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D-channels

A D-channel is a communication channel used for signalling and for other message-based data
transmission. Originally, D-channel is one of the channel types defined for the ISDN usernetwork interfaces. In addition to the D-channel, there is a channel type called B-channel. The Bchannel is a 64 kbit/s channel intended to carry a variety of user information streams, such as
voice or circuit or packet-switching data information.
There are two main interface structures defined for ISDN. The basic interface structure is
composed of two B-channels and one D-channel (2B+D). The bit rate of the D-channel is
16 kbit/s in the 2B+D interface. The interface supports point-to-multipoint configurations,
namely there may be several pieces of terminal equipment connected to a D-channel. This
interface is not in the scope of this document and it will not be dealt with in detail.
The primary rate access structure is composed of several B-channels and one D-channel. In the
2048 kbit/s primary rate access, the interface structure is 30B+D. In the 1544 kbit/s primary rate
access, the interface structure is 23B+D. The bit rate of the D-channel is 64 kbit/s in the primary
rate accesses.
Due to the nature of the primary rate access, several other applications use the same principles
and channel structure as the ISDN 30B+D. The terminology may vary, however, there are always
one or more channels for signalling and other message transfer and a number of channels for
speech or data. The bit rate of this channel may be 64 kbit/s, N 64 kbit/s or subrates 8, 16 or
32 kbit/s. The interface may also be composed of several primary rate accesses, with signalling
or message transfer on only one of them. In this document the communication channel used for
signalling is called D-channel, regardless of the application.
This also applies to DPNSS1 and DASS2 type D-channels. These interfaces are used mainly to
connect PBXs to public or private networks. The interface structure is basically the same as in
the 30B+D interface; however, the D-channel protocol is not the same. As the implementation
architecture of these protocols is very much the same as in the DX 200 system, these interfaces
will be covered by this document.
D-channel layering
Layering of the D-channel protocols follows the OSI reference model, although there are
differences. There are two communicating entities in each layer and they use the services
provided by the lower layer. As the D-channel is intended for user-network interfaces and there
are differences in the operation in each end, a network and a user side must be defined.

Figure 1:
D-channel layering
Layer 1 provides, for example, the transmission capability by means of appropriately encoded bit
streams and the related timing and synchronisation signals. The primary rate accesses are active
at all times, so no activation and deactivation procedures are applied.

The primary rate access at 2048 kbit/s uses the frame structure with 32 time-slots, numbered 0 to
31, at eight bits each. Time-slot 16 is assigned to the D-channel, but other time-slots are also
used in non-ISDN applications. The primary rate access at 1544 kbit/s uses the 193 bits long
frame with a so-called F bit followed by 24 time-slots, numbered 1 to 24. Time-slot 24 is
assigned to the D-channel.
The layer 2 protocol on the D-channel is LAPD. The purpose of LAPD is to convey information
between layer 3 entities across the interface using the D-channel. LAPD supports both point-tomultipoint as well as point-to-point communications. In primary rate applications, only point-topoint communication is used. However, a single physical link may provide logical channels for
several layer 3 entities.
Layer 3 includes the application-specific signalling functions, such as: basic call control
procedures for establishing, maintaining and clearing of connections; procedures for various
supplementary services; and user-to-user signalling and maintenance functions.
In the DX 200 system, all the entities above layer 2 using the D-channel for message transfer are
referred to as layer 3. D-channel management functions in the DX 200 system may also be
referred to as layer 3, as they include the handling of the primitives defined for communication
between layer 3 and 2 specified in layer 2's recommendations.

Figure 2:
Primitive action sequences of D-channels
The primitives for establishment and release of a D-channel connection are:

DL-ESTABLISH-REQUEST

DL-ESTABLISH-INDICATION

DL-ESTABLISH-CONFIRM

DL-RELEASE-REQUEST

DL-RELEASE-INDICATION

DL-RELEASE-CONFIRM

In addition, the primitives DL-DATA-REQUEST, DL-DATA-INDICATION DL-UNIT DATAREQUEST, and DL-UNIT DATA-INDICATION represent the information transfer using either
acknowledged or unacknowledged information transfer, respectively.
LAPD protocol
The data link protocol (layer 2) of the D-channel is called LAPD.
LAPD contains procedures for the establishment of a D-channel connection, delivery of
signalling messages, as well as supervision and release of the connection. The connection has
two communicating entities at both ends of the D-channel, the Network side and the User side.
In most cases the procedures include the sending of a specific LAPD frame and also waiting for
an acknowledgement. There are three main types of frames: unnumbered, supervisory, and
information frames.
Unnumbered frames are SABME (connection establishment command), DISC (connection
release command), UA (positive response to connection establishment or release), and DM
(negative response to connection establishment or release).
Supervisory frames are RR (acknowledgements, pollings), RNR (receiver busy indication), and
REJ (rejection of an information frame). These frames include a receive sequence number N(R)
for acknowledgement of information frames.
Information frames (I) are used to send information (up to 260 bytes or even more in internal
communications of the DX 200 system). The I frames include both the receive sequence number
N(R) and a send sequence number N(S). N(S) is incremented by one every time a new I frame is
sent. Corresponding acknowledgement is numbered N(R)=N(S)+1. Acknowledgement should be
received in a supervisory frame (usually RR) or an I frame. The I frame is retransmitted if no
acknowledgement with a correct N(R) is received. Several I frames may be waiting for an
acknowledgement at the same time. The number of these frames is limited. The maximum value
is called the window side (k).
Unnumbered information frames (UI) are used for sending information without
acknowledgements, namely the transmission is not secured by retransmissions. Current use of
these frames is limited to Abis and system-internal communication.
A detailed description of the frame structure is given in chapter LAPD frame structure.
All actions with an acknowledgement have a timer with a maximum value of T200. The
transmission is repeated if necessary.
The connection is supervised if there is nothing else to be sent (timer T203). The supervisory
RR frame is sent, and a corresponding supervisory frame should be received. If there is no
response, even after retransmissions, the connection re-establishment procedure is initiated.
The following figure illustrates some of the procedures of the LAPD protocol described above.

Figure 3:
Example of LAPD frame exchange
Different applications may have rules regarding the initiator of the connection establishment. In
most cases, both sides are repeating connection establishment attempts until they succeed. Also,
supervision of the connection may be left to one or both sides.
DPNSS1/DASS2
Digital Private Network Signalling System (DPNSS1) and Digital Access Signalling System
No 2 (DASS2) are common channel signalling systems designed primarily for the
interconnection of PBXs to a private network (DPNSS1) or to a local exchange (DASS2). The
protocols define the signalling procedures for simple telephone calls and for more sophisticated
supplementary services.
Each of the up to 30 traffic channels of the 2048 kbit/s PCM system is supported by a Link
Access Protocol (LAP) on a signalling channel. Frames for each LAP are interleaved on timeslot 16 of the same PCM. The address field of each frame indicates the LAP and channel to
which the message relates. DPNSS1 also supports virtual channels in addition to normal traffic
channels (referred to as Real channels), which is also indicated in the address field. Each LAP
operates independently without explicit interaction. The logical signalling channel of time-slot
16 is called a data link connection (DLC).
An SABMR frame constitutes a reset signal; in other words, it is used in establishing the
connection for the LAP. Upon receipt of a UA or SABMR frame the sender resets the state
variables, after which the connection can be used for transferring the signalling messages.
The Unnumbered Information (UI) frame may be a command UI(C) or a response UI(R). A onebit sequence number is included in the UI frames. A UI(C) frame may carry signalling
information in a block of variable length (up to 45 octets). UI(R) frames convey
acknowledgements to the UI(C) frames.
The system is compelled at level 2 in that each frame is repeated until it is acknowledged by a
responding frame in the opposite direction. When there are no messages to be sent, continuous

flags are transmitted. DPNSS1 also includes supervision of the connection using UI frames, if no
frames have been exchanged in a predefined interval (default five minutes). Both DPNSS1 and
DASS2 connections are released if layer 1 indicates a loss of signal.
The following figure illustrates some of the procedures of the DPNSS1 and DASS2 protocol
described above. The local exchange side is denoted as ET in the DASS2; for the DPNSS1 side
A and side B are used.

D-channels in the DX 200 system


The D-channels in the DX 200 system provide the means of communication between the DX 200
system network elements and various external equipment or network elements. They also
provide communication channels between functional units within the DX 200 system itself.

Figure 4:

General D-channel architecture

D-channel services are offered to various layer 3 functions which may handle either external
standardised protocols or internal tasks related to signalling, alarm and recovery system, fault
diagnosis etc.
Layer 2 functions are implemented on signalling terminals, namely preprocessor plug-in units or
as a part of the software of the functional units. Each of the channels of a signalling terminal is
referred to as signalling terminal function.
D-channel management is distributed to the computer units where the D-channel service is
offered. There is also a centralised part acting as the counterpart to the distributed part, certain
layer 3 functions, and the MMI interface.
The MMI for the D-channels includes functions for creating, modifying and deleting the Dchannel data as well as D-channel state changes.

Figure 5:
D-channel hardware architecture
The preprocessor units implementing the layer 2, namely LAPD functions in the computer units
of the DX 200 BSC systems are AS7-U, AS7-V, AS7-VA, AS7-X, AS7-B, AS7-C and AS7-D.
The following AS7 variants are used with DMC bus:

AS7-U

AS7-V

AS7-VA

AS7-X

The following AS7 variants are used with PCI bus:

AS7-A

AS7-B

AS7-C

AS7-D

AS7-U can handle up to 32 D-channels; AS7-C can handle up to 256 D-channels; AS7-D can
handle up to 512 D-channels; other AS7 variants can handle up to 64 D-channels. The units are
connected to the switching matrix by a 2 Mbit/s, 4 Mbit/s or 8 Mbit/s internal PCM. The timeslots reserved on a PCM are given when the preprocessor unit is created.
D-channels in 30B+D interface
The DX 200 system supports the primary rate access interface with the 30B+D (or 23B+D)
channel structure. The B-channels are used for speech and data, the D-channel is used for
signalling according to the specification ETS 300 4024, Digital subscriber signalling system
no 1 (DSS1). Layer 2 is specified by ITU-T Recommendations, Q.920 and Q.921, and the
corresponding ETSI Recommendation ETS 300125 or the updated version ETS 300 402.
Layer 3 is specified in ITU-T Recommendation Q.931 and ETS 300102.
The LAPD for 30B+D interface supports signalling with SAPI value 0 and TEI value 0. The
default parameters for LAPD as defined for signalling and a bit rate of 64 kbit/s are used.
The following LAPD features are not required in the 30B+D interface and therefore not
implemented in the DX 200 system:

TEI management procedures (TEI value 0 assigned internally)

broadcast data link

The following LAPD features are not supported in the 30B+D interface of the DX 200 system:

packet data with SAPI value 16

In the 30B+D interface, the D-channel connection is established by a user MML command and
then maintained until deactivated by the user. No call-related actions are made as far as the state
of the D-channel is concerned.
D-channels in Abis interface
The Abis interface is the interface between the Base Station Controller (BSC) and the Base
Transceiver Station (BTS) of the GSM system.
The Abis interface telecommunication part between the DX 200 BSC and the BTS is
implemented according to the 3GPP TS 48.056 recommendation. The Abis O&M part is Nokia
property supporting additional features like the Site Test Monitoring unit, alarm consistency,
remote transmission equipment management, and BTS database management.
The interface between the DX 200 BSC and the BTS is defined in accordance with the OSI
protocol model. The LAPD protocol is implemented to provide the signalling network functions
required to carry layer 3 messages.
Layer 1 represents the physical layer. It is a digital interface at 2048 kbit/s, based on ITU-T
Recommendation G.703. Submultiplexing is used on the Abis interface as a standard solution,
because each speech channel reserves only 16 kbit/s (FR channel) or 8 kbit/s (HR channel).

The DX 200 BSC can handle LAPD signalling links with the bit rates of 16 kbit/s, 32 kbit/s, and
64 kbit/s.
The BCSU computer handling the Abis interface in the BSC is equipped with LAPD interface
terminals. Each LAPD signalling terminal can handle a maximum of 32 LAPD links if AS7-U is
used, 256 LAPD links if AS7-C is used, 512 LAPD links if AS7-D is used and 64 LAPD links if
other AS7 variants are used. Some capacity is needed for the ET, STMU and ETIP D-channels.
Layer 2 LAPD functions are performed by the terminal, but application-specific messages are
handled by the microcomputer of the BCSU.
Two logical links can be established on one physical link, one for operation and maintenance unit
signalling (OMUSIG) and another one for TRX link (TRXSIG).
The 3GPP TS 48.056 specification defines the use of the LAPD protocol in the Abis interface.
The Abis interface specific parameters used in the DX 200 BSC are:

SAPI value 0 used for Radio signalling procedures

SAPI value 62 used for O&M procedures

SAPI value 61 used for the Access channel (not included in GSM 08.56)

TEI management not used (fixed values used)

The value of timer T200 is 240 ms; for satellite Abis links T200 is 1000 ms; for Access
channels the value of T200 is 40 ms ( 10 ms).

The maximum number of outstanding frames (parameter k) is 2 for SAPI value 0, and 1
for other SAPI values; for satellite Abis links the value of k for SAPI 0 is 7; for Access
channels the maximum number of outstanding frames (k) is 7.

D-channels in system-internal communication


D-channels are used for message transfer between functional units and their host computer when
a PCM line is used between the two. Two functional units may also communicate with each other
using a D-channel between them. The DMX message structure is used with the exception of the
program code loading phase. The message is delivered transparently in the information field of
the I frame.
The internal communications use modified LAPD parameters as follows:

T200 = 200 ms

T203 = 2 s

N201 = 260, 380 or 511 depending on the functional unit

k=3

Normal message transfer uses SAPI value 0 and TEI value 0.

The program code for some of the functional units is loaded using D-channel services. Whenever
there is a block of program code to be loaded, aconnection using SAPI value 1 is established in
addition to the connection for normal message transfer. Depending on the unit, the program code
is packed either in one file which contains all the software, or in several files, in which case
every file contains one or more program blocks.
Every exchange configuration of the DX 200 system does not necessarily need the data
transmission services mentioned above.
Clock Channel
The clock channel is used to implement the internal data transmission connection between a
computer and the clock and tone generator (CLS) when it is implemented by using CL1TG,
CL2TG, or CL3TG plug-in units or their variants. The computer controlling the CLS units varies
in different network elements (it can be M, OMU, CAC, CCC, or ANCU). The D-channel to a
CLS is automatically created when the unit is created (CLS00 for CLS-0 and CLS01 for CLS-1).
One terminal function is needed for each CLS unit on the LAPD terminal of the controlling
computer. The D-channel on the CLS side of the interface is automatically activated on time-slot
30 (CLS-0) or 31 (CLS-1) when the unit is powered up. The host computer side activates the
connection on the D-channel, which is reserved for it automatically after the host computer
restart, that is, if the activation is allowed (namely the state of CLS is other than SE-NH or SEOU and the D-channel is not blocked by user command).
There is also a D-channel between the CLS units. This channel is automatically created and
activated when the CLS backplane wiring indicates that a back-up CLS exists.
ET Channel
An ET channel is used to implement the internal data transmission connection between a
computer and an exchange terminal (ET). The DX 200 system has the following exchange
terminations supplied with D-channels (other types of ETs use CLS and AFS for
communications):

The ECET type ET, with echo cancelling facility

The ET2E type ET, in line with the ETSI specifications, one D-channel per two exchange
terminations (one plug-in unit)

The ET2A type ET, in line with the ANSI specifications, one D-channel per two
exchange terminations (one plug-in unit)

The EC2ET type ET, with echo cancelling facility, one D-channel per two exchange
terminations (one plug-in unit)

The ET4E/ET4E-C type ET, in line with the ETSI specifications, one D-channel per four
exchange terminations (one plug-in unit)

The ET4A type ET, in line with the ANSI specifications, one D-channel per four
exchange terminations (one plug-in unit)

The ET16 type ET, in line with the ANSI and ETSI specifications, one D-channel per 16
exchange terminations (one plug-in unit)

The D-channel is automatically created when the ET is created on time-slot 0 of the ET PCM of
ECET, or time-slot 0 of the lower ET PCM of ET2E, ET2A, EC2ET, ET4E, ET4E-C, ET4A, or
ET16. ET2E may also use a separate PCM for D-channels, in which case the time-slot depends
on the track where the ET2E/ET4E is located.
The D-channel follows the state of the ET so that the D-channel connection is kept active
whenever at least one of the ET units is in any state other than SE-NH.
The program code of the ET2E, ET2A, EC2ET, ET4E, ET4E-C, ET4A, and ET16 units is loaded
using the D-channel.
TCSM Channel
The TCSM channel is used in the BSC to implement the internal data transmission connection
between a computer and a TCSM2 unit. The Transcoder Submultiplexer (TCSM2) converts the
traffic channels which it receives from the Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) at a
transmission speed of 64 kbit/s, into traffic channels which function at a transmission speed of
16 kbit/s. The traffic channels can also function at a transmission speed of 8 kbit/s. The LAPD
bit rate is 16 kbit/s for TCSM and 64 kbit/s for TCSE.
COCA Channel
The COCA channel is used to implement the internal message transfer connection to the ECU
(Echo Canceller Unit), DIC (Digital Interface Controller), DIPC (Direct Basic PAD Controller),
or MPC (Modem Pool Controller) units. These functional units are implemented using COCA or
EC1P plug-in units. DMX message structure is not used in these units.
CDSU
The CDSU channel is used in the MSC to implement the internal data transmission connection
between a computer and a DSCO plug-in unit. The Compact Data Service Unit (CDSU) offers
all the GSM data services, such as asynchronous bearer services, transparent synchronous bearer
services, and the facsimile group 3 teleservice.
D-channels in DPNSS1/DASS2
The D-channel of the type DPNSS1/DASS2 implements the data transmission to PBXs that
comply with British Telecom specifications:

DPNSS1, Digital Private Network Signalling System

DASS2, Digital Access Signalling System

Within the scope of this document, these protocols are the only ones that do not use LAPD as
layer 2 protocol. The D-channel has a separate logical connection called DLC (Data Link
Connection) for each speech time-slot on the 2 Mbit/s PCM. In addition, there may be a separate
Real and Virtual DLC in the DPNSS1 interface.
The physical D-channel is created first, after that each DLC. The state of each DLC can be
controlled independently.
D-channel capacity
There are some capacity considerations to be taken into account when using the D-channels of
the DX 200 system for signalling or internal message transfer.

The maximum number of D-channels in a computer varies. The number is limited by the number
of LAPD or DPNSS1/DASS2 signalling terminals that can be equipped in the unit, as well as the
internal PCM equipment of the unit. In some computer units there are also some fixed
reservations for various channels which decrease the number available for user-defined use.
The following table gives the number of LAPD-based D-channels available for other than basic
functions. The basic functions are listed as reserved channels. If two numbers are given, the first
one is for one of the LAPD terminals and the second one for the rest of the LAPD terminals.
DPNSS1 or DASS2 functions are not included.
Network
Unit Number of D- Number of D-channels
Note, reserved
element
channels
Other AS7 variants (except channels
AS7-U
AS7-C and AS7-D)
BSC
OMU 10
42
2 test channels, 2
CLS, 18 Q1 *)
BSC
BCS 32
64
Abis, ET channels,
U
30B+D
SGSN
OMU 28/32
60/64
2 test channels, 2
CLS, ET channels
DX MSCi, DX OMU fixed
fixed
2 test channels, 2
HLRi
CLS
DX MSCi, DX GSU 32
64
30B+D, ET channels,
HLRi
DPNSS1
DX MSCi, DX CMU 32
64
CDSU channels
HLRi
SRRi
OMU 28/32
60/64
2 test channels, 2
CLS, ET channels
SRRi
CCS 32
64
ET channels
U
MSC
PAU 32

30B+D, DPNSS1
MSC
IWC 32
64
ECU, MPC & DIPC
U
channels
DXT64
CCC 28/32
60/64
4 test channels, 2
CLS
DXT64
BDS 32
64
Tetra channels
U
DXT256,
CCC 28/32
60/64
4 test channels, 2
DXT256i
CLS
DXT256,
BDS 32
64
Tetra channels
DXT256i
U
DXT256,
PAU 32
64
30B+D
DXT256i
CCS
THLR
32
64
ET channels
U
*) PRFILE parameter NUMBER_OF_Q1_CHANNELS, default value 18.
Table 1:
Number of D-channels

The number of time-slots (which is equal to the number of available D-channels, except in case
of combined channels in BSC) is defined when the AS7 plug-in unit is equipped. The maximum
numbers are

for AS7-U: 32 (LAPD) or 8 (DPNSS1/DASS2)

for AS7-C: 256 (LAPD) or 64 (DPNSS1/DASS2)

for AS7-D: 512 (LAPD) or 128 (DPNSS1/DASS2)

for other AS7 variants: 64 (LAPD) or 32 (DPNSS1/DASS2)

The maximum capacity cannot always be reached because of a limited number of internal PCM
circuits/time-slots or due to other plug-in units within the same computer unit.
Other things to be considered are the capacity of the physical D-channel, namely the bit rate, the
processing capacity of the LAPD terminal and the functional unit, and the processing capacity of
the host computer.
The throughput of a D-channel is restricted by the physical bit rate as well as the characteristics
of the LAPD protocol. The window size (see LAPD protocol) affects the maximum number of
I frames that can be waiting for an acknowledgement. If the window is full, there is a delay in
transmission. In addition to transmission errors, the amount of traffic coming from the opposite
direction affects the acknowledgement time. Typically, the maximum throughput of the I frames
is 50%80% of the bit rate.
When considering the processing capacity of the LAPD terminal, namely either AS7-U or
another AS7 variant, the average load on each individual channel must be taken into account.
The load on ET Channel of the type ET2E or ET2A, as well as on CLS channels, is relatively
low, therefore these channels can usually be ignored. If there are Q1 channels on the LAPD
terminal (BSC), no D-channels with high traffic volume can be configured on the same terminal.
The following figure gives the load on the AS7-U LAPD terminal, when I frames are both
transmitted and received by both sides, while corresponding to normal circumstances. The
number of I frames is given for one direction only and as a sum of all the D-channels.

Figure 6:
Processing capacity of the AS7-U
The maximum number of signalling or other messages that can be transmitted on the AS7-U is in
the range of 600 to 1000 per second. This amounts to about 20 messages per second per Dchannel if the load is evenly distributed.
The capacity of AS7-U as a DPNSS/DASS2 terminal in terms of messages per second is about
of that of the LAPD terminal, since heavier processing is required. Correspondingly, the
maximum recommended number of channels on a DPNSS/DASS2 terminal is 8.
The following figure gives the capacity of the AS7-V plug-in unit as a LAPD terminal.

Figure 7:
Processing capacity of the AS7-V
The maximum number of signalling or other messages that can be transmitted on the AS7-V is in
the range of 2500 to 4000 per second. This amounts to about 40 messages per second per Dchannel if the load is evenly distributed.
The following figure gives the load on the AS7-V DPNSS/DASS2 terminal when information
frames are both transmitted and received by both sides, while corresponding to normal
circumstances. The number of information frames is given for one direction only and as a sum of
all the D-channels.

Figure 8:

Processing capacity of the AS7-V (DPNSS/DASS2)

The maximum number of signalling or other messages that can be transmitted on the AS7-V in
this case is in the range of 500 to 1000 per second. This amounts to about 20 messages per
second per DPNSS/DASS2 D-channel if the load is evenly distributed.
Functional unit D-channel data
D-channels for functional units are created automatically by the system when the unit is created.
The data required by the D-channel is provided by the system or retrieved from the parameters of
the MML command WUC (Connect functional unit). The D-channel is also automatically deleted
when the functional unit is removed with the command WUD (Disconnect functional unit).
The data of the functional unit D-channels is stored in the following files:
Functional unit
File
DCHSET FUDCHA ETDCHA SDCHAN
ECU
X
(X)
MPC
X
(X)
DIC
X
(X)
DIPC
X
(X)
CLS
X
(X)
ET
HWILIB
Tetra units
X
All other units
X
Table 2:
Files used for functional unit D-channels
X = Semipermanent D-channel data
(X) = Information about functional unit
HWILIB = Information is read from equipment database, no semipermanent D-channel file
The data of the D-channel can be interrogated using the following MML commands:
Command Functional unit
DSI
CLS, ECU, MPC, DIC and DIPC
DSS
SUB
DSF
All other units
Table 3:
Commands for the interrogation of D-channel data
D-channel states
The state of the functional unit D-channel follows the state of the unit. The D-channel is
activated when the state of the unit changes from SE-OU to TE-EX. Correspondingly, the Dchannel is deactivated when the state changes from TE-EX to SE-OU.
Under normal conditions you do not have to change the state of the functional unit D-channel.
The system takes care of state transitions.
There are some exceptions to these rules:
For ET units, the state changes occur already in the state transition SE-NH <-> SE-OU. In
the case of ET, which is of the type ET2E/ET2A/EC2ET/ET4E/ET4E-C/ET4A/ET16, the
1.
state of all ET units affects the state of the D-channel. The D-channel connection is kept
active whenever at least one of the ET units is in any state other than SE-NH.
The state of COCA and EC1P based functional unit (ECU, MPC, DIC and DIPC) D2. channels is controlled by the user irrespective of the state of the units. Use the MML
command DTC for state changes. The state model is the same as for 30B+D D-channels.

Figure 9:
General state model of functional unit D-channels
The label US in the figure above indicates a D-channel state change that is based on the state
change of the functional unit (MML command USC). This is the normal way to change the state
of the D-channel.
It is also possible to change the state of the D-channel with the MML command DTT. Usually
this command should not be used, and it is mainly reserved for fault isolation and testing
purposes. Note also that the channel state is not stored in the files. User-initiated state changes
are thus lost when unit restart or switchover occurs. The TETRA system D-channels are the only
exception to this rule (as the DTT command is the only method of changing the state of the Dchannel); see TETRA system D-channels.

Figure 10:
State model of subscriber module (SUB) D-channels
The state model of subscriber module D-channels is different from the other functional unit Dchannels.
D-channel state change in 30+D
After the D-channel has been created, it is in activation denied state UA-AD. The normal
working state for the D-channel is WO-EX.
Under normal circumstances it is sufficient to request state changes between the states UA-AD
and WO-EX. Information on activation denied status is written into a file called DCHSET. State
BL-US is not semipermanent, which means that the channel is only temporarily blocked and will
be reactivated by the system after unit restart or switchover.

Figure 11:
State model of the primary rate (30B+D) D-channels
The figure shows the possible state changes of a primary rate D-channel. Arrows without labels
indicate state changes initiated by the system. User-initiated state changes are labelled with
MML.
If the D-channel cannot be activated or if the activation fails, the state of the channel changes to
BL-SY and alarm 2250 is raised. See D-channel troubleshooting for further details.
D-channel state change in Abis
After a D-channel has been created, it is in activation denied state UA-AD.
Under normal circumstances it is sufficient to request state changes between states UA-AD and
WO-EX. Information on activation denied state is written into the file DCHSET. State BL-US is
not semipermanent, which means that the channel is only temporarily blocked and will be
reactivated by the system after unit restart or switchover.
Radio network administration may also change the state of the D-channel due to radio network
recovery. These state changes are made automatically by the system.

Figure 12:
State model of the Abis interface D-channels
The figure shows the possible state changes of an Abis D-channel. The arrows without labels
indicate state changes initiated by the system. RN stands for state changes due to radio network
recovery. User-initiated state changes are labelled with MML.

If the D-channel cannot be activated or if the activation fails, the state of the channel will change
to BL-SY. For Abis, the D-channels alarm 2250 is not raised. Instead, there will be a base station
alarm (7705 or 7706) indicating the problem.