip: Positions
for future
success by
builds the
by developing
or improving
products or
risks to


Team Design Features: Team vs. Group/ Effective Team Mission
and Vision /Life Cycle of a Project Team/Rationale of a Team, Goal
Analysis and Team Role
Groups differ from teams in several ways:

Task orientation: Teams require coordination of tasks and activities

to achieve a shared aim. Groups do not need to focus on specific
outcomes or a common purpose.

Degree of interdependence: Team members

are interdependent since they bring to bear a set of resources to produce
a common outcome. Individuals in a group can be entirely disconnected
from one another and not rely on fellow members at all.
Purpose: Teams are formed for a particular reason and can be shortor long-lived. Groups can exist as a matter of fact; for example, a group
can be comprised of people of the same race or ethnic background.

Degree of formal structure: Team members' individual roles and

duties are specified and their ways of working together are defined.
Groups are generally much more informal; roles do not need to be
assigned and norms of behavior do not need to develop.
Familiarity among members: Team members are aware of the set of
people they collaborate with, since they interact to complete tasks and
activities. Members of a group may have personal relationships or they
may have little knowledge of each other and no interactions whatsoever.

The Nine Team Roles

1. Implementer is the practical organizer within the team.
Disciplined, orderly and task-oriented. Implementer puts plans and
ideas into easily executable tasks. He/she can be a little too









practical and conservative when the usefulness of new ideas is not

immediately clear.
Resource Investigator is the cheerful, extroverted person with
lots of contacts within and outside the team. He/she is enthusiastic,
adventurous and open-minded and always looking for new ideas.
Resource Investigator is naturally good at developing and
maintaining contacts, but may become careless when the novelty
wears off.
Plant is the creative thinker of the team. Innovative and original. A
free spirit who needs space to fantasize about new and surprising
solutions to complex problems. Plant is not always practical and
sometimes misses what others require from him/her.
Monitor is sensible, thoughtful and critical. The analyst of the team.
He/she is always analyzing situations and wants to get to the
bottom of things. As Monitor he/she may deliberate long and
thoroughly and his or her judgment is rarely wrong.
S haper is driven, passionate and willful. He/she has a strong urge
to perform, looks for challenges and gets things going. Shaper
makes sure deadlines are made and goals are met, one way or the
other. He/she can get frustrated and react angrily or emotionally.
Coordinator is the natural coordinator of the team. He/she looks
after procedures, helps team members clarify intentions and
summarizes what everyone wants. He/she has a nose for talent and
knows how to utilize people to their full potential. Coordinator trusts
others and delegates easily but sometimes has a tendency to leave
too much work to others.
Completer Finisher has the talent to always feel what could go
wrong. This leads to a lot of attention to details, checking and
rechecking, and a tendency to perfectionism. He/she monitors the
quality and safety, but can sometimes be overprotective and find it
difficult to delegate things to others.
Teamworker is the most sensitive member of the team, helpful,
accommodating and focused on creating a pleasant atmosphere and
sense of togetherness. He/she prefers balance and harmony and is
close to others. Teamworker has difficulty with conflict and may
have trouble taking decisions at critical times.
Specialist is an immeasurable source of knowledge in his/her field.
An advisor who is gladly consulted and will provide knowledge on a
specific topic with pleasure and ease. His/her contributions to the
team are his/her substantial knowledge and technical skills.
Specialist thrives less well when working together and does not care
for social activities that much.


Module III: Team Building for Leadership Excellence

Types and Development of Team Building/ Stages of Team
/Profiling your Team: Internal & External Dynamics/Team
Strategies for organizational vision
Team building is the use of different types of team interventions that are
aimed at enhancing social relations and clarifying team members roles,
as well as solving task and interpersonal problems that affect team
Team building was originally a group process intervention aimed at
improving interpersonal relations and social interactions but over time has
developed to include achieving results, meeting goals and accomplishing
It refers to the activities in which teams can engage to change its context,
composition or team competencies to improve performance. It is distinct
from team training, which is also a team-development intervention that is
designed to improve team functioning and effectiveness.
Team building differs from team training in a number of ways. Team
building is not necessarily formal or systematic in nature, does not target
skill-based competencies and is typically done in settings that are not in
the actual environment where the team works on the task.
Team building generally sits within the theory and practice of
organizational development, but can also be applied to sports teams,
school groups, armies, flight crews and other contexts. There have been
many issues in past literature about the conceptual definition of team
building. However, now there is consensus and conceptual clarity about
what team building constitutes exactly. Its four components are:

Goal setting: aligning around goals

Interpersonal-relationship management: building effective working


Role clarification: reducing team members role ambiguity

Problem solving: finding solutions to team problems

These team-development interventions have proven to have positive

effects on cognitive, affective, process and performance team outcomes.
Team building has seen the strongest effect on affective and process
outcomes. According to Klein et al. (2009), team building is one of the
most widely used group development interventions in organizations today.
Of all organizational interventions, team-development interventions were
found to have the largest effects on financial measures of organizational
performance.[3] Recent meta-analyses show that team development
activities, including team building and team training, improve both a
teams objective performance and supervisory subjective ratings on
The four approaches
The following are a summary of the four approaches as described by Salas
and his team:[5]

Goal setting: this intervention emphasizes setting objectives and

developing individual and team goals. Team members become involved
in action planning to identify ways to achieve goals. It is designed to
strengthen team member motivation to achieve team goals and
objectives. By identifying specific outcome levels, teams can determine
what future resources are needed. Individual characteristics (e.g. team
member motivation) can also be altered by use of this intervention.
Many organizations insist on teams negotiating a team charter
between the team and responsible managers (and union leaders) to
empower the team to accomplish things on behalf of the organization.
Successful goal settings help the teams to work towards the same
outcomes and make them more task and action oriented.

Role clarification: this intervention emphasizes increasing

communication among team members regarding their respective roles
within the team. Team members improve their understanding of their
own and others respective roles and duties within the team. This
intervention defines the team as comprising a set of overlapping roles.
These overlapping roles are characterized as the behaviors that are
expected of each individual team member. It can be used to improve
team and individual characteristics (i.e. by reducing role ambiguity)

and work structure by negotiating, defining, and adjusting team

member roles. It includes an understanding of the talent that exists on
the team, and how best to use it, allows members to understand why
clear roles are important. The members should also realize that they
are interdependent and the failure of one team member leads to the
failure of the entire team.

Problem solving: this intervention emphasizes identifying major

task-related problems within the team. Team members become
involved in action planning, implementing solutions to identified
problems and to evaluate those solutions. They practice setting goals,
developing interpersonal relations, clarifying team roles, and working
to improve organizational characteristics through problem-solving
tasks. This can have the added benefit of enhancing critical-thinking
skills. If teams are good in problem-solving skills, they are less likely to
need external interventions to solve their problems.[15]

Interpersonal relations management: this intervention

emphasizes increasing teamwork skills (i.e. mutual
supportiveness, communication, and sharing of feelings). Team
members develop trust in one another and confidence in the
team. This is based on the assumption that teams with fewer
interpersonal conflicts function more effectively than teams with
greater numbers of interpersonal conflicts. It requires the use of
a facilitator to develop mutual trust and open communication
between team members. As team members achieve higher
levels of trust, cooperation and team characteristics can be
changes as well.

Environment: teams are not closed systems. It is critical that they

interact effectively with their external environments. Teams need
good diplomatic relationships with key managers, union officials,
other teams, and the functions that affect their performance. Team
members must feel free to disagree with each other during team
meetings but should present a united, positive front to the rest of
the organization.
Four Different Types Of Team Building
1. Personality-Based Team Building
Personality based team building comes in various forms but one of the
most common is a personality questionnaire where you not only learn

about your own personality but also the personality of other members of
your team.
This information can then be used for discussing different action steps and
working relationships within the company.
In personality-based team building, individuals fill out a psychometric test
MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator), for example where they can learn
more about their own personalities and those of their teammates as well.
The results of the assessment are delivered back to the team and used as
a basis for discussion and developing action steps. Personality-based team
building is an effective development tool which helps team members gain
better self-understanding, become aware of the differences between each
other and adjust their behavior to match their teammates.
Naturally, different individuals have different motivational needs and
different reactions to work situations, stress or change. This can lead
people to misinterpret each others intentions and actions. Understanding
and accepting individual differences will greatly enhance conflict
resolution, collaboration and team effectiveness.
2. Activity-Based Team Building
Activity based team building involves a carrying out challenging tasks,
usually in an outdoor setting e.g. mountain climbing, trekking etc. These
activities requite teamwork from all other members in order to be
successful with the challenge.
The idea behind this type of team building is the success seen during the
activity can be brought into the office through the new relationships that
have been created. The lessons learnt during the challenges can also be
transferred to the workplace.
Activity-based team building is used to provide teams with challenging
tasks that usually take place in the outdoors (e.g. ropes course, rafting,
mountain climbing, orienteering, caving, survival events or boot camp).
This kind of activities addresses specific development needs of teams
such as problem solving, risk-taking, trust-building and paradigm
breaking. The idea is not just to have fun together, bond well and learn
new skills, but to actually understand how these teamwork lessons can be
applied to a work situation. The experience of success in an outdoor

challenge can be a great booster for the teams morale and productivity in
the workplace.
Adventure team building works best with young employees. Your HR
outsourcing agency will make sure that these activities match the current
needs of the team and deliver lasting impact on team performance.
Human resource experts may also use this type of team building to
identify the strengths of staff or find potential leadership talent.
3. Skills-Based Team Building
Skills based team building involves members of the team in a workshop
developing a certain skills. Skills can include receiving criticism, dealing
with conflict, effective team meetings and more.
By developing these skills during the workshop its possible to create a
more effective team if the skills learnt are applied throughout the
While activity-based team building is an indirect way of teaching specific
skills, skills-based team building means direct learning. In skills-based
team building, team members participate in workshops where they learn
and practice a specific skill set, such as dealing with conflict, reaching
group consensus or giving and receiving constructive feedback. This type
of team building focuses on skills that can be applied immediately to the
work environment. Human resource managers may likewise use this team
building approach to develop the leadership potential of members.
Skills-based team building has proved to be a great success in boosting
teams performance levels. Workshop sessions facilitate open
communication, frank discussion of current issues affecting the team and
help devising new ways to tackle these problems. Skills-based team
building develops self-understanding and encourages commitment to
change the teams status quo.
4. Problem Solving-Based Team Building
Problem solving based team building is usually performed at an outside
event but can also apply to an indoor task. The goal of this team building
exercise is to help the team solve certain problems given by an outside
facilitator. The group will then need to identify the challenges and possible

solutions while trying to work as effectively as possible to solve the

This type of team building activity usually takes place in a retreat setting
and is led by an outside facilitator (an external consultant provided by
your human resource services firm). In problem-solving-based team
building, team members come together to identify and solve a key
challenge the group is currently facing.
Problem-solving-based team building is a brainstorming experience that
brings to light the teams barriers to success. Once the symptoms have
been elicited, the team goes on to examine possible causes, until they
reach the root cause of the problem. At this stage, team members are
able to develop a concrete action plan to solve the challenge.
This team building approach has great benefits in term of stress relief and
positive emotions towards the work environment. Problem-solving-based
team building is an outlet for frustrations and a step forward to action. The
team building helps the group move beyond inertia, stay motivated and
take control over its own destiny.
Team building is a multifaceted concept that includes a wide variety of
corporate activities and programs. To find out what type of team building
is best for your goals, its advisable to consult with your human resource
services provider. An HR outsourcing agency can bring the benefit of a
neutral third party and ensure trust in the process.
The Forming Storming Norming Performing model of group
development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, who
maintained that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for
the team to grow, to face up to challenges, to tackle problems, to find
solutions, to plan work, and to deliver results. This model has become the
basis for subsequent models.
In the first stage of team building, the forming of the team takes place.
The individual's behavior is driven by a desire to be accepted by the

others, and avoid controversy or conflict. Serious issues and feelings are
avoided, and people focus on being busy with routines, such as team
organization, who does what, when to meet each other, etc. Individuals
are also gathering information and impressions about each other, and
about the scope of the task and how to approach it. This is a comfortable
stage to be in, but the avoidance of conflict means that not much actually
gets done. The team meets and learns about the opportunities and
challenges, and then agrees on goals and begins to tackle the tasks. Team
members tend to behave quite independently. They may be motivated but
are usually relatively uninformed of the issues and objectives of the team.
Team members are usually on their best behavior but very focused on
themselves. Mature team members begin to model appropriate behavior
even at this early phase.
The forming stage of any team is important because the members of the
team get to know one another, exchange some personal information, and
make new friends. This is also a good opportunity to see how each
member of the team works as an individual and how they respond to

In the storming stage, enough initial trust has been developed between
team members that they start to feel comfortable expressing discontent
and challenging others' opinions. This stage is necessary to the growth of
the team. It can be contentious, unpleasant and even painful to members
of the team who are averse to conflict. Tolerance of each team member
and their differences should be emphasized; without tolerance and
patience the team will fail. This phase can become destructive to the
team and will lower motivation if allowed to get out of control. Some
teams will never develop past this stage; however, disagreements within
the team can make members stronger, more versatile, and able to work
more effectively as a team.
Supervisors of the team during this phase may be more accessible, but
tend to remain directive in their guidance of decision-making and

professional behavior. The team members will therefore resolve their

differences and members will be able to participate with one another more
comfortably. The ideal is that they will not feel that they are being judged,
and will therefore share their opinions and views. Normally tension,
struggle and sometimes arguments occur. This stage can also be
The team manages to have one goal and come to a mutual plan for the
project at this stage. Some may have to give up their own ideas and agree
with others to make the team function. In this stage, all team members
take the responsibility and have the ambition to work for the success of
the team's goals. The danger here is that members may be so focused on
preventing conflict that they are reluctant to share controversial ideas.
It is possible for some teams to reach the performing stage. These highperforming teams can function as a unit as they find ways to get the job
done smoothly and effectively without inappropriate conflict or the need
for external supervision. By this time, they are motivated and
knowledgeable. The team members are now competent, autonomous and
able to handle the decision-making process without supervision. Dissent is
expected and allowed as long as it is channeled through means
acceptable to the team.
Supervisors of the team during this phase are almost always participating.
The team will make most of the necessary decisions. Even the most highperforming teams will revert to earlier stages in certain circumstances.
Many long-standing teams go through these cycles many times as they
react to changing circumstances. For example, a change in leadership
may cause the team to revert to storming as the new people challenge
the existing norms and dynamics of the team.