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Theoretical phonetics.

1. We have intrusive r in: While the elision is a very common process in connected speech, we also
occasionally find sounds being inserted. When a word which ends in a vowel is followed by another word beginning with a vowel, the so-called intrusive "r" is sometimes pronounced between the vowels, e.g.Asia and Africa
['er nd 'frk],the idea of it [i:a'dr v it],ma and pa ['ma;r nd 'pa:]The so-called linking "r" is a common
example of insertion, e.g. clearer, a teacher of English.Thus it is clear that the linking and intrusive [r] are both
part of the same phonetic process of [r] insertion.Linking and intrusive [r]. It has been estimated that all
English accents are divided into "rhotic" or "r-full" and "non-rhotic" or "r-less". Rhotic accents are those which
actually pronounce [r] corresponding to orthographic "r". RP is a non-rhotic accent but most speakers of it do
pronounce orthographic "r" word-finally before a vowel: lt is a faraway country. It is known as linking "r".
Failure by students to pronounce it does not usually affect comprehension but may result in their sounding
foreign.As a further development and by analogy with linking "r", "r" is inserted before a following vowel even
though there is no "r" in spelling. This "r" is known as intrusive "r". The actual situation is that younger RP
speakers do have it after [] as in idea of, China and.
2. What word combination is the example of vowel alternation?
1. Distinction of irregular verbal forms:
[u u: u]: grow grew grown[u u
[i e e]: mean meant meant
u]: choose chose chosen
[ ]: dig dug dug
[a u: u]: fly flew flown
[a u ]: write wrote written
[a : :]: fight fought fought
[ ]: sing sang sung
[a au au]: find found found
[ : :]: wear wore worn
[i: : i:]: see saw seen
[a ]: hide hid hidden
[ : :]: hear heard heard
[i: u u]: speak spoke spoken [u u:
and some other less common verbal alternations of
u]: know knew known
this type.
[ e ]: give gave given
2. Distinction of causal verbal forms: [e]: sit
[e ): get got got
[i:- : :]: teach taught taught
[a e]: rise raise [: e]: fall fell
[ u u]: understand understood
3. Distinction of singular and plural forms of nouns:
[ e]: man men foot feet tooth teeth
[e u e]: take took taken
mouse mice woman women child children
[e u u]; wake woke woken
4. Distinction of parts of speech in etymologically
[u: : :]: shoot shot shot
correlated words:
[e u u]: tell told told
feast festive class classify long length
[ ]: sit sat sat
broad breadth nation national wise wisdom
[ : :]: think thought thought
hot heat
[ e ]: become became become
This type of alternation is often strengthened not
[a u ): rise rose risen
only by suffixation but also by the shifting of stress
like in: part par'ticular, 'climate cli'matic.

3 . In the word needle the peculiarity of CC transition is called

4 .Lingual consonants are subdivided into: a) forelingual, b) medio-lingual and c) backlingual
5 .Assimilation is a process of alteration of speech sounds as a result of which one of the sounds becomes fully or
partially similar to the adjoining sound..
6 .Compound adjectives, both elements of which are equally important( good-looking, wll-known) have have two
equal stresses as both elements in them are semantically important,
7 . The type of word accent French and Kazakh belong to is(the final syllable is accented)
8 .Chinese, Korean, Japanese belong to the type of accent: the musical type of word accent
9 .Verbs with postpositions of adverbial character go on, pick up, sot down have two equal stresses
11. The word pin [pin] is spelt according to principle:
12. Which system of transcription is used to write personal name of phonetics ?
13. British phoneticians distinguish the following degrees of word stress: force, pitch, quantity and quality
14. The typical syllabic structure is of: (C)VC type
15. From the view point of syllable division syllables are classified as open, closed, covered and uncovered
16. According to their length syllables may be:
17. According to their accentual weight syllables may be:
18. The main criteria in classifying vowels in English are: 1)
according to the horizontal movement of the
tongue; 2) according to the vertical movement of the tongue..
19. According to the stability of articulation vowels are classified into: with a fixed resonator (the tongue and the lips
do not change their position), a modified resonator (the tongue and the lips move from one position to another). The
former resonator corresponds to monophthongs, the latter corresponds to diphthongs
20. Vowels in English are classified into rounded, unrounded according to: lip positions
21. Which ways of stressing are used in English? stressed syllables (primary stress), half-stressed syllables
(secondary stress) and weak or unstressed syllables. By loudness and by pitch
22. What does sentence stress depend on? on the situation or context. Sentence stress is one of the important
component of the intonational structure What words speaker thinks important.The are stressed
23.Whats the time?, he asked . What is the tone of he asked if the question ends on a rising tone? ? On are
raising tone too
24. What is the tone of the adjunct qualifying he asked etc. when this precedes the quotation? For example: Then
he asked, wondering what the answer might be:Why did you do it mid level. It never has a sharp fall
25. What are the main organs of speech? the power mechanism, the vibrator mechanism, the resonator mechanism,
and the obstructer mechanism
26What words have double stresses? a) words with strong prefixes, as in: anti-fascist, arch-enemy,
disbelieve, ex-president, half-price, indooro, interconnect, vice-chairman, etc.;
b)compound adjectives, as: well-bred, ill-tempered, light-blue, timber-headed, good-looking, dark-green, etc.;
c)compound verbs with postverbal adverbs, such as: come in, go out, put on, put off, switch on, turn on,
turn off, etc.;
d)simple numerals from 13 to 19. Each word of a compound numeral is stressed, e.g. nineteen, -thirteen, fiftyseven, etc.;
e)a small group of compound nouns in which both elements are semantically important. They have two primary
stresses, as in: ice-cream, gas-stove, arm-chair, eye-witness, absent-mindedness, etc.
27Point out the main parts of intonation pattern? pitch, loudness and tempo
28What basic nuclear tones of English do you know? Low Fall No. High Fall No.
Low Rise No. High Rise No. Fall-Rise vNo.
29 ,What types of stress do you know? syntagmatic, syntactic and logical.
31. How is clear l pronounced, how dark l? the dark [ ] as in pill the clear [ 1 ] as in lip, the postalveolar [t] as in try. clear l pronounced with the back of the tongue down, dark l with the back of the tongue
32. Is there a difference between the ls in build and built? the l in build is longer
33.Do you know any alveolar fricatives? [t, d, s, z, n, 1, r]. [s,z] and [r] is sometimes called post alveolar, because
the tongue is raised rowards the back part of the teethridge
34.Is her pronounced the same in : her book, her aunt? No, the r is sounded only in her aunt
35.What do we mean by rolled r the tip of the tongue is made vibrate against the back of the teeth ridge
36.Can you give a rule as to when the letter r is pronounced? Before a vowel in the same word or in the same
word group

37. Do we always hear the same r in row and in throw ?if not, what is the differences? In row we hear fricative r,
in throw often the so called one tap r or flapped r
38.Compare the first and the last t in tart. The first t in tart has a sronger plosion or aspiration than the last
39. Whish of the plosives p,t,k have a voice counterpart? All three of them: b,d,g
40. In which combinations of sounds will you often hear the glottal plosive? The glottal plosive is frequently
substituted for t when it is followed by l,m,n,r,I,w,th in the next syllable shut the door
41. How many sounds are there in the word raw ? two [r] and [o:]
42. What is the main difference between the first sound and the last in the word raw? The first sound is a
consonant, the second a vowel
43. What is a vowel? Vowels are normally made with the air stream that meets no closure or narrowing in the
mouth, pharyngal and nasal cavities A vowel is voice, modified by the shape of the open mouth
45. Is there anything between the tip and the front of the tongue?yes,the blade of the tongue
46.Compare the length of the vowels in bead and beat.the vowel in bead is longer than that in beat
47. What is it a diphthong? In the pronunciation of diphthongs the organs of speech glide from one vowel
position to another within one syllable. : [ei, ai, oi, au,, ie]. Is a combination of two vowel sound in one syllable
48. How many consonant are there in yes, web?two consonant in each word
49. What is a nasalized sound? Is produced when the outgoing air passes through mouth nose at the same time
50. Is a voice consonant strong or weak? Strong weak
51.What does phonetics deal with? the study, description and classification of speech sounds.
52.How many vowels are there in nglish? Six [ a,o,i.e,u,y]
53.Linking r is given in
54.Syllable is the minimal units of sounding speech... is a group of sounds...
55.What is known as intonation? a complex unity of speech melody, prominence of words, tempo and voice-tamber
which serve to express the speakers thoughts, emotions, feelings and attitudes towards reality.
56.Accidental rise is in the sentence.
61.How many sounds are there in the English language? 44 sounds
62.What are the vocal cords? The air stream released by the lungs goes through the wind pipe and comes to the
larynx, which contains the vocal cords. Vocal cords which produce voice
The vocal cords are two membranes resembling small lips projecting from the sides of the larynx and containing
muscles that enable them to be drawn apart or together
63. Which sounds are more sonorous? The most sonorous are open back vowels, the least sonorous are the
voiceless stops vowels
64.What is the sonority of a sound? " The sonority of a sound is its audibility
the degree of perceptibility".7 levels of sonority:
1) vowels;
2) semi-vowels / j, w/;
3) sonorants /1, m, n, . r/;
4) voiced fricatives /v, , z, /;
5) voiced stops /b, d. g/;
6) voiceless fricatives /f, , s/;
7) voiceless stops / p, t, k /.
65.Which of the following vowels has the greatest natural sonority? ?[a:] has the greatest natural sonority
because in its pronounciation the mouth is wide open
66.Where are dental sounds produced? produced with the blade of the tongue against the upper teeth. Produced
at the teeth
67.Where are labial sounds produced? made by the lips. Produced at the lips
68.Which sounds are usually the syllable bearers
69.Do you know another consonant besides [h] of which there are as many varieties as there are vowels? L
70.Mention a word in which initial h is not pronounced.heir,hour,honour,honest and their derivatives
71. Syllable is defined as: the minimal units of sounding speech.
72. Phonetics is defined as a branch of linguistics dealing with the phonetic structure of a language...
73. Speech sounds have the following aspects: articulatory, auditory, acoustic and functional
74. Functions of intonation are: constitutive, distinctive, recognitive
78.What basic nuclear tones of English do you know? 1) falling nucleus;
2) rising nucleus;

3) falling nucleus with intensification;

4) falling-rising nucleus.
80.Phonetics is a branch of linguistics, that phonetics is a science of speech sounds..
81. Phonetics means Greek word (phn) meaning sound, voice. that it studies only such sound sequences,
which are produced by a human vocal apparatus, which are carriers of organized information of language and
which are meaningful
87.Phonetics is a part of linguistics, studies the sound system of the language, that is segmental phonemes, word
stress, syllabic structure and intonation.