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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 HSC Physics Topic 3 FROM IDEAS to IMPLEMENTATION What is

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

HSC Physics Topic 3

FROM IDEAS to IMPLEMENTATION

What is this topic about?

To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of:

1. FROM CATHODE RAYS to TELEVISION 2. FROM RADIO to PHOTOCELLS: QUANTUM THEORY 3. FROM ATOMS to COMPUTERS: SEMICONDUCTORS 4. FROM CRYSTALS to SUPERCONDUCTORS

in the context of how Physics has contributed to modern technology

all

but first, an introduction

The History of Physics

is marked by a number of “landmark” discoveries that changed our understanding of the Universe

Newton’s Laws of Motion, and Gravitation, and

Einstein’s Theory of Relativity have already been studied.

This topic covers a number of other great discoveries, experiments and scientists, so it is definitely a study of the History of Physics, from about 1850 into the 20th century.

However, it is not just history. Along the way, you will be studying some concepts, theories and facts that are vital to your overall understanding of this subject.

About the Same Time

as Cathode Rays were becoming understood, other scientists were studying electromagnetic radiation and obscure phenomena such as the “Photoelectric Effect”.

No-one could have guessed that this led to, not only the radio and mobile phone, but to solar cells

Photo: Oliver Ransom Solar cells being used to make electricity on a remote outback property
Photo: Oliver Ransom
Solar cells being used to
make electricity on a
remote outback property
and Meanwhile, In addition, as you learn both the history and some of the foundation
and Meanwhile,
In addition, as you learn both the history and some of the
foundation ideas of modern Physics, you will see that much
of our modern technology is a direct result these
discoveries
When “Cathode Rays”
were being studied
between 1850-1900,
people said
“interesting, but what’s
the use of it??”
Little did they know
the unravelling of atomic
structure and study of
electrical conductivity in
“weird” substances like
Germanium and Silicon,
led to the discovery of
“semiconductors”.
The invention of the
transistor followed
basis of all modern
the
Photo: John de
Boer
electronics and computer systems.
Photo: Peter Hamza
the
study of
Cathode Rays led
directly to the
invention of the
TV set, so familiar
today.
and the Study of Crystal Structure
led to the discovery of
Superconductors,
the applications of which are only just
beginning to be implemented.
Photo: Adam Page
www.atomdriven.com

HSC Physics Topic 3

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

CONCEPT DIAGRAM (“Mind Map”) OF TOPIC

Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts. As you proceed through the topic, come back to this page regularly to see how each bit fits the whole. At the end of the notes you will find a blank version of this “Mind Map” to practise on.

F = QE & E = V d
F
= QE
&
E
=
V
d

Confirmation of EMR. Measurement of “c”

E = V d Confirmation of EMR. Measurement of “c” F = QvBsinθθ Behaviour of a
F = QvBsinθθ
F = QvBsinθθ

Behaviour of a Charged Particle in

a Magnetic Field

Discovery of the

Electron Thompson’s Experiment

Failure to

follow-uup

Electron Thompson’s Experiment Failure to follow -u u p Revision of Electric Fields The TV screen.

Revision of

Electric Fields

The TV screen. Main parts and their role

Electric Fields The TV screen. Main parts and their role Revision of “Black Body Radiation” Hertz’s

Revision of

“Black Body

Radiation”

and their role Revision of “Black Body Radiation” Hertz’s Discovery of Radio Waves Cathode Rays.

Hertz’s

Discovery of

Radio Waves

Cathode Rays.

Discovery &

Properties

Plank’s Quantum Theory Einstein’s Contribution
Plank’s
Quantum
Theory
Einstein’s
Contribution

Particle-WWave

Duality

of Light

E = hf and c = f λλ
E
= hf
and
c
= f λλ
-W W ave Duality of Light E = hf and c = f λλ Differing views

Differing views

on

Science’s place

in society

f λλ Differing views on Science’s place in society From RADIO to PHOTOCELLS: Quantum Theory From

From RADIO to PHOTOCELLS:

Quantum Theory

in society From RADIO to PHOTOCELLS: Quantum Theory From CATHODE RAYS to TELEVISION FFrroomm IIDDEEAASS ttoo

From CATHODE RAYS to TELEVISION

FFrroomm IIDDEEAASS ttoo IIMMPPLLEEMMEENNTTAATTIIOONN
FFrroomm IIDDEEAASS
ttoo
IIMMPPLLEEMMEENNTTAATTIIOONN
FFrroomm IIDDEEAASS ttoo IIMMPPLLEEMMEENNTTAATTIIOONN Photoelectric Effect & Applications: • solar
FFrroomm IIDDEEAASS ttoo IIMMPPLLEEMMEENNTTAATTIIOONN Photoelectric Effect & Applications: • solar
FFrroomm IIDDEEAASS ttoo IIMMPPLLEEMMEENNTTAATTIIOONN Photoelectric Effect & Applications: • solar

Photoelectric

Effect

&

Applications:

• solar cells

• photocells

From CRYSTALS to SUPERCONDUCTORS

cells • photocells From CRYSTALS to SUPERCONDUCTORS From ATOMS to COMPUTERS Revision of Atomic Structure
cells • photocells From CRYSTALS to SUPERCONDUCTORS From ATOMS to COMPUTERS Revision of Atomic Structure

From ATOMS

to COMPUTERS

From CRYSTALS to SUPERCONDUCTORS From ATOMS to COMPUTERS Revision of Atomic Structure & Structures of Solid
From CRYSTALS to SUPERCONDUCTORS From ATOMS to COMPUTERS Revision of Atomic Structure & Structures of Solid

Revision of

Atomic Structure

&

Structures of Solid Lattices

The Braggs & X-rray Crystalography

“Band Theory” of Conductors, Insulators & Semiconductors

Conductivity in

Metals.

Superconductivity

Current & Potential Applications of Superconductivity

Current & Potential Applications of Superconductivity Electrons & “Holes” in Conductivity “Doping”. n
Current & Potential Applications of Superconductivity Electrons & “Holes” in Conductivity “Doping”. n

Electrons & “Holes” in Conductivity

Electrons & “Holes” in Conductivity “Doping”. n -t t ype & p -t t ype Semiconductors
Electrons & “Holes” in Conductivity “Doping”. n -t t ype & p -t t ype Semiconductors

“Doping”. n-ttype & p-ttype Semiconductors

Valves to Transistors to Microprocessors Impacts on Society

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 1. FROM CATHODE RAYS TO TELEVISION

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

1. FROM CATHODE RAYS TO TELEVISION

Discovery of Cathode Rays

By the 1850’s, scientists had developed the technology to produce quite high voltages of electricity and to make sealed glass tubes from which most of the air had been removed using a vacuum pump.

It wasn’t long before these 2 things were combined, and some mysterious phenomena were discovered.

You may have done some laboratory investigations with “Discharge Tubes” as follows

Each tube contains a different pressure of gas. (All are very low pressure, but some lower than others.) High voltage from an induction coil is applied to each tube in turn.

from an induction coil is applied to each tube in turn. The result is that each
from an induction coil is applied to each tube in turn. The result is that each

The result is that each tube shows glowing streamers, or light and dark bands, or glows at the end(s).

The patterns change at different gas pressures.

At the very lowest pressure, there is no glow from gas in the tube, but the glass itself glows at one end of the tube.

It was soon established that whatever was causing these glows or “discharges” in the tubes was coming from the

these emissions were

negative electrode, or “cathode” called “Cathode Rays”.

so

Over the following 20 years these mysterious “rays” were studied by many scientists, most notably Sir William Crookes. He devised so many clever variations on these Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT’s) that they were known as “Crookes Tubes”.

You will have seen, in the school laboratory, a number of different CRT’s and repeated many of Crookes’s famous experiments

Experiments with CRT’s

Maltese Cross Tube

CATHODE ( -vve) Shadow of the cross in the glow at the end of the
CATHODE ( -vve)
Shadow of the
cross in the
glow at the end
of the tube
ANODE (+ve)
in the shape
of a Maltese
Cross

What does this prove? Cathode Rays travel in straight lines, from the Cathode.

Furthermore, Crookes tried this experiment with many

different metals as his electrodes. The type of metal made

no difference

the materials used.

Cathode Rays are identical, regardless of

Tube With a Fluorescent Screen

BBeeaamm ooff CCaatthhooddee RRaayyss ccaauussiinngg aa fflluuoorreesscceenntt ssccrreeeenn ttoo ggllooww Fluorescence
BBeeaamm ooff CCaatthhooddee RRaayyss ccaauussiinngg aa fflluuoorreesscceenntt ssccrreeeenn ttoo ggllooww
Fluorescence was known
to be caused by certain
waves, such as ultra-
violet (UV) rays

Tube With a Rotating Paddle-Wheel

WWhheeeell ssppiinnss wwhheenn ccaatthhooddee rraayyss ssttrriikkee tthhee ppaaddddlleess TThhiiss sshhoowwss tthhaatt
WWhheeeell ssppiinnss wwhheenn ccaatthhooddee
rraayyss ssttrriikkee tthhee ppaaddddlleess
TThhiiss sshhoowwss tthhaatt tthhee rraayyss
hhaavvee mmoommeennttuumm,, aanndd
tthheerreeffoorree hhaavvee mmaassss

This evidence from these various experiments was very

inconsistent

suggested they are particles, other results suggested they are waves.

some of the features of cathode rays

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 Tube Containing Electric Plates CCRRTT wwiitthh fflluuoorreesscceenntt ssccrreeeenn

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Tube Containing Electric Plates

CCRRTT wwiitthh fflluuoorreesscceenntt ssccrreeeenn BBeeaamm ooff ccaatthhooddee rraayyss oonn ssccrreeeenn WWhheenn
CCRRTT wwiitthh
fflluuoorreesscceenntt
ssccrreeeenn
BBeeaamm ooff
ccaatthhooddee rraayyss oonn
ssccrreeeenn
WWhheenn vvoollttaaggee
iiss aapppplliieedd ttoo
tthhee ppllaatteess,, tthhee
bbeeaamm ddeefflleeccttss
EElleeccttrriicc ppllaatteess
oonn eeiitthheerr ssiiddee
ooff bbeeaamm
((nnoo vvoollttaaggee
aapppplliieedd yyeett))
-ve
+ve

What does this prove? Cathode Rays must be a stream of charged particles.

In fact, by considering the charge on the plates above, it follows that the particles must be negatively charged, because the beam is deflected by repulsion from the negative plate, and attraction towards the positive.

Early Confusion About Cathode Rays

Unfortunately, when the early experimenters tried something similar to the above, they did NOT detect a deflection of the beam. So, they concluded there was NO charge associated, and were confused about the nature of the Cathode Rays.

Evidence that CR’s were Waves:

Cathode Rays:

• Travel in straight lines like light waves.

• Cause fluorescence, like ultra-violet waves.

• Can “expose” photographic film, as light does.

Evidence that CR’s were Particles Cathode Rays:

• Carry kinetic energy and momentum, and therefore must have mass.

• Carry negative electric charge. (but this vital clue was missed!)

This debate was finally settled by a famous experiment you will study soon

In 1897, J.J. Thomson showed that cathode rays had both mass and negative charge.

He had discovered the electron.

Note that all these investigations and discoveries involved the Cathode Ray Tube a relatively simple device that allows the manipulation of a stream of charged particles.

Revision of Electric Fields

In a Preliminary Course topic you learned that:

• Electric Charges exert force on each other

like

opposite

charges REPEL each other.

charges ATTRACT each other

• Charges act as if surrounded by a “Force Field”.

FIELDS AROUND “POINT” CHARGES

By definition, the direction of + the field is the way a positive charge would
By definition,
the direction of
+
the field is the
way a positive
charge would
move in the
field
-
+ - Attraction
+
-
Attraction

FIELDS BETWEEN “POINT” CHARGES

Repulsion + +
Repulsion
+
+

The strength of the field is defined as the force per unit

of

charge experienced by a charge in the field

E =

F

Q

However, in this topic we are more interested in calculating forces, so

F = Q.E

is more useful.

F

= Force, in newtons (N), experience by the charge.

Q

= Electric charge in coulombs (C).

E

=Electric field strength, in newtons per coulomb (NC -1 )

Note: In this topic the most common charged particle we deal with is the electron. The value of its charge is Qe = ( -)1.602 x 10 -19 C. Get used to this very small value.

Example Calculation:

In the CRT shown at top left of this page, a stream of

electrons passes between 2 electrically charge plates. The electric field strength is 400NC -1 . What is the force acting on each electron?

Solution:

F = Q.E

= -1.602x10 -19 x 400

= -6.41x10 -17 N.

The negative sign simply means that the direction of the force will be in the opposite direction to the electric field.

TRY THE WORKSHEET at the end of this section.

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 Electric Field Between Parallel Charged Plates The field around and

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Electric Field Between Parallel Charged Plates

The field around and between point charges is irregular in direction, and varies in strength at every point. The field between parallel charge plates, however, is uniform in strength and direction at every point (except at the edges). The direction of the field is the way a positive charge would move.

Positively (+ve) + charged plate Negatively (-ve) Uniform Field
Positively (+ve)
+
charged plate
Negatively (-ve)
Uniform Field

charged plate

- Between Plates

The strength of the field depends on the Voltage applied

to

the plates, and the distance between them:

E =

V

 

d

E

= Electric Field strength, in NC -1 .

V

= Voltage applied to the plates, in volts (V).

d

= distance between the plates, in metres (m).

Example Calculation:

Two parallel plates are 1.25cm apart.(convert to metres)

A voltage of 12.0V is applied across the plates.

What is the magnitude of the field between the plates?

Solution:

E = V / d

= 12.0 / 0.0125

= 960NC -1 .

TRY THE WORKSHEET at the end of the section.

Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field

In the previous topic you learned that when an electric current flows through a magnetic field, the wire

experiences a force

the “Motor Effect”.

Now you need to realise that the reason is that every electric charge, if moving through a magnetic field, will experience a force.

You may have seen the following experiment with a CRT in the laboratory:

CRT with fluorescent screen. Cathode Ray beam goes straight across. If a magnet is brought
CRT with fluorescent screen.
Cathode Ray beam goes
straight across.
If a magnet is
brought near, the
beam deflects.
SS
A force is acting
on the moving
charged particles.

The size of the force can be calculated as follows:

F = QvBsinθθ

F = Force acting, in newtons (N).

Q = Electric charge, in coulombs (C).

v = velocity of the charged particle, in ms -1 .

B= Magnetic Field strength, in Tesla (T). θ = Angle between the velocity vector and
B= Magnetic Field strength, in Tesla (T).
θ = Angle between the velocity vector and magnetic
Field vector lines.
θ
B
Since sin90 o = 1,
and sin0 o = 0,
Mag.
then maximum force occurs
Field
when the charge moves at right angles to the field.

Example Calculation:

How do you know the direction of the force? Remember the Right-Hand Palm Rule?

In the CRT above, the cathode rays (electrons; Qe=-1.602x10 -19 C) are moving at a velocity of 2.50x10 6 ms -1 . The magnet provides a field of 0.0235T. Held as shown, the field lines are at an angle of 70 o to the beam. What force acts on each electron?

Velocity vector, v B Force, F
Velocity vector, v
B
Force, F

Magnetic

Field

Velocity vector, v B Force, F Magnetic Field
 

Solution:

F = QvBsinθθ

= -1.602x10 -19 x2.50x10 6 x0.0235xsin70 o

However, this applies to positive (+ve) charges. For negative charges ( -ve) the force is in the

opposite direction

back of hand side.

= -8.84 x 10 -15 N. (negative sign simply refers to direction)

Can you verify the upward deflection in the photo above is consistent with theory?

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 Discovery of the Electron Thomson’s Experiment In 1897, the confusion

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Discovery of the Electron Thomson’s Experiment

In 1897, the confusion and debate about Cathode rays was settled by one of the most famous, and critically important, experiments in the history of Science.

The British physicist J.J. Thomson set up an experiment in which cathode rays could be
The British physicist J.J. Thomson set up an experiment in
which cathode rays could be passed through both an
electric field, and through a magnetic field, at the same
time.
Electric Field Effect
(charged plates)
+ve
Cathode Rays
E down page
-ve
Variable voltage
Fluorescent screen to
measure deflection
Variable voltage Fluorescent screen to measure deflection Magnetic Field Effect (Adjustable Electromagnets) Cathode

Magnetic Field Effect (Adjustable Electromagnets)

Cathode Rays B into page
Cathode Rays
B into page

Thomson was able to adjust the strengths of the 2 fields so that their opposite effects exactly cancelled out, and the beam went straight through to the centre of the screen.

At this point,

Force due to = Force due to

Electric Field

Magnetic Field

Since the strengths of the fields could be calculated from the currents and voltages applied to the plates and electromagnets, Thomson was able to calculate the ratio between the charge and mass of the cathode rays. Charge to mass ratio = Q

m

This established beyond doubt that cathode rays were particles, not waves.

Furthermore, he repeated the experiment with many different cathode materials and always got the same result. This meant that the exact same cathode ray particles were coming from every type of atom.

Other experimenters had already determined the charge- mass ratio for the hydrogen atom (the smallest atom). It was apparent that the cathode ray particle was much smaller than a hydrogen atom. The conclusion was that all atoms must be made of smaller parts, one of which was the “cathode ray particle”, soon re-named “ELECTRON”.

This was a vital piece of knowledge for better understanding of atoms and electricity, and the development of many new technologies.

How a TV Screen Works

Thomson used a fluorescent screen at the end of his CRT

to detect and measure the deflection of the cathode rays

(electrons). Over the following 30 years, CRT technology evolved into the television screen. By the middle of the 20th century, TV was developing to become the major system for home entertainment and by the 1980’s the same screens became the vital display units for computers.

Photo: Peter Hamza
Photo: Peter Hamza

A TV “picture-tube” is really just a more sophisticated

version of Thomson’s CRT. The image on the screen is made up of thousands of spots of light, created as cathode rays strike a fluorescent screen on the inside of the glass.

The 3 main parts of a TV picture-tube are:

The Electron Gun produces the beam of cathode rays (electrons).

The electrons leave a cathode, and are accelerated towards a series of anodes by the high voltage electric field between them, just like in the CRT’s of Crookes or Thompson.

The Deflection Plates are used to deflect the beam to create spots of light at different points on the screen.

One set of charged plates are arranged so the field can deflect the beam up or down. Another set are arranged at

right angles to cause deflection left or right.

Between them, the sets of plates can “steer” the beam onto any point on the screen.

The Fluorescent Screen glows with light when the electron beam strikes the fluorescent chemical coated on the inside of the glass.

The total image is built from many thousands of light-spots (“pixels” = picture elements). The illusion of movement is achieved by replacing each full-screen picture many times per second.

To produce colour TV there are actually 3 electron guns, and 3 sets of deflection plates. Three separate beams are steered onto separate spots of fluorescent chemicals which glow red, green or blue (RGB). The final colour is a combination of these 3 colours combined.

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 Worksheet 1 Part A Fill in the blanks. Check answers

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Worksheet 1

Part A Fill in the blanks. Check answers at the back.

The discovery of

a)

Rays was

An electric u)

is created around

made with simple “b)

tubes”

anything with electric charge. The direction of

from which most of the air was removed with a

the

field

is

defined

as

v)

c)

pump. When high

d)

was applied to electrodes at

Any charge within a field will experience a

each end of the tube, it would produce a variety

w)

The

field between 2

of

e)

and

x)

plates is

 

, The exact pattern changed as

uniform in both y)

and

the f)

in the tube was

,

and is determined by

altered. It was discovered that the effects were due to mysterious emissions coming from the

the z) and the aa)

applied to the plates between them.

cathode (or g)

electrode).

Electric charges also experience a force if they

About the 1870’s, Sir William h)

are

ab)

through

a

and others, built special CRT’s to study the

ac)

field.

This

is

easily

cathode rays. The famous “i)

observed by bringing a ad)

 

near

cross” tube showed that the rays travelled in

a

CRT with a fluorescent screen; the magnet

straight lines. Tubes with j)

causes the beam to ae)

 

screens showed that the rays caused fluorescence,

The direction of the force and the deflection of

and tubes equipped with a “paddle-wheel”

the

CR

beam

is

easily

determined

by

the

proved that the rays carried both k) energy and l)

“af)

Rule.

In 1897, J.J. ag)

 

used the

Unfortunately, attempts to detect deflection by

deflection

of

a

CR

beam

by

both

applying an m)

field were

ah)

and

unsuccessful,

so

for

many

years

there

was

fields

to

measure

the

ratio

of

confusion

over

whether

CR’s

were

ai)

of

a cathode

n)

or

ray. This established, beyond doubt, that CR’s are

 

aj)

and are a small part contained

Evidence they were waves:

within

all

ak)

Thomson

had

• CR’s travel in o)

like light.

discovered the al)

The

• They cause p)

like UV

simple CRT was later used as the basis to invent

screen.

rays.

the am)

• They can expose q)

Evidence they were particles:

• Carry r)

and therefore must have s)

• Carry t)

and

electric charge

COMPLETED WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

The main parts of the “picture tube” are:

• The an) produces a beam of ao) ap)

towards a series of aq) • The ar) electric fields to as) onto the screen.

• The at)

forms the image when fluorescent chemicals

light when

screen, which

plates, which use the beam

Gun, which from a and accelerates them

au) struck by av)

with spots of

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 Part B Practice Problems Field Between Charged Plates & Force

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Part B Practice Problems

Field Between Charged Plates & Force on a Charge

1. Two parallel plates are 4.00cm apart in a

vacuum tube. A voltage of 50.0V is applied across the plates. An alpha particle with charge of (+)3.20x10 -19 C

passes between the plates.

a) What is the size of the electric field between

the plates?

Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field

6.

An electron (Q=-1.60x10 -19 C) is travelling north

at 3.00x10 7 ms -1 in a cathode ray tube when it

enters a magnetic field of strength 4.96x10 -2 T.

The field is directed vertically upwards through the CRT. Find the magnitude and direction of the force experienced by the electron.

b)

What force will act on the alpha particle?

7.

c)

Describe the direction of the

In

a nuclear accelerator, a charged ion has been

i) field

accelerated up to a velocity of 2.90x10 8 ms -1 . As it

ii)

force

enters a magnetic field of strength 8.05T (field is

relative to the +ve and -ve plates.

perpendicular to ion’s velocity vector) it experiences a force of magnitude 3.75x10 -9 N.

2.

An electron (Q=-1.60x10 -19 C) experiences a

What is the magnitude of the charge on the ion?

force of -7.82x10 -15 N within an electric field created by parallel plates which are 2.50mm apart.

a) Find the size of the electric field.

b) Find the voltage applied to the plates.

3. A speck of dust carrying a static electric

charge, experiences a force of 2.29x10 -12 N in a

field produced by 2 plates 5.00cm apart. A 200V

potential difference is applied across the plates.

a) Find the strength of the field between the

8.

A

(+)1.60x10 -19 C (it is in fact a proton) encounters the Earth’s magnetic field at an angle of 25 o to the field lines. At this point the field has a strength of 5.48x10 -4 T. The proton experiences a force of 7.40x10 -15 N. Find the velocity of the proton.

particle of

the solar wind with charge of

plates.

9.

b) What charge does the speck of dust carry?

In

an experiment similar to Thomson’s, a stream

c) The static charge was created when some

electrons were either removed from, or added to, the speck of dust.

How many electrons were added or removed?

d) The speck of dust was observed to move

toward the negative plate. Did the speck lose or gain electrons?

4. Two parallel plates have a 40.0V potential

difference between them. An electron between them experiences a force of (-)5.88x10 -17 N.

How far apart are the plates?

5. In an inkjet printer, small droplets of ink are

given an electric charge, then “steered” onto the paper by accelerating them in electric fields to achieve the desired velocities and directions.

What force would be experienced by a droplet with charge of (+)9.75x10 -10 C, which is between parallel plates with potential difference of 100V, and separated by 5.00mm?

of electrons in a CRT are each experiencing a

magnitude 4.06x10 -15 N when travelling

through a perpendicular magnetic field at a velocity of 7.80x10 6 ms -1 .

a) What is the strength of the magnetic field?

force of

The force on the electrons is exactly counteracted

by an electric field produced by charged plates

which are 8.00mm apart.

b) What is the strength of the electric field?

c) What is the voltage being applied across the

plates?

FULLY WORKED SOLUTIONS IN THE ANSWERS SECTION

Remember that for full marks in calculations, you need to show FORMULA, NUMERICAL SUBSTITUTION, APPROPRIATE PRECISION and UNITS

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 2. FROM RADIO to PHOTOCELLS: QUANTUM THEORY

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

2. FROM RADIO to PHOTOCELLS: QUANTUM THEORY

The Radio Experiments of Hertz

electromagnetic radiation

(EMR) had been around for 20 years, but no-one had found proof that these waves existed. Until, that is, the famous experiment of Heinrich Hertz in 1887.

By the 1880’s, the theory of

Using the familiar “induction coil” to produce sparks across a gap, Hertz showed that some invisible waves were being produced he had discovered radio waves.

RRaaddiioo wwaavveess EEmmiitttteedd ffrroomm Sparks produced in small gap in receiving loop ssppaarrkk spark gap
RRaaddiioo wwaavveess
EEmmiitttteedd ffrroomm
Sparks produced in
small gap in receiving
loop
ssppaarrkk
spark
gap
High-voltage
Wire loop acts as a receiving
antenna.
The radio waves induce
currents in the wire, and sparks
in the gap.
Induction coil

Hertz went on to experiment with these invisible waves and showed that they could be reflected, refracted, polarized and diffracted just like light waves. The clincher was when he measured their velocity and got an answer of 3x10 8 ms -1 the speed of light!

This was powerful evidence supporting the theory that light was just one of a whole spectrum of Electromagnetic waves that had been predicted earlier.

How did Hertz measure the speed of the radio waves?

He reflected the radio waves (from metal sheets) so that they set up interference patterns. By moving his “receiving loop” around the lab. he could measure exactly where the peaks of interference occurred (where the waves added in amplitude). From this, the wavelengths of the waves were calculated.

The frequency could be determined from the settings of his wave transmitter.

Then the wave equation was used:

V = λλ.f

He found the radio waves travelled at the speed of light.

In recognition of Hertz’s contribution to our knowledge of waves, the unit of wave frequency (Hz) is named in his honour.

Within another 20 years, radio was being used for long- distance communications using morse code. Within 100 years the world was blanketed with radio transmissions for communication and entertainment.

Investigating Radio Waves You may have done some simple studies in the laboratory, such as:
Investigating Radio Waves
You may have done some simple studies in the
laboratory, such as:
Array of wire connected to
induction coil acts as a
transmitting antenna
The induction coil’s
high-voltage
sparking produces
all sorts of EMR,
including radio,
light, UV & even
X-rays
RRaaddiioo rreecceeiivveerr ppiicckkss uupp
lloouudd bbuurrssttss ooff nnooiissee,,
ffrroomm ssoommee ddiissttaannccee aawwaayy
IInndduuccttiioonn ccooiill && PPoowweerr PPaacckk
By adding a “tapping key” switch to the transmitter
circuit, it is easy to send messages to the receiver in the
form of “dots-and-dashes” of static noise.

What Hertz Failed to Investigate

In one of his many experiments with the new waves he had discovered, Hertz found that his “receiving loop” became more sensitive and sparked more if it was exposed to other radiations coming from his transmitter.

He didn’t realize the significance of this observation, and failed to follow up on it.

We now know (with perfect hind-sight) that he had produced the “Photoelectric Effect”:

Ultra-violet rays give their energy to electrons on the metal surface.

rays give their energy to electrons on the metal surface. This can eject an electron from

This can eject an electron from the surface so sparks are more likely.

Wire of receiving loop. Spark gap
Wire of receiving loop.
Spark gap

Later, this phenomenon was used by Einstein as proof of

the new “Quantum Theory”

read on.

This Photoelectric Effect was exploited in the 20th century to develop the technology of photocells and solar cells.

Solar Cells
Solar
Cells

HSC Physics Topic 3

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 Black Body Radiation In a previous Preliminary topic (“Cosmic Engine”)

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Black Body Radiation

In a previous Preliminary topic (“Cosmic Engine”) you learned about the way that energy is radiated from hot objects. A “perfect” emitter of radiation had become known as a “black-body”

Amount of Energy Radiated

BLACK BODY

Amount of Energy Radiated BLACK BODY RADIATION CURVES very hot “peak” object wavelength shorter hot “peak”
RADIATION CURVES very hot “peak” object wavelength shorter
RADIATION
CURVES
very hot
“peak”
object
wavelength
shorter
hot “peak” object wavelength warm object “peak” wavelength longer shorter longer
hot
“peak”
object
wavelength
warm
object
“peak” wavelength
longer
shorter
longer

Wavelength of Radiation

It was well known that as a “black body” became hotter, it not only emitted more energy as radiation, but that the wavelength of the peak of the radiation became shorter, and frequency became higher.

The problem was that the standard Physics theories of the time could not explain the shape of these graphs, which were obtained from experiment.

Plank’s Quantum Theory

In 1900, Max Plank proposed a radical new theory to explain the black body radiation. He found that the only way to explain the exact details coming from the experiments, was that the energy was quantised: emitted or absorbed in “little packets” called “quanta” (singular “quantum”).

The existing theories of “classical” Physics assumed that the amount of energy carried (say) by a light wave could have any value, on a continuous scale. Plank’s theory was that the energy could only take certain values, based on “units” or quanta of energy.

It’s the same as with matter: The smallest amount of (say) carbon you can have is 1 atom. Then you can have 2 atoms, 3 atoms and so on, BUT you cannot have 1/2 atoms of

carbon

minimum “quantum”. Well, says Plank, energy is the same!

the matter is quantised, with whole atoms as the

Plank’s Quantum Theory proposed that the amount of energy carried by a “quantum” of light is related to the frequency of the light:

E = h.f

E

= energy of a quantum, in joules ( J)

h

= “Plank’s constant”, which has a value of 6.63x10 -34

f

= frequency of the wave, in hertz (Hz)

You are reminded also, of the wave equation:

c = velocity of light (in vacuum) = 3.00x10 8 ms -1 . λ = wavelength, in metres (m).

f = frequency, in hertz (Hz)

V = λλ.f

(or, for light)

c = λλ.f

Example Calculation:

A ray of red light has a wavelength of 6.50x10 -7 m.

a) What is its frequency?

b) How much energy is carried by one quantum of this light?

Solution:

a) c = λλ.f

3.00x10 8 = 6.50x10 -7 x f

f = 3.00x10 8 /6.50x10 -7 = 4.62x10 14 Hz.

b) E = h.f

= 6.63x10 -34 x 4.62x10 14

= 3.06x10 -19 J.

TRY THE WORKSHEET at the end of this section

Problems with Classical Physics

At the same time that Plank was proposing his Quantum

Theory to explain the Black Body radiation details, the

“Photoelectric Effect” (that Hertz had observed but failed

to study) was being investigated by others.

What IS the Photoelectric Effect? When metal surfaces are exposed to light waves (especially high frequency light or ultra-violet) some electrons are found to be ejected from the metal surface, as long as a certain critical energy level is exceeded.

Experiments on the photoelectric effect were producing

results that could NOT be explained by the existing theory

of light. For a century or more, light had been accepted as

a wave. This explained its reflection, refraction,

interference, and many other phenomena.

However, the photoelectric effect experiments were giving

results that suggested light was best explained as a stream

of particles

this could turn Science on its ear!

Enter Albert Einstein

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 Einstein and Quantum Theory It was Albert Einstein who came

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Einstein and Quantum Theory

It was Albert Einstein who came to the rescue and neatly combined Plank’s Quantum Theory with the classical wave theory of light, in a way that solved all the apparent conflicts, and explained the Photoelectric Effect as well!

To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S. Principle) Einstein proposed that:

Light is a wave, but

• the energy of the wave is concentrated in little “packets” or “bundles” of wave energy, now called “Photons”.

• Each photon of light has an amount of energy given by E = h.f, according to Plank’s Quantum Theory.

• When a photon interacts with matter, it can either transfer

all its energy, or none of it its quantised energy.

it cannot transfer part of

 

LLiigghhtt iiss NNOOTT

 
  L L i i g g h h t t i i s s N
  L L i i g g h h t t i i s s N
  L L i i g g h h t t i i s s N
  L L i i g g h h t t i i s s N
  L L i i g g h h t t i i s s N
  L L i i g g h h t t i i s s N
 
 

aa ssttrreeaamm ooff ppaarrttiicclleess

a a w w a a v v e e L L i i g
a a w w a a v v e e L L i i g

aa wwaavvee

LLiigghhtt iiss NNOOTT

w w a a v v e e L L i i g g h h
w w a a v v e e L L i i g g h h
w w a a v v e e L L i i g g h h
w w a a v v e e L L i i g g h h
w w a a v v e e L L i i g g h h
w w a a v v e e L L i i g g h h
 
 

LLiigghhtt iiss aa ssttrreeaamm ooff wwaavvee ppaacckkeettss

PPHHOOTTOONNSS

TThheeyy hhaavvee wwaavvee pprrooppeerrttiieess

rreeffrraaccttiioonn,, iinntteerrffeerreennccee,, eettcc

 

TThheeyy ccaann aallssoo bbeehhaavvee lliikkee aa ppaarrttiiccllee ssoommeettiimmeess

 

EEaacchh pphhoottoonn iiss aa QQuuaannttuumm ooff lliigghhtt eenneerrggyy

Einstein’s model for light involves a “duality”

have a dual nature. Many of its properties are wave related; e.g. ability to reflect, refract and show interference patterns. In other cases, especially when energy transfers are occurring, the light photons are like little particles. This

light must

explained the Black Body Radiation curves, and the weird features of the Photoelectric Effect.

Confirmation of the Einstein Model Einstein’s idea is very neat, but is it correct?

Einstein was able to make certain mathematical predictions regarding further features of the Photoelectric Effect. (The exact details are complicated, and not required learning)

In 1916, the experiments were done to test Einstein’s predictions, and the results agreed with his predictions precisely!

This was confirmation that the photon theory of light, and the quantum theory of energy were both correct. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921, for his contribution to understanding the Photoelectric Effect.

Applications of the Photoelectric Effect

Solar Cells Solar Cells (or “photovoltaic cells”) are devices which

produce electricity directly from light energy. They are very familiar in the popular garden lights which need no wiring

or battery replacements.

During the day, the solar cell(s) charge up a small re- chargable battery.

At night, the battery provides electricity to a low-power garden lamp.

Small array of solar cells powering a small electric motor and fan
Small array of solar cells
powering a small electric
motor and fan

More importantly, solar cells hold the promise of cheap, efficient, environmentally-friendly electricity production. Already they are used in remote areas (see photo on front page) and in special situations, such as power for orbiting satellites.

Solar cells produce electricity from the Photoelectric Effect:

Light photons falling on the cell give up their quantum of energy to electrons in a sandwich of semiconductor material, called a “p-n junction”. The energy gained by electrons causes them to be emitted so that they travel through the semiconductor structure and create a potential difference

across it. This voltage electrical circuit.

causes a current to flow

in the

Photocells

A photocell is a device which can detect and measure light.

Photocells are used in light meters (photography), “electric- eyes” and a variety of light-measuring scientific equipment, such as photometers.

Once again, the photoelectric effect is involved. When a photon of light strikes the receiving surface, its energy causes emission of an electron, which is collected on a nearby anode.

A sensitive electric circuit is able to measure the level of

electron emission, and this gives a measure of the amount of light being received.

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Assessment of Einstein’s Contribution to Quantum Theory

“Assess” means to measure or judge the value of something. The syllabus requires you to assess Einstein’s contribution to the Quantum Theory in relation to Black Body Radiation.

To begin with, you might note that Einstein did NOT think up the Quantum Theory

Max Plank did

that in 1900. However, it seems that Plank invented the quantum idea purely as a mathematical “trick” to explain the Black Body Radiation curves. Plank never proposed that the quanta might give light a particle-like nature. Plank never suggested that the old ideas of “classical” Physics might need changing.

It was Einstein who did that! His “particle-wave” (photon) idea combined Plank’s Quantum Theory with the classical idea that light is a wave. This totally new way to look at things was one of the turning points of modern Physics, and set other scientists off into new and innovative directions of research.

It should be noted that the other major turning point for Physics was Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, which he proposed in the same year (1905).

No wonder we credit him as being one of the greatest!

Is Science Research Removed from Social & Political Forces?

In World Wars I & II, Science and scientists played a major role in research and development of new weapons and war technologies. Some examples include:

• radio communications and Radar.

• nuclear weapons.

• rockets.

• new aircraft designs and jet engines.

• chemical weapons such as poison gas systems.

There are two contrasting views about the morality of weapons research, and the two great scientists of this section of the topic epitomise these different views.

Max Plank was a patriotic German who believed that it was his duty to help his country fight a war. He gladly contributed to weapons research in WW I, and leading up to WW II he was the director of the main Scientific Institute in Nazi Germany. Plank’s outlook seems to have been that Science is part of the political & social structure, and must take an active role in it.

Einstein was German-born, but became a Swiss citizen, and later American. In WW I he (and only 3 others) signed an anti-war declaration. He spent the war in neutral Switzerland, lobbying for peace and an end to war. In the 1930’s he was forced to flee Nazi Germany because he was of Jewish descent. In America, he fought against the development of the atomic bomb (developed directly from his own theories) and was appalled when it was used against Japan in 1945.

Einstein believed that Science is a process that should work for peace and the good of all people, and not be involved in the political & social forces that come and go.

Who was right? There is no correct, nor simple, answer to

that. You must form your own opinion have an informed opinion.

just be sure you

“A-bomb Dome”, Hiroshima, Japan by Kathy de la Cruz
“A-bomb Dome”,
Hiroshima, Japan
by
Kathy de la Cruz

HSC Physics Topic 3

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keep it simple science

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 Worksheet 2 Part A Fill in the blanks. Check answers

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Worksheet 2

Part A

Fill in the blanks. Check answers at the back.

In 1887, Heinrich Hertz discovered a)

waves. His experiment involved high voltage from an

b)

across a gap. The sparking produced radio waves which he

detected with a d)

small gap also sparked. He was able to show that the new radiations showed typical wave properties such as

in which a

coil which produced c)

Part B

Practice Problems

Quantum Theory

 

(Plank’s Constant = 6.63x10 -34 ) ( c = 3.00x10 8 ms -1 )

1.

A

light wave has a wavelength of 4.25x10 -7 m.

a)

What is its frequency?

b)

How much energy is carried by one photon?

2.

Compare the amount of

photon of

quantum energy carried by a

e)

and

i) infra-red (heat) radiation (λ = 5.45x10 -6 m)

and

Hertz was also able to measure the f)

 

ii) UV radiation (λ = 5.45x10 -9 m)

of the waves, and show it was equal to the speed of

 

g)

He also produced evidence of the

3.

h)

Effect, but failed to

A

photon of radiation is carrying 8.75x10 -14 J of energy.

investigate it further.

Calculate

 

a)

its frequency

Meanwhile, other researchers had studied the way energy is

b)

its wavelength

emitted from hot objects. The “i) Radiation” curves showed a shape that could not be explained by the accepted theories. In 1900, j)

4.

To cause emission of an electron from the surface of a

proposed the “k)

Theory” to

certain metal requires the electron to gain a minimum of

account for the problem. The basic idea of his theory is that the energy of light (or other EMR) is “l) ” the same way that matter is. The minimum quantity of

and fractions cannot

matter is one m)

occur. Plank proposed that the energy of EMR is the same, and that the amount of energy carried by one

“n) of the wave.

,

” is related to the o)

The “Photoelectric Effect” occurs when p)

is absorbed at a metal surface. The energy is transferred to

an q)

from the surface. Experiments with this effect were

producing results that could not be explained.

which may then be r)

Theory to

explain all the difficulties. His idea was:

• Light

“bundles” called “t) ”

• Each bundle carries a u)

described by Plank’s theory.

• When a photon interacts with matter, it can either

of energy, as

In 1905, Einstein used Plank’s s)

is

a

wave,

but the energy is concentrated in

transfer v)

but cannot transfer x)

of its energy, or w)

of it,

This idea allows light to have its “wave properties” such as

y)

,

and

,

but to also sometimes show

z)

-like

properties when it transfers energy.

Based on his theory, Einstein made certain mathematical

aa)

regarding the ab)

Effect. These were confirmed by ac)

in

1916. This confirmed Plank’s ad)

Theory,

and explained all the “problems” with ae) radiation & the af)

Effect.

2.38x10 -20 J of energy.

a) Find the frequency and wavelength of the photon of

EMR which carries this “threshold” amount of energy.

b) What happens if the electron is struck by a photon with

a longer wavelength than this?

c) What will happen if the electron was struck by a photon

of higher frequency than calculated in (a)?

5.

An electron was emitted from a metal surface after being struck by a photon of EMR. The electron left the surface with energy of 6.22x10 -17 J. It firstly had to “use” 9.28x10 -19 J of energy to escape the metal surface. All of this energy was gained by interaction with a single photon. Find the frequency and wavelength of the photon.

FULLY WORKED SOLUTIONS IN THE ANSWERS SECTION

Remember that for full marks in calculations, you need to show FORMULA, NUMERICAL SUBSTITUTION, APPROPRIATE PRECISION and UNITS

HSC Physics Topic 3

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 3. FROM ATOMS to COMPUTERS: SEMICONDUCTORS

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

3. FROM ATOMS to COMPUTERS: SEMICONDUCTORS

Revision of Atomic Structure

After Thomson identified the electron as a particle present in all atoms, it didn’t take long for scientists to figure out the details of atomic structure. You are reminded of the basic model of a typical atom:

Band Structure Theory

The explanation just given for conductors and insulators is OK, until you find out about “Semiconductors”. Elements such as Silicon and Germanium have a number of “strange” properties including being rather poor conductors of electricity until given a little jolt of energy. Then, suddenly they become quite good conductors.

Structure

of an

ATOM

Atomic Nucleus

of protons & neutrons

Electrons in orbit at different “Energy Levels

- Electrons are relatively easy to remove from some atoms this leads to electrical conductivity,
-
Electrons are
relatively easy
to remove
from some
atoms
this leads to
electrical
conductivity,
Photoelectric
Effect, etc

This ability, called “Semiconductivity”, allows

turning electrical currents on and off, according to their energy state.

This is the basis of all modern electronics & computer systems

these

materials

to

act

as

electrical

switches,

To understand semiconductivity, you need to learn about “Band Structures”. We have known since the early 20th century that the electrons around an atom can occupy different “orbits” or energy levels surrounding the nucleus. These energy levels are “quantised” (Quantum Theory applies) so there may be “forbidden energy zones” between them. An electron cannot exist in this “fobidden zone” because the energy level there does NOT correspond to a whole quantum.

“Forbidden

there does NOT correspond to a whole quantum. “Forbidden energy gap”. Electrons cannot exist there. Electrical
energy gap”. Electrons cannot exist
energy gap”.
Electrons
cannot exist
“Forbidden energy gap”. Electrons cannot exist there. Electrical Conductivity When millions and billions of

there.

Electrical Conductivity

When millions and billions of atoms form a lattice structure (most strong solids are like this) they do so by forming chemical bonds with each other in a regular array.

ATOMS in a SOLID ARRAY

Electrical Conduction occurs when electrons can “migrate” freely from one atom to the next Migrating
Electrical Conduction occurs when electrons can “migrate”
freely from one atom to the next
Migrating
electron
Chemical
In a conductor, electrons
can “jump” from one atom
to the next
Bonds

In a metal atom, the outer (“valence”) electrons are very loosely held by the atomic nucleus. They “feel” the force of attraction from other, surrounding atoms just as strongly as the attraction from their “own” atom. The result is that these outer electrons can easily move from atom to atom.

If an electric field is present (due to a voltage being applied) billions of electrons begin moving in the same

direction

metal is a good Conductor.

an electric current is flowing, and we say the

The unoccupied band above the valence band, is called the “ccoonndduuccttiioonn bbaanndd

The highest energy

level that has electrons in it, is called the

Nucleus
Nucleus
level that has electrons in it, is called the Nucleus Electrons in “v v a a

Electrons in

“vvaalleennccee bbaanndd

quantised

“energy bands”

Some bands

overlap

Electrons can “jump” up and down through the different bands as they gain or lose energy. To jump up over a “forbidden zone” they must have enough energy to achieve the quantum energy level required to occupy the next band.

In any atom in its “rest state”, the highest band occupied by electrons is the “Valence Band”. If an electron has enough energy to get to the unoccupied levels above there, the electron is effectively free to “wander off ”. If an electric field is applied, the electron becomes part of a flowing current, and the substance is conducting electricity.

In other solids such as plastic or glass, the outer valence electrons are more strongly attracted to their own atom, and cannot easily escape from it, to move from atom to atom. We say these things are poor conductors, or good Insulators.

That’s why any energy band above the valence band is called a “Conduction Band”.

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 Conductors, Insulators & Semiconductors In terms of “Band Theory”, the

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Conductors, Insulators & Semiconductors

In terms of “Band Theory”, the difference in conductivity

between different substances is simply the relationship between the Valence Band and the Conduction Band.

In Conductors, these bands overlap. In Insulators, the bands are separated by a wide “forbidden
In Conductors,
these bands
overlap.
In Insulators,
the bands are
separated by a
wide “forbidden
energy gap”.
In Semiconductors,
there is a small gap
between the bands.
Conduction
Band
Conduction
Band
Conduction
Forbidden
Band
Energy gap
Valence
Band
Valence Band
Valence Band

In metals, electrons can move into the conduction band at

any time, so the solid array of atoms is a good conductor at all times.

In an insulator, such as plastic, the electrons can never

achieve the conduction band unless they are given a huge boost of energy. At normal temperatures and voltage

levels, the substance will not carry a current.

A semiconductor, like Silicon, will not normally carry

current, because electrons lack the energy to jump the “forbidden energy gap”. However, if the temperature is increased, and a voltage applied, there comes a point when electrons jump the gap in great numbers, and the substance suddenly conducts very well indeed.

This effect does not occur at room temperature unless the semiconductor substance is “Doped”.

Doping a Semiconductor

“Doping” means to add a very small quantity of a different type of atom to an otherwise pure solid lattice of semiconductor atoms.

Conduction of Electrons & Holes

Normally we imagine that an electric current is composed of a flow of negative electrons. However, in a semiconductor, when an electron jumps out of the valence band and flows off somewhere, it leaves behind a “hole” in the valence band. This hole, is a space that an electron from elsewhere can jump into.

Imagine a line of atoms in a semiconductor lattice:

Electron has enough energy to conduct away, leaving a hole behind.

Electron has enough energy to conduct away, leaving a hole behind. hole
Electron has enough energy to conduct away, leaving a hole behind. hole

hole

enough energy to conduct away, leaving a hole behind. hole Now imagine a sequence of movements
enough energy to conduct away, leaving a hole behind. hole Now imagine a sequence of movements

Now imagine a sequence of movements in which the next electron in the valence band has enough energy to jump into the hole, leaving its own hole behind

energy to jump into the hole, leaving its own hole behind EElleeccttrroonnss aarree jjuummppiinngg ttoo tthhee
EElleeccttrroonnss aarree jjuummppiinngg ttoo tthhee rriigghhtt aanndd tthhee hhoollee iiss jjuummppiinngg lleefftt
EElleeccttrroonnss aarree jjuummppiinngg ttoo tthhee rriigghhtt
aanndd
tthhee hhoollee iiss jjuummppiinngg lleefftt

If you can imagine this sequence like the pictures making a motion cartoon, you can imagine that an electron flows to the right and the hole flows to the left.

In fact, in terms of electrical energy, it makes no difference

whether the current really is negative electrons going one way,

either way, it constitutes an

electric current. The holes are considered as positively charged spaces (relative to the electrons) and so the flow of positive holes may be thought of as genuine “Conventional Current”.

or “holes” going the other way

AAttoommss ooff SSeemmiiccoonndduuccttoorr ssuubbssttaannccee e.g. Silicon, normally have 4 valence electrons extra
AAttoommss ooff SSeemmiiccoonndduuccttoorr ssuubbssttaannccee
e.g. Silicon, normally have 4 valence electrons
extra valence
Each
So, there is another way to “Dope” a semiconductor.
The diagram on the left shows the use of atoms with an
“extra” valence electron. The other way to do it is to use atoms
with only 3 valence electrons, creating extra “holes” in the
lattice.
electron
chemical
bond is
formed by
atoms
sharing 2
Atom with
extra hole in
the lattice
electrons.
3 valence
electrons
These
electrons
are in the
used to
“Dope” the
lattice.
valence
energy
Atom with 5 valence electrons
used to “Dope” the lattice.
band
DOPING increases the conductivity of the lattice
HSC Physics Topic 3
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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 p-Type and n-Type Semiconductors The two different ways to “dope”

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

p-Type and n-Type Semiconductors

The two different ways to “dope” the lattice result in two different types of semiconductor material:

Invention of the Transistor

Thermionic valves had been widely used in radios for some years and were vital components of the new industry of television.

n-Type Semiconductors are doped with atoms with 5 valence electrons, such as arsenic or antimony. This adds extra valence electrons to the lattice. Electrical current is carried mainly by this flow of negative charges (hence “n”-type).

p-Type Semiconductors are doped with atoms with 3 valence electrons, such as aluminium or gallium. This adds extra “holes” to the lattice. Electrical current is carried mainly by this flow of positive holes (hence “p”-type).

Some History: Electronics & Computers

The concept of a machine to carry out high speed calculations and “logical” operations has been around for centuries. Prior to the 20th century, any such device had to be mechanical, using “clockwork” gears and so on. There were some notable successes with control devices for weaving looms, and mechanical “adding machines”, but applications were very limited.

Valves were also important in the switching of connections in telephone exchanges, where the growing communication demands required automatic dialing and connection technology. (The original system involved human “operators” manually plugging wires into sockets to connect phone calls.)

However, the valve-based technology was proving too slow, too unreliable and too expensive for the booming telephone industry. The major U.S. phone company “Bell Telephone” set its scientists the task of researching new materials and processes to replace the valves.

In 1947, 3 scientists at Bell Laboratories, invented the transistor, using a “sandwich” of p-type and n-type doped semiconductor material.

Transistors During World War II the first electronic computers were built (in tight secrecy) to
Transistors
During World War II the first electronic computers were
built (in tight secrecy) to help decode enemy radio
messages. Instead of gears and dials, the “Collosus”
computer used thermionic valves to electronically switch
circuits on and off, to store and manipulate data.
Thermionic Valves are Cathode Ray Tubes
“Thermionic” refers to the way these CRT’s would emit
many electrons from the cathode (and thereby carry a
current) when the cathode became hot. Once “warmed
up” the valve can act as an electronic “switch” in a
circuit, when the voltage to the anode is varied.
Photo by Ben Merghart
Because of the properties of the semiconductor
(conductivity that can be switched on and off) the transistor
can do the same job as the thermionic valve, but
Characteristics:
• is only a fraction of the size and costs much less to make.
relatively large & expensive
consume relatively large
amounts of electricity
• consumes only tiny amounts of electricical power.
• produces virtually no waste heat.
produce large amounts of
“waste” heat
• operates much faster than a valve.
although faster than
mechanical switches, valves
are slow-acting by modern
standards
• does not need to “warm-up”.
• is highly reliable, and rarely needs maintenance.
require time to “warm up”
have a limited lifetime, and
can “burn out” like a light
bulb. Therefore their
reliability is low, and
maintenance needs are high.
The comparison is a “no-brainer”
Photo by Don Jolley
Despite these limitations,
“Collosus” was very import-
ant in helping to win the
war.
The transistor replaced
Thermionic valves
as rapidly as electronics industries could re-design
their products, and begin mass production
10 cm
2 cm

HSC Physics Topic 3

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 Silicon v Germanium To make semiconductor material with the desired

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Silicon v Germanium

To make semiconductor material with the desired conductivity properties, it is necessary to firstly prepare extremely pure samples, then add minute amounts of the “doping” chemical, and finally grow crystals of the semiconductor from the molten material in a furnace.

The original transistors were made from Germanium because the technology to produce crystals of the pure element was already known. However, Germanium is a rare element, whereas its close “sister element” Silicon, is one of the most abundant elements on Earth.

By the 1960’s, the technology to obtain pure crystals of Silicon had been developed, and because Silicon is so abundant and therefore cheaper, it quickly replaced Germanium. Silicon’s electrical properties turned out to be better too. For example, it held its semiconductive properties constant over a wider range of temperatures.

Also in the 1960’s, the technology of the computer began to emerge for financial and communication uses. The “solid-state” transistor technology allowed a computer to be built to fit a table-top, rather than fill a room. Every teenager had a brick-size “transistor radio”, in the same way that in this decade everyone has an MP3 and a mobile phone the size of a matchbox.

Silicon Chip Photo pipp Photo by John de Boer
Silicon Chip
Photo
pipp
Photo by John de Boer

The

technology of the “silicon chip” where thousands, and now millions of transistor-equivalents can be printed microscopically in the space of a postage stamp a “microchip”.

the

miniature

“integrated

circuit

board”

led

to

In the 1980’s the first cheap PC’s (personal computers) could process a magnificent 2x10 3 “bytes” of information. Twenty years later, these notes are being typed on an even cheaper PC which can process 2x10 9 bytes, (2 GB). The computers have become a million times more powerful!

Assessment of Impacts of the Transistor on Society

It could be argued that the invention of the transistor was one of the most profound technological developments in history. It ranks right up there beside the developments such as:

fire, by ancient humans around 500,000 years ago.

Fire transformed human society because of its power to warm people, cook food and protect from predators.

agriculture, about 10,000 years ago.

This transformed society from nomadic hunting-gathering to settled communities that invented law, commerce, government and “civilization”.

metallurgy and the Industrial Revolution, which led to

new tools, machinery, mass production, urbanization, and mass transport systems.

The

Communication Revolution”, which is still developing today. Electronic circuits, using microchips, are the basis of all the computers which allow:

transistor

ushered

in

the

“Information

&

• instant access to (virtually) all the information on the planet via the internet.

• instant access to money from your bank account from (virtually) any town or city on Earth.

• instant communication via your mobile phone to and from (virtually) anywhere.

Computers are the key to the global economy and mass consumerism which keeps thing cheap through mass production & distribution. Computers keep track of the billions of business transactions that feed us, clothe us, entertain us, transport us and service all our needs.

Like it or hate it, (some people think we should have stayed in the trees) the modern world could not exist without the invention of the transistor!

Photo: Martin Boulanger
Photo: Martin Boulanger

HSC Physics Topic 3

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keep it simple science

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 Worksheet 3 Fill in the blanks. Check your answers at

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Worksheet 3

Fill in the blanks. Check your answers at the back.

a) orbit around the nucleus of

In a semiconductor, the valence and conduction

gap.

In the “rest” state, electrons cannot get across, and the substance does not

y)

requires a slight increase in energy and suddenly

bands are separately by a x)

However, it only

atoms

at

various

b)

levels.

many electrons z)

the gap

and the

Basically,

a

substance

will

be

an

electrical

substance begins aa)

conductor if c)

can move from

 

d)

freely.

If

The semiconductor material can be made more

electrons cannot do this at all, the substance is an

sensitive and conductive if ab)

e)

quantities of other elements are added to the atomic lattice. This is called “ac ”

A

“semiconductor” is a substance which has very

the semiconductor.

until its

electrons are given just a little energy. Then, at a

low

f)

Semiconductors can carry electricity in 2 ways: by

certain

point,

it

suddenly

becomes

the flow of

ad)

which have

g)

This allows electrical

 

circuits to be h) and is the basis of modern i)

on and off, and

reached the conduction band, or by the flow of ”

left behind by departing

electrons.

“ae)

j)

The best explanation of semiconductivity involves “k)

Theory”, summarized as follows:

• the highest energy level in an atom that has electrons in it, is called the l) band.

If

atoms with 5 valence electrons, this results in

ag)

the

semiconductor.

-Type”

is

in the lattice to carry

is doped with

a

af)

current.

This

an

“ah)

If

it

is

ai)

with atoms with

any further (unoccupied) levels above this are

only aj)

valence electrons, this creates

called m)

bands.

extra ak)

in

the lattice to

• If an electron has enough energy to get to a

carry

current.

This

is

a

“al)

-Type

m)

band, then it is free to

semiconductor.

flow,

and

form

an

electric

n)

Before semiconductors, electronic switching was

However, between the bands there may be

“forbidden” o) The energy levels are quantised, so a “forbidden” level is where the energy is not equal to a whole

done by am)

valves. These

were an)

tubes. The

ao)

was

invented

to

replace these valves. Compared to a valve, a transistor is

p)

ap)

(size) and aq)

(cost)

consumes

ar)

electricity

and

In a conductor, the q)

 

band and

produces almost no as)

r)

bands s)

 

each

• operates at a at)

rate

other. This means electrons can freely enter the conduction band and t) can flow through the substance.

• does not need to au)

• is highly av)

 
 

The

early

transistors

were

made

from

In an u) separated by a wide v)

 

,

these bands are

aw)

,

but this was later replaced because it is more and a lot az)

 

by ax)

so

that

electrons

can

never

reach

the

ay)

w)

band.

Miniaturization

of

electronics

on

“silicon

   

 

COMPLETED WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

 

ba)

“bb) of all modern computers.

has led to the development of ”

which are at the heart

HSC Physics Topic 3

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 4. FROM CRYSTALS TO SUPERCONDUCTORS

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

4. FROM CRYSTALS TO SUPERCONDUCTORS

Investigating Crystal Structures Bragg and Son

The regular shapes of crystals (such as salt) had long been assumed to be due to a regular arrangement of the atoms or ions in a lattice-like structure. However, until the early 20th century, there was no way to prove or confirm this idea.

The discovery of high frequency EMR in the form of X- rays opened up a new line of investigation. Sir William Bragg and his son Lawrence, beamed X-rays through crystals and studied the diffraction patterns which were formed as the crystal lattice scattered the X-rays.

Photographic film sensitive to x-rays Crystal x-ray beam X-rays diffracted by the crystal lattice, form
Photographic film
sensitive to x-rays
Crystal
x-ray
beam
X-rays diffracted by the crystal
lattice, form Interference patterns
which are captured on the film.

The Braggs were able to analyse the interference pattern in order to deduce the arrangement of the atoms within the crystal. For this, they were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1915.

This opened up a whole new investigative technique, allowing scientists to probe the structure of matter as never before. It was X-ray diffraction crystallography, for example, that allowed the structure of DNA to be determined in the 1950’s.

Crystal Structures

Thanks to scientists like the Braggs, we now understand the atomic-level structure of most substances.
Thanks to scientists like the Braggs, we now understand the
atomic-level structure of most substances. You learned
previously how a substance like the semiconductor Silicon
is a lattice of atoms chemically bonded together:
SSii
SSii
SSii
SSii
Each
chemical
bond is
formed by
atoms
SSii
SSii
SSii
SSii
sharing 2
electrons
with each
neighbour
SSii
SSii
SSii
SSii

Crystal Structure of Metals

Unlike silicon, salt and other crystals, metal atoms are not chemically bonded to each other by the sharing or exchanging of electrons.

You will remember that the outer “valence” electrons in metals are weakly held, and can access the “conduction band” at any time. The result is that the valence electrons on each atom are NOT confined to that atom, but freely wander around from atom to atom.

Each metal atom is, therefore, ionized because its valence electron(s) are on the loose. The metal lattice is often described as “an array of ions, embedded in a sea of electrons”.

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+

This “sea of electrons” shifts and flows freely. If an electric field is present, the electrons will all flow in the same direction as an electric current. That’s why metals are all good conductors.

Resistance in Metals

So why is there resistance in a metal wire? Although the electrons can flow quite easily, their movement is not totally free.

Any impurities in the metal distort the shape of the lattice and impede the electron flow. Also, as the ions vibrate due to thermal energy, the vibration causes more collisions among electrons, so their flow is resisted. As temperature increases, the vibrations increase too, and that’s why resistance in metals increases with temperature.

Logically, if you re-read the previous paragraph and think backwards, you might infer that if you had a really pure metal, and cooled it right down so that all lattice vibrations stopped, then it would become a perfect conductor.

Superconductivity!

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 Superconductivity in Metals and Ceramics In 1911, a Dutch physicist

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Superconductivity in Metals and Ceramics

In 1911, a Dutch physicist managed to cool mercury down to about 4 o K (-269 o C) and found that its electrical resistance dropped to zero.

Over the following years, various other metals were found to become superconducting at very low temperatures. The potential to build electrical generators and equipment with zero resistance was a very attractive idea, but the temperatures involved (no higher than about 20 o K) were so low that there seemed no practical way to take advantage.

Then in 1986, Swiss scientists discovered some ceramic materials containing rare elements like Yttrium and Lanthanum, which became superconductors at much higher temperatures. Still cold by human standards, but 100 o higher than the metal superconductors, these ceramics had zero resistance at temperatures as high as 130 o K (around -150 o C). This is a temperature that is much more practical to achieve.

the

superconducting metals and compounds. Here is a very short list

The syllabus requires that you identify some of

How Superconductivity Occurs

BCS Theory

How do we explain the phenomenon of superconductivity?

The accepted explanation is known as “BCS Theory”, where “BCS” are the initials of the 3 scientists who developed the theory in the 1950’s.

Imagine part of the solid lattice of positive ions in a conducting metal or ceramic. As an electron (part of an electric current) approaches, it attracts the positive ions and distorts the crystal structure slightly:

++ ++ ++ ++ ++ Approaching electron ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
++
++
++
++
++
Approaching
electron
++
++
++
++
++
Superconductor Metals Mercury Lead Alloy Niobium-Germanium Ceramics Yttrium-Barium-Copper oxide Temperature of
Superconductor
Metals
Mercury
Lead
Alloy
Niobium-Germanium
Ceramics
Yttrium-Barium-Copper oxide
Temperature
of Transition ( o K)
to Superconductivity
This distortion concentrates the positive charge in this part
of the lattice, and attracts other electrons.
4
9
In a normal conductor, this distortion leads to collisions
and loss of energy by the flowing electrons which repel
each other
this is the normal electrical resistance within
23
the conductor.
92
But in a superconductor below its “transition temperature”,
Thallium-Barium-Calcium-Copper oxide 125 (-148 o C)
The Meissner Effect
something very strange occurs; due to Quantum Energy
Effects, 2 nearby electrons “pair up” to form what is called
You may have seen a practical demonstration of a
a “Cooper Pair”:
(Cooper is the “C” in “BCS Theory”)
superconductor in action, in class. The “Meissner Effect”
is
named after the scientist who discovered it.
If a disk of superconductor ceramic is chilled below its
“transition temperature”, a small magnet placed close
above it will “levitate”; spinning freely if prodded, but
held up against gravity by unseen forces.
++
++
++
++
++
CCooooppeerr PPaaiirr
of electrons forms
++
++
++
++
++
Small
Disk of
Levitating magnet
Superconducting
Liquid
Ceramic
Nitrogen
Due to quantum effects (which are beyond the scope of
this Course
KISS Principle) each electron of the Cooper
dish
Pair helps the other to pass through the lattice without any
loss of energy. This means there is ZERO resistance.
Explanation:
As the magnet is brought near, its magnetic field induces
currents in the ceramic. Since there is NO electrical
However, at a temperature above the “transition”, the
thermal vibrations in the lattice keep breaking up the
Cooper Pairs as fast as they can form. This destroys the
superconductivity, and the normal electrical resistance of
the substance returns.
resistance, the currents flow freely, non-stop and generate
a
magnetic field that repels the approaching magnet.
Superconductors will never allow an external
magnetic field to penetrate them.
HSC Physics Topic 3
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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Using Superconductor Technology

High School SL#703335 Using Superconductor Technology Ad v anta g es Superconductor technology offers • high

Advantages Superconductor technology offers

• high efficiency in any electrical

situation, because there is no energy loss due to resistance.

• the ability to generate extremely

strong magnetic fields from superconducting electromagnets.

• faster operation of computers, since superconducting switching devices could be 10 times faster than a semiconductor transistor

Limitations

• Superconducting metals must be

chilled with liquid helium. This is impractical and expensive.

• New, superconducting ceramics can

be chilled with liquid nitrogen, which is cheaper and much more practical, BUT these ceramics:

• are fragile and brittle and difficult to make into wires.

• can be chemically unstable and have a limited life span.

Possible Future Applications

Current computer technology is based on semiconductor microchips. Although these become faster and more powerful every year, there is a limit to how far they can go.

A superconductor computer could open a whole new

level of enhanced performance due the possible high speed switching of circuits.

Electricity generation & distribution could be made much more efficient with superconductor technology.

A lot of energy is lost due to resistance heating in

transmission lines. This could be eliminated if power lines were superconductors.

Generators lose energy by resistance heating in the coils needed to produce magnetic fields, and are limited in the strength of the fields they can produce. Superconducting coils would allow generators to be much more powerful and efficient.

Greater efficiency generally in electrical technology would reduce associated environmental problems, such

as Greenhouse gas emissions.

The Maglev Train The idea of using superconducting electromagnets to “levitate” a train above a
The Maglev Train
The idea of using superconducting electromagnets to “levitate” a
train above a magnetic guide-rail has been around for many years
MAGLEV = MAGnetic LEVitation
Shanghai Maglev Train
and experiments have been going on for decades.
Photo © 2004 Matthew Hillier
used with permission
The guiderail(s) under the train contain conventional
electromagnets. On board, helium-chilled super-
conducting electromagnets produce powerful magnetic
fields.
The fields in the rail and the train repel each other so
that the entire train is levitated 1-2cm above the track.
Propulsion and braking is also done magnetically, by the
fields in front and behind the train attracting and
repelling it. The actual motive power is supplied from
the rail, not from onboard the train.
The big advantage is the high speed possible without
any rail friction, and the low maintenance and low noise
that goes with this. A disadvantage is the very high cost
of building the guide rail track.
Experiments have been going on for years in Germany
and in Japan. The first truly operational Maglev now
connects the city of Shanghai in China, with its airport
30km away. German built, it cost US$1.2 billion, and
reaches speeds of around 430km/hr.

HSC Physics Topic 3

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335 Worksheet 4 Fill in the blanks. Check your answers at

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Worksheet 4

Fill in the blanks. Check your answers at the back.

Sir William Bragg, and his son Lawrence beamed

The

explanation

of

superconductivity is

a)

through crystals. The waves

“v)

Theory”, which states:

were b)

by the atom/ion

an

approaching

electron causes a slight

array,

and

formed

c)

w)

of the ion lattice.

 

patterns,

which

 

were

recorded

on

this

concentrates

the

“density”

of

d)

film. By measurements of

x)

charge, which attracts more

these

images,

they

could

deduce

the

exact

electrons.

structure

and

geometry

within

the