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IBChemistry

Practical#

Name:YuichiroSuzuki
Date:May

Determiningstandardenthalpychangesofcombustionforalcohols

Aimandintroduction
Youwilluseasimpleflamecalorimetertomeasure,withthegreatestpossibleaccuracy,thestandard
enthalpiesofcombustionofseveralalcohols.Youwillberequiredtorecordyourresultsandthencarryout
thenecessarycalculationstodeterminethestandardenthalpyofcombustionforthefouralcohols:
methanol,ethanol,propan1olandbutan1ol.Youshouldthenuseyourprocesseddatatoestimate
(graphically)thestandardenthalpyofcombustionofpentan1ol.

Youarerequiredtowriteanappropriateconclusiontoyourexperimentandevaluatetheprocedure.

YouwillbeassessedontheIBcriteria
Analysis
and
Evaluation
.Makesurethatyouunderstandthe
aspectsofeachcriterionbeforeyoustartwritingupyourlab.

Procedure

3
1. Filltheconicalflaskwith100cm
ofwater.Clamptheflaskatasuitableheightsothatthespirit
burnercanbeeasilyplacedbelow.
2.

Weighthespiritburner(andlid)containingthealcohol.

3.

Recordtheinitialtemperatureofthewaterusingthethermometer.

4.

Placethespiritburnerundertheconicalflaskandlightthewick.

5.

Allowthealcoholtoheatthewatersothetemperaturerisesbyabout40C.

6.

Replacethecaptoextinguishtheflame.

7.

Reweighthespiritburnerandcap.

Safety
Weareyeprotection.Donotopenthespiritburner.

Analysis
Useyourresultstofindthestandardenthalpyofcombustionforeachofthefouralcoholsusedinthe
experiment.Usingyourprocesseddatagoontofindanestimateofthestandardenthalpyofcombustionof
pentan1ol.

Evaluation
CheckyourIBmarkingformfordetailsofwhatyouneedtodo!

IBChemistry
Practical#

Name:YuichiroSuzuki
Date:May

RawData:
Typesof
Alcohols

Amountof
waterused
3
(cm
)+/0.5

Initial
temperatureof
o
water(
C)+/
0.5

Final
temperatureof
o
water(
C)+/
0.5

Initialmassof
alcoholwith
thecontainer
(g)+/0.01

Finalmass
alcoholwith
thecontainer
(g)+/0.01

Butanol

100.0

25.5

65.5

212.38

210.20

Methanol

100.0

30.0

70.0

202.33

200.96

Ethanol

100.0

25.0

65.0

209.14

207.62

1propanol

100.0

28.5

68.5

201.42

199.95

QuantitativeObservations:
Qualitativeobservationforbutanol:
bottomoftheGlassisburning
darkeningofcolor
bubbling
strangeodor
largerflame

Qualitativeobservationformathanol:
flaskisfogging
o
steamat54
C

ethanol
yellowishorangeflame,alittlebitofblue
=>nottoohotflame
burntodor
waterbubblesat58oC

1propanol
yellowishorangeflame,alittlebitofblue
=>nottoohotflame
burntodor
longerflamethanethanol

BalancedEquations:
Butanol

C
H
OH+60

5H
O+4CO
4
9
2
2
2

Methanol

CH
OH+ 32 O

2H
O+CO
3
2
2
2

Ethanol

C
H
OH+3O

3H
O+2CO
2
5
2
2
2

propan1ol

C
H
OH+5O

5H
O+3CO
3
9
2
2
2

ProcessedData:

ChangeinT

Changein
Mass

RMM

Q(J)

mol

kJ/mol

Butanol

40

2.18

C4H9OH
74.26

16720

.0295

567

Methanol

40

1.37

CH3OH
32.05

16720

0.0428

391

Ethanol

40

1.52

C2H5OH
46.08

16720

0.033

507

propan1ol

40

1.47

C3H9OH
62.13

16720

0.0245

682

IBChemistry
Practical#

Name:YuichiroSuzuki
Date:May

SampleCalculation:
HeatEnergyofWater
Q=mcT
o
Q=100g4.1840.0
C
Q=16720J

EnthalpychangeofButanol
H=Q/n
H=16.720kJ/0.0295mol
H=567kJ

PercentUncertaintyofMethanol

Uncertaintyofmassbalance:
0.01g
ChangeinMassofMethanol:
1.37+/0.02g
Percentuncertaintyofmass:
(0.02/1.37)*100=
1.46%

Uncertaintyofthermometer:
o
0.5
C
ChangeinTemperatureof
o
Methanol:40+/1
C
Percentuncertaintyof
Temperature:(1/40)*100=
2.5%

Uncertaintyofmeasuring
3
cylinder:100cm
3
VolumeofWater:100cm
+/0.5
Percentuncertaintyofwater:
(0.5/100)*100=
0.5%

TotalPercentUncertaintymethane:1.45%+2.5%+0.5%=4.464.5%

Graph:

IBChemistry
Practical#

Name:YuichiroSuzuki
Date:May

Analysis:
Accordingtomyexperiment,thetrendbetweenEnthalpychangeandRMMcanbeexpressedby:
y=5.1233x+261.99,ybeingtheenthalpychangeandxbeingtheRMM
Usingthisequation,IamabletoestimatetheenthalpyofcombustionofPentan1ol(C5H11OH).
y=5.1233(88.17)+261.99
y=713.7
Thustheestimatedstandardenthalpyofcombustionofpentan1olis714kJ/mol

Percentuncertainty

Butanol

3.9%

Methanol

4.5%

Ethanol

4.3%

Propan1ol

4.4%

ExperimentalError
={[714kJ/mol(3509kJ/mol)]/3509kJ/mol} 100
=80%

IBChemistry
Practical#

Name:YuichiroSuzuki
Date:May

Evaluation:

Systematicerrors
1. Heatislosttothesurrounding
a. weassumedthatthealloftheenergyismakingthecombustion.
2. Carbonisproduced(evidentbytheblackstuffonthebottomandblackgas)
3. Heatcapacityofbeakerandothermaterials
4. Themassofwatermightnothavebeenconstantthroughouttheheatingprocess.Someofthe
watermighthaveevaporatedoff,suggestingamassloss.Thiswouldthengivedifferentresults.

Improvements
Considertheheatcapacityofthematerialsandcalculatethem
Useshieldstohelpreduceheatlosstothesurrounding
Increasethenumberoftrialsforeachalcoholandtaketheaverageoftheresultstoincreaseaccuracy
Useinsulatortokeeptheheatfromgoingoutoftheflask
Useastopperwithaholesothattherewillbelesswaterevaporated

Inadditiontothesystematicerrors,Ihadanoutlierthatinfluencedmydataquiteabit.ThusifIthe
secludedthisoutlier,theerrorwillbemuchless.Thisisthegraphofthosepointssecludingtheoutlier.

Nowthatthegraphhaschanged,theslopechangedaswell.ThenewtrendbetweenEnthalpychangeand
RMMcanbeexpressedby:
y=9.7035x+72.995,ybeingtheenthalpychangeandxbeingtheRMM

Usingthisequation,newestimateoftheenthalpyofcombustionofPentan1ol(C5H11OH)is:
y=9.7035(88.17)+261.99
y=1117.5
Thustheexperimentalerrorwillbereducedto:
={[1117.5kJ/mol(3509kJ/mol)]/3509kJ/mol} 100
=68%

Asyoucanseethetheexperimentalhasreducedby12%.Thissuggeststhatifwedidtheexperimentagain
forbutane,whichwastheoutlier,andgetanaccurateresult,theerrorwillminimizeevenmore.