Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14

4/23/2015

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies|PhilosophicalReadings

RSS Subscribe:RSSfeed
PhilosophicalReadings
ISSN20364989

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismand
OtherHeresies
PostedonOctober27,2014

SpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies
AnnaLongo
UniversitParis1PanthonSorbonne
(France)
1.SpeculativeRealism
SpeculativerealismisthetitleofaworkshopheldonApril27th2007attheGoldsmithsUniversity
inLondon.Fourparticipantswereontheprogramofthatunforgettableevent:RayBrassier,Iain
HamiltonGrant,GrahamHarmanandQuentinMeillassoux.Allthedebatewasrecordedand
transcribedinaspecialissueofCollapse,thejournalthathasbeensupportingSpeculativeRealism
sincethebeginningandthatisstillfollowingitsdevelopments.Thisisaquotefromthe
introductionbytheeditorRobinMackay:
Ratherthanannouncingtheadventofanewtheoreticaldoctrineorschool,theeventconjoined
fourambitiousphilosophicalprojectsallofwhichboldlyproblematisethesubjectivisticand
anthropocentricfoundationsofmuchofcontinentalphilosophywhiledifferingsignificantlyin
theirrespectivestrategiesforsupersedingthem.Itispreciselythisuniquenessofeachparticipant
thatallowedafruitfuldiscussiontoemerge.Alongsidethearticulationofvariouschallengesto
certainidealisticpremises,adeterminationoftheobstaclesthatanycontemporaryrealismmust
surmountwasequallyineffect.Accordingly,someofthekeyissuesunderscrutinyincludedthe
statusofscienceandepistemologyincontemporaryphilosophy,theontologicalconstitutionof
thought,andthenatureofsubjectindependentobjects.[1]
FirstofallwehavetonoticethatSpeculativeRealismisnotadoctrine,noraschool,nora
movement,butanumbrellaterm[2]gatheringtogetherheterogeneousthinkerswhoshare

nothingbutacommonenemy:correlationism.ThisnamewasgivenbyMeillassouxtoindicate
http://philosophicalreadings.org/2014/10/27/annalongospeculativerealismandotherheresies/

1/14

4/23/2015

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies|PhilosophicalReadings

everyphilosophythatsinceKanthasconsideredthatknowledgemustbeentangledwithinthe
relationbetweenhumansubjectandobject:thefirstorganizesthegivenimpressionsinorderto
representthelatter.ForCorrelationismwecannotknowthingsastheyareinthemselves,intheir
autonomousbeing,butwehavetolimitknowledgetothingsastheyareforus:wecannotaccess
realitybeyondourexperienceofit.Inotherwords,thankstoaprioristructures,itispossibleto
organizesensedataincoherentrepresentations,butitisnotpossibletoknowiftheobjects
determiningourimpressionareactuallyliketheyaregiventous.AfterKant,philosophystopped
questioningaboutthemetaphysicalreasonfortheadequacyofknowledgeandstartedtobe
interestedinfindingthebestconventionalrulesforrepresentingphenomena.Thustheonly
featuresharedbyBrassier,Grant,HarmanandMeillassouxsspeculationistheefforttoovercome
correlationisminordertoaccessthesubjectindependentrealityofthingsinthemselves,beyond
representation,beyondthewaytheyaregivenwithintherelationwithhumansubjects.Thisdoes
notmeantogobacktoaprecriticalmetaphysicalthinking,rathertheprojectaimstodevelopa
newmetaphysicsembracingtherationalantidogmaticachievementsofcriticism.InthispaperI
willoutlinethedifferentstrategiesproposedbytheGoldsmithsworkshopsparticipants,thenI
willofferanoverviewofthemorerecentdevelopmentsofSpeculativerealismbyintroducing
morerecenttendencieslikeObjectOrientedOntologyandAccelerationism.
2.QuentinMeillassoux:AfterFinitude
QuentinMeillassouxsAprslafinitude,translatedinEnglishbyRayBrassierasAfterfinitude[3]
provoquedthewaveofanticorrelationistawarenessthatbroughtaboutthemeetingofthe
Goldsmiths.Thebookpresentsabrilliantrationalisticdemonstrationoftheabsolutecontingency
ofrealitywhichisattainedbyovercomingcorrelationismfromtheinside.Contingencyis
assumedtobeanabsolutefeatureofanypossiblefactthatcanbeaffirmedindependentlyof
experience.Moreover,itallowstodismissthemetaphysicalbeliefinthenecessityofthisworlds
orderandinGodasthereasonfortheworldbeinglikethisratherthanotherwise.Toreachthis
absoluteandsubjectindependenttruthaboutanyvirtuallypossiblefact,Meillassouxstarts
questioningcorrelationismanditsantidogmaticachievements.Sincecorrelationistphilosophers
havetoadmitthatthecorrelationcouldbedestroyedandthatthereisnowayofdemonstrating
thenecessityofaspecificaprioriorganization,Meillassouxclaimsthatthecorrelationmustbe
assumedascontingent.Thisimpliesthatitisnotpossibletoprovethenecessityofthecausal
connectionthatweapplytolinktheimpressionsinordertopredictfutureeffects.Thus,froma
correlationistpointofview,itisnotpossibletoprovethenecessityofnaturallaws,likeHume
alreadyknew.Thequestion,then,becomes:whyhasnobodyclaimedthatthelawsarecontingent,
althoughnobodysucceededindemonstratingtheirnecessity?Itisbecauseweexperiencethe
stabilityofthelawsofphysics,becauseweseethatthesamecausesareregularlyfollowedbythe
sameeffects.Accordingly,wehavethetendencytobelievethatlawscannotchangeandthatthere
isreasonmakingthemtobethusratherthanotherwise.Iflawswerecontingent,infact,wewould
expecttoseethemchangefrequently,thustheevidenceoftheirstabilityisassumedtoprovetheir
necessityandtosupporttheideaofatranscendentreasonfortheorderoftheworld.But,
Meillassouxclaims,thereisamistakeinthisreasoningwhichconsistsinthinkingthatcontingent
lawsmustchangefrequently.Referringtothesettheory,infact,heexplainsthatthemistake
derivesfromanerroneousapplicationoftheprobabilitycalculustoanontotalizableset,likethe
setofalltheimaginablemathematicalfunctionsdescribingpossiblelawsofphysics.Actually,we
areallowedtoapplyprobabilityonlytototalizablesets,likethesetofthesixsidesofadice.Ifa
http://philosophicalreadings.org/2014/10/27/annalongospeculativerealismandotherheresies/

2/14

4/23/2015

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies|PhilosophicalReadings

dicefellalwaysonthesameofitssixsides,wearedriventothinkthatthereisatrick,areasonfor
thesamenumbertobedrawnateverythrow.Butitisnotpossibletocalculatetheprobabilityof
somethingincludedinanontotalizableset,likethesetoftherationallyacceptablephysicallaws:
weshouldnotbesurprisedifahypotheticaldicewithanontotalizablenumberoffacesfalls
alwaysonthesameside.Inthisway,theobservedstabilityoflawsdoesnotexcludetheir
contingency:thefactthattheydonotchangefrequentlydoesnotimplytheirnecessity.Thus
Meillassouxcandeclarethat,althoughwedonotobservethemchanging,naturallawsare
contingent:thefactthatwecannotprovetheirnecessityisnotduetothelimitationofour
understandingregardingthemetaphysicalreasonfortheirstability,buttotheirabsolute
contingency,totheactualabsenceofareasonforthemtobeinacertainwayorotherwise.
Contingencybeingtheonlyrationalnecessitythatwemustacknowledgetolaws,wehavetostate
thattheycanchangeatanytimebutalsothattheydonothavetochange.Thismeansthatwedo
notneedaGodtobetheoriginoftheorderoftheworldbecausetheworldwemakeexperience
ofisjustoneofthevirtuallyinfinitepossiblethatcanbeactualizedinanabsolutelycontingent
way:everythingcanhappenatanytime,evennothing.Sincethelawsofthisandalltheother
possibleworldscanbeexactlymathematicallyformalized,realityisabsolutelycontingentbut
totallyrational.Thisimpliesthatwecanmathematicallydescribeallthevirtuallypossiblefacts
evenifnobodyistheretoperceivethem.
3.IainHamiltonGrant:PhilosophyofNatureafterShelling
IainHamiltonGrantssubjectindependentrealityhasalmostnothingincommonwith
Meillassouxs,aseveryspeculativerealistelaboratedhisanticorrelationiststrategyfromavery
differentstartingpoint.MeillassouxsreferencesareDescartes,Hume,KantandBadiou,by
contrastGrantsworkisbasedonShelling,PlatoandDeleuzeanditaimstocreateanewrealist
philosophyofnatureinspiredbyIdealism.InPhilosophyofnatureafterShelling[4],Schellingis

presentedasthephilosopherwhofirstunderstoodnatureashavingitsownhistorythatextends
fardeeperintothepastthanwaseverbeforeacknowledged,whileevennowproducingformsin
excessofwhathumanunderstandingmightmakeofthem.Dispensingwiththesharpseparation
betweenorganicandinorganic,Schellingunveiledinnatureamaterialvitalismthatrescues
matterfromthecategoryoftheinertandmechanicaltowhichKantandFichtehadrelegatedit.
ForGrant,Ideaspertaintonatureandmustbeconsideredasactualitiesratherthanmental
subjectiveprinciples:theyarethenaturaltendenciesdrivingthefluxofbecomingwhosethought
andsubjectarenothingbutproducts.Sincethereisonlyoneprocessalwaysbecomingaccording
toimmanentnaturesideas,thinkingmustbeacknowledgedasanaturalproductiontakingpart
intotheproduction.ThatisthereasonwhyDeleuzeisconsideredbyGrantoneofthefew
contemporaryphilosopherswhodevelopedShellingsphilosophyofnature.Toexplainnatural
production,Grantintroducesaspecialsortofcausality,thatcannotbeequatedtoateleological
one,nortoanefficientcause.Thebecomingofbeing,infact,isthebecomingthatbeing
undergoespreciselybecausebecomingisdependentonanendthatitcannotattain,thisendisthe
Idea,whosefunctionissimilartothatoftheattractorsofdynamicalsystems.Grantsphilosophy
ofnatureisneitherpulledbyendsnorpushedbybeginnings,sothatthebecomingofbeing
mustbeconsideredasthebeingofbecoming.Grantssurprisingmoveisthathenotonlypits
SchellingagainstbothKantandAristotle,buthedoessointhenameofPlato.Hisevidenceisa
commentaryonPlatosTimaeuswrittenbyaveryyoungSchelling.Centraltothetextistheidea
thattheworldhadnotonlyprimalmatteratitsbase,butmatterinmovement,whichindicatesthe
http://philosophicalreadings.org/2014/10/27/annalongospeculativerealismandotherheresies/

3/14

4/23/2015

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies|PhilosophicalReadings

existenceofaworldsoul.Indeed,theentireearthcanbeunderstoodasarisingoutofandthrough
theforceofitsowninnermagnetism.WhatSchellingoffers,andwhatGrantdevelops,isnot
simplyaspeculativephysicsbutaspecificallyPlatonicphysicsthatendeavorstounderstandthat
whichisdarkestandmostobscure:matteritselfasthelastinstanceofthereal.ForGrantrealityis
natureasconditionforproductionofeverything,thoughtincluded,forthisreasonnaturealways
exceedsourknowledge.Thethinkingsubjectisjustaproductofthenatureandheispartofthe
processofbecomingofeverything,thusconceptsareconsideredtobedeterminedbynatures
ideasratherthatbysubjectiveaprioristructures.
4.RayBrassier:NihilUnbound
Thisinversionofthepositionofthetranscendental,thatbecomestherealsdeterminantforthe
concept,issharedbyRayBrassierstranscendentalrealismthataimstoexplainhowconcepts
differentiatesfromtherealandhowitispossibletoknowtherealdespiteitsbeingthenon
conceptualizableconditionofconceptualization.Inotherwords,thequestionis:howisitpossible
tothinkwhatcannotbeanobjectofthought,thelastinstanceoftherealasnonobjectifiable
conditionofobjectification?Howisitpossibletothinktheimmanentdeterminantofthe
correlationallowingthedeterminationofobjectsinthought?AsBrassierexplainsinNihil
Unbound,[5]thequestioncanbeansweredonlybyaradicalizationofnihilism,whichtohimisthe
highestpointattainedbytherationalisticprojectofEnlightenment.

Nihilismisnotjustaskepticalattitudetowardvalues,buttheideathattruthdoesnotcorrespond
tothemeaningthathumanspretendtofindintheworld.Nihilismleadstoassumethe
indifferenceoftherealitytoanysubjectiveneedandpushesreasontofollowitsowninterests.In
anotherwords,acontinuationmustbegiventonihilisminordertoaccomplishtheprogramof
disenchantmentwhichistheauthenticrationalaimaccompanyingtheunderstandingofthe
absoluteindependencyoftherealfromanyrelationtohumansubjects.Thatimpliestoreshape
theimageofmanbuiltbyphilosophywithintheframeofameaningfulworld.Thus,following
WilfridSellars,Brassierclaimsthatphilosophyshouldstoptocontributeonlytotheconstruction
ofthemanifestimageofmantotakeintoaccountthescientificimage,wherehumancognitioncan
beanalyzedlikeanobjectindependentofthepursuitofmeaning.
Onlythisanalysiswouldallowtounderstandhowcognitionactuallyworksandhowitis
determinedbytheabsoluteindifferenceofthereal.Butwhatistherealassubjectindependent?
ToanswerthisquestionBrassierfollowsFranoisLaruellesNonphilosophywhichdefinesthereal
aswhatissituatedoutsidethecircleofphilosophicaldecision,thatestablishestherelation
betweensubjectiveconditioningandconditionedobjects.Thus,therealisthenondetermined
allowingeverydetermination,thenonconceptualizableallowinganyconceptualization.Sinceit
issituatedbeyondthecircleofdetermination,therealcannotbedeterminedlikeabeingbythe
subjectanditmustbeconceivedasbeingnothing.Beingnothing,asthelastinstanceofthereal,is
thezerodegreeofbeingwhichdoesnotcorrespondtoanegativenonbeingopposedtoapositive
being,butitistheimmanentconditionofbeingfromwhichanydeterminedbeingdifferentiate,
withouttheformerdifferentiatesfromthelatterinretour.ItiswhatLaruellecallsnondialectical
unilateraldeterminationinthelastinstance.Then,thinkingcannotobjectifythereal,soitcannot
actuallyknowit,butitcanrecognizethatobjectsinthoughtareeffectuatedinthesamewayas
http://philosophicalreadings.org/2014/10/27/annalongospeculativerealismandotherheresies/

4/14

4/23/2015

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies|PhilosophicalReadings

objectsdifferentiatefromtherealasbeingnothing.Inotherwords,thoughteffectuatesthe
objectificationofobjectswithoutdifferentiatingfromtheseobjects,itislikethezerodegreeof
objectificationofobjectsinthought.
Therefore,itisnotpossibletorepresenttherealbyobjectifyingit,butitispossibletothink
accordingtothereal:thatmeanstoimitateitineffectuatingdeterminationswithout
differentiatingfromsaiddeterminations;itmeanstobetheimmanentnondeterminedcondition
ofdetermination.Thus,thinkingcangrasptherealonlythinkingaccordingtoit,recognizingitself
essentiallyasbeingnothing,asthezerodegreeofbeing.Thus,thinkingaccordingtothereal
consistsinrecognizingthatthewilltoknowisactuallyawilltonothing,thewillofequatingthe
realasbeingnothing:whatFreudcalledDeathdrive.ThatswhyinNihilunbound,Brassierclaims
thatThinkinghasintereststhatdonotcoincidewiththoseoftheliving,indeedtheycanand
havebeenpittedagainstthelatter[6]andthatPhilosopherswoulddowelltodesistfrom
issuinganyfurtherinjunctionsabouttheneedtoreestablishthemeaningfulnessofexistence,the
purposefulnessoflife,ormendtheshatteredconcordbetweenmanandnature.Philosophy
shouldbemorethanasoptothepathetictwingeofhumanselfesteem[7].Becausehestatesthat

traditionalprojectionslookingforameaningfulinterpretationoftheworldshouldbedismissed
aswellaswhatSellarsdefinedFolkPsychology,Brassierisanalliedofeliminativism,a
reductionistpositionclaimingthatthemanifestimageofmancanbeexplainedanalyzingthe
functioningofthebrainandthatmanycomplexeffectscanbeaccountedforconsideringsimpler
andlowerlevelsofmaterialorganization.Inotherwords,cognitionmustbeexplainedas
determinedbytherealinanondialecticalwayasdifferentiatingunilaterallyfrombeingnothing.
5.GrahamHarman:GuerrillaMetaphysics
CharacterizingBrassiersspeculativestrategy,eliminativismandreductionismarerefusedby
GrahamHarman,whoseObjectOrientedPhilosophy(OOP)affirmsthatnoentitycanbeexplained
byreducingittoitssimplestpartsbecauseanyobjecthasaspecificcharacterthatcanbe
understoodonlybyconsideringitasaspecialwhole,asaspecificbeing.InHarmansontology,
whichispopulatedonlybyobjectsandwhereeverythingisanobject,anyobjecthasthesame
rightsasanyotherandthesamedegreeofreality:anatom,acat,astone,amailbox,atree,Santa
Claus,acloud,10EurosandMonaLisa.InHarmansontologyalltheobjects,inorganic,organic,
big,small,visible,invisible,simple,composed,concrete,abstract,livingordead,areonanequal
footing.NotonlydoesHarmanrefusethescientificideathatobjectscanbereducedtothesimpler
objectscomposingthem,likeithappensinphysics,buthealsorefusestoconsiderobjectsasthey
appeartohumansubjects,orastheyaregivenwithintheirrelationtohumansubjects,likeit
happensinphenomenology.Realism,here,meanstounderstandthespecificwayofbeingofany
objectindependentlyfromitscompositionandfromanyrelationthatcanbeestablishedwith
humansubjectsandanyothernonhumanobject.Fromthispointofview,Harmanconsidersthat
thefirstobjectorientedphilosopherwasHeidegger,asitwouldbeclearfromhisinterpretationof
thefamoustoolanalysisofBeingandTime.DespitethefactthattheGermanphilosopherwas
mostlyinterestedintheDaseinsexistentialcondition,hestatedthatobjectsaredifferentfromthe
relationstheycanenterin:objectsareinthemselveswhatwithdrawfromallrelations.Thissplits
betweentheobjectanditsrelations,orbetweentheobjectasitappearsinanyinteraction(with
humansandnonhumans)andtheobjectasitisinitssecretinaccessibleintimacy,isthefirst
http://philosophicalreadings.org/2014/10/27/annalongospeculativerealismandotherheresies/

5/14

4/23/2015

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies|PhilosophicalReadings

fundamentaltraitoftheactualwayofbeingofobjects[8].ButforHarmanthereisanother
fundamentalriftseparatingtheobjectasaunity,asanintentionalobjectinHusserlssense,from
themultiplicityofitstraitsandqualities.Becauseanyobjectresultsdividedbetweenitspublic
andprivatelifeandbetweenitsunityandmultiplicity,Harmanspeaksofaquadruple
philosophy,thathasthemeritofavoidingthedualisticpartitionofclassicalmetaphysics.
Traditionally,infact,thereisaseparationbetweenaworldoftranscendentmodelsenjoyingafull
reality,andaworldofappearancesenjoyingalowerdegreeofbeing.Onthecontrary,for
Harmananyobjectisasrealasanyotherandthedifferenceitisnotbetweenanauthenticworld
andasimulacralone,butbetweenanyobjectanditself,betweenitspublicanditsprivatelife,
betweenitsmultiplicityanditsunity.Thisontologicalframegiven,whathastobeexplainedis
thewayinwhichobjectscaninteractdespitethefactthattheyalwayswithdrawfromany
relation.Inotherwordsthequestionis:howcanobjectstouchwithouttouching?Guerrilla
Metaphysics[9]dealswiththisproblemandwithanothernotlessdifficultquestion:howcanan

objectunifythemultiplicityofitstraits?TheanswerprovidedbyHarmantoboththequestionsis
vicariouscausation.Thisisaspecialcausethatallowsthecommunicationbetweenentities
whicharenotdirectlycommunicating:itisamediatedcausalitythat,likeGodinOccasionalism,
makestwoobjectschangetogetherasonedeterminedthechangeoftheotherwithoutanyactual
interactionbetweenthem.Vicariouscausationistheanswertoboththequestionsbecausethe
wayinwhichanobjectentersintorelationwithanotherisnotbasicallydifferentfromthewayin
whichanobjectrelatestothemultiplicityofitspartsinordertounifythem.Ifthereisnothingbut
objects,thenwemustconsiderthatthemultiplicityoftraitsandqualitiesofanobjectarenothing
butobjectsthatarevicariouslyboundedtogethertomakeanewobject,whoseinaccessiblecore
withdraws.Thus,vicariouscausationexplainshowthefourpolesofanobjectcancross,it
explainshowanobjectentersintoarelationwithotherobjects,includingtheobjectswhichareits
parts.Asaconsequence,anyobjectmustbeconceivedasamultiplicityofobjectsvicariously
boundedtogethertomergeinanewobjectshowingitsownstyleorspecialcharacterasaunity.
Vicariouscausationcanbeunderstoodasthemediationallowingobjectstofusioninanewobject,
buthowdoesithappen?IthappenswithinthephenomenathatHarmancallsallure,whenan
objectperceivesanotherobjectnotjustasavariablesurfaceofmultipletraitsandqualities,butas
aunitypossessingspecialnotes:objectsmergetogetherbymeansofnotes,interactingassensuous
intentionalobjects.Itisjustovercomingthedisturbingnoiseofthemultiplicityoftraits,whichare
immediatelyperceivedwhenanobjectencountersanotherobject,thatthetwocanaccesstheir
unifiedbeingandmergetogether.Thisthewayinwhichtwoobjectcanvicariouslyinteract
withouttouching:theircoreswithdrawbuttheirnotesallowthemtotouchwithouttouching.
Anyway,sincevicariouscausationallowsanobjecttoboundotherobjectsasitsparts,wemust
concludethatobjectsalwayscommunicateontheinteriorofanotherobject,evenwhenwedonot
considertheproduct.Forexample,whenIperceiveanobject,Iencounterimmediatelythenoise
ofthemultiplicityofitssurfacequalities,butwhenallurehappens,thenIperceivetheobjectasa
specialunity,asanintentionalorsensuousobjectandIrecognizeitasaunitywhoseintimacy
withdraws.Then,ifIstartthinkingofwhathappenedIrealizethattheobjectandmehave
enteredintoarelationproducinganotherobject:perception.Thuswecansaythatanyobject
interactswithanyotherobjectinsideathirdobject.Infact,asthereisnothingbutobjects,
relationsmustbeconsideredobjectstoo:therelationoftwosensuousobjectsproducesathird
object,thusobjectsalwaysinteractinsideotherobjects.Harmansrealityismadeofobjectswhich
arealwaysinsideotherobjects,and,eveniftheinteriorofanobjectalwayswithdrawsfromany
http://philosophicalreadings.org/2014/10/27/annalongospeculativerealismandotherheresies/

6/14

4/23/2015

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies|PhilosophicalReadings

relation,wearealwaysinsideobjects.Asaconsequence,inHarmansrealitythereisno
transcendencebutacertainmetaphysicsisrequiredtoexplainthevicariouscausationallowing
objectstotouchwithouttouching.ItisalsoclearthatfromHarmansstandpointhumanaccessto
objectsdoesnotenjoyanyprivilegesincevicariouscausationintervenesmediatingbetweenevery
object.
6.Otherrealisms:ObjectOrientedOntology
Itisevidentthatthefourdescribedwaysofaccessingthegreatoutdoorareverydifferentand
theysupportheterogeneousconceptionsofwhattherealis.Becauseofthisvarietyofstrategies
andsolutions,itisclearthatSpeculativerealismcannotbeidentifiedasacoherentmovementor
asaschool,despitealltheinvolvedpersonalitiessharethesameenemy:correlationism.Sincethe
workshopattheGoldsmiths,thisalreadyheterogeneousspeculativeturn[10]hasbeenrapidly

spreadingallovertheworldandtodayitcanprideitselfofasurprisingvarietyofcontributions
anddevelopments,aswellasoftheinvolvementofanincreasingnumberofthinkers.Thedebate
hasbeenincreasingbythemeansofnewmedium,atleastforphilosophicaldiscussions,like
blogs,internetwebsitesandnonacademicjournals.Alotofpeopleallovertheworldstarted
postingtheircommentsandsuggestions,sometimesofferingcleverandoriginalremarks,
sometimesproducingasortofvulgarizationoftheoriginalideas.ThatswhyBrassierrefusesto
recognizetheexistenceofaninternationalandspreadSpeculativeRealismMovement.
Thespeculativerealistmovementexistsonlyintheimaginationsofagroupofbloggers
promotinganagendaforwhichIhavenosympathywhatsoever:actornetworktheoryspiced
withpanpsychistmetaphysicsandmorselsofprocessphilosophy.Idontbelievetheinternetis
anappropriatemediumforseriousphilosophicaldebate;nordoIbelieveitisacceptabletotryto
concoctaphilosophicalmovementonlinebyusingblogstoexploitthemisguidedenthusiasmof
impressionablegraduatestudents.IagreewithDeleuzesremarkthatultimatelythemostbasic
taskofphilosophyistoimpedestupidity,soIseelittlephilosophicalmeritinamovement
whosemostsignalachievementthusfaristohavegeneratedanonlineorgyofstupidity.[11]
ItiscertainlytruethattodayisdifficulttosaywhatSpeculatuiverealismissincethealready
heterogeneousanticorrelationismofthebeginninghasbeendifferentiatingandithastakennew
formsdevelopinginavarietyofdirections.Whatissureisthatweareexperiencingamajorevent
inthehistoryofphilosophybecauseofthenonacademicinternetbaseddiffusionandbecauseof
therevolutionaryanticorrelationistwill:theconcreteconsequencescanonlybeevaluatedinthe
future.
AmongstthemorerecentdevelopmentsdemandingaplaceundertheumbrellaofSpeculative
Realism,ObjectOrientedOntology(OOO)isoneofthemostsolidandfollowedphilosophical
tendenciessharingtheprinciplesofHarmansObjectOrientedPhilosophy.OOOisacompact
movementbasedonsomeprecisetheoreticalasumptions:ontologyismadeofnothingbutall
possibleobjects;allobjectsareonanequalfooting;objectsexistindependentlyofhuman
perception;objectsarenotexhaustedbytheirdifferentrelations.SincethepublicationofTool
being[12],anumberoftheoristsworkinginavarietyofdisciplineshaveadaptedHarmansideas,

includingphilosophyprofessorLeviBryant,literatureandecologyscholarTimothyMorton,
videogamedesignerIanBogostandFrenchwriterTristanGarcia.Togiveanexampleofanobject
http://philosophicalreadings.org/2014/10/27/annalongospeculativerealismandotherheresies/

7/14

4/23/2015

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies|PhilosophicalReadings

orientedapproachdifferentfromHarmans,wewilloutlinetheprinciplesofBriants
Onticology[13].Thefirstprincipleisthatthereisnodifferencethatdoesnotmakea

difference[14],itmeansthatanyobjectisadifferenceinbeing.ThesecondiscalledPrincipleofthe
Inhumanandassertsthattheconceptofdifferenceproducingdifferenceisnotrestrictedtohuman,
sincedifferenceisindependentofknowledgeandconsciousness.Thethirdstatesthatifa
differenceismade,thenthebeingis[15],whichmeansthattobemeanstobeadifference,thus,
thereareobjects(differences)orthereisnothing.ForBriantallbeingsarerealinthesamesense
includingfictions,signs,animals,andplantsastheyarealldifferences.Moreover,allobjectsare
themselvescomposedofdifferences.Referringtoitsownontology,Bryanthasalsoproposedthe
conceptofwildernessontology,inordertoindicatethatagencyissharedbyallobjectsandnot
onlybyhumans,thatthereisnoontologicalhierarchynoranybifurcationbetweennatureand
culture.
7.RezaNegarestaniandAccelerationism
Theinterestinagency,therefusaltomakedistinctionsbetweenconcreteandabstractobjects,and
themilitantantireductionismmakeofOOOoneofthetargetsofBrassierscriticism.Tohim,in
fact,thegoalistopursuittheEnlightenmentsdisenchantmentoftheworld,following
contemporaryscientificachievementsespeciallyinthefieldofcognition.Thus,forhimtheobject
orientedapproachisjustanindiscriminateextensionoffolkpsychology(inSellarsssense)on
entitiesthatdonotdeservetobeconsideredrealsincetheyderivedfromfalsesubjectivebeliefs
andnarrations.ThereductionistcredoassumedbyBrassier,infact,impliestheeliminationofall
thenonobjectivebeliefsbasedonthehumanneedofprovidingasenseforhisexistenceinthe
world,productionsthatarenotdeterminedaccordingtotherealintheinterestofrationality,but
accordingtomeaningfulnarrations.Thisrationalisticpursuitofthepropernessofreasonbeyond
humanisticperspectives,hasbeenrecentlyembracedbytheIranianphilosopherReza
Negarestani.HostedontheUrbanomicwebsite,hisblogDeracinatingeffect[16]gatherstogether
thelasttalksandpublicinterventionsontheautonomyofreasonandtheprocessofitsown
becoming.FollowingrationalachievementsofEnlightenment,itwouldbetimetoturnreason
againsthumanisminordertoacknowledgetheprocessofthinkingitselfmerelytorecreatethe
notionofhuman.ThisrationalisticturninNegarestanisthoughtcomeswithhisforthcoming
theoreticalfictionnovelTheMortiloquist[17],wherethehistoryofphilosophyis,barbaricallyand

problematically,revealedtobeadifferentialformofarborescentemptinesswhichisintheprocess
ofblackeningitsvitalistictwists[18].Thisnovelfollowshisfirstphilosophicalsciencefiction
novel,Cyclonopedia[19],whichispartiallyinspiredbyNickLandsGeocosmicTheoryofTrauma[20]
andaimstoexplaincapitalismthroughtherealityofthetraumasbringingaboutthedynamicof
terrestrialeconomy.Thelatterwouldhavebeenmodeledaccordingtotherelationbetweenthe
EarthandtheSun,theexcessiveenergyofwhichdemandstheplanettomanagethesurplusthat
willeventuallyconsumeitanditslivinginhabitantstodeath.Asapartofthissolareconomy,
capitalismappearsasathanatropicmachinethatunlockstheearthsresources,especiallyfossil
fuels,tomakethemavailablefordissolution.Thereforecapitalismcanbeseenasaprocessof
accelerationoftheconsumptionoftheEarthbytheSun.Negarestanisproposalconsistsin
suggestingthatthismodelmustberevisedsincetheSunisnottheabsolute(i.e.theoriginandthe
endoflife),buttherelationbetweentheEarthandtheSunispartofalargeruniversalframe.In
http://philosophicalreadings.org/2014/10/27/annalongospeculativerealismandotherheresies/

8/14

4/23/2015

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies|PhilosophicalReadings

otherwords,wehavetoopentheperspectivethathasbeentranscendentallyconditionedbythe
relationbetweentheEarthandtheSuninordertobeabletothinktherealityofuniversal
economyandtoaccessthegreatoutside.Terrestrialeconomyshouldbeopentothecosmic
economyoftraumatoliberatethoughtfromtheslaveryofsolareconomystranscendentalframe
andtounderstanditsactualrealityandinterests.Thatwouldallowtoovercomegeocentricand
anthropocentricpointsofviewandtotakeinaccounttherealityoftraumaasthesubject
independentdeterminantofsubjectivity.
NegarestaniandBrassier,whoseintereststowardarealistexplanationoftheautonomyof
rationalityconverge,arealsoinvolvedinwhatBenjaminNoyscalledAccelerationism[21]to

criticizeNickLandsdeleuzoguattarianapproachofcapitalism.Accelerationismistodayoneof
mostdiscussedandproductivebrancheswhichpridethemselvesofsomesortofparticipationin
theanticorrelationistphilosophicalturn.AmanifestoofAccelerationismhasrecentlybeen
publishedbyNickSrnicekandAlexWilliams[22]andabigsymposiumhasbeenheldinBerlin

lastDecember.Themovementhastherealisticaimtoanalyzecapitalismasanautonomousentity,
asasubjectindependentsystemwhoseendsarenotnecessarilyhumansends.Thispointof
departurecanbefoundinLandswritingswhichclaimthatmatteristhelastinstanceofthereal
andthatitmustbeconceivedasproductionofproduction:socapitalismispartofthisoriginal
flux.Theproblemisthatthefunctionaldynamicsofcapitalismconsistinreterritorializingwhatit
hasdeterritorialized,sothatitslowsdowntheintensificationprocessthatshouldbeliberated.In
orderintensifytheprocess,thatmeanstothinkaccordingtotheabsolutelydeterritorialized
matterwhichconstitutesthelastinstanceofthereal,Landclaimsthatitisnecessaryaccelerate
Capitalismbeyonditslimits.Thefactisthatspeedingcapitalisminthiswayimpliestoattain
death:matterastheabsolutelydeterritorializedzerodegreeofbeing.ThatswhyLandconceives
capitalismlikeaforcewhosepurposeliesbeyondtheinterestofhumanityand,tohim,to
approachcapitalisminarealistwayconsistsofunderstandingitsautonomousdrive
independentlyofhumansinterests:thecontinuationorintensificationoftheprocessdemandsthe
eliminationofhumanityasasubstratefortheprocess.BecauseinLandstheory,matteristhelast
instanceofrealasthelimitofbeingorzerodegree,becausematteriswhatdetermines
everythingasproductionofproduction,eventhought,andbecausetothinkaccordingtothereal
asmatterspureintensityimpliesdeath,itisnowclearwhyBrassierisinterestedin
Accelerationismandwhyheusuallycontributestothediscussion.Moreover,itisclearthat
NegarestanistheoreticalapproachaimstotakefurtherLandssolareconomicalconclusionto
opencapitalismtothegreatoutsideoftheuniverse.
TalkingaboutAccelerationism,itisnotpossibletoforgetSnirneckandWilliamsAccelerate
Manifesto.StartingfromLandspositions,theseyoungphilosophersarecreatinganoriginal
criticismofcapitalismbyacceleratingtheprocessthathasbeenblockedbyneoliberalism.Rather
thandenyingthepossibilityofafutureforhumanity,itwouldbenecessarytoliberate
capitalismscreativeforcesandtoallowanewfuturetocome.Theirstartingpointisthattoday
nobodyisabletoofferasolutiontothecrisiswhichisannihilatingoursocietysincethesituation
demandsarealistanalysisofthesystemasitisinitself:thatwouldallowtoacknowledgethe
underlyingforcesdrivingitsbecomingandthereasonforthepresentstagnation.ForSnirneck
andWilliams,infact,Landsanalysisisnottotallycorrectbecausethespeedofcapitalismalone
seemsnottobeenoughtoprovokethetransitiontoanotherorganizationiftheprocesskeepsthe
http://philosophicalreadings.org/2014/10/27/annalongospeculativerealismandotherheresies/

9/14

4/23/2015

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies|PhilosophicalReadings

samerules.Theiraccelerationistsuggestionassertsthatanexperimentationofnewrulesof
developmentsisneededinordertomakethebecomingbecome.Capitalism,asMarxalready
noticed,cannotbeconsideredtheagentofitsownacceleration,butitmustbeovercomeby
producingaradicalchangeoftheconstraintsofthepresentconceptionofvalue.Thiscanbe
attainedonlybypushingforwardtechnologicaladvancementinordertosolvesocialconflictsby
eliminatingthenecessityoflabor:theparadoxtobesolvedconsistsinthefactthateverybody
wantstoworklessbut,evenifwehavethetechnologytoaccomplishthisdream,weareall
workingmore.Whatpreventsusfromsolvingtheproblemisthefactthatcapitalismconstrained
technologydirectingittowardsnarrowendsratherthanemployingittoliberatehumanityfrom
labor,whichwouldbethecauseofsocialdifferencesandabuses.Thegoalofaccelerationism,in
itswilltofreeallthepoweroftechnologicalandscientificadvances,consistsinunleashinglatent
productiveforcesinordertolaunchthemtowardspost
capitalism,towardsanewpossiblefuture
bringingaboutanew,moreequalendfreesociety.AswereadontheManifesto:
Wewanttoacceleratetheprocessoftechnologicalevolution.Butwhatwearearguingforisnot
techno
utopianism.Neverbelievethattechnologywillbesufficienttosaveus.Necessary,yes,but
neversufficientwithoutsocio
politicalaction.Whereasthetechno
utopiansargueforacceleration
onthebasisthatitwillautomaticallyovercomesocialconflict,ourpositionisthattechnology
shouldbeacceleratedpreciselybecauseitisneededinordertowinsocialconflict[23].
Thatprojectwouldneedexperimentingtowardsthefuture,consideringthepossiblerealitywhich
isoutsidethenarrowperspectiveofpresentcapitalism.Itwouldneedasocialreorganizationable
topursueEnlightenmentswillforsocialselfmasterytobeachievedbyrationalprogramming.In
otherwords,itisamatterofpushingreasonbeyondthelimitsthatpresentcapitalismimposesas
atranscendentalconditioninordertoreachtheOutside,arealitywhichisnotconditionedbythe
presentmarketsvaluerestrictions.
Accelerationismhasbeencriticized,especiallybyBenjaminNoys,asitisnothingnewbutmerely
aprosecutionofneoliberalpolitics.Anyway,itishasbeenabletocatalyzeagrowinginterestand
anexpandinginternationaldebate,itmeetsalargelyspreaddesiretorenovatepoliticalthinking
beyondthelimitationsofpresentcriticism.Becauseitallowstodiscussaneffectiveapplicationin
politics,thisbranchofSpeculativerealismistodaythemostaliveandproductiveinmany
differentdomainslikepolitics,aesthetics,artandeconomy.
8.NuovoRealismo
Beforeconcluding,wewillcommentonMaurizioFerrarisNuovoRealismowhichistryingtoenter
theinternationaldebate.ItseemtousthatthisItaliantendencycannotbeincludedinSpeculative
Realismsinceitdoesnotsharetheonlycommonfeaturetothevarietyofthedescribedpositions:
anticorrelationism.InfactFerrarisdoesnotintendtoaccessarealitywhichisbeyondthe
phenomenalappearancewhichisgivenwithinthesubjectobjectrelation,butheaffirmsthatthe
objectsthatweperceiveexistandthattheyareimmediatelythereal.Hisenemyisnot
correlationismstatingthatthesubjectcanonlyknowthephenomenalworldofexperienceby
organizingsensesdatacomingfromanunknownthinginitselfthatcouldpossiblybetotally
differentfromthewayitisgiventousbutatheorythatwouldclaimthatobjectsexistsonlyin
themindratherthanoutsidethesubject.Theproblemisthatnobodyneveraffirmedsucha
http://philosophicalreadings.org/2014/10/27/annalongospeculativerealismandotherheresies/

10/14

4/23/2015

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies|PhilosophicalReadings

theory.NeitherDescartes,norKant,andnotevenRichardRortyhaveeverclaimedthatthereis
nothingoutsidethemind,butjustthatweapplysomeideasoraprioristructuresinorderto
buildacoherentrepresentationoftheperceivedworld.Aseverybodyknows,infact,Descartes
cogitoisanexperienceofthoughtthataimstoeliminateanydoubtabouttheexistenceoftheres
extensa.MoreovertheFrenchmetaphysiciansgoalconsistedinelaboratingamethodthatallows
theknowledgeofthingsinanobjectiveway,bythemeansofmathematics:Godbeingthe
guarantoroftheadequacybetweenmathematicalideasandtheworld.Descartesneverstates,as
Ferrarisseemstoclaim,thatexternalrealityisnothingbutamathematicalconstructionwhichhas
noactualityoutsidethemind.Thereisdifference,infact,betweenusingsubjectiveschemasto
organizetheimpressioninacoherentrepresentationandtocreateamentalworldindependently
ofthegivenimpressions.Speculativerealismsantagonististhefirstwayofthinking:thegoal
consistsinunderstandingifitispossibletoknowthingsinthemselvesindependentlyoftheway
theyaregiventoourapriorischemas.NuovoRealismosantagonistwouldbethesecondtheory,
thathethinkstofindinDescartesorKantandhisrealiststatementconsistsinclaimingthat
objectsexistsoutsidethemindandtherealiswhatweperceiveratherthanourmental
representationofit.IfforspeculativerealistsKantmustbeovercomebecausehelimited
knowledgetotheconstitutiverelationbetweenagivenphenomenaandasubjectbyclaimingthat
wecannotaccessthingsinthemselves,forFerrarisKantmustbecriticizedbecauseitwould
consistinstatingthatphenomenaarenottherealbutsubjectiverepresentationsofit.So,
accordingtoFerraristheproblemofthepossibledifferencebetweenappearancesandthingsin
themselves(whichisthereasonwhyspeculativerealistswanttoaccesswhatisbeyond
impressions)wouldnotsubsist.Inotherwords,Speculativerealismaimstoaccessthegreat
outdoorastherealwhichdoesnotcorrespondtothephenomenalworldwhichisgiventothe
sensesandorganizedbyaconscience,onthecontraryFerrarisseemstostatethatobjects,aswe
perceivethem,areimmediatelytherealratherthanasubjectiveperceptionofit.ToSpeculative
realism,Nuovorealismowouldlooklikeanaiverealistpositionunabletogobeyondtherelation
betweensubjectandobject,forFerrariseverythingisgivenwithintherelationbetweenasubject
anditsenvironmentandwedonotneedmorespeculation.Thus,wewouldsaythatNuovo
realismcanbeconsideredasareactiontocertainextremepostmodernpositions,butitisnot
sharingthespeculativeaimofaccessingtherealasthedimensionwhichishiddenbeyondour
relationtothesensibleworld.
Bibliography
RayBrassier,IainHamiltonGrant,GrahamHarman,andQuentinMeillassoux.Speculative
RealisminCollapseIII:UnknownDeleuze,London:Urbanomic2007.
RayBrassier,NihilUnbound:EnlightenmentandExtinction,London:PalgraveMacmillan2007.
RayBrassierinterviewedbyMarcinRychterinKronos,March4,2011.
http://www.kronos.org.pl/index.php?23151,896(http://www.kronos.org.pl/index.php?23151,896)
LeviBryant,GrahamHarman,NickSrnicek(editors),TheSpeculativeTurn:ContinentalMaterialism
andRealism.Melbourne:Re.Press2011.
LeviBryant,TheDemocracyofObjects,OpenHumanitiesPress2011.
http://philosophicalreadings.org/2014/10/27/annalongospeculativerealismandotherheresies/

11/14

4/23/2015

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies|PhilosophicalReadings

PaulJ.Ennis,PostContinentalVoice:SelectedInterviews,Winchester,UK:ZeroBooks2010.
IainHamiltonGrant,PhilosophiesofNatureAfterSchelling,London:Continuum2008.
MaurizioFerraris,Manifestodelnuovorealismo,RomaBari:Laterza2012.
MaurizioFerraris,BentornataRealt.Ilnuovorealismoindiscussione(acuradi),conMarioDeCaro,
Einaudi:Torino2012.
GrahamHarman,TheQuadrupleObject,Winchester,UK:ZeroBooks2011.
GrahamHarman,GuerillaMetaphysics:PhenomenologyandtheCarpentryofThings,Chicago:Open
Court2005.
GrahamHarman,ToolBeing:HeideggerandtheMetaphysicsofObjects,Chicago:OpenCourt2002.
GrahamHarman,OnVicariousCausationinCollapseII:SpeculativeRealism,London:Urbanomic
2007.
EdKeller,NicolaMasciandaro,EugeneThacker(editors),LeperCreativity:CyclonopediaSymposium,
Brooklyn,NY:PunctumBooks,2012.
QuentinMeillassoux,AfterFinitude:AnEssayontheNecessityofContingency.Trans.RayBrassier.
London:Continuum2008.
QuentinMeillassoux,SpectralDilemmainCollapseIV:ConceptHorror,London:Urbanomic
2008.
QuentinMeillassoux,PotentialityandVirtualityinCollapseII:SpeculativeRealism,London:
Urbanomic2007.
RezaNegarestani,Cyclonopedia:Complicitywithanonymousmaterials,Victoria:Re.press2008.
NickLand,FangedNoumena.Collectingwritings19872007.BrassierandMackayeditors,London:
Urbanomic2011.
BenjaminNoys,ThePersistenceoftheNegative:ACritiqueofContemporaryContinentalTheory,
Edimburg:EdimburgUniversitypress2010.
3. Johnson(editorDark),Trajectories:politicsoftheoutside,HongKong:[name]2013.
AlexWilliamsandNickSrnicek,AccelerateManifestoforanAccelerationistPolitics,inCritical
LegalThinking(blogwww.http://criticallegalthinking.com(http://criticallegalthinking.com)),
postpublishedin14May2013.
[1]Brassier,Grant,Harman,Meillassoux,SpeculativeRealism,inCollapseIII:UnknownDeleuze,
RobinMackayeditor,Urbanomic,London2007,p.307.

http://philosophicalreadings.org/2014/10/27/annalongospeculativerealismandotherheresies/

12/14

4/23/2015

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies|PhilosophicalReadings

[2]GrahamHarmanusedthisexpressionintheintroductionofSpeculativeTurn(Briant,Harman,
Srnicekeditors,Re.Press,Victoria2011).

[3]Q.Meillassoux,AfterFinitude.Essayonthenecessityofcontingency,Continuum,London2008.
[4]I.H.Grant,PhilosophyofNatureafterShelling,London:Continuum2008.
[5]R.Brassier,Unbound.EnlightenmentandExtinction,PalgraveMacmillan,London2007.
[6]Brassier,op.cit.,p.XI.
[7]Ibidem.
[8]HarmandealswiththeissueconcerningHeideggersapproachtoobjectsinhisdoctoral

dissertationpublishedin2002asToolBeing:HeideggerandtheMetaphysicsofObjects(Chigago:
OpenCourt)
[9]G.Harman,GuerrillaMetaphysics:phenomenologyandthecarpentryofthings,OpenCourt,
Chicago2005.

[10]SpeculativeTurnisthetitleofbookeditedbyLeviBryant,NickSrnicekandGrahamHarman
thatin2011trytomakeamapofthedifferentpositionsraisedaftertheworkshopSpeculative
Realism,sharingtheanticorrelationistinspirationanddevelopingoriginalstandpoints.
[11]RayBrassierinterviewedbyMarcinRychterinKronos,March4,2011.

http://www.kronos.org.pl/index.php?23151,896(http://www.kronos.org.pl/index.php?23151,896)
(visitedonMarch11,2014)
[12]G.Harman,Toolbeing:HeideggerandtheMetaphysicsofobjects,OpenCourt,Chicago2002.
[13]LevyBriantsmainbookforunderstandingOnticologyisThedemocracyofobjects,availableto

downloadfromtheOpenHumanitiesPresswebsite(openhumanitiespress.org/democracyof
objects.html
).HealsowritesablogcalledLarvalsubjects(http://larvalsubjects.wordpress.com
(http://larvalsubjects.wordpress.com))wherehediscussthemainsconceptsofhisphilosophyand
othertopicsrelatedtoOOOandSpeculativeRealisme.
[14]TheSpeculativeTurn,cit.,p.263.
[15]Ibid.,p.269.
[16]http://blog.urbanomic.com/cyclon/(http://blog.urbanomic.com/cyclon/)(08/03/2014)
[17]R.Negarestani,TheMortiloquist,Urbanomic,London2014.
http://philosophicalreadings.org/2014/10/27/annalongospeculativerealismandotherheresies/

13/14

4/23/2015

AnnaLongoSpeculativeRealismandOtherHeresies|PhilosophicalReadings

[18]http://www.urbanomic.com/pub_mortiloquist.php

(http://www.urbanomic.com/pub_mortiloquist.php)(08/03/2014)
[19]R.Negarestani,Cyclonopedia:Complicitywithanonymousmaterials,Re.press,Victoria2008.
[20]N.Land,FangedNoumena.Collectingwritings19872007.BrassierandMackayeditors,
Urbanomic,London2011.

[21]B.Noys,ThePersistenceoftheNegative:ACritiqueofContemporaryContinentalTheory,
EdimburgUniversitypress,Edimburg2010.

[22]N.SrnicekandA.Williams,AccelerateManifestoforanAccelerationistPolitics,inDark
Trajectories:politicsoftheoutside,J.Johnsoneditor,[name],HongKong2013.
[23]SrnicekandWilliams,AccelerateManifesto,cit.,p.146.
Postedin:Papers(http://philosophicalreadings.org/category/papers/)
Commentsareclosed.
BlogatWordPress.com.
TheInuitTypesTheme.
Follow

FollowPhilosophicalReadings
BuildawebsitewithWordPress.com

http://philosophicalreadings.org/2014/10/27/annalongospeculativerealismandotherheresies/

14/14