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English for Students of

Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by Dr. Mousavi


Department of Mechanical Engineering

Technical English Language for the students of Mechanical Engineering





Fourth year


Technical English language


Department Technical Elective


(2, 0, 0) 2



General English



One semester

Semester and year





Name (group)



Dr. S.A. Mousavi




Application of English for mechanical engineering.


The main aim of this course is to;
1. Help the students gain understanding of new specialized vocabulary for mechanical engineering.
2. Help the students gain understanding in reading, speaking and listening skills for future carrier.
3. Help the students the translation skills for mechanical engineering topics.
4. Help student to write academic paper.


On successful completion of this course, all students will have developed knowledge and understanding of special vocabulary for mechanical
engineering. On successful completion of this course, all students will have developed their skills in Reading, speaking, listening and
vocabulary: On successful completion of this course, all students will have developed their appreciation of, and respect for values and
attitudes to English and its benefits for engineer.



This is a classroom course and active learning will apply for class instruction. Students are encouraged to use internet and online dictionary.
Active learning is switching the role of the student from passive to active. This means that the mode of instruction must allow students to
create genuine, authentic and hands-on learning experiences in order to learn new information. Think-Pair-Share, Literature Circles, Learning
Stations could be applied in classes.


The assignments will consist of a questions and essay writing concerning various topics. The list of topics for questions will be
announced in the classes.


All Examinations will be closed notes type, based on lectures, discussions, textbook and assigned work. To enter a formal examination, a
student has to present her/his IAU student Identification card to the invigilator.
The exams designed to test familiarity and basic understanding of various topics. There will be no make-ups for exams. (exam dates will be
announced later in class)

Midterm Exam: There is no midterm for this course.

Final Exam: The final exam will cover the whole course material

Speaking Exam: This exam would be take place in additional classes.

Reading Exam: This exam would be take place in classes.

Translation Project: This project could be selected by student at first month of semester or could be gotten by instructor by
announced time. Under certain extenuating circumstances, I reserve the right to consider allowing students to do an alternate project
in lieu of a missed test, or to turn in late activities, or make other adjustments to the requirements as I see fit to accommodate a
student's unusual or exceptional needs. Such circumstances require authentication. That is, students must supply proof of the
circumstances. Delayed project will receive less marks.
Any objection to the grade or mark should be made latest within a week following its announcement.

Grading Policy:

Reading Exam:
Class attendance and contribution + HWs:
Speaking exam:
Translation Project:
Final Exam:


First and foremost, you must keep in touch with the instructor. For on-campus classes, I expect students to attend regularly.
Otherwise you may miss important information or changes of schedule. This is your duty, not your instructor's.You must read the
material in the book and take notes, take the tests or tests, and turn in the activity assignments before the deadline.

Note that the instructor reserves the right to modify these percentages in case he finds it necessary.


Attendance will be taken every lecture hour. Note that university regulations allow the instructor to give a grade of NG to a student
whose absenteeism is more than 25% of the total lecture hours or who do not complete sufficient work.


Booklet of English for the student of mechanical engineering(manufacturing and production) (Dr. S.A. Mousavi)-Main Reference
English for the student of mechanical engineering(manufacturing and production)-Farhad Tohidi
English for the student of mechanical engineering(Dr. Heravi)
Oxford English for Electrical and Mechanical Engineering(Eric Glendinning)


Cheating is copying from others or providing information, written or oral, to others. Plagiarism is copying without
acknowledgement from other peoples work. According to university by laws cheating and plagiarism are serious offences punishable
with disciplinary action ranging from simple failure from the exam or project, to more serious action (letter of official warning
suspension from the university for up to one semester). Disciplinary action is written in student records and may appear in student




There could be some procedural and schedule differences between the lecture sections and programed sections, but all basic
requirements, assignments, policies and other items are the same for each section. Most importantly, lecture class students are
expected to attend class in person and submit assignments in person

Lecture Hall





Introduction to course

Phonics- Academic Paper writing

Phonics- Academic Paper writing



Academic Paper writing- Unit 2

Academic Paper Writing- Unit 2

Reading Skills Improvement- Unit 3

Reading Skills Improvement- Unit 3


Tips for speaking- Unit 4


Developing word attack skills for vocabulary- Unit 4


Phonics- Academic Paper writing(Class evaluations)


Film(listening skills)


Reading exam-Project prehension(4)


Speaking exam- Project prehension(3)

Final Exam


Chapter 1
What is Phonics?
Phonics is a word-attack skill in which you sound-out difficult words by using the common
sounds of letters in the word. It is often the first reading skill taught to people and is considered
one of the basic skills. Knowledge of phonics is most helpful in linking the words one knows
through simply hearing them with the actual written word.

Phonics Rules
The vowels are a,e,i,o, and u; also sometimes y & w. This also includes the
diphthongs oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo and many others. The consonants are all the other letters which stop or limit
the flow of air from the throat in speech. They are:

b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,p,qu,r,s,t,v,w,x,y,z,ch,sh,th,ph,wh, ng, and gh.

1. Sometimes the rules dont work.
There are many exceptions in English because of the vastness of the language and the
many languages from which it has borrowed. The rules do work however, in the majority of
the words.
2. Every syllable in every word must have a vowel.
English is a vocal language; Every word must have a vowel.
3. C followed by e, i or y usually has the soft sound of s.
Examples: central, and city.
4. G followed by e, i or y usually has the soft sound of j.
Example: gem, gym, and gist.

5. When 2 consonants a joined together and form one new sound, they are a consonant
digraph. They count as one sound and one letter and are never separated.
Examples: ch,sh,th,ph,gh, and wh .
6. When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel, that vowel is short.
Examples: fat, bed, fish, spot, luck.
7. When a syllable ends in a silent e, the silent e is a signal that the vowel in front of it
is long.
Examples: make, fete, kite, rope, and use.
8. When a syllable has 2 vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and the second is
Examples: pain, eat, boat, res/cue, say, grow.
NOTE: Diphthongs dont follow this rule; In a diphthong, the vowels blend together to create a
single new sound. The diphthongs are: oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo and many others.
9. When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is usually long.
Examples: pa/per, me, I, o/pen, u/nit, and my.
10. When a vowel is followed by an r in the same syllable, that vowel is r-controlled. It
is not long nor short. R-controlled er, ir, and ur often sound the same (like er).
Examples: term, sir, fir, fur, far, for, su/gar, or/der.
Basic Syllable Rules
1. To find the number of syllables:
count the vowels in the word,
subtract any silent vowels, (like the silent e at the end of a word or the second vowel when two
vowels a together in a syllable)

subtract one vowel from every dipthong, (diphthongs only count as one vowel sound.)
the number of vowels sounds left is the same as the number of syllables. The number of
syllables that you hear when you pronounce a word is the same as the number of vowels sounds
heard. For example:

The word came has 2 vowels, but the e is silent, leaving one vowel sound and one syllable.
The word outside has 4 vowels, but the e is silent and the ou is a diphthong which counts
as only one sound, so this word has only two vowels sounds and therefore, two syllables.
2. Divide between two middle consonants. Split up words that have two middle consonants.
For example: hap/pen, bas/ket, let/ter, sup/per, din/ner, and Den/nis. The only exceptions are
the consonant digraphs. Never split up consonant digraphs as they really represent only one
sound. The exceptions are th, sh, ph, th, ch, and wh.
3. Usually divide before a single middle consonant.
When there is only one syllable, you usually divide in front of it, as in: o/pen, i/tem,
e/vil, and re/port. The only exceptions are those times when the first syllable has an
obvious short sound, as in cab/in.
4. Divide before the consonant before an -le syllable.
When you have a word that has the old-style spelling in which the -le sounds like -el, divide
before the consonant before the -le. For example: a/ble, fum/ble, rub/ble
mum/ble and thi/stle. The only exception to this are ckle words like tick/le.
5. Divide off any compound words, prefixes, suffixes and roots which have vowel sounds.
Split off the parts of compound words like sports/car and house/boat. Divide off prefixes
such at un/happy, pre/paid, or re/write. Also divide off suffixes as in the words farm/er,
teach/er, hope/less and care/ful. In the word stop/ping, the suffix is actually -ping
because this word follows the rule that when you add -ing to a word with one syllable,
you double the last consonant and add the -ing.
Accent Rules
When a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is always a little louder than the
others. The syllable with the louder stress is the accented syllable. It may seem that the placement of accents
in words is often random or accidental, but these are some rules that usually work.

1. Accents are often on the first syllable. Examples: ba/sic, pro/gram.

2. In words that have suffixes or prefixes, the accent is usually on the main root word.
Examples: box/es, un/tie.
3. If de-, re-, ex-, in-,po-, pro-, or a- is the first syllable in a word, it is usually
not accented.

Examples: de/lay, ex/plore.

4. Two vowel letters together in the last syllable of a word often indicates an accented last
syllable. Examples: com/plain, con/ceal.
5. When there are two like consonant letters within a word, the syllable before the
double consonants is usually accented. Examples: be/gin/ner, let/ter.
6. The accent is usually on the syllable before the suffixes -ion, ity, -ic, -ical, -ian, -ial, or -ious,
and on the second syllable before the suffix -ate. Examples: af/fec/ta/tion, dif/fer/en/ti/ate.
7. In words of three or more syllables, one of the first two syllables is usually accented.
Examples: ac/ci/dent, de/ter/mine.


Short and Long Vowels
1. To spell a short vowel sound, only one letter is needed:





2. To spell a long sound you must add a second vowel. The second may be next to the first, in the VVC pattern
(boat, maid, cue, etc.) or it may be separated from the first one by a consonant in the VCV pattern (made, ride, tide,
etc.). If the second vowel is separated from the first by two spaces, it does not affect the first one. This is the VCCV
pattern in which the first vowel remains short. Thus, doubling a consonant can be called "protecting" a short vowel
because it prevents an incoming vowel from getting close enough to the first one to change its sound from short to
maid, made, but madder;

dine, diner, but dinner.

Spelling the Sound /k/

This sound can be spelled in any one of four ways:
1. c

2. cc

3. k

4. ck

1. The single letter, c , is the most common spelling. It may be used anywhere in a word:












2. Sometimes the letter c must be doubled to cc to protect the sound of a short vowel:











3. The letter k is substituted for c if /k/ is followed by an e, i, or y.













4. Similarly, the spelling ck, is substituted for cc if the following letter is an e, i, or y:













5. The letters, k and ck are more than substitutes for c and cc. They are used to spell /k/ at the end of a monosyllable.
The digraph, ck, ALWAYS follows a short vowel:






The letter, k, follows any other sound:













The Sound, /j/

The sound, /j/ is spelled in three ways: j ge and dge.
1. The letter j is usually used if the sound if followed by an a, o, or u.












| P a g e 11







2. Since the letter g has the soft sound of /j/ when it is followed by an e, i, or y, it is usually used in this situation:








2. If /j/ follows a short vowel sound, it is usually spelled with dge. This is because the letter j, is never doubled in










The Sound, /ch/

The sound /ch/ has two spellings: tch after a short vowel, ch anywhere else:








Which, rich, much, such, touch, bachelor, attach, sandwich, and ostrich.

The Sound, /kw/

This sound is ALWAYS spelled with the letters, qu, never anything else.
Using -le
Words ending in -le, such as little, require care. If the vowel sound is short, there must be two consonants between
the vowel and the -le. Otherwise, one consonant is enough.


li tt le

ha nd le

ti ck le

a mp le

bo tt le

pu zz le

cru mb le

a ng le







| P a g e 11

Odds and Ends

1. The consonants, v, j, k, w, and x are never doubled.
2. No normal English words ends with the letter v. A final /v/ is always spelled with ve, no matter what the
preceding vowel sound may be:








Adding Endings
There are two kinds of suffixes, those that begin with a vowel and those that begin with a consonant. As usual, the
spelling problems occur with the vowels:

Vowel Suffixes

Consonant Suffixes

- - - age

- - -ist

- - - ness

- - - cess

- - - ant

- - - ish

- - -less

- - -ment

- - -ance

- - -ing

- - -ly

- - -ty

- - - al

- - -ar

- - -ful

- - -ry

- - -ism

- - -o

- - -hood

- - -ward

- - -able

- - -on

- - -wise

- - -an

- - -ous


- - -or

- - -es

- - -ual

- - -ed

- - -unt

- - -er

- - -um

- - -est

- - -us

- - -y

- - -ive

1. Words that end in the letter y must have the y changed to i before adding any suffix:
body - bodily

marry - marriage

many - manifold

family - familiar

happy - happiness

puppy - puppies

beauty - beautiful

vary - various

company - companion

fury - furious

plenty - plentiful

merry - merriment

| P a g e 12

2. In words that end in a silent e you must drop it before you add a vowel suffix. The silent e is no longer needed to
make the preceding vowel long as the incoming vowel will do the trick:
ride - riding

cure - curable

use - usual

age - aging

fame - famous

force - forcing

refuse - refusal

slice - slicing

pure - purity

ice - icicle

nose - nosy

convince - convincing

globe - global

race - racist

pole - polar

offense - offensive

3. Words that end in an accented short or modified vowel sound must have the final consonant doubled to protect
that sound when you add a vowel suffix:
Quebec - Quebecker remit - remittance
upset - upsetting

confer - conferring refer - referred

shellac - shellacking occur - occurred

concur- concurrent

Note that this doubling is not done if the accent is not on the last syllable. If the word ends in a schwa, there is no
need to "protect" it.
open - opening

organ - organize

focus - focused

refer - referee

4. Normally you drop a silent e before adding a vowel suffix. However, if the word ends in -ce or -ge and the
incoming vowel is an a, o, or u, you cannot cavalierly toss out that silent e. It is not useless: it is keeping its left-hand
letter soft, and your a, o, or u will not do that. Thus:
manage - manageable

peace - peaceable

courage - courageous

revenge - vengeance

surge - surgeon

change - changeable

notice - noticeable

outrage - outrageous

5. Adding consonant suffixes is easy. You just add them. (Of course you must change a final y to i before you add
any suffix.)
peace - peaceful

harm - harmless

age - ageless

pity - pitiful

child - childhood

rifle - riflery

When this sound occurs before a vowel suffix, it is spelled ti, si, or ci.

| P a g e 13





















/ee/ before a vowel suffix

When /ee/ precedes a vowel suffix, it is usually spelled with the letter i:






Spelling Determined by Word Meaning

1. Mist and missed sound alike, as do band and banned. To determine the spelling, remember that -ed is a past-tense


The mist drifted into the harbor.

I nearly missed my bus.
The movie was banned in Boston.
The band played on.

2. The endings of dentist and finest sound alike. Deciding which one to use can be tricky. One rule helps but doesn't
cover all cases:

a. --ist is a suffix meaning someone who does something:


- machinist

- druggist

b. --est is the ending used on superlative adjectives:


- sweetest

- longest

3. The sounds at the end of musician and condition sound alike. but....

a. cian always means a person, where...

b. tion or sion are never used for people.
4. How do you tell whether to use tion or sion?

a. If the root word ends in /t/, use -tion: complete, completion

b. If the root word ends in /s/ or /d/, use sion: extend, extension
suppress, suppression

| P a g e 14

c. If the sound of the last syllable is the "heavy" sound of /zhun/ rather than the light sound, /shun/, use s:
confusion, vision, adhesion
Exception: The ending, --mit becomes -mission:
permit - permission

omit - omission

submit - submission

commit - commission

The Hiss
1. The letter s between vowels sounds like a z:









2. The light "hissy" sound is spelled with either ss or ce. Predictably, ss, like any proper doubled consonant, follows
accented short vowels. Soft c is used anywhere else. (A soft c is one that is followed by e, i, or y).












3. The plural ending is always spelled with a single letter s unless you can hear a new syllable on the plural word. In
that case, use -es:
loss, losses

bank, banks

twitch, twitches

tree, trees

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Reading Skills Improvement Strategies

Reading Strategies
Reading Efficiently by Reading Intelligently

Good reading strategies help you to read in a very efficient way. Using them, you aim to get the
maximum benefit from your reading with the minimum effort. This section will show you how to
use six different strategies to read intelligently.

Strategy 1: Knowing what you want to know

The first thing to ask yourself is: Why you are reading the text? Are you reading with a purpose
or just for pleasure? What do you want to know after reading it?
Once you know this, you can examine the text to see whether it is going to move you towards
this goal.
An easy way of doing this is to look at the introduction and the chapter headings. The
introduction should let you know at whom the book is targeted, and what it seeks to achieve.
Chapter headings will give you an overall view of the structure of the subject.
Ask yourself whether the book meets your needs. Ask yourself if it assumes too much or too
little knowledge. If the book isn't ideal, would it be better to find a better one?

Strategy 2: Knowing how deeply to study the material

Where you only need the shallowest knowledge of the subject, you can skim material. Here you
read only chapter headings, introductions and summaries.
If you need a moderate level of information on a subject, then you can scan the text. Here you
read the chapter introductions and summaries in detail. You may then speed read the contents of
the chapters, picking out and understanding key words and concepts. At this level of looking at
the document it is worth paying attention to diagrams and graphs.
Only when you need detailed knowledge of a subject is it worth studying the text. Here it is best
to skim the material first to get an overview of the subject. This gives you an understanding of its
structure, into which you can fit the detail gained from a full, receptive reading of the material.
SQ3R is a good technique for getting a deep understanding of a text.
| P a g e 16

Strategy 3: Active Reading

When you are reading a document in detail, it often helps if you highlight, underline and
annotate it as you go on. This emphasizes information in your mind, and helps you to review
important points later.
Doing this also helps to keep your mind focused on the material and stops it wandering.
This is obviously only something to do if you own the document! If you own the book and find
that active reading helps, then it may be worth photocopying information in more expensive
texts. You can then read and mark the photocopies.
If you are worried about destroying the material, ask yourself how much your investment of time
is worth. If the benefit you get by active reading reasonably exceeds the value of the book, then
the book is disposable.

Strategy 4: How to study different sorts of material

Different sorts of documents hold information in different places and in different ways. They
have different depths and breadths of coverage. By understanding the layout of the material you
are reading, you can extract useful information much more efficiently.
Reading Magazines and Newspapers:
These tend to give a very fragmented coverage of an area. They will typically only concentrate
on the most interesting and glamorous parts of a topic - this helps them to sell copies! They will
often ignore less interesting information that may be essential to a full understanding of a
subject. Typically areas of useful information are padded out with large amounts of irrelevant
waffle or with advertising.
The most effective way of getting information from magazines is to scan the contents tables or
indexes and turn directly to interesting articles. If you find an article useful, then cut it out and
file it in a folder specifically covering that sort of information. In this way you will build up sets
of related articles that may begin to explain the subject.
Newspapers tend to be arranged in sections. If you read a paper often, you can learn quickly
which sections are useful and which ones you can skip altogether.
Reading Individual Articles:
Articles within newspapers and magazines tend to be in three main types:

News Articles:
Here the most important information is presented first, with information being less and less useful
as the article progresses. News articles are designed to explain the key points first, and then flesh
them out with detail.
| P a g e 17

Opinion Articles:
Opinion articles present a point of view. Here the most important information is contained in the
introduction and the summary, with the middle of the article containing supporting arguments.
Feature Articles:
These are written to provide entertainment or background on a subject. Typically the most
important information is in the body of the text.

If you know what you want from an article, and recognize its type, you can extract information
from it quickly and efficiently.

Strategy 5: Reading 'whole subject' documents

When you are reading an important document, it is easy to accept the writer's structure of
thought. This can mean that you may not notice that important information has been omitted or
that irrelevant detail has been included. A good way of recognizing this is to compile your own
table of contents before you open the document. You can then use this table of contents to read
the document in the order that you want. You will be able to spot omissions quickly.

Strategy 6: Using glossaries with technical documents

If you are reading large amounts of difficult technical material, it may be useful to photocopy or
compile a glossary. Keep this beside you as you read. It will probably also be useful to note
down the key concepts in your own words, and refer to them when necessary.
Usually it is best to make notes as you go. Effective ways of doing this include creating Concept
Maps or using the Cornell Note Taking System.

Key points:
This section shows six different strategies and techniques that you can use to read more
These are:

Knowing what you need to know, and reading appropriately.

Knowing how deeply to read the document: skimming, scanning or studying.
Using active reading techniques to pick out key points and keep your mind focused on the
Using the table of contents for reading magazines and newspapers, and clipping useful articles.
Understanding how to extract information from different article types.
Creating your own table of contents for reviewing material.
Using indexes, tables of contents, and glossaries to help you assimilate technical information.

| P a g e 18

In the next article, we look at the review techniques which help to fix information in your mind.
To read these, click 'Next article' below. Other relevant destinations are shown in the "Where to
go from here" list underneath.

Reading Skills and Strategies

Useful reading skills and strategies that will help you enhance your reading process

The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more that you learn, the more places
you'll go.
Reading is one great habit that can truly change your life forever. Reading can entertain you;
amuse you, but most of all it will enrich you with knowledge, and experiences narrated. Reading
purely for leisure is fun as we all know but there exist certain reading skills and strategies, which
if mastered at a nascent stage can help us, be better and far more comprehensive readers.
Although the term reading strategies might sound to mechanical and dry for the ears of a creative
book-lover, these strategies can enhance your grasping power and help you get the most out of
any book or any text that you lay your eyes on. These skills might not necessarily be learnt as
rigid theories or rules but if understood well once they can definitely enhance the reading process
and increase the quality as well as quantity of output that you get from after reading. Not only
can these strategies can be taught to children right from school, but can also be used by any
person of any age to help improve their reading process.
Speed reading:
Speed-reading is actually a combination of various reading methods. The aim of speed-reading is
basically to increase the reading speed without compromising on the understanding or retention.
Some of the strategies used in speed reading are

Identifying words without focusing on each letter

Not sounding out all words
Not sub-vocalizing some phrases
Spending less time on some phrases than others
Skimming small sections

Speed reading is thus actually not precisely defines by specific guidelines and rules but is
actually just a process that increases the speed of reading without compromising on the retention
of the content.

| P a g e 19

Scanning :
Scanning through the text is a reading strategy that can be used if you are particularly looking at
the text through a set perspective in mind. You can only scan for portions that interest you. For
the highlights or important points you can skim through the summary or the preface of the book
or the beginning and the ending chapters.

Active Reading:
There are times when you just cannot afford to skim through or scan through the text but need to
get an in-depth understanding of the text that you read and hence you need to make sure you're
actively involved with the text while reading it. There are four important points that you need to
keep in mind during active reading which are as follows:

Underlining / Highlighting:Identify the most important parts of the text according to your
own understanding and highlight or underline them using a pencil or a marker while you
are reading. You can even use different colors to highlight diverse aspects of the text.
Note Key-words: Jot down the headings as you read and detail using one or two
keywords for each point.
Questions:Before you start reading prepare for your reading by writing down all the
questions you want the material to answer. This helps you to read accordingly and
ensures you get the answers to all your questions and dont get distracted while reading.
Summaries:After you've read one complete section of the text, summarize that portion in
your own words. Later, go through the text again to check how accurate your summary is
and modify / upgrade it in case youve left out any details.

Structure-Proposition-Evaluation :
This is an interesting reading technique suggested by Mortimer Adler in his book How to Read a
Book. The reading technique is mainly for non-fiction genre and elaborates about how a written
piece can be read in three passes

Studying the structure of the work

Studying the logical propositions made and organized into chains of inference
Evaluation of the merits of the arguments and conclusions.

This reading method advocates suspended judgment of the work or its arguments until they are
fully understood.
Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review :
This method facilitates a very deep understanding of the matter that you are reading. In fact the
system aims to facilitate an understanding so clear that the reader should be able to teach
whatever he has learnt during the process of reading. Instructors who are preparing to teach
| P a g e 21

material without having to refer to notes during the lecture generally use this reading method.
The process involves five different steps, which are as follows

Survey: Survey involve getting a quick idea of what the whole writing piece. For example
if it is a book, may be the introduction or the brief summary on the back will suffice.
Question: Remember that you are not just reading the words or looking at the words but
are actually trying to decipher the meaning that underlies them. Create questions in you
mind and hunt for the answers while you are reading the text. In case you are reading the
piece for research, it is always advisable that you write these questions and their answers
in brief.
Read:Read selectively if you are looking for specifics. Learn to find out the portions of
the text that are important to you and move over.
Recite: Try and answer the questions in your own words, using only the key words or
listings that are required to sum up the complete idea.
Review: Review of summarize the entire thing in your mind and rest assured that you will
never have to memorize it or learn it by heart.

Here are a few pointers to keep in mind when you start reading

Identify your aim while reading. Be clear about what you want from the text.
Jot down important points, quotes or lines that you might find useful later. Notes taken
while reading can come in handy while studying the subject later
Even if you are reading fiction, do try and stretch your understanding about the writers
writing style with regards to elements like language emotion and vocabulary. This will
actually make the reading process more enjoyable for you.
Every piece of text read gives you some information and enriches your knowledge in
some way. Always concentrate and read with concentration. Reading for the sake of it
will not yield in any fruitful outcome.
So next time you try and read anything, keep these strategies in mind so that you dont
just read for the heck of it but actually retain the knowledge!

| P a g e 21

Tips for speaking English fluently! - Where

do you get input from?
There is English input available everywhere. Here are a few tips and suggestions for you to find
input of English around you and improve your English speech:
This has many advantages:

You will be able to compare the written words to the correct pronunciations.
You will get a feel of how real English sentences are formed when speaking.
You will be learning English but it will not be frustrating and boring because you will be
watching a movie.

Please note: When you watch the movie be sure to keep your dictionary handy. Whenever you
come across a new word, pause the movie and look it up in the dictionary. If you dont do this,
the whole experience will be quite pointless.

Read about any subject that interests you

There are a lot of English magazines available on a lot of different topics.
No matter what subject interests you, there must be some magazine that talks about it. There are
English magazines about Business, Brides, Guns and Ammo, House Keeping, Stock Market,
Sports, Computers, Electronics, Linux, Graphic Designing, Cooking etc.
Find the magazine that interests you and read it cover to cover. Be sure to look out for new
words and new phrases and look them up in the dictionary as you go.
If you cannot find a magazine of your choice, look for information you are interested in on the
Internet. There is information available on every topic under the sun on the Internet.

Read Internet forums of subject matter that interests you

Got to Internet forums of the subject matter that interests you. Generally most of the forums are
in English language and are a great source of English input.
For those of you who are not familiar with Internet forums, these are places where people
interested in a particular subject can get together and share their views and opinions about a
| P a g e 22

particular subject. You can also ask specific questions to other people and they will help you out
if they can. On the Internet, there are forums available about each and every subject.
Forums are a great source of information. Also in forums real people talk about real problems.
Most of the information typed in forums is written in an informal way. Because of this the
forums make a good source for English input. Reading forums exposes you to a lot of phrases of
daily use.
You could find forums on any subject matter that interests you at: Google Groups
You could also go to "Google" and search for the forum of the subject matter you are interested
in by typing in something like C programming forum or Cooking forum etc.
When reading forums also make sure you find out the meaning of every new word or phrase you
come across or the whole exercise will be useless.

Read English fiction novels

Read English fiction of your choice. This is our India. Books are not costly here. You get cheap
book in every nook and corner. If you want to pick up an interesting cheap English novel, go to
the closest "raddi walla" (You know, the guy you sell your old daily news papers to...) They will
generally also have old novels, book and magazines. These wont be good quality. They will all
be second hand. But thats okay, they will be nice and cheap. Pick up some thing that interests
you. Take it home and read it. Be sure to look up all the new words you come across in the book.

Listen to the radio and TV

Our "All India Radio" has some good programs that are designed to teach English to the listener.
Besides this, there are also many different radio stations available now-a-days in the big cities.
Some of these radio stations are in English. Listen to them to get a feel of the language.
Besides the radio, you could also listen to the "News In English". Its available on a wide variety
of channels. The news is a good place to get input of the English language because it is spoken in
a very clear, easy to understand way.

| P a g e 23

Chat with fluent English speakers

Chat with fluent English speakers real or online. Make friends with interesting English speakers.
Become pen-pals with a fluent English speaker.
While talking to them look at their lip movement for tips on how to pronounce words correctly.

Most effective tip: "Think in English"

One of the most common mistakes that English learners make is, they think in their mother
tongue. When they want to say something in English, they think in their mother tongue, translate
it to English and then say it in English. The result is a very flawed English sentence. Never do
If you want to speak in English fluently you will have to learn to "think" in English. When you
are constructing sentences in your mind before saying them, think in English and form them in
English in your mind.

Class contribution
I worked with a firm of subcontractors specializing in car equipment
They produce a range of electronic machines
the R&D [Research and Development] department
I used CAD [Computer Aided Design] equipment
my tutor / supervisor...
I worked on my own
The staff were very friendly

| P a g e 24


I was in charge of ..
I had to ,,,,,,,,, the warehouse
My job consisted in ,,,,,,,,...
I was asked to ...
They made me .


I carried out a study of the production line
I think it was a great experience
It gave me first-hand knowledge of life in a factory
It forced me to master new skills
It was not exactly as I expected [it to be]
Contrary to what I expected, I didn't get any pay!


..yourself (studies, future plans, ...)
.. the company (type of activity, location, assets, problems)
Explain how you prepared your work experience.
.. how you chose / found the company;

| P a g e 25

.. what you expected from this experience.

..your activities.
(Did you analyse a problem? Did you create / improve something? What tools did you use? What
were your working
hours? Did you work on your own or in a team?)
.. the problems you had to face (technical problems, human relationships, ...)
Analyse the results
.. for the company (Will they use what you created? Did you change their way of working?)
.. for yourself:
in terms of professional skills (What did you learn / improve?)
in terms of personality: what qualities did you develop (self reliance, team-work, creativity, ...)?
what you liked and didn't like.
Has it changed your attitude? your vision of working life? your choice of a career?
Conclude by deciding if it was a positive / negative experience.
General usage in British English
Collocations: accept, undertake, find a work placement to be on, on a placement
In British English, internship tends to be used more in a medical context or a business context (to
do with MBAs).
Sometimes used to refer to American context. American usage includes both medical and nonmedical contexts
| P a g e 26

Collocations take up an, do an, complete an, begins with an internship

Usually used with driving, computer, teacher, etc. Not work experience related.
Collocations: go on a, teach a, sponsor a, run a, undergo a
Seems more common in British English than the other terms. However, I found no examples of
"a work experience".
Collocations: gain, have, do, be on
"But one graduate says that faking work experience is easy"
I would use "gain work experience" (uncountable) or "placement" (countable). Although "work
experience" is far more
common in the corpora I have checked, "placement" is the word used by my colleagues in

| P a g e 27

There is Form of Manuscripts for most of papers as it follows:

Manuscripts should be double-spaced with 3-cm margins on only one side of the paper.
Manuscripts should follow the usual layout for scientific papers and be as brief as full
documentation allows (rarely exceeding 20 printed pages). Display items (figures plus tables)
should be as few as possible (no more than six per ten pages of text).
1. Title Page The title page should bear the title of the paper and the name(s) of the author(s),
together with the address(es) at which the work was carried out. The name, full postal address,
and e-mail address of the corresponding author who will be responsible for reading the proofs
should be given on the first page. A running title must also be provided (not exceeding 50
characters including spaces).
2. Summary A summary must appear on the second page of the paper; it should be no longer
than 250 words and should be a single paragraph. It should state the subject, new findings, and
conclusions of the article in generally intelligible terms.
3. Keywords Up to five keywords identifying the nature of the subject matter may be used to
alert readers. Keywords should be listed below the abstract. Use terms from the medical subject
headings list of Index Medicus.
4. Text Papers should be written clearly in good scientific English. Avoid laboratory slang and
minimize jargon.
Organize the text for original articles in the following order:
(1) Introduction;
The section should contain a clear statement of the purpose of the work, the reasons for
undertaking the research, and pertinent background to the study.
(2) Materials and Methods;
Description of methods should be brief, but with sufficient detail to enable the experiments to be
repeated by the readers. The design of the study or experiments, any specific procedures used,
| P a g e 28

and statistical analyses must be described clearly and carefully. References to other papers
describing the techniques may be given. The name and location (city and state/country) of
commercial suppliers of uncommon chemicals, reagents, or instruments should be mentioned.
(3) Results;
The results should be presented concisely. Tables and figures should be used only if they are
essential for the comprehension of the data.
(4) Discussion;
The purpose of the discussion is to interpret the results and to relate them to existing knowledge
in the field. Information already given in the introduction or results should not be repeated.
5. Acknowledgments: All acknowledgments, including those of financial support, should be
given here. Acknowledgments of people precede those of financial support. Names of grant
sources should be spelled out.
6. References : References should be numbered consecutively in the order of citation in the text.
Abbreviations for titles of medical periodicals should conform to those in the latest edition on
Index Medicus. In the reference list, give the names of all authors. Authors are responsible for
the accuracy of the references.
(1) Periodicals;
1. Boatman JB, Boucek MM, Rabinovitz MJ: Mitochondrial swelling during cold exposure of
the rat and hamster. Am J Physiol 1962; 202: 1037-1040.
2. Kennedy CR, McCann DC, Campbell MJ, Law CM, Mullee M, Petrou S, Watkin P, Worsfold
S, Yuen HM, Stevenson J: Language ability after early detection of permanent childhood hearing
impairment. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 2131-2141.
(2) Books;
1. Irving L: Comparative anatomy and physiology of gas transport mechanisms. In: Fenn WO,
Rahn H, eds, Handbook of Physiology, Washington DC, American Physiological Society, 1964;
Only papers that are published or in press may be cited in the reference list.
7. Tables : Tables should be numbered (Arabic numerals) in the order in which they are referred
to in the text. Each table should have a brief title, be on a separate page, and be double-spaced
throughout. Non-standard abbreviations should be used sparingly and must be defined in a
legend at the bottom of the table. Table citations in the text should be boldface (eg., Table 1).
8. Figures: All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) are classified as figures. Digital
photograph files should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi. Figures should be cited in
consecutive order in the text. Figure citations in the text should be boldface. The abbreviation
Fig. should be used when using parenthesis (e.g., (Fig. 1)), otherwise the word Figure should
be spelled out (e.g., Figure 1) throughout the text. If a figure consists of multiple parts, capital
letters (A, B, C, etc.) should be used to label them (e.g., Fig. 1A). Legends for the figures should
be double-spaced, in numerical order, and on a separate page. Nonstandard abbreviations should
be defined in legends. For figure titles, use lower case letters with only the first letter capitalized.
The magnification of microphotographs should be indicated in the legends or a bar should be
| P a g e 29

included in the figure to indicate the scale (or both). Lettering of figures requires careful
attention. Illustrations may be submitted in the final size or larger for reduction by the printer.
Symbols and lines should be chosen to remain legible after the degree of reduction that will be
9. Abbreviations, Symbols, and Typesetting Standard abbreviations for certain substances and
for units of measurement do not need to be defined. Other abbreviations that are considered to be
non-standard should be kept to a minimum and must be spelled out on first usage, followed by
the abbreviation in parentheses. Mark gene names for typesetting in italics to distinguish them
from gene products of the same or similar name, ad hoc designations for genes, gene segments,
and gene clusters, families, complexes, or groups. In general, genotypes should be italicized;
phenotypes should not be italicized. Using italics for emphasis should be avoided throughout the

Option 1
o Peer review at the stage of the outline draft
o Setting up the bibliography
o Proof reading and English improvement if required
( Note: analysis, initial outline draft and the final content draft is done by author/s )
Click here for details on : Original article option 1 / Case report option 1

Option 2 ( for only original articles )

o Statistics
o Peer review at the stage of outline draft
o Setting up the bibliography
o Proof reading and English improvement if required

( Note: Initial outline draft and final content draft is done by author/s )
Click here for details on : original article option 2

Option 3 ( for only case reports )( recommended for private practitioners)

o Peer review at the stage of draft outline
o Setting up the bibliography
o Proof reading and English improvement if required
o Final write up of the article

| P a g e 31

Keys to Academic writing

Establishing the importance of topic:
One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philosophy is
It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the .....
X is the leading cause of death in western industrialized countries.
X is a common disorder characterized by ......
X is an important component in the climate system, and plays a key role in Y.
In the new global economy, X has become a central issue for ......
In the history of development economics, X has been thought of as a key factor in
Xs are one of the most widely used groups of antibacterial agents and ......
Xs are the most potent anti-inflammatory agents known.
X is a major public health problem, and the cause of about 4% of the global burden
of disease.
X is an increasingly important area in applied linguistics.
| P a g e 31

Central to the entire discipline of X is the concept of .......

X is at the heart of our understanding of ......

Establishing the importance of the topic

(time frame given)
Recent developments in X have heightened the need for ......
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in ......
Recent developments in the field of X have led to a renewed interest in ......
Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in ......
The past decade has seen the rapid development of X in many .......
The past thirty years have seen increasingly rapid advances in the field of......
Over the past century there has been a dramatic increase in ......
One of the most important events of the 1970s was ......
Traditionally, Xs have subscribed to the belief that ......
X proved an important literary genre in the early Y community.
The changes experienced by Xs over the past decade remain unprecedented.
Xs are one of the most widely used groups of antibacterial agents and have been
extensively used for decades to .......
| P a g e 32

Highlighting a problem in the field of study:

However, these rapid changes are having a serious effect ......
However, a major problem with this kind of application is ......
Lack of X has existed as a health problem for many years.
Despite its safety and efficacy, X suffers from several major drawbacks:

However, research has consistently shown that first year students have not attained an adequate understandin
There is increasing concern that some Xs are being disadvantaged ......
Despite its long clinical success, X has a number of problems in use.
Questions have been raised about the safety of prolonged use of ......

| P a g e 33

Highlighting a controversy in the field of study:

To date there has been little agreement on what ......
More recently, literature has emerged that offers contradictory findings about .....
One observer has already drawn attention to the paradox in ......
In many Xs a debate is taking place between Ys and Zs concerning ......
The controversy about scientific evidence for X has raged unabated for over a century.
Debate continues about the best strategies for the management of
This concept has recently been challenged by . studies demonstrating .
One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philosophy is ......
One observer has already drawn attention to the paradox in ......
In many Xs a debate is taking place between Ys and Zs concerning ......
The controversy about scientific evidence for X has raged unabated for over a century.
Questions have been raised about the safety of prolonged use of ......
The issue of X has been a controversial and much disputed subject within the field of .......
The issue has grown in importance in light of recent ......
One major theoretical issue that has dominated the field for many years concerns ......
One major issue in early X research concerned.......

| P a g e 34

Focus, aim, argument:

State the aim in the first sentence of this section. Write a few more sentences if
necessary to justify the aim and/or explain your unique approach to realizing the
aim. Make it clear to the reader that your aim or your approach is interesting and
that your study is therefore valuable.
This paper will focus on/examine/give an account of ......
This essay seeks to remedy these problems by analyisng the literature of ......
The objectives of this research are to determine whether ......
This paper seeks to address the following questions:
This essay critically examines/discusses/traces ......
The purpose of this paper is to review recent research into the ......
This paper will review the research conducted on ......
This chapter reviews the literature concerning the usefulness of using ......
The aim of this paper is to determine/examine ......
The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate .....

| P a g e 35

In this paper I argue that .....

In the pages that follow, it will be argued that
This paper attempts to show that ......
In this essay, I attempt to defend the view that ......

| P a g e 36

Most studies in the field of X have only focused on ......

The experimental data are rather controversial, and there is no general
agreement about ......
The research to date has tended to focus on X rather than Y.
Researchers have not treated X in much detail.
Previous studies of X have not dealt with ......
Outline of structure:
The main questions/issues addressed in this paper are: a), b and c).
This paper has been divided into four parts. The first part deals with ......
The essay has been organised in the following way.
This paper first gives a brief overview of the recent history of X.
This paper reviews the evidence for .....
This paper begins by ...... It will then go on to ......
The first section of this paper will examine ......
Finally, .......
Chapter 2 begins by laying out the theoretical dimensions of the research, and
looks at how ......
| P a g e 37

Chapter 3 describes the design, synthesis, characterization and evaluation of ......

The last chapter assesses the ......
Outline of structure:
The main questions/issues addressed in this paper are: a), b and c).
This paper has been divided into four parts. The first part deals with ......
The essay has been organised in the following way.
This paper first gives a brief overview of the recent history of X.
This paper reviews the evidence for .....
This paper begins by ...... It will then go on to ......
The first section of this paper will examine ......
Finally, .......
Chapter 2 begins by laying out the theoretical dimensions of the research, and
looks at how ......
Chapter 3 describes the design, synthesis, characterization and evaluation of ......
The last chapter assesses the ......

| P a g e 38

Explaining Keywords
While a variety of definitions of the term X have been suggested, this paper will
use the definition first suggested by Smith (1968) who saw it as .......
Throughout this paper the term X will refer to/will be used to refer to .......
In this article the acronym/abbreviation XYZ will be used.
Introductory Sentences: Differences
X is different from Y in a number of respects.
There are a number of important differences between X and Y.
X differs from Y in a number of important ways.
Smith (2003) found distinct differences between X and Y.
Women and men differ not only in physical attributes but also in the way in which
they ......
Introductory Sentences: Similarities
The mode of processing used by the right brain is similar to that used by the left
The mode of processing used by the right brain is comparable in complexity to that
used by the left brain.
| P a g e 39

The effects of nitrous dioxide on human health are similar to those of ground level
Both X and Y generally take place in a "safe environment".
There are a number of similarities between X and Y.
Numerous studies have compared the brain cells in man and animals and found
that the cells are essentially identical

| P a g e 41

This dissertation follows a casestudy design, with indepth analysis of ......

This work takes the form of a casestudy of the ......
Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this investigation.
The study was conducted in the form of a survey, with data being gathered via .......
The semistructured approach was chosen because ......
Smith et al (1994) identify several advantages of the case study, .......
It was decided that the best method to adopt for this investigation was to ......
A case study approach was chosen to allow a ......
The design of the questionnaires was based on ......
The X method is one of the more practical ways of ......
What we know about X is largely based upon empirical studies that
investigate how ......
During the past 30 years much more information has become available on
In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature on .......
A large and growing body of literature has investigated ......
Recent evidence suggests that ....... ((Smith,, 1996;; Jones 1999;; Johnson,,
| P a g e 41

such as that conducted by Smith (1988) have shown that ......

| P a g e 42

Several attempts have been made to ....... (Smith, 1996; Jones 1999;
Johnson, 2001)
Previous studies have reported ...... (Smith, 1985; Jones, 1987; Johnson,
A number of studies have found that A number of studies have found that
...... (Smith(Smith , 20032003;Jones ; Jones, 2004).
The causes of X have been widely investigated (Jones, 1987; Johnson,
1990; Smith, 1994).
Xs have been identified as major contributing factors for ...
It has been suggested that levels of X are independent of the size of the Y (Smith
et al.,, 1995))
In 1975, Smith et al. published a paper in which they described .....
In 1990 Patel et al. demonstrated that led to ......
Thirty years later, Smith (1974) reported three cases of which .......
In the 1950s Gunnar Myrdal pointed to some of the ways in which
(Myrdal, 1957)
In 1981, Smith and co workers demonstrated that X induced in vitro
| P a g e 43

resistance to .......
In 1990, ElGuerrouj et al. reported a new and convenient synthetic
procedure to obtain ......

| P a g e 44

One question that needs to be asked, however, is whether ......

A serious weakness with this argument, however, is that ......
One of the limitations with this explanation is that it does not explain why...
The key problem with this explanation is that ......
It seems that Jones' understanding of the X framework is questionable.
Smith's interpretation overlooks much of the historical research ......
One major criticism of Smith's work is that .....
Another problem with this approach is that it fails to take X into account
Another problem with this approach is that it fails to take X into account.

| P a g e 45

The response rate was 60% at six months and 56% at 12 months.
Of the study population, 90 subjects completed and returned the
Of the initial cohort of 123 students, 66 were female and 57 male.
The majority of respondents/those who responded felt that .....
Over half of those surveyed reported that ......
70% of those who were interviewed indicated that ......
Almost twothirds of the participants (64%) said that ......

| P a g e 46

A strong relationship between X and Y has been reported in the literature.
Prior studies that have noted the importance of ......
The present study was designed t d to determine the effect off ......
The results of this study show/indicate that .......
This experiment did not detect any evidence for

This experiment did not detect any evidence for ......

The most interesting finding was that ......

Another important finding was that .....

In this study, Xs were found to cause .....

Surprisingly, X was found to .......

One unanticipated finding was that .....

These findings of the current study are consistent with those of Smith and

Jones (2001) who found ......

This finding is in agreement with Smith's (1999) findings which showed

| P a g e 47

These findings further support the idea of .....

A possible explanation for this might be that .....
Another possible explanation for this is that ......

It seems possible that these results are due to ......

The reason for this is not clear but it may have something to do with ......

The reason for this is not clear but it may have something to do with ......

This inconsistency/discrepancy may be due to ......

This finding was unexpected and suggests that ......

| P a g e 48

However, more research on this topic needs to be undertaken before the

association between X and Y is more clearly understood.

Further research should be done to investigate the ......

Future studies on the current topic are therefore recommended

A further study with more focus on X is therefore suggested.

Further work needs to be done to establish whether ......

Further experimental investigations are needed to estimate ......

What is now needed is a crossnational study involving ......

What is now needed is a cross national study involving ......

It is suggested that the association of these factors is investigated in future


Further research might explore/investigate

This essay has argued that X is the best instrument to ......

This study set out to determine ......

The purpose of the current study was to determine ......

Further research might explore/investigate ......

| P a g e 49

This project was under taken to design ...... and evaluate .....

Returning to the hypothesis/question posed at the beginning of this study, it

is now possible to state that .....

It was also shown that......

The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that ......

An abstract is a short summary of your paper, placed at the beginning, usually on
its own page. An effective abstract will:
- describe essential content
- be written in simple language
- get your potential reader interested (abstracts are one of the hotspots in your
How to write an abstract... After you have finished writing your paper, reread it
and summarize the main parts.

| P a g e 51

When to include an abstract... An abstract is useful if your paper is going to be

published in a journal, posted on the Web, placed in an abstracts data base, or put
in any position where potential readers might make a decision to read your paper.
It might be required as part of a Final Year paper. For shorter assignments
submitted within a classroom or course context it would probably not be required.
Check with your teacher.
Abstracts use predictable language. Check these models: Using 'will' to describe
the future, using the passive, using the simple present tense, using bullet points.

| P a g e 51

Chapter 3
Unit 1
Find the Persian equivalents of the following terms
and expressions and write them in the spaces provided.
Find the Persian equivalents of the following terms and expressions and
write them in the spaces provided.
2-Sub Munitions
8-Sub Munitions
| P a g e 52

18-Dead Reckoning

| P a g e 53

After a tragic incident killed a marine who was clearing unexploded submunitions, the military decided to give the job to a robot. Enter Joe
Jones and FETCH, a mine clearing robot being developed by IS
Robotics. Jones showed a video of FETCH searching, picking up, and
safely depositing sub munitions in a weedy field with natural obstacles.
FETCH is a tracked vehicle that uses IR (infrared) to detect obstacles,
GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) and an electronic compass for
navigation, a Radio Shack metal detector, and behavior-based
programming for intelligence.
FETCH goes to a predetermined position to start its search, using IR to
navigate around obstacles while enroute. From its starting point, FETCH
initiates a spiral search pattern. When a sub munition is found, a
magnet is used to pick it up. FETCH then carries it to a dump site for
later destruction. FETCH isn't a loner. A collection of these robots
operate under "supervised autonomy" to clear a field of numerous
mines. Each robot goes about its business, working on assigned targets,
unless it detects a failure in its operation. It then signals an operator of
the difficulty. The operator can intervene at many levels from
reassigning to another mine, to controlling individual wheel movements.
FETCH uses the following sensors and behaviors:
| P a g e 54

For Dead Reckoning

- Electronic Compass - GPS Receiver - Shaft Encoders
For Searching - Metal Detector
For Obstacle Avoidance
- IR emitter/detectors
For Obstacle Escape
- Bumper
For Supervised Feedback
- Video Camera
In typical behavior-based fashion, a fixed-priority arbitration scheme is
used to control the drive system. The robot is commanded to GOTO a
start position, and then SEARCH unless the bumper initiates an
ESCAPE, or the IR detector commands an AVOID maneuver, or the
operator issues a remote CONTROL command. FETCH is an
excellent example of the important work that can be done with low-cost,
autonomous robots. Occasionally, an individual robot may by destroyed
by exploding ordnance (= sub-munitions); however, at less than $2,000
apiece (= each), that's a small price to pay.
Comprehension exercises
1 - Here is a summary of the document. Underline the passages which
do not express the ideas of the text. After a marine had been killed by a
robot / while he was looking for sub-munitions,/ the military decided to
use Joe Jones's robot./ This robot can look for sub-munitions, / pick
| P a g e 55

them up,/ transport them to a safe place/ and destroy them.

The robot is able to calculate its route, / to avoid obstacles and navigate
around them./ But it can only move in spiral patterns./
Once a magnetic device has detected and picked up sub-munitions, the
unit signals an operator for instructions./
In normal operation, no operator is required./ However if there is a
problem, the operator issues commands / thus taking full control of the
Since the robot is not very expensive / it is no problem if it is destroyed /
when exploding the sub-munitions.
True of False?
. Joe Jones is the manufacturer of Fetch
..Navigation is possible by using only a compass.
..Fetch uses a metal detector to find the mines.
..Fetch's only activity is to find mines.

What is the IR system for? ( answer with 'to')
How does the robot move?
How does it pick up the mine? What does it do it with?
Is the robot completely autonomous?
Who decides which mines to clear?
What happens if there is a problem?
| P a g e 56

Has the operator got a wide choice of solutions?

What are the advantages of the robot?

GPS and an electronic compass allow ...
searching for mines is done by ...
The robot uses infra red .... and .... in order ....
The bumper allows ...
the purpose of the video camera is to permit ...
Fill out the technical data sheet. (Write NA if data is not available)
NAME of the product
DEFINITION ( main use)

| P a g e 57

Complete the following summary by turning the verbs between brackets

into the correct form.
1 - This article is about a mine clearing robot ( call ) FETCH.
2 - It ( develop ) by IS Robotics;
3 - The robot ( send ) to its starting position,
4 - and from there, it (navigate ) over the place in spiral patterns.
5 - Its position ( calculate ) by GPS and a compass.
6 - It ( use ) a metal detector: it ( search ) for munitions.
7 - A magnet ( enable) the unit ( pick up) the munition.
8 - the munition ( carry ) to a dump site later.
9 - If the robot encounters a problem, the operator ( warn ),
10 - and he ( can ) ( take) appropriate measures.
11 - The robot is not expensive;
12 - it is no real loss if it ( destroy ).

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Unit 2
Find the Persian equivalents of the following terms and
expressions and write them in the spaces provided.
1.Added value
2.Assembly line
3.automatic lathe
5.beverage cans
6.chucking machine
7.competitive environment
............................. requirements
10.electrical insulator
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13.industrialized nation
15.labor costs
16.light fixtures
19.material-handling equipment
20.metalworking machinery
21.monetary worth
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26.sewing machine
27.sheet metal
30.well-organized plan
31.wire coat hanger
Section One: Reading Comprehension
Manufacturing Technology
As you read this introduction, take a few moments to inspect the
different objects around you: your watch, chair, stapler, pencil,
| P a g e 61

calculator, telephone, and light fixtures. You will soon realize that all
these objects have been transformed from various raw materials and
assembled into the objects that you now see before you. Some objects,
such as nails, bolts, and paper clips, are made of one piece. However,
most objects such as aircraft engines, ballpoint pens, toasters, bicycles,
computers, and thousands more are made of several parts from a variety
of materials. A typical automobile, for example, consists of about
15,000 parts; a C-5, a transport plane, consists of more than 4 million
parts, and a Boeing 747-400 has 6 million parts. All are made by
various processes that we call manufacturing. Manufacturing, in its
broadest sense, is the process of converting raw materials into products.
It-compasses the design and manufacturing of goods using various
production methods and techniques.
Manufacturing began about 5000 to 4000 B.c. with the production of
various articles of wood, ceramic, stone, and metal. The word
manufacturing is 'derived from the Latin manu factus, meaning "made
by hand". The word manufacture first appeared in 1567, and the word
manufacturing in 1683. Modern manufacturing involves making
products from raw materials by various processes, machinery, and
operations, following a well-organized plan for each step.
Manufacturing comprises approximately 20 to 30 percent of the value
of all goods and services produced in industrialized nations. Generally,
the higher the level of manufacturing in a country, the higher the
| P a g e 62

standard of living of its people. Manufactured products are also used to

make other products. Examples are large presses to form sheet metal for
car bodies, metalworking machinery used to make parts for other
products, and sewing machines for making clothing.
Because a manufactured item has undergone a number of changes in
which raw material has become a useful product, it has "added value",
defined as monetary worth in terms of price. For example, clay. has a
certain value when mined.
When the clay is used to make a ceramic dinner plate, cutting tool, or
electrical insulator, value is added to the clay. Similarly, a wire coat
hanger or a nail has added value over and above the cost of a piece of






"individual parts or part pieces", or "continuous products". Nails, gears,

steel balls, beverage cans, and engine blocks are examples of discrete
products. Wire, metal or plastic sheet, hose, and pipe are continuous
products that may be cut into individual pieces and thus become
discrete products.
Manufacturing is generally a complex activity involving people who
have a broad range of disciplines and skills together with a wide variety
of machinery, equipment, and tools with various levels of automation,
including computers, robots, and

material-handling equipment.

Manufacturing activities must be responsive to several demands and

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A product must be manufactured by the most "economical"
methods in order to minimize costs.
"Quality" must be built into the product at each stage, from
design to assembly, rather than relying on quality testing after the
product is made.
In a highly competitive environment, production methods must be
sufficiently "flexible" to respond to changing market demands,
types of products, production rates, production quantities, and ontime delivery to the customer.
New developments in "materials, production methods, and
computer integration" of both technological and managerial
activities in a manufacturing organization must constantly be
evaluated with a view to their timely and economic
Manufacturing activities must be viewed as a large "system",
each part of which is interrelated. Such systems can be modeled
in order to study the effects of various factors, such as changes in
market demands, product design, materials, costs, and production
methods, on product quality and cost.
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The manufacturer must work with the customer to get timely

feedback for continuous "product improvement".

The manufacturing organization must constantly strive for

higher "productivity", defined as the optimum use of all its
resources: materials, energy, capital, labor, and technology.
Output per employee per hour in all phases must be maximized.
All these factors collaborate to yield efficient manufacturing
Part 1. Comprehension Exercises
A. Put "T" for true and "F" for false statements. Justify your
.... 1. The process of converting raw materials into products is called
.... 2. Ballpoint pens and paper clips are both made of just one piece.
.... 3. According to the author, the lower the level of manufacturing in
a country the lower the standard of living of its people.
.... 4. Sewing machines are good examples of manufactured products
that are

used to make other products.

.... 5. The author defines "added value" as monetary worth of an item

in terms of hard work.
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.... 6. Ceramic dinner plates, cutting tools, and electrical insulators are
instances of "continuous products".
.... 7. According to the text, quality cannot be inspected after a product
is made.
.... 8. Manufacturing activities must not be considered a large system,
because its parts are not interrelated.

B. Choose a, b, c, or d which best completes each item.

1.Engine blocks and steel balls are examples of.....
a. added value

b. certain value

c. cutting tools

d. discrete products

2.For higher productivity,.....

a.the optimum use of all resources must not be applied
b.materials, machines, energy, etc. must be considered output
c.output per employee per hour in all phases must be maximized
d.the manufacturing organization must constantly be defined
3.Each part of manufacturing activities is somehow related to another
one. So ....
a.we can study various factors while manufacturing
b.we can consider the production methods thoroughly
c.manufacturing activities must be viewed as product designs
d.manufacturing activities must be considered a system
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4.Timely feedback for product improvement is taken from .....

a. the manufacturer

b. market demands

c the consumer

d. production methods

5.Value is added to the clay when it .....

a. is used as a new material

b. is used to make other products

c. becomes a useful material

d. becomes a certain product

6.Using machinery and following a well-organized plan are two

important characteristics of.....
a modern manufacturing

b. transformed process

c. production methods

d. raw materials

7.The tools with various levels of automation that are used in modern
manufacturing are.....
a. engines and machines
c. computers and robots
b. sewing machines and presses
d. computers and aircraft engines

C. Answer the following questions and bring them in next

1.How do you define modern manufacturing?
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2.Where is the word manufacturing derived from?

3.What is the difference between a paper clip and a toaster in
4.Which one is more complex in manufacturing, a typical automobile
or a transport plane? Why?
5.What is the definition of "added value"?
6.Why do we call nails and gears "discrete products"?
7.What must manufacturing activities be responsive to?
8.Why should we not rely on quality testing after the product is

Part II. Language Practice

A. Choose a, b, c, or d which best completes each item.
1.Since not all manufacturing operations produce finished parts or
products, additional .... may be necessary.
a. organizations

b. considerations

c. processes

d. dimensions

2. Product diversification and high production ....invariably call for

diversity in the materials used.
a. functions

b. inputs

c. materials

d. outputs
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3. Modern manufacturing is an industrial activity which requires.

such as human power, materials, machines, and capital .
a. resources

b. activities

c. concepts

d. companies

4. The main purpose of manufacturing is to produce useful products

from .... materials.
a. typical

b. operational

c. raw

d. functional

5. Individuals in large organizations are.... specialized in their

a. directly

b. entirely

c. highly

d. relatively

6. Once the product has been.... and its production has been planned,
the next step is to produce it.
a. designed

b. assembled

c. manufactured

d. consumed

7. Most product designs are subject to .... demands,



reflect the changing likes and dislikes of society.

a. manufacturer

'b. consumer

c. producer

d. designer such an important factor in manufacturing, companies

have developed highly specialized methods and techniques to deal with
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a. industry

b. object

c., cost

d. power

9.Manufacturing processes can four broad categories, based on

the way parts are produced: shaping, assembling, finishing, and
a. produced

b. tension

c. classified

d. explained

10.The forces used to form parts shearing, or....type.

a. formation

b. tension

c. molding

d. welding

B. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the words

a.For various products such as plant machinery required for chemical,
civil, electrical, textile, etc., the....process forms a vital
b. Some factories are engaged in the .... of plastics.
c. products such as large presses and sewing machines are also
used to make other products.
d. The ....... must work with the customer to get timely feedback for
continuous product improvement.
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a. The product may be new, or it may be a newer model of an existing

.... .
b. Computer is a powerful and effective tool, particularly for
c. The direct labor cost pertains to the labor directly involved in
manufacturing the part. It is also called ....labor.
d ..... is defined as the optimum use of all resources; i.e. materials,
energy, capital, labor, and technology.
3. Economy
a. ....always has been a major factor in manufacturing and has
become even more important for high-quality products.
b. An entire manufacturing discipline, known as....order quantity, is
now devoted to determining mathematically the optimum production
c. A slower production rate does not necessarily mean that the
manufacturing process is inherently .... .
d. Fixed costs include the costs of power, fuel, taxes on real estate,
insurance, and capital which are accounted .... .
a.We can .... manufacturing activities in order to study the effect of
| P a g e 71

various factors.
b. The manufacturing organization must be....for higher productivity.

c. Since not all manufacturing operations produce finished parts or

products .... additional processes may be necessary.
d. Manufacturing activities must be viewed as a large .... each part
of which is interrelated.
a.All operations on these machines are performed .... tnat is why,
they are called automatic machines.
b.The major goals of manufacturing facilities are to integrate
various operations to improve productivity and reduce labor costs.
c ...... and robotics assembly systems are replacing costly assembly by
d. ...... lathes, also called chucking machines, which are usually
vertical and don't have tailstocks, are used for machining individual
pieces of regular or irregular shapes.

C. Fill in the blanks with the following words.




machine tools


| P a g e 72




Manufacturing is the process of coordinating man power, tools, and

machines to convert ........ materials into useful products. The first steps
toward manufacturing can be seen in primitive people's early efforts to
convert such raw materials as stone and wood into tools like the digging
stick and the .... Human beings are earth's only ones that capable of
thinking and of.... making. The early tools were simple hand tools, but
with the gradual accumulation of knowledge through the use of tools
and other ........ , human beings gradually developed the technology that
enabled them to make the transition from hand tools to.... It was the
development of machine tools capable of producing themselves (and
other machines) that resulted in the beginning of modern .... . During
early manufacturing, products were produced largely on an individual
basis, and their .... was dependent mostly on the worker's skill. This
type of manufacturing had serious limitations in terms of production
output, diversity of product .... product cost, and quality. With the
development of modern manufacturing machines and methods,
however, part of the worker's skill is built into the production machines.
This makes possible the employment of a greater number of people with
relatively little skill, while increasing production .... reducing
production cost, improving diversity of product design, and providing
more reliable product quality.
| P a g e 73

D.Put the following sentences in the right order to form a

paragraph. Write the corresponding letters in the boxes
Basic Stages of Manufacturing
a. Production planning and tooling: most of the technical planning to
produce a product which will be. competitive in the market is done
at this stage. Cost estimating and process design are elements of the
planning stage of manufacturing.
b.Marketing: after the product has been manufactured, it must be
marketed to make it available to the consumer.
c.The main purpose of manufacturing is to produce useful products
from raw materials. The conversion of materials into products made
available to the consumer involves four basic manufacturing stages
or steps.
d. It should be remembered that these four stages are organized in








Nevertheless, they represent the four logical areas of manufacturing

a product, from its conception through its delivery to the consumer.
e.Manufacturing or production: once the product has been designed
and its production has been planned, the next step is to produce it.
f. Product research and development or product design: this is where
the concept of the product is formulated. It is also the decision| P a g e 74

making stage where all basic decisions to "go" or "not go" with the
idea are made.

Unit 3

Unit 3
Find the Persian equivalents of the following terms and write
them in the spaces provided .
| P a g e 75

.1 central heating
.2 component

.3 conduction

.4 conductor
.5 convert

.6 cross-sectional area
.7 density
.8 distribute
.9 enclosed space
.11 force
.11 gravity
.12 heat flow

.13 measurement
.14 medium
.15 power
.16 rate

.17 ratio

| P a g e 76

.18 reciprocal

.19 refrigeration

.21 relative density

.21 square inch
.22 substance
.23 temperature
.24 transfer
.25 volume

Section One: Reading Comprehension

Fundamentals central heating

For an understanding of refrigeration, air conditioning and central








technical/scientific terms, definitions and measurements. Terms

such as density, specific gravity, velocity, etc are frequently used
in technical passages related to the subject .
The density of a material is the mass per unit volume of the
material .
| P a g e 77

Density is expressed as pounds per cubic foot or grams per cubic

centimeter. The relative density or specific gravity of a substance
is the ratio of the density of the substance to the density of water
of 4C. The specific volume of a substance is the volume
occupied by unit mass of the material. By definition it will be
clear that specific volume is the reciprocal of density, i.e .
Specific Volume = 1/ Density
Velocity is the rate of change of position of the body along a
straight line in a particular direction. Temperature is an indication
of the level of heat in a substance. However, the temperature of a
substance does not give an idea of the amount of heat the
substance has. A thermometer is the instrument used for the
measurement of temperature .Force, work and power are three
other frequently used terms. When we want to move an object we
push it or pull it, i.e., we use force anything that (1) sets a body in
motion or (2) brings a moving body to rest or (3) changes the
direction of a moving body is force. Force is measured in weight
units such as Newton. When a force is acting on a body, 'work' is
said to be done. The amount of work done is the product of the
force and distance through which the body is moved. Power is the
rate of doing work. So power is the work done divided by the time
required to do the work. Power is expressed by the unit of
horsepower or watt. One watt is defined as the power required to
| P a g e 78

do work at the rate of one joule per second. One horsepower is

equivalent to 764 joules. One horsepower is originally defined as
the amount of power required to lift 33,000 pounds 1 foot in 1
minute or 550 pound-foot per second .
Energy and pressure are also common terms used in refrigeration
and air conditioning fields. The energy of a body is its capacity to
do work. It is measured by the total amount of work that the body
can do. There are two types of energy. Kinetic energy is the
energy a body possesses by virtue of motion or velocity, such as
the moving parts of a machine. Potential energy is the stored
energy possessed by a system as a result of the relative position of
the components of that system. A body situated at a height is said
to have potential energy. All kinds of energy can be classified as
either kinetic or potential. However, energy may appear in
different forms, such as mechanical, electrical, chemical, heat,
etc. These are readily converted from one form to another .
Pressure is the force exerted per unit area. Whenever a force is
evenly distributed over an area, the pressure at any point on the
| P a g e 79

contact surface is the same and can be calculated by dividing the

force by the total area over which the force is applied. Pressure is
expressed in units, such as pounds per square inch (PSI), pounds
per square foot (PSF), kilograms per square centimeter (kg/cm2"),
etc .

Part L Comprehension Exercises

A. Put "T" for true and "F" for false statements. Justify
your answers .
.1 The only unit to measure density is gram per cubic
centimeter .
.2 The reciprocal of density of a substance is known as its
specific volume .
.3 Velocity is something which sets a body in motion .
.4 There is a direct relationship between the distance a body
moves and the work done .

We can easily change electrical energy to heat energy .

Moving parts of a machine have kinetic energy in them .

B. Choose a, b, c, or d which best completes each item .

.1 The temperature of a substance.. .
a. doesn't show the amount of the heat it has
b. is the reciprocal of its density
c. is measured in weight units
d. indicates the velocity of the substance

The density of a substance can be defined as ...

the mass per unit volume of it
| P a g e 81


the volume occupied by unit mass

its motion along a straight line
a force acting on a body


Which sentence is Not true about force ?

Force can set a body in motion .
Force expresses the amount of energy .
Force changes the direction of a moving body .
Force brings a moving body to rest .

.4 When pressure is exerted on a surface, it will be equal at all

points of the surface if it is
a. calculated correctly
b. expressed in proper units
c. evenly distributed over the surface
d. applied by the total area
.5 A body has potential energy because of its ..
a. heat
b. direction
c. position
d. motion

C. Answer the following questions and bring them in next

class .
.1 Why is it necessary to know technical terms ?
.2 What are the two common units used to express density ?
.3 What do we mean by specific volume of a material ?
.4 How do we calculate the amount of work ?
.5 What are some forms of energy ?
.6 What does the temperature of a material tell us about that
material ?
.7 What is the term used to refer to 'the capacity of a body to do
work ?'
| P a g e 81

Part II Language Practice

A. Choose a, b, c, or d which best completes each item .
.1 Anything which . space and has weight is considered
to be matter .
a. occupies
b. defines
c. measures
d. relates
.2 Raw materials are
manufacturing system .
a. situated
b. converted
c. divided
d. calculated





Unit area is one of the ..used in measuring pressure .

a. substances b. passages
c. weights
d. factors


The of heat in a substance is shown by its temperature

a. capacity
b. type
c. height d. level

.5 Energy can be ..into two types: kinetic and potential .

a. classified
b. exerted
c. possessed
d. removed
B. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the words
given .
.1 Dense
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a. The. of water is the standard criterion to calculate the

specific volume of other substances .
b. A. substance is very heavy in relation to its unit of
volume .
c.Some materials are said to be more structured than the
others because of their compact molecular structures .
.2 Measure
a. In the field of air conditioning systems there have recently
been .......... and significant improvements .

b. Fahrenheit and Centigrade are two of temperature .

c. Atmospheric pressure is . with the help of a barometer
.3 Force
a. In moving an object from one place to another we use.
b. The teacher's. speech and argument made the students
understand the concepts of refrigeration very well .
c. The thief ..the man to hand over the money .
.4 Direct
a. The rate of change of position of the body along a straight
line in a particular . is its velocity .
b. When there is a great difference in temperature between
patches of air next to each other, the colder air is. towards
the warmer .
c. There is a .relationship between work and power .
.5 Indicate
a. The temperature of a substance is not an . of the amount
of heat it possesses .
| P a g e 83

b. Litmus paper can be used as an.. of the presence of acid in

a solution .
c. A thermometer... the temperature of a substance .
C. Fill in the blanks with the following words .
coil location
Convection heat transfer is used to move heat from one to
another. When heat is moved, it is normally into
substance that is readily movable, such as air or water. Many
large buildings have a . .. . . . . . .. heating plant where water is
heated and pumped throughout the building to the final heated
space. Notice the similarity of the words convection' and ' .to
carry from one place to another. The automobile heater is a good
example of
heat. Heat from the engine's process is
passed by conduction to the water. Hot water from the... .. .is then
passed through a heater coil. The.. heat in the water is
transferred by convection from the water in the engine to the
heater.. . The heat is transferred through the coil from the water
to air and conveyed to the car's.. by the heater fan. When a fan
or pump is used to convey the heat, the process is called
.convection .
D. Put the following sentences in the right order to form a
paragraph. Write the corresponding letters in the boxes
provided .
a. Many changes in matter are brought about by such things as
heat, light, sound, and electric current .
b. We have a special word for it; we call it energy .
c. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass .
| P a g e 84

d. So there is something besides matter in our world which makes

matter move or change .
e. Yet these things are not matter because they do not take up
space and do not have mass .
In science, we have a special word for all materials .
g. Heat, light, sound, and electric currents are just some of its
different forms .
h. We call all materials matter.

Unit 4
Find the Persian equivalents of the following terms and write
them in the spaces provided.
| P a g e 85

4. thin
5. flat pieces
7. moving stairs
11.goes in a Line
13.swings backwards and forwards

| P a g e 86


21.newton gravity

Section One: Reading Comprehension

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A. Scan the paragraph (20) quickly and find out which of these
mechanisms are mentioned.
| P a g e 88

1 cam
2 tap
3 pendulum
4 foot pump
5 escalator

B. Answer the following questions and bring them in next

class .
What does a cam do?
What does oscillating mean?
How are plastic pipes formed?
What simple mechanisms in the home are mentioned directly or
What is the function of a crankshaft?
Give an example of a device which can produce a linear movement.
How are car body panels formed?
What do mechanisms provide in industry
| P a g e 89

C. Complete this description of the experiment using the present

A block of wood.. ' on a flat surface. A spring balance ."
to one end of the block. A gradually increasing force to the
balance. The force.. at which the block just begins to move.
The block along at a steady speed. The force required to maintain
. 6movement.. The two forces . It is found that the first
force is greater than the second.

Put the following sentences in the right order to form a

paragraph. Write the corresponding letters in the boxes

provided .
1-This study program is for the people who want to gain knowledge of the
mechanics, constructions, projecting, production, use and service, technological
processes of production .

2- Mechanical engineering is one of the oldest scientific directions known and

studied by a man.

| P a g e 91

4-The laws of mechanics can explain patterns of most technique functioning and
5- They enable to create machines, to optimize their work, to cut down energetic

costs of the processes, to reduce friction and wear losses.

6-Optionally knowledge is deepened by combination of selected alternative
study in secondary
7-Program provides a broad interdisciplinary education in the following
Basics of engineering and technology:
Materials Science, Materials Technology, Electrical Engineering, Theoretical
Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics, Computer-Aided Design, Elements of
Machinery, Strength of Materials, Mechatronics, Internal Combustion
Engines, Transport and Power Machinery, Machinery Manufacturing and
Repair Technologies.

Chapter 4
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These are the essential word for master degree Examination.

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7-Oxford English for electrical and mechanical engineering
- -8
1389( -9

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