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CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF KASAULI DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Summer Internship 2014


13AR60R01
Rita Minhas

Town Profile

Introduction

Kasauli is a Cantonment town situated in


the outer and lower Himalayas Kasauli
Planning Area has a fascinating view of
the Plains .It is Known for its salubrious
climate.
Summers
max temperature
32deg C.
Winters,
Min temperature
2 DegC.
Wind direction - South-West to NorthEast.
Total rainfall in the year is 1020 mm
Setting
Kasauli town is located at 3053'4 North
latitude and 7723 East longitude, at an
altitude of 1920 Metre above the mean sea
level.

Distance From nearby Places:Parwanoo - 19 Km


Kalka
- 20 Km
Solan
- 28 Km
Chandigarh - 55 Km

Evolution Of the Town

1847
1847 - foundation stone of famous Lawrence School
1850 -Establishment of British Cantonment

1873
Kasauli brewery set up near Kasauli Village By General Dyer
Pasteur Institute of India was set up

1947 onwards
Kasauli became Indian Airforce Base

Imperatives
Rich eco-system and cultural heritage.
Low level of urbanization in the State,

High pressure on scarce urban land


resources.
Pressure on land in the State has
increasedmanifold,
Haphazard and unplanned construction
activities in towns, growth centres and
their surrounding areas.

Himachal Pradesh Town & Country


Planning Act, 1977 enactedTo manage and regulate this increasing
trend in urbanization and to check the unauthorized construction activities,
Vision
To ensure optimum and sustainable
development of land.

MAP OF PLANNING AREAS

Legal Framework
Extension Of Himachal Pradesh Town and Country Planning
Act, 1977 to Kasauli Planning Area in the year 1991.
Area upto 1.00 Kilometre on both sides of road from Kasauli to
Dharampur, Kasauli to Kuthar via Jagjitnagar and Kasauli to Parwanoo via
Jangeshu

The limits of Planning Area were however, redefined and area of


the same reduced in view of the demand of people.
Only 26 Revenue Mohals comprising of 1311.00 hectare area. The areas of 9
Revenue Mohals susceptible to urbanization along the roads were notified
by the State Government in 15.1.2007.

Jurisdictions
The planning area is Y-shaped, as it extends in a linear fashion along three
major roads, emanating from Kasauli town.The area is spread along 12
Kilometre Kasauli-Dharampur road, 10 Kilometre Kasauli-Jagjitnagar road,
12 Kilometre Kasauli-Jangeshu-Parwanoo road and 5 Kilometre
Kimmughat-Kutahaghat road.

Kasauli Development Plan

- Critical Appraisal

The development plan for the


year 2021 is a statutory
document which develops the
land use plan and lays out the
development control guidelines
(DCRs) to regulate the towns
development.
Key problems and
Issues.
Environmental Degradation:
Felling of trees, depletion ,
weakening
of
forest
cover,
loosening of hill strata, pollution of
ground water sources and air, soil,
water as well as noise pollution.

Vision
Regulate and guide growth in
desired directions in view of
Kasauli being an eco fragile
,eco sensitive
zone , to
regulate
unprecedented
invasion on the peaceful
environs of the hill.

Haphazard Growth
There are several pockets in Kasauli Planning Area,
which have developed in a haphazard manner and have
thick development. These pockets are eyesores amidst
the natural landscape around them.

Physical Infrastructure
Provision of Adequate physical
infrastructure for the population in
Kasauli Planning area specially
provision of adequate water supply.

Physical Growth:
linear/ribbon growth along
major corridors and is not
conducive for ensuring holistic
and sustainable development of
the area

Concept

Holistic and sustainable development of the area in accordance


with its spatial planning, environment and heritage imperatives.
Maintaining the premier character of Kasauli, as a major tourist
destination, as well as a unique habitat of local population .

Preservation of environment and ecology of the area


Decision Support System
Information Systems
Spatial as well as Non- spatial information /
data Primary as well as secondary data Demographic profile
Spatial Growth including urban form and
sprawl
Existing landuse and road patterns
Demand and supply in service delivery
(water supply , transportation , housing)

Phasing
With a perspective period of 15 years
Implementation of Development Plan is
divided into three phases, coinciding with five
year plans namely:
(i) 2009 -2012
(ii) 2012-2017
(iii) 2017-2021
Norms , standards and assumptions:
Norms for various physical
and social
infrastructure have been mentioned but not
very clearly.
The rate of growth of population has been
assumed to be the current rate .

EXTENT OF PLANNING AREA


The total Kasauli Planning Area thus comprises of 1911.39 hectare
area of 35 Revenue Mohals. As the Act does not apply to the
Cantonment Area, the same is outside the purview of Planning
Area. The Planning Area is spread in 10 panchayats namely
Gulhari, Dharampur, Garkhal Sanawar, Garkhal Kasauli, Nahri,
Jangeshu, Chamian, Ganguri, Jagjitnagar and Ganhol.

Sno

Name

Kasauli Gaon

Nahari

Chhatiyan

Mashobra

Shalaura Kalan

Shalaura Khurd

Jangeshu

Upmohal Tipra

Nadho

10

Dochi

11

Kaphal Ka Hara

12

Gosan

13

Garkhal

14

Khadoli

15

Chabal

16

Sadiyana

`17

Banjni

18

Chamian

19

Khajret

20

Nichli Gaongari

21

Uparli Gaongari

22

Tipra

23

Shili Kalan

24

Shili Khurd

25

Thare Ka
Thakurdawara

26

Dharampur

27

Sanawar

28

Mando Matkanda

29

Mangoti

30

Sanawar

31

Sanwara

Identifying Indicators for Appraisal


KASAULI DEVELOPMENT PLAN

THEME

INDICATOR

BRIEF DESCRIPTION

QUERIES

SPATIAL SCALE

PLAN PREPARATION
Vision

SWOT analysis

taking into

account
need
demands
aspirations

What is the Vision?


Who formulates the vision and How?
Does the vision relate to other levels of
plans?

Region
City
Ward

What was the extent of stakeholder


participation in the process?
Aims and objectives

What are the aims and objectives?


Do they help in achieving the vision ?
What is the extent of stakeholders
participation in the process?

Region
City
Ward

Approach/concept

Theoretical concept for


planning

Is the plan based on any planning approach


/ concept ?
What is the extent of stakeholders
participation in the process?

Region
City

Planning methodology

Approach to the plan


preparation/ planning
framework

What was the adopted methodology for


plan preparation?

Region
City
Ward

Perspective period

Time span as put forth by the


plan

What was the time duration of the plan?

Region
City
Ward

Phasing

Number of phases
Time span

Is there any phasing of the plan?

Region
City
Ward

THEME

Assessmen
t of future
Requirements

INDICATOR

BRIEF
DESCRIPTION
Land suitability based
on development
constraints / natural
resources / vulnerable/
sensitive areas

Land

QUERIES

What were the assumptions , norms


and standards considered for
assessment of land requirement for
various land uses?

Existing land
Utilization /land Use
Densities

Components Of Plan
Settlement Pattern

What was the pattern and distribution


of urban and rural settlements ?

Land Utilization / Land Use

What was the pattern and distribution


of urban and rural settlements ?

Shelter

Housing
Other Shelter
Options

Infrastruct
ure

Water Supply

Provision of housing for


all communities

Provision of other
shelter options like night
shelters.
Sources of water
Proportion of
households having
access to safe water
supply.

Has the housing supply been equitably


worked out?
Does the plan consider for affordable
Housing for Low income communities?
Does the Plan consider other Plan
options?

SPATIAL SCALE

Region
City
Ward

THEME

INDICATOR

Sanitation

Infrastructure

Drainage

BRIEF DESCRIPTION

QUERIES

SPATIAL
SCALE

Waste water management

Region
City
Ward

Proportion of Households
having access to sanitation
facilities.

Does the Plan provide for equitable


distribution of sanitation facilities w.r.t
sectors , slum areas , Low income
groups etc ?
Has the waste water management &
solid waste disposal system considered
in the plan ?

Natural Drainage
(water shed areas)

Does the Plan give a provision for


Drainage Management in the area ?

Region
City
Ward

Drainage network

Power
Supply

Rain water harvesting

Does the Plan take into consideration


the natural drainage system and the
rain water harvesting and structures ?

Alternative / Renewable
sources for Power Supply

Does the plan provide for equitable


distribution of Power supply w.r.t
sectors , low-income communities ,
slums , cost etc?
Does the plan look into alternative
sources of power supply ?
Does the plan give spatial allocation
for the provision of power supply
networks and infrastructure?

Region
City

Is there a provision for sustainable


solid waste management systems in the
the Plan including recycling options?
Does the plan provide for location of
solid waste disposal sites and
integration of informal sector?

Region
City
Ward

Sector wise Consumption


Network and location of
Transformers
Access of low income
communities to power
supply.

Solid waste
Management

Disposal Sites
Integration Of informal
Sector
Hierarchy , Number and
Distribution

THEME

INDICATOR

BRIEF DESCRIPTION

QUERIES

Infrastruc
ture

Education

Hierarchy , number and


distribution

Does the plan provide for equitable


distribution of facilities?

Socio Cultural facilities

SPATIAL
SCALE
Region
City
Ward

Health
Recreational facilities
Urban
Form

Typology , number &


Distribution

Place making and


Imagability

City as a place for All

Transit oriented
corridors /Special areas

Guidelines and development


controls
Form based codes

Built
Heritage

Monuments

Socio-cultural values and


Historicity
Access of low income
communities to power supply.

Natural
Resources

Water bodies & Water


channels

Precincts

Ground water aquifer


recharge zoness
Natural drainage
Wetlands / Marshes /Salt
pans
Hills /ridges
Biodiversity including
Forest / Green areas
Mineral resources

Does the plan provide for


Sustainable Urban form & design
components?

Identification of heritage areas


Provision of facilities and
accessibility
Strategies for conservation
Development controls

City
Ward

Region
City
Ward

Optimum utilization of natural


resources / minimizing over
exploration
Have sustainability concerns been
taken into account while plan
preparation?
Have any measures been taken by
the plan for protection and optimum
utilization of natural resources?

Region
City
Ward

THEME

INDICATOR

BRIEF DESCRIPTION

QUERIES

Climate
Change

Green House gas


Emissions

Compact City
Structure/Carbon Neutral City
concept considering like Green
Building codes Renewable
energy sources, etc.

Heve Climate change concerns


been taken into account in the
Plan?

Heat Sinks / Carbon


Sinks / Urban Greenery

Energy efficiency
measures
Provision of Sustainable
Transport options
Urban
Environ
mental
Quality

Disaster
Manage
ment

Public Transport /Non


Motorized Transport

Water Pollution

Have any measures been taken to


minimize degradation of urban
natural environment?

Air Pollution
Noise Pollution

Pollution and degradation of


Environment

Safety of vulnerable
communities

Safety from disasters

Adaptive capacity

Is there a provision of Climate


change Mitigation and climate
Adaptation measures?

Adaptive capacity of
Population Institutions ,
Information System and
Resources

Has there been any attempt to


Identify the vulnerable
communities?
Have any measures been taken in
the plan for disaster Risk
Management ?

SPATIAL
SCALE
Ward

Region
City
Ward

Region
City
Ward

Region
City
Ward

THEME

INDICATOR

BRIEF
DESCRIPTION

QUERIES

Marginalized Groups
Slums
Urban Poor
Informal Sector

Inclusion of Marginalized
Groups /Population with
special needs in planning &
design Decision making and
implementation

Have the marginalized


groups/ population with
special needs been identified?
Have their requirements been
included in the plan w.r.t
standards?

Inclusivity
Population with
special needs
Children, Youth,
Women , Single
Parents, Senior
citizens, Disabled
Population
Equity

Distribution of
housing supply
Provision of access to
infrastructure &
services

Region
City
Ward

Equitable distribution of
housing & infrastructure
between various social and
economic classes?

Capacity building &


empowerment of the ward
community through
participation in the plan
making decision making

Does the plan provide for


equitable distribution of
shelter and infrastructure?

City
Ward

implementation.

Capacity
building &
community
empowerme
nt

Stakeholder participation in decision making &


Implementation.

Does the plan provide for


capacity building of the
community through
provisions for participation
and spatial mix of social /
income categories?

Social well
being

Personal development

Does the plan provide for


facilities for security health
recreation and leisure &
kearning?

Security (Crime
Terrorism

SPATIAL SCALE

Provision of facilities for


health recreation leisure
education and safety.

Ward

City
Ward

THEME

INDICATOR

BRIEF
DESCRIPTION

QUERIES

GDP

Provision of economic
sustainability in the plan
by ways of employment
and economic
opportunities which would
contribute to the state
GDP & experts .

Does the plan take economic


sustainability concept into
account for local
development?

Employment rate
in local enterprise /
SHGs/CBOs/NGOs

Local economic
development

Investment plan

Mobilization of finance /

Economic
Development

Financial
development

investment Projects.

Is there any investment plan


or strategy adopted?
If yes, what are they?

SPATIAL
SCALE
Region
City
Ward

Region
City
Ward

Governance
Implementatio
n and
enforcement

Phasing

Is there any phasing for plan


implementation?

Plan approvals

How much time it take for


planning approvals?

Responsibility /Accountability

Who is accountable for what


work during plan
implementation and

Stakeholder
Participation

Ward ,community, women


youth, academia, NGOs,
CBOs, SHGs Pvt Sector etc.

enforcement?

Region
City
Ward

THEME

INDICATOR

BRIEF
DESCRIPTION

QUERIES

Plan Evaluation

Indicators for monitoring


to evaluate the plan

Have any indicators been taken


for monitoring to evaluate the
impacts of plan development?

Monitoring Mechanism

What is the methodology


adopted for monitoring?
Is there any monitoring
committee?
If yes , who are the committee
members?

Review Mechanism

Is there any provision for


incorporating the results of
monitoring through plan
review?
Is there any iterative process
adopted?

Responsibility/ Accountability

Who is accountable for what


work during plan review?

Stakeholder
participation

Who are the participants?


Are the public participants
represented from all levels of the
society with respect to education
, economic backgroundethnicity
, caste, religion , gender ,
occupation and age?

Monitoring
and Review

Public grievance
System

Ward community,
women, youth
academia, NGOs,
CBOs, SHGs Pvt
Sector etc

SPATIAL
SCALE
Region
City
Ward

Assessment of Needs - Indicators


Population and Workforce Estimates
Population Size
Sex Ratio
Work force participation
Mix of social categories
Literacy rate
Housing Needs
Migrants
Housing for poor

Infrastructure Requirements
Water Supply
Storm Water generation
Solid waste generation
Land

Land suitability based on development


constraints / natural resources /
vulnerable/ sensitive areas
Existing land Utilization /land Use
Existing densities
Transportation
Assessment of travel demand/ Traffic
behaviour

Population and Workforce Estimates

Kasauli Planning area population distribution Mohal-wise 2011

2500
2000
1500
1000
500

Population Size
Within the planning area ,
Kasauli Gaon has the highest population with 2131 persons.
Shilli Khurd - has the lowest population with merely 8 persons.
Total Population of Kasauli Planning Area is 14315
Kasauli development plan gives the population village wise also projects the population
for the year 2021

Population and Workforce Estimates


Comparative Sex Ratios 2011 & 2001
Chart Title
1000.00
950.00
900.00

2011

850.00

2001

800.00
India

Himachal Kasauli

Urban population: male-female


distribution
42%
58%

Male

Female

KPA population: male-female


distribution
47%
53%

Rural population:male-female
distribution
45%
55%

Male

Female

Male

Female

Inferences
The cumulative rural vs. urban
population shows a little deviation in
balance of male to female ratio. Sex
ratio in rural area is higher as
compared to urban area .
The urban as well as rural female
sex ratio is much below the state as
well as national sex ratios of 974
and
940
per
1000
males
respectively.
However, the distinctly lesser
female population in the urban areas
as compared to the rural area
demarcates the
in-migration of
majorly male population in pursuit
of economic opportunities and job
prospects.

villages

Dharampur
Sanawar
Mando Matkanda
Mangoti
Sanawar
Sanwara

Kasauli Gaon
Nahari
Chhatiyan
Mashobra
Shalaura Kalan
Shalaura Khurd
Jangeshu
Upmohal Tipra
Nadho
Dochi
Kaphal Ka Hara
Gosan
Garkhal
Khadoli
Chabal
Sadiyana
Banjni
Chamian
Khajret
Nichli Gaongari
Uparli Gaongari
Tipra
Shili Kalan
Shili Khurd

population

Population and Workforce Estimates

SC-ST Population KPA(Village Wise)

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
TOT_Population

P_SC

Population and Workforce Estimates


Comparative child Population

F_06

The sex composition by age groups is vital for studying the


demographic trends of young population

3577
Urban

M_06

4026

Rural
Kasauli

P_06

7603
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

Child Sex Ratio for State and Districts : 2001-2011

District Code

State/District

2
Himachal Pradesh

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12

Chamba
Kangra
Lahul & Spiti
Kullu
Mandi
Hamirpur
Una
Bilaspur
Solan
Sirmaur
Shimla
Kinnaur

Child Sex ratio


in age group 06 years)
2001
3
896
955
836
961
960
918
850
837
882
900
934
929
979

2011
4
906
950
873
1,013
962
913
881
870
893
899
931
922
953

The decreasing sex ratio in this age group has a cascading effect
on population over a period of time leading to diminishing sex
ratio in the country
This reflects a grim picture of the status of the girl child in the
country and majority of the states. The magnitude of the decline
can be seen by the fact that 31 States / Uts have registered a
decline in Child Sex Ratio during 2001.Alarming trends are
discerned
in
some
of
the
major
states
like Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Gujrat, and Delhi.
Comparative child sex-ratio
920
900
880
860

886
Kasauli

906

914

Himachal

India

(Source:
Solan, 2011
data)

Inferences
While the child sex ratio for Himachal Pradesh is below
the national figure ,that of kasauli is even far more lower.
The decreasing sex ratio in this age group has a
cascading effect on population over a period of time
leading to diminishing sex ratio in the country.

Literacy Rate

Population and Workforce Estimates

95
90
85

M_ Lit rate

80

F_lit Rate

75
70
Total

Rural

Urban
Source : DP Kasauli

120
100
80
60
40
20

Observations

Dharampur
Sanawar
Mando Matkanda
Mangoti
Sanawar
Sanwara

Kasauli Gaon
Nahari
Chhatiyan
Mashobra
Shalaura Kalan
Shalaura Khurd
Jangeshu
Upmohal Tipra
Nadho
Dochi
Kaphal Ka Hara
Gosan
Garkhal
Khadoli
Chabal
Sadiyana
Banjni
Chamian
Khajret
Nichli Gaongari
Uparli Gaongari
Tipra
Shili Kalan
Shili Khurd

Source :Census 2011

Literacy rate is highest in Khajret followed by Nahari, with both male and female literacy being highest
here.
Male Literacy rate is lowest in Shilli Kalan, while female lieracy rate is lowest in Shilli Khurd.

Population and Workforce Estimates


Occupational Structure: Working-Non-working Population

39%

Workers

Of the working population , majority of


the working population is main, which is
a good attribute.But a greater number of
non-worker
population
with
low
percentage of marginal population
indicates lesser opportunities for
informal sector which is not a good sign.
Other reason for higher number of nonworker population could be outmigration of working age people for
better job opportunities outside the town,

Non-workers

61%

6%

Main
Marginal
94%

22%
Male
Female
78%

Huge gap exists between male and female


working population. Majority of the
working population is male, which
implies less participation of female in
workforce population.
Vocational
training centres should be provided for
women who aim to promote employment
of women in industry as semi-skilled
workers by increasing their participation
in skill training facilities,
Source :Census 2011

Infrastructure Requirements

Water Supply

Kasauli Cantonment is being supplied drinking water supply by Military Engineering Service.
The sources of water are springs near Manaun and Gambhar river.

The military as well as civil population in Kasauli town are served water by these schemes.
The total supply is 80,000 to 90,000 gallons per day. There are gaps in the actual supply of
water and the overall demand of water supply.
Water Supply Schemes for Kasauli Villages
Currently the population in the planning area is getting its supply of
water from Irrigation and Public Health Department .
Other schemes which are serving the villages of Planning Area are
Perreinal Sources
of Water for
Kasauli

Manuan

Lift Water Supply Scheme, Madhiana,


Lift Water Supply Scheme, Garkhal Gosan-Dochi
Lift Water Supply Scheme, Sari Thana.

Springs

Gambhar

Source :Development Plan

The plan states that it is being augmented to the water supply level of 70
litre per capita per day, by connecting it to the Water Supply
Scheme, Solan from Giri River.
it was predicted in the development plan that Kasauli was likely to
witness continuing shortage of water supply

Current status of water supply in Kasauli Planning Area


No water demand for any commercial functions, industries and
hotels has been considered by the IPH Department
Population in Cantonment area is
shortage of water supply.

Estimating Water Demand

suffering from a severe

Hotels and commercial establishments complete their water


requirements by tankers.
Kasauli development plan predicts the shortage of water supply
but fails to provides any pragmatic solution to the problem.

Ironically being a tourist place , requirements of


apartments, hotels, big institutions and commercial projects have
been totally neglected.

Observations
Improvements in the water supply system depend upon
public financing, for existing tariffs generate insufficient
revenues to cover the operational and maintenance costs.
Enhancement of tariff is linked to economic structure of the
consumer population and to the improvement in service
delivery.
Present schemes are supplying water at 45 LPCD which is by
any far below the benchmark

As per the population projection done in DP


Kasauli , the projected demand for the year
2021 is 825 thousand gallons per day .

Potable Water Supply and Rain Water


Harvesting

No objection certificate from the IPH Department

regarding availability of adequate water supply


and viability of design of rain water harvesting
shall have to be furnished.
Adequate provision for rain water harvesting @
20 liters per Sqm. of the roof top area shall have
to be made underground in the parks and open
spaces and same shall be used for the purposes
other than drinking and cooking.

Source :Development
Plan

Water requirement by the household :

Consumer
Drinking
Bathing
Cooking
Washing of Utensils

Water
requirement
(l/c/d)
5
55
5
10

Washing of floors etc

10

Washing of clothes

20

Flushing of toilets

30

Total

135

Sources: Environmental Engineering by M Narayan Rao , V Thanikachalam)

Water requirement by the Livestock:


Livestock use
Cattle
Horses, donkeys and
mules
Sheep and goats
Pigs
Poultry (l/100/day)

Water requirement
(l/c/d)
25 35
20 25
5 15
10 15
15 25

Assuming 2 animals per household


with an average water requirement of 30
litres, 60 litres water is required by rural
house hold.
For human consumption , barring the
water requirement for drinking, bathing
,cooking and washing utensils ,40 litres of
water is required daily for flusing toilets ,
and cleaning of floors per capita.
Average Household size = 4.5
(source: census 2011)

Water that has to be procured from


rain water for a household = 4.5 x 40 = 180
ltrs daily
Total daily requirement that have to be
fulfilled by using rain water = 180+60 =240
ltrs
Requirement through the year = 240 x
365 = 87600 ltrs

Design Parameters
The following simple formula may be
applied to arrive at the quantity of
rainwater collected:
Quantity of water = Cat c h m e n t area
x Run-off x Rainfall
For example :(a)
If a roof area is 10 m long and
8 m wide and rainfall is equal to 102 cm
per annum.
Quantity of Rainfall =10 x 8 x 102 x
1000
100
=
81,600 litres per annum
For the rural household with average
number of livestock assumed above this
is just is enough.

Filtration System : There are wide


varieties of systems available for
treating water before, during and after
storage. The level of sophistication also
varies, from extremely high-tech to very
rudimentary. The sand-charcoal-stone
filter is often used for filtering rainwater
entering a tank.
( Shukla Acharjee , Mangesh G.
Waghmare)

Challenges:
Small plots and due to hilly terrain
the RWHT of higher plot often start
seeping ,this seepage travels to the
adjacent structures on lower slope.
It weakens the structures as the
seepage often travels through
the retaining walls thereby
causing danger of them yielding in
during rainy season.

Suggestions:
Thorough monitoring concerned TCP providing guidelines for proper construction of
RWHT .
PVC tanks could be used instead of in-situ construction.
Location of RWHT on the site plan should check to avoid close proximity to any
structural elements.

Storm Water Drainage


Gram Panchayats construct drains along paths and streets in an
isolated manner, subject to the availability of funds.
The Public Works Department constructs culverts , cross drains
and side drains

Observations
The region is entirely mountainous covered with green vegetation.
Villages are mostly located on hilltops. It receives a rainfall of
about 1050 mm annually.
Run-off is rapid carrying with it top soil. People have tendency to
dispose off solid waste near drains leading to pollution of
streams.

Suggestions
Clean up animal waste, grass clippings and fallen leaves
from your property regularly.

Fertilizer and pesticides should be used carefully to prevent


their entry into the storm-water system.
Dispose of household hazardous waste properly, not down a
storm drain.
Source : Best practices followed for storm water management Town of
Richmond Hill

Stolid Waste Management


SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL
Presently, there is no organised solid waste
management system within Kasauli Planning
Area. However, Panchayats have been
implementing
the
total
sanitation
scheme, sponsored by the Government of India.

Source :Development
Plan

Action Plan for Solid Waste


management in Rural Himachal
Underlying Philosophy of the Panchayat Level
SWM

Observations

Reduction at source Zero Waste/ Reduced Waste


Segregation of waste at source at zero waste
management centres.

Despite state government policy , there are


issues of pollution of drains, surrounding land
of settlements .

Waste disposal with stress on income generation


through composting and recycling.
Policy of Polluter pays to be followed.

There is no street sweeping in place

Source :Notification Govt Of


Himachal Rural Development
Department

Solid waste collected near streets creates


obnoxious small and hampers scenic beauty
also pollutes surface water run-off during
rains.
Source :Primary Survey

Land

Land suitability based on development


constraints / natural resources / vulnerable/
sensitive areas

Land Use

Predominantly a rural character.


Development in form of built pockets
amidst rural landscape, in a ribbon
pattern.
Physical haphazard growth, mainly along
the major roads emanating from Kasauli
town.
Has no proper circulation including service
lanes.
Settlements away from roads are
Scattered -steep slopes or nallahs and
forests.

Density
9 persons per hectare for the revised Kasauli
Planning Area.
The proposed gross density of urbanisable area
is envisaged as 27 persons per hectare and the net
residential density for urbanisable area as
49 persons per hectare.

Land
Land suitability based on development
constraints / natural resources / vulnerable/
sensitive areas

Additional Landuse Requirement


for 2021

Predominantly a rural character.


Development in form of built pockets amidst
rural landscape, in a ribbon pattern.
Physical haphazard growth, mainly along the
major roads emanating from Kasauli town.
Has no proper circulation including service
lanes.
Settlements away from roads are
Scattered -steep slopes or nallahs and
forests.

Density
9 persons per hectare for the revised
Kasauli Planning Area.
The proposed net residential density for
urbanisable area as 49 persons per hectare.

Transportation
Roads and streets are not capable to cater for the traffic volume, which has
increased manifold during the last few years..
Lack of adequate parking facilities forther creates a problem. National Highway-22
passes through the South-Eastern periphery of the Planning Area.
There is major congestion and traffic jam in Garkhal Bazar .
Two major accesses to Kasauli emanate from it from Parwanoo and Dharampur.
In between Chandigarh and Kasauli, there are two major bottlenecks at Kalka and
Pinjore which adversely affect the tourist flow.
Lack of parking facilities in Kasauli town during peak tourist season .
There are nine other important roads of widths ranging from5.0 Metre to 10.67
Metre running through the Planning Area.

Components of Plan

- Indicators

Social Infrastructure

Education
Health
Work Recreation Facilities
Police Station
Post offices
Religious Facilities

Urban Form
Place making and Imagability

Built Heritage
Monuments
Colonial heritage

Natural Resources
Water bodies
Ground water aquifers
Natural drainage
Hills /Ridges
Biodiversity including
areas

forest/green

Social Infrastructure
EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES
Education and healthcare available have
direct bearing on the quality of life of a
town or city. Present situation is
discussed with relevance to the aims as
defined in the development plan. There is
insufficient discussion in the development
plan Kasaulii about the status of
education .It may be prudent to mention
the
recommended
standards
for
educational institutions and analyse the
current situation
Standards for educational provision by population threshold

Type of education institution

Population
threshold

Student
strength

Nursery school
Primary school
Senior secondary school
College

2500
5000
7500
125000

500
500
1000
1000-1500
(Source: UDPFI

There are were 11 Primary Schools ,One Middle School is at Jagjitnagar,3 Senior Secondary in Kasauli
Planning Area during plan formulation period. Presently there are about 12 primary schools in KPA, 6 Middle
schools, 4 senior secondary schools here.
In hill towns due to lower densities Standards of UDPFI for number of schools on the basis of population is
inadequate parameter , therefore safe walking distance should be considered.

Social Infrastructure
Standards for educational provision by walking distances

Type of education

Nursery
Primary
Middle school
Secondary
College
University

Suggested walking
distance in kms

Population
threshold

0.4
0.4 0.6
0.54 1.61
0.54 1.61
-

(metro cities)
750 -1000
3500 - 5000
6000 - 8000
12000 - 15000
> 150000
>500000

Some Private -schools

Population threshold

Sl
1
2
3
4

(small and medium


towns)
500 750
2000 2500
3000 4000
10000 15000
50000 80000
-

Observations
There are sufficient number of government
schools in KPA.
Enrolment in primary and middle schools
is far below their carrying capacity.
Improvement in quality of education and
image building of government schools is
required to be done.
People shy away from sending their kids to
government schools.
Children have to walk on average 2.5 Km to
reach school, which is because of not getting
sufficient threshold population in hill towns
for providing facilities.

Source: K.V.Sundaram Urban and Regional planning in India, Delhi Vikas, 1977
List of some Middle -Schools

List of some Govt Primary-schools

Sl.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Name Of School
GPS Sanawar
GPS Garkhal
GPS Kasauli
GPS Dharampur
GPS Chamian
GPS Banjini
GPS Shadyana
GPS Sanawar Gaon
GPS Kasauli
GPS Jagjitnagar
GPS Gaunguri
GPS Sanwara
Total

Enrolment
33
60
39
191
50
26
5
29
28
86
31
40
647

Sl.No.
1
2
3
4
6

Name Of School
GMS Jagjit nagar
GMS Kasauli Gaon
GMS Sanawar
GMS Kasauli
GMS Chamian

Enrolment
86
33
139
74
143

Total

475

School Name
Lawrence School,
Pinegrove School,
Saraswati Niketan School,
St. Mary's Convent School,

List of some Senior Secondary schools


Sl.No.

Name Of School

Number of Boys

1
2
3

GSSS Chamian
GSSS Kasauli
GSSS Sanawar

159
126
50

Number of
Girls
178
119
73

(Source: Office of District Inspector of School Solan)

Number of
Students
337
245
123

Social Infrastructure
Health Facilities
There are adequate number of Primary Health
Centres, Community Health Centre, Health
Sub-Centres and Ayurvedic Dispensary in
KPA. The Military Hospital in Cantonment
Area is also serving the local residents.
Planning Area also has a few specialized
medical institutions namely a Leprosy Hospital
and a Sanatorium, which serve the regional
population.
Few suggestions
Local residents find inadequate facilities in
case of some big ailments.
Inadequate public transport available and long
time taken for such health check ups hampers
day to day activities of the residents.
Upgradation of existing facilities .

Fire Station
One fire station, owned by Military
Engineering Service,
There are occurence of fire usually
during summers in the forest area .

One more fire station required for the


planning area.
Hapahzard growth and narrow streets
has rendered many areas
unapproachable by fire engine.

Components of Plan
Inclusivity

- Indicators
Marginalized Groups
Slums
Urban Poor
Informal Sector
Population with special needs
Children, Youth, Women , Single
Parents, Senior citizens, Disabled
Population

Equity
Distribution of housing supply
Provision of access to infrastructure &
services

Inclusivity

Weaker sections have been addressed in plan by


giving them relaxation in certain norms , by not
charging them for basic amenities and by giving
them reservation in new developments promoters.

Population with special needs , Children, Youth,


Women , Single Parents, Senior citizens, Disabled
Population have been mentioned in the plan for
giving them some provisions.
For the visually impaired , more provisions need to
be made to account for inclusive planning.

Equity
Reservation for Economic Weaker Section

In case the total area of the scheme is 40 bighas or


more, the promoter shall reserve at least 5% of no. of
residential plots or apartments for
EWS, as per the provision of H.P. Apartment and
Property Regulation Act, 2005
Relaxing norms for size of plot

Smaller plots may be considered in the case of


allotments made by IAY or any other scheme
launched by the Union or State Governments for the
benefit and upliftment of economically weaker
sections of the society and IRDP families

Built Heritage
Heritage has been taken as a separate chapter .The
plan talks about colonial heritage as a memoir of past
and its present day Value .It reiterates Importance of
heritage for present day calm quiet environs that
attract tourists.

Amongst the colonial towns, Kasauli is a British


Cantonment Town which possesses townscape
elements like
churches, bungalows, club, bazaar, cemeteries, d
istinct, building style and street pattern, which
clearly manifest the British culture.
However except for the cantonment area , It
identifies the need to declare Sanawar school as
heritage zone.
To preserve the townscape character it identifies that
architectural elements are required to be used in
the construction styles of the
area, in general and Planning Area, in particular.

Natural Resources
The town as well as the planning area boasts of rich flora and fauna.
Kasauli Hills are covered with conifers and many varieties of coniferous or
deciduous trees. A variety of this species Pine White Leafed Oak ,Silver Oak fir
,Deodar,etc

Reasons for environmental degradation


Plan includes strategies for
preservation of
Natural resources
(a) Regulations for rain water
harvesting.
(bConservation of natural and built
heritage
by promoting tourism.
c) Regulations for preserving tree
cover

Felling of trees in Hill cutting by


blasting is damaging air, water, soil
and tree cover.
Debris being dumped in natural
drains.
Drilling bore-wells leading to
lowering of level of
ground water table as well as drying of
spring sources.
Concrete culture.
Shortage of parking places in the
Planning Area.
lacks of Sanitation.
Non-conforming structures are
hazardous.
Congestion of traffic.

Governance -

Indicators

Implementation and enforcement

Phasing
Plan Approvals
Responsibility/ Accountability
Stakeholders Participation

Financial Development
Investment Plan

PHASING
Implementation of Development Plan is divided into three phases, coinciding with five year plans namely:
(i) 2009 -2012
(ii) 2012-2017
(iii) 2017-2021

FIRST PHASE-2009 TO 2012


The following proposals are proposed to be implemented in the first phase:
1. To develop a parking lot at Garkhal.
2. Construction of Garkhal Bye Pass.
3. Land Pooling and Reconstitution Schemes.
The plan only enumerates the proposals for the first phase.No details of next phase are discussed.

IMPLEMENTATION
Execution of the Development Plan has to be ensured
by Land Pooling and Reconstitution Mechanism by
coordinated
efforts
of
the
landowners,
Development Authority, Revenue Department,
Panchayats and
Infrastructural Departments.
Overall control and monitoring of implementation of
proposals of development in terms of land use zoning
and regulatory mechanism shall be vested with the
Town and Country Planning Department.

Financial development
Costing
The plan further says that the cost of infrastructure
will be borne by the land owners through mechanism
of land pooling and plot reconstitution.

Raising resources from the betterment levies on


development pursuits. The funds are to be raised
from potential buyers of developed plots who are
going to be allotted the same.

The plan envisages for residential development by


the land owners through Land Pooling and
Reconstitution mechanism.

Resource generation mechanism that the plan enumerates


are
1) Development charges and betterment levies
2) Layout, Sub-Division and Building Permit Fees
3) Building Regularization Fees
4) Building Use Regularization Fees
5) Vacant Land Tax.
6) Non-Conforming use penalties.
7) Unauthorised change of building/landuse penalties
8)Landuse conversion charges

Conclusion
The Development Plan needs to elaborate on various issues.
Economy and Housing have not been dealt with, in it .
Estimates for arriving at proposed land use are based on
UDPFI and Delhi Master plan.

The norms and standards that have


been mentioned in , Delhi master
plan are not relevant because a hill
town has specific issues.

Site suitability test like soil


testing, slope and contour
verification should be got done
prior to subdivision of plots in
order to ensure safe , visually
pleasing , accessible even in
emergency situations like fire ,
earthquake, and to mitigate
environmental degradation. The
minimum size of plots and roads
widths should be function of site
suitability.

It also has to find ways , solutions to


issues of water scarcity , Solid waste
management problem, which is
crucial to be solved , as it is a tourist
destination also.

Public participation
would lend a better
accountability and
transparency to plan
document. Not only
this it will sensitize
the masses about the
future
challenges
that urban areas are
to face and will lead
to their effective
participation.

Another major issue is that of stakeholder consultation and


implementation of the plan. The proposals that were laid
out in the first phase are still unfulfilled.

The DCRs also will need


modification. Certain regulations
will have to be site specific like
FAR, number of stories, coverage
,Provision of solar panels and
subdivision of plots. Al flat FAR for
the entire stretch in one entire belt
will not be successful , if propensity
to evade DCRs is to be curbed.

References
1. Development Plan Kasauli
2. Alternative Approach to Master Plan......MOUD
3. Action Plan for implementation of
management......Government t of Himachal Pradesh
4.Total sanitation Campaign In Himachal Pradesh
5. Census CD TCP Solan
6.GIS Kasauli

solid

and

liquid

waste

7. Rainwater Harvesting and Northeast India : A Simple and Cheapest Method


*Shukla Acharjee **Mangesh G. Waghmare p141