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revision guide


How to answer exam questions

Source questions
The source questions on crime and punishment are worth 7 and 8
marks. They will always ask you to use the source and your own
knowledge. The source is designed to act as a prompt so that you
can bring in your own knowledge to your answer. HOWEVER, if you
are unsure about the question you can always get 2 marks by
describing or quoting the source.
Source questions
There will be two source questions on Crime and Punishment
7 marks This will ask you the reasons for something like a
punishment. You need to write 2 PEE paragraphs with 2 reasons.
Dont forget to use the source as your example!
8 marks This will give you a statement, you will need to argue
both sides with a PEE paragraph on each. Dont forget to use the
sources but also evaluate them are they giving you the
whole truth?
5/7/8 mark questions
5 mark questions 5 facts about the question
7 mark questions two PEE paragraphs use because!
8 marks questions one PEE supporting the statement in the
question and one PEE against the question. You will need a
conclusion here to reach a judgement and say how far you agree
with the statement.
Spelling and grammar
The only question where this counts is in the 8 marks questions you
answer on crime and punishment e.g 2c / 3c / 4c. Make sure you
read your answer through and check it carefully. Check capital
letters have been used for places and names!

Roman Empire 500BC -400AD

Laws were made by the Emperor and reflected Romes priorities. These
were - protection of the Emperor, order on the streets, protection of
property like slaves and maintaining the hierarchy of society.
1. Vigiles put out fires, chase runaway slaves, stop crime.
2. Urban Cohorts soldiers whose job it was to stop riots
3. Praetorian Guard only used in emergencies. Main job to guard the
Roman punishments were harsh and unfair they were meant to act
as a deterrent. Nobles could escape execution with a fine or by going
into exile. Ordinary citizens were executed for serious crimes e.g.
murder or arson. For less serious crimes they could be whipped or made
to pay back goods they had stolen. Slaves received the harshest
punishment. All slaves in a household were crucified if one tried to
murder their master. Prisons were only used for debtors.
Minor crime e.g burglary find evidence
court. A Magistrate was chosen to hear
Major crime anyone could bring a case
until proven guilty. Jury decide whether the
decide on the sentence.

yourself. Summon accused to

the case and then made a
to court. Defendant innocent
person was guilty. Magistrate

Effects of law and order on Roman Empire

Some people were made slaves. You could apply to become a Roman
citizen and have more protection from the law. Rebellions were dealt
with very harshly e.g Boudicca rebellion in Britain. Romans used local
kings to help them rule. In Roman Britain a Centurion played the role of
the Magistrate.
Impact of the fall of the Roman Empire

Roman system of law and order lost although many of their ideas were
still used like physical, harsh punishments to deter crime. Tribes, e.g
Anglo-Saxons, that took over had their own systems of law and order.
Roman exam questions
2a) Briefly describe how the Romans tried to prevent crime. 5 marks
2a) Briefly describe the effects of Roman law and order on the people in
countries they conquered. 5 marks
2b) Explain why the fall of the Roman Empire had an effect on law and
order. 7 marks

Middle Ages 400-1500

a) Early Middle Ages - Anglo Saxons 400-1066
Crimes most crime was theft of money, food and belongings. Violent
crime rare.
Policing adult men (over 12 years old) were organised into groups of 10
called tithings. If one member of it broke the law then the others had to
bring him to court or all had to pay a fine. Hue and Cry victims of crime
called out to fellow villagers to chase the criminal. If anyone failed to
respond to the Hue and Cry they were fined.
Initially the blood feud was used. The victim or their family was legally
allowed to take violent revenge on the person who had committed the
crime. The problem was this led to more violence.
This was replaced by the wergild when the Christian Church arrived in
England. Instead of taking revenge the victim was paid money in the form
of a fine by the criminal. If the criminal failed to pay they became a slave.
Serious crimes were punished by death and frequent reoffenders were
mutilated or executed.
Anyone who refused to attend court was outlawed. This meant that they
were beyond the protection of the law and could be killed on sight.

Up until around 1100 heads of household might
decide in a dispute. Or a jury of local villagers
would decide if the accused was guilty or not. If
they could not decide then the accused underwent
the trial by ordeal. These took place in or near a
church, as God was deciding the case. There were
4 types of trials, hot iron, hot water, cold water
and consecrated bread.
Saxon kings developed a system of courts:
a) Royal courts the king (or a royal judge) decided cases
involving his lords and other serious crimes
b) Shire courts held twice a year to deal with serious cases like
murder. Lords acted as judges
c) Hundred courts dealt with less serious crimes. It was also
where people joined tithings and swore to keep the peace.
b, Normans and Later Middle Ages 1066-1500
William wanted to be seen as the true king of England and so kept some
laws but also brought new ones in. For example he:
1. Brought in the hated Forest Laws.
2. Dealt with those who rebelled very
3. Kept the system of trial by ordeal and
added trial by combat.
4. Made fines payable to the king not the
victim Kings peace
Policing Hue and Cry continued to be used. This was now led by the
Constable. This was an ordinary person who tried to keep the peace in
their spare time. If the Hue and Cry did not work then the Sheriff and
Posse had to track the criminal down. Any male over 15 could be
summoned by the sheriff to be part of his posse. The coroner
investigated unnatural deaths.
Sanctuary this was a safe area in a church. Once inside a suspected
criminal could stay there for 40 days before deciding whether to stand
trial or go into exile. If a criminal chose exile they had to carry a white
cross with them all the way to the coast.
Trials - 1215 trial by ordeal abolished. This was because the Church no
longer wanted to use it. By now trial by jury was used more often to
decide if the accused was innocent or guilty.

Punishments The death penalty was used more often for petty crimes
like breaking the Forest Laws. This has led to Historians saying that the
Later Middle Ages were harsher. However you could avoid the death
penalty if you claimed benefit of clergy this meant reading a passage
from the bible, became a kings approver this meant telling tales on
your fellow criminals, or if you joined the army or were pregnant.
Women and the law they were not allowed to own their own property,
this belonged to their husbands. Women could not divorce their husbands.
They were punished differently to men with ducking stools and scold
bridles and as witches. Women could not sit on a jury or be a witness in a
royal or shire court. They did play a role in the local village or manor
courts though. Women were treated differently because the Church taught
that they were inferior to men. Treatment got worse after the Norman
invasion as the Christian Church got stronger.
Outlaws these were people who avoided attending court and were then
deemed to be outside of the law. This meant that they could be killed by
people, who would not face trial, as the outlaw was not protected by laws.
The story of Robin Hood tells us outlaws could be seen as popular /
romantic figures. It tells us that people did not like unfair officials and high
taxes. But there is no proof he existed or that outlaws were actually like
In reality outlaws were feared. They roamed around in large gangs and
used violence. They would take money from rich and poor and not give it
to the poor. They would commit arson and also target churches.
How harsh was the system of law and order by the end of the Middle
The system of law and order
WAS harsh
Kings peace
replaced the
wergild no more compensation
for the victim
More public executions even for
petty crimes
Forest Laws created a lot of
hardship for ordinary people

The system of law and order

WAS NOT harsh
Blood feud used under the AngloSaxons was stopped as it created
Trial by ordeal dropped and Trial by
jury became the standard
People could avoid death penalty
by claiming benefit of clergy or
becoming kings approvers

Law and order was not effectively enforced in the Middle Ages?
WAS effective
WAS NOT effective

William I dealt with rebellions

harshly e.g harrying of the north
System of courts, hundred, shire
and royal
effectively policed villages and so
were kept throughout period.
Constable, coroner and Sheriff and
Posse all introduced in the Later
Middle Ages

No proper policing system little

support for victims
Outlaws like Robin Hood
Local lords sometimes ignored the
Kings laws and ran parts of the
country themselves.
Trial by Ordeal used until 1215

Middle Ages exam questions

2a) Briefly describe the different ways people were tried in Anglo-Saxon
times. (5 marks)
2 a) Briefly describe how women were treated by the law in the Middle
Ages. (5 marks)
2b) Explain why Anglo-Saxon laws and Norman laws existed side by side
during much of the Middle Ages. (7 marks)
2b) Explain why William I decided to make changes to the Anglo-Saxon
system of law and order. (7 marks)
2b) Explain how medieval men and women were treated differently by the
law. (7 marks)
2c) How far was the system of law and order LESS harsh by the end of the
Middle Ages? Explain your answer. (8 marks)
2c) Law and order was not enforced effectively in the Middle Ages. How
far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. (8 marks)
2c) The story of Robin Hood does not teach us much about medieval
crime and punishment. How far do you agree with this statement?
Explain your answer. (8 marks)
2c) Between 1066 and the end of the Middle Ages, the system of law and
order in England changed greatly. How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer. (8 marks)

Source practise on the Middle Ages

5b) Study Sources A and B. The systems of law and order

mostly stayed the same in the Middle Ages How far do
you agree? (8 marks)

Protests and rebellions 1300-1700

In the Early Modern period anybody protesting against the government

or the monarch was treated as if they were rebelling or committing
treason. This led to very harsh punishments.

Economic protests
The Great Revolt of 1381
Ordinary peasants marched to London from Kent and Essex demanding
fairer taxes and the freedom to move around the country without
asking their Lords permission. The 14 year old King Richard executed
hundreds as a warning to other rebels.
Ketts rebellion of 1549
A group of around 16,000 marched to Norwich led by a local landowner
named Kett. They were protesting against landowners enclosing their
land to become sheep-farmers, this was a problem because they would
employ less people and turn tenants off their land. They hoped the
King would give the ordinary people some protection against the rich
landowners. Instead the King Edward VI sent an army against them and
executed the leaders.

Religious protests
Pilgrimage of Grace of 1536
30,000 protesters led by a lawyer, Robert Aske wanted England to
return to the Catholic services people were used to, reopen
monasteries which had provided for the poor and cut taxes. The
leaders were arrested and executed brutally. Although they were
peaceful and swore they were loyal to King Henry VIII he still punished
them harshly why? It was partly because they were questioning the
Kings decision over changing the Church services and partly because
Henry was worried about a Catholic invasion
Gunpowder Plot of 1605
Catholic plot to blow up Protestant King James I of England in
Parliament and replace him with a Catholic monarch. England had only
become a Protestant country within the last 100 years and there was a
genuine fear of Catholics. That is why the plotters were harshly treated.
They had also tried to kill the King and this was treason that carried the
death penalty.

Early Modern period 1500-1750

New crimes:
Vagrants and vagabonds
Who? People who walked from place to place with no job or home.
How were they punished? They were punished by being whipped
and returned to their place of birth. Later the law was changed to
slavery for first offence, slavery or execution for second offence. Later
still persistent vagrants might be placed in a House of Correction or
Why did punishments change? Punishments changed over the
period because the number of vagrants increased or decreased
depending on harvests. Also people became more worried about them
committing crimes in difficult times.
Who? People who disagreed with their government over religion.
How were they punished? Heretics were burnt
Why were they punished so harshly? Kings and Queens claim they
were appointed by God. If people had different religious ideas they
might not accept the king had a claim to the throne and start a
rebellion. Also the church was also a good way of controlling people as
there was one in nearly every village. Heretics threatened this control
as they held different religious beliefs. Many saw them as committing a
crime against God.
Exam question (8 marks) Who seen as the bigger threat, vagrants
or heretics?
bigger Heretics
Roamed the countryside in large Believed different religious ideas to
the King / Queen
Often arrived at a village and stole Could divide the country and lead /
many things
join rebellions
Threat to law and order
Were prepared to die for their

Who? Were most likely (but not always) to be old women, living alone,
poor and in need of help. They might be resented because they were a
drain on village resources.
How were they punished? Witches were detected by people like
Matthew Hopkins the Witchfinder General. He was paid for every
witch he found so he found a lot through marks of familiar on their
bodies, the swimming test, the running Test. Once they were proved
to be a witch they were usually hanged.
Why were they punished? Belief in witchcraft peaked just after the
Civil War helped along by King James book about witches and the
development of printing so everyone now heard about trials in other
villages. Protestant preachers taught that the devil was trying to turn
people away from God, all this led to mass hysteria. They were
sometimes blamed for natural disasters like bad harvests or floods as
well as deaths in the village; there was also no scientific explanation for
Who? People who brought goods like tea and brandy in to the country
secretly by boat along the English coast, without paying import taxes
to the government. This made them cheaper and so more people could
afford them. Whole communities/gangs were involved and used
violence against custom officials or informers. There was also a lot of
smuggling because: hard to police; long coastline to patrol; many
people did not see it as a crime.
How were they punished? When caught they would be tried and
Why were they punished? The government took this crime VERY
seriously as it meant a loss of income for them. Smugglers were often
seen as not real criminals because they were only cheating the
government so many ordinary people turned a blind eye. The
government hoped by harsh punishments to deter people from getting
Highway robbers
Who? Travellers would be held up by thieves usually armed with knives
or guns and have their money / possessions stolen. There was so
much highway robbery because in the 1700s more people began
travelling in coaches with lots of cash (few banks to put it in) so there
were more targets on the roads for highway robbers. Local constables
could do little to stop it. There were plenty of lonely places to hold up
coaches with little chance of anyone witnessing the crime and so it was
easier to get away with it.

How were they punished? When caught they were tried and
executed, pubs suspected of being their bases lost their licenses.
How did this crime stop? As more and more people travelled there
was more traffic on the roads and less chance of getting away. As
banking developed people were less likely to carry cash around
Who? Poachers were often poor people who need to kill animals like
deer and rabbits to survive. They thought the landowners were being
selfish and did not see anything wrong with what they were doing.
They had taken animals from the land for generations.
How were they punished? Punishment was very severe through the
Black Act of 1723 e.g the death penalty, even if you werent caught
actually poaching but were in a hunting area. The gamekeepers were
allowed to use violence to stop poachers.
Why were they punished so harshly? A bit like the old Forest Laws
in the Middle Ages these laws protected landowners property so they
could hunt on it. The government were landowners so they passed very
harsh laws.

Which was the MOST SERIOUS crime? (In the Governments view?)
Highway robbery
Many people not see Disrupted trade
Govt loses money
it as a crime.
VERY concerned
Landowners thought Made areas around Too
all game on their London
very officials to police it plus
land belonged to dangerous
huge coastline to cover
The Black Acts that Hard to stop no Carried out by large
made the act of police force; couldnt armed
poaching a capital be tracked across Hawkhurst gang.
offence shows the counties
BUT not much Rich people were Smugglers
threat to govt targeted
which by local communities
the and
reluctant to convict
enough to tell JPs them if they were
to stop licenses for caught


The Bloody Code

This was when punishments became harsher to deter people from
committing crimes. The death penalty was used for minor crimes. It
was brought in to protect private property. Crime like poaching became
a capital offence.
The Bloody Code was brought in because:
Laws were made by big landowners who wanted to protect their
property. They didnt want people hunting on their land or
stealing their animals and so made poaching a capital crime.
People thought crime was increasing (it wasnt) and it would act
as a deterrent
People believed there was a criminal class and this would get rid
of them so society could be better.
The Bloody Code ended because:
It did not act as a deterrent. In fact public executions became a
popular form of entertainment and the people who were executed
were treated as heroes.
Juries did not want to convict people because of the harsh
punishments they felt were unfair so many criminals got no
punishment at all.
New ideas about punishments began to be discussed, like a criminal
could be reformed for example.

Was the Bloody Code a success?

In some ways it was a success
The harsh punishments reassured
people that crime was taken
Laws were passed to protect
private property which benefited
the rich
(although other factors played a

No the Bloody Code was a

failure because
Crime rate went up might as well
commit a serious crime as
punishments were the same
Juries did not want to convict
people as the punishments were so
Public executions did not act as a
deterrent, in fact were sometimes

part here too)

seen as an excuse for more crime.

Abolished in the 19th century when
ideas about reforming criminals
began to be discussed.

3a) Briefly describe how vagrants were punished in the sixteenth century.
(5 marks)
3a) Briefly describe how witches were detected in the 16th and 17th
centuries. (5 marks)
3a) Briefly describe the activities of smugglers. (5 marks)
2a) Briefly describe what kind of people was usually accused of being a
witch in the sixteenth and seventeenth century. (5 marks)
3a) Briefly describe the main features of the Bloody Code. (5 marks)
3b) Explain why eighteenth century laws against poaching were so
unpopular. (7 marks)
3b) Explain why heretics were punished so harshly in the 16th and 17th
centuries. (7 marks)
3b) Explain why there was an increase in highway robbery in the 18th
century. (7 marks)
2b) Explain why there was so much smuggling in the eighteenth century.
(7 marks)
3b) Explain why the Bloody Code was introduced. (7 marks)
2b) Explain why the Gunpowder Plotters were punished so harshly. (7
2b) Explain why there were witch-hunts in the sixteenth and
seventeenth century. (7 marks)
3b) Explain why highway robbery was a serious problem for the
authorities in the eighteenth century. (7 marks)
3c) Highway robbery was a more serious problem than smuggling for
the authorities in the 18th century. How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer. (8 marks)
3c) The Bloody Code was a success. How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer. (8 marks)
3c) The authorities were more worried about poaching than
smuggling. How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your
answer. (8 marks)
2c) Who were the sixteenth and seventeenth century governments more
worried about, vagrants or religious heretics? Explain your answer. (8


Source practise on the Early

Modern period
Source B

5b) Study Source B

The Bloody Code came to an end because the juries
refused to find people guilty. How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer. (8 marks)


Industrial period 1750-1900

Policing in 1800 each village appointed a
constable and watchmen. Horse patrols set up to deal
with highwaymen. Bow Street Runners set up which
were a team of thief-takers who patrolled London in
the evenings. Newspapers like the Hue and Cry pass
on info on criminals but all of this was still not
In 1829 Robert Peel set up a new police force
it was for Central London. 3000 men. Blue uniforms
to stop them looking like the army. They were poorly
paid so open to corruption. New recruits initially poor
quality. Mostly dealt with drunks, vagrants and traffic problems.
Peel was able to set up the police force because:
London was growing very quickly and the old system of watchmen
didnt work. There were 1000s of people and conditions were over
crowded. A new police force was needed for a new situation.
There was a fear of popular protest after the French Revolution
Governments were increasingly involved in improving society and
could raise taxes to pay for a police force
Crime increased sharply after the French wars finished

Were the Police a success?

In some ways the police were a No the police were
success because..
success because
Over the first years they gradually
became respected and were given


At first poor quality of recruits /

high staff turnover due to the poor
pay, they were mocked for being
ineffective at catching criminals or
being drunkards
Crime fell 1850-1900 as they got Not a police force all over the
better at catching criminals
country so it only at affected
London at first
Police force eventually set up all People were really worried that it
over the country and we still have would be an extension of the army
one today
and be a threat to their personal


Prisons were reformed because peoples attitude to prisons were

changing. As they got used much more people like John Howard thought
that people should be sent to prison to reform prisoners so that when they
left prison they would not return. Conditions in them were awful and
Howard thought they should be clean and have running water. He also
wanted all prisoners to have the same food and be made to work hard.
Elizabeth Fry wanted to improve conditions for women in prisons. She
wanted: female warders to look after women in prisons; clothing and
furniture provided; schools for women and children in prisons; regular
work for women in prisons.
The separate system was brought in because many people
thought that prisons had become schools of crime where prisoners
learnt how to commit crime and then committed more when they
got out. So prisoners were kept separate so they couldnt pass on
their experience. By the 1850s over 50 prisons were using the
separate system but it was hugely expensive as special buildings
were needed and there were high suicide and insanity rates.
The silent system critics of the separate system said it was too
harsh and did not reform criminals, just sent them mad. Their
solution was to let prisoners work together but in silence. This was
also cheaper.

Did prisons become harsher in the 19th century?

In some ways prisons DID
become harsher
Use of solitary confinement, hard
labour, separate system. These
methods made it hard for prisoners
to cope and suicides increased
Use of pointless work and corporal
Use of whipping
shocks were cruel


In other ways prisons DID NOT

become harsher
Attempts made at reform, this
meant better conditions: cleaner;
running water; access to doctors
behaviour so there was a reward in
sight if you reformed
electric Gaolers no longer charged fees to
prisoners so prisoners were treated
more equally

Rebecca Riots the rioters dressed up as women and attacked and
destroyed tollgates. Barns and hayricks belonging to landowners burnt.
Police sent form London. Leaders arrested. Some transported.
Why did the Rebecca riots happen? Farmers had to pay taxes to use
roads to transport lime to fertilize their soil. The taxes on the roads
(tollgates) kept going up. The farmers were poor and couldnt afford to

pay the taxes but still needed to use the roads so they rioted. They also
rioted because of the New Poor Law; tithes and different turnpikes.
Peterloo massacre 1819 was when 60,000 people turned up to St
Peters field to Manchester to demand the right to vote. Henry Hunt was
the main speaker and the local authorities were nervous about what might
happen. They feared a rebellion. As he started to speak, local soldiers rode
forward to arrest him. 11 people were killed and 400 wounded.
How successfully did the government deal with Peterloo? Protests were
dispersed; Hunt and other leaders were arrested; 6 acts passed public
meetings of over 50 people were banned, magistrates could search
houses for weapons, seize and destroy newspapers, trials speeded up. But
over reaction by local soldiers caused more opposition; Soldiers turned a
peaceful meeting violent; soldiers over-reacted.
Peterloo was important because men, women and children were killed. It
was a peaceful protest until the local soldiers attacked. The protestors
used it as propaganda. The government were criticised. The government
reacted by bringing in the 6 acts.

Did the Government deal with Rebecca riots or the

Peterloo Massacre better?
Peterloo dealt with better
Demonstrators kept under control
Leaders punished

Rebecca riots dealt with better

Leaders caught and punished
Reforms introduced making Wales

Passing of the 6 acts

Experience of prisoners transported to Australia waited in prison
hulks (ships) before being transported. Conditions on journey harsh but
few died. Assigned to settlers on arrival. Some flogged. Some treated no
better than slaves. Some sent to harsh prison settlements like Tasmania. If
they did well they could get Tickets of leave which meant they were
released early. Some did well after release. Most stayed after release.

Was transportation a success or a failure?

In some ways transportation
was a success.
Courts willing to use it unlike the
Bloody Code
People feared it because families
were split up and conditions were
harsh so it did deter them from

It was expensive and prison was
It was seen as a soft punishment


It did reform convicts some got In 1851 gold was discovered. This
tickets of leave and went on to meant
lead successful lives in Australia
somewhere they might get rich.
It strengthened Britains control
over Australia
Which was most effective?
Took criminals out of Useful while there were
Chance for reform
Better alternative to
Silent and separate Could reform prisoners
criminals mixing
Australia unknown so it
reform Tickets of leave made it
a soft punishment
Silent system led to Did not lead to a fall in
high suicide rates
the crime rate.
Harsh punishments

Crime fell 1850-1900

Seen as an extension
of the army
Seen as a threat to
personal freedom

Impact of industrialisation / growth of cities on crime terrible

conditions in cities led to more crime; created greater wealth so more
chance to steal; more people meant it was easier to escape; old system of
constables inadequate; unemployment / high food prices led to strikes and
protests; community feeling not as great in cities.
Impact of popular protests on crime: Peterloo led to the passing of the 6
acts public meetings were banned and newspapers were made more
expensive. They also led to the use of transportation.
Industrial exam questions
4a) Briefly describe the type of policing that took place around the 1800.
(5 marks)
4a) Briefly describe the police force set up by Peel in the 1830s. (5

4a) Briefly describe what happened during the Rebecca riots. (5 marks)
3a) Briefly describe the experiences of prisoners who were transported
to Australia. (5 marks)
4a) Briefly describe the impact of popular protests on crime and
punishment in the 19th century. (5 marks)
4b) Explain why the separate and silent systems were introduced into
nineteenth century prisons. (7 marks)
4b) Explain why industrialisation in the 19th century led to an increase
in crime. (7 marks)
4b) Explain why Peterloo was important at the time. (7 marks)
3b) Explain why the separate system was introduced to prisons in the
nineteenth century. (7 marks)
3b) Explain why prisons were reformed in the nineteenth century. (7
3b) Explain why Robert Peel was able to set up a police force in 1829. (7
4b) Explain the causes of the Rebecca riots. (7 marks)
4c) Which was the more effective form of punishment, transportation or
prison? Explain your answer. (8 marks)
3c) Prisons became much more harsh during the nineteenth century.
How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. (8 marks)
3c) Transportation was a success. How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer. (8 marks)
4c) The authorities dealt with Peterloo more successfully than they
dealt with the Rebecca riots.
How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer (8 marks)
3c) Which had been the more successful development by the end of the
nineteenth century, prison reform or the development police force.
Explain your answer. (8 marks)
3c) Between 1830 and 1900 the police were a success. How far do
you agree with this statement? (8 marks)

Source practise on the Industrial

1b) Study source B.
Why were prisons reformed? Use the source and your own
knowledge to explain your answer. (7 marks)


5c) Study Source

police force was
established and
nineteenth century, it
not welcomed by the


Use the source and your own

your answer (8 marks)




Twentieth century 1900-2000

The Suffragettes were a group of women who were campaigning for
the vote from 1903-1918. They held public meetings and organised
demonstrations to get their message across, as well as publishing their
own newspapers and posters. They chained themselves to railings outside
10 Downing Street. They set post boxes on fire and committed acts of
arson. In prison they went on hunger strike.

Did the Suffragette campaign help them to get the vote?

Gained publicity for their cause

Brought the issue to peoples Government determined not to give
attention people hadnt paid a lot in to violence
of attention before
Made the government think about Violence frightened people
the issue

Treatment of Suffragettes

i.e. They only received the vote after

public womens contribution to WWI

Conscientious Objectors During WWI 16,000 refused to join the army.

Some believed that war itself was wrong and should not be supported in
any way, others simply did not want to kill people. Many had religious
reasons for these beliefs. Some agreed to do other war work such as
driving ambulances which was extremely dangerous. About 1500 refused
to take any part and after an interview with a tribunal they were
imprisoned and their right to vote taken away until 1923.
Policing The main changes in the way the police worked in the
twentieth century was: riot gear; CS gas; use cars; use of DNA samples;
two way radio; specialist crime squads e.g Anti-Terrorist Squad; use of
computer records.
Juvenile crime there was so much juvenile crime in the twentieth
century because: there were a lot of drug addicts. They needed money to
buy their drugs and so they would mug people and steal items from
shops. Other reasons were: lack of good parenting; unemployment;
punishments were too soft/ too slow; poverty and inequality.

Did wars or recessions have a greater impact on law and

order in the 20th Century?
Created conscientious objectors as Poverty people became poor and
criminals who were imprisoned
so turned to crime as a means to
have a better life.
Shortages led to black markets Unemployment number of jobless
where people bought rationed increased.
Looting after property had been

Twentieth century exam questions

4a) Briefly describe the activities of the Suffragettes. (5 marks)
4a) Briefly describe the main changes in the way the police force worked
in the twentieth century. (5 marks)
4b) Explain why there was so much juvenile crime during the twentieth
century. (7 marks)


4c) Which had the greater impact on law and order in the twentieth
century, war or recessions? Explain your answer. (8 marks)
4c) The Suffragettes did more harm than good to the campaign for the
vote. How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. (8

Source practise on the 20th Century

Study Source C
5c) The Suffragettes did more harm than good to the
campaign for the vote. How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer. (8 marks)

General questions
Religion from the Middle Ages to the nineteenth century religion has
led to: trials by ordeal; heresy being a crime people who disagreed with
their government over religion; witchcraft; attitudes towards prisons in the
nineteenth century.


Some periods have seen rapid change in crime and punishment

because: fear that crime was increasing led to the Bloody Code in the 17 th
and 18th centuries. Industrialisation led to the development of large cities
and the old ways had to change e.g system of watchmen didnt work and
so a police force was developed.
Individuals had more impact
William I Kings peace changed
the ideas about the victims of
Elizabeth Fry and John Howard
with the improvement in prisons.

on crime and punishment than

Romans strong system of laws
and courts, use of jury we still use
18th century introduction of the
Bloody Code to protect the
property of the rich
Robert Peel setting up the police 19th century introduction of police
force in 1829
force and prison reforms through
taxation, accepting the idea that
the government must protect its
people from crime
Religion more important than the government in the history of
crime and punishment:
Middle Ages set up trial by ordeal
William I Kings peace this idea
still lives on in the idea of public
Attitudes towards poverty, poor 18th century introduction of the
people have been placed there by Bloody Code to protect the property
of the rich
Elizabeth Frys religious motivation 19th century introduction of police
to reform prisons
force and prison reforms through
taxation, accepting the idea that
the government must protect its
people from crime
refused to join the Army on religious
General exam questions
4a) Briefly describe the impact of religion on crime and punishment. (5


4b) Explain why some periods have seen rapid changes in crime and
punishment (7 marks)
4c) Individuals have had more impact than governments on
developments in crime and punishment. How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer. (8 marks)
4c) Religion has been more important than government in the history
or crime and punishment. How far do you agree with this statement?
Explain your answer. (8 marks)