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T H E STO R Y O F A R C H I T E CT U R E

750 to 1250 -2900 to 540 622 to 1600 ISLAM THE ROMANESQUE PERIOD 1130 to 1500 Architecture in Ancient Egypt 6 Classical Greece and Hellenism 8 The architecture of the Roman Empire 12 Early Christian and Byzantine architecture 13 GOTHIC 1420 to 1620 Table of contents ANTIQUITY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY RENAISSANCE From Muhammed to the fall of Granada 16 The great Ottoman era 18 Carolingian and Ottonian architecture 20 The High Romanesque period under the Salians and Hohenstaufens 24 Alternatives to Imperial Architecture 26 Classical cathedral Gothic in France 30 The Gothic style in England 36 The Gothic style in Germany 37 The Gothic style in Italy 39 Florence and the Early Renaissance 42 High and Late Renaissance (Mannerism) 45 The Renaissance north of the Alps 48 .

Ca. Hieroglyphics and calendars.C.C. 1570 B. Buildings also change the external ferable.D. initially the incarnation of Horus. exterior steps. Ca. Architecture was with their size.: Vesuvius erupts in Pompeii. spiritual and intellectual needs also have a important role to play in the history of architecture. 431–404 B. as However. human being from the surrounding environment the need to bestow (a higher) meaning on exist- and in doing so create something of individual hu- ence. 477 B.C.C. the seat of Amon. expeditions to Asia and Nubia.C. religion fulfils what is walls” and “roof over his/her head” separate a possibly man’s most important spiritual need. Even magical cult cave than any other human creation. for example.–540 A. greatest display of power under Queen Hatshepsut.: Byzantium is renamed Constantinople and becomes the Christian capital of the empire.: Conquest and destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. in the them and the architects who designed them. volume.D. architecture was to fulfil the basic human need for It is an expensive activity and therefore dependent security. 490 B. wrested from nature. Construction of vast temple complexes in Karnak.D.e. all buildings reflect the spirit of their time. 27 B. 336–323 B.: Emperor Augustus assumes power as Senate-approved “princeps”. 79 A. Famous pyramids built 3rd–6th Dynasty. 6 218 B. The New Kingdom (1570–715 B. it is almost im- tell a lot about the people and activities important to possible to escape the evidence of building activity the ruling group in a given society. 70 A. to explain the incomprehensible and insuf- man proportions. 45 B. since about the person responsible for a building from the ancient times dwellings have also been built for the way the relationship between the interior and gods.: Peisistratos establishes the great Dionysia festivals in Athens with musical competitions and theatrical productions. resents the social context: building is a social act Unlike all other forms of art. Building – a basic need and social act do they take and which materials were used? Not all In ancient Greek the architect was known as the buildings are prestigious affairs aiming to impress “master builder” (“archi-tekton”). principal deity of the land. style and decorative detail. .C.D.C.: Peloponnesian War ends the hegemony of Sparta. Temple complexes in Karnak. considered the “mother” of the visual arts. Buildings provided protection from the on power and wealth.D.) 313 A. Does the building have thick latter. 443–429 B. entrances. More form of murals or friezes.C.D. Sensuous delight in the use of marble: the Venus de Milo. wherever people lived.C. 54 A.C.: Hannibal progresses across the Alps towards Rome. the primary aim of which nearly always takes place in the social arena.: Alexander the Great moves to India: idea of world supremacy.: Foundation of Rome.: Battle near Marathon. elaborate buildings weather and wild animals.C. spreading of Greek culture.–540 A. the Persian Empire emerges as ultimate victor from the international power struggles.). 161–80 A.): The pharaoh is the absolute hereditary king.D.C.C. 560 B. in reality. Sun worship official religion. Thus.: Julius Caesar sole ruler of the Roman Empire.: Edict of Milan ensures religious freedom for Christians.: Christianity becomes official religion of the Roman Empire.: Marcus Aurelius Roman emperor.D. greatest extension of the kingdom under Tuthmosis III.C. The Middle Kingdom (2052–ca.ARCHITECTURE IN ANCIENT EGYPT 2900–700 B. however. the monarchy of the first man”. as well as providing shelter for people. all pagan cults are outlawed.C. to provide prospects of a higher justice for environment in which they stand: the yard. Thus.): Egypt becomes a leading power.): Alexander the Great conquers Egypt (332 B. 330 A. Luxor. painting and sculpture often developed in the or at least that of the people who commissioned context of a building project. much can be surmised Thus.D. after the 4th dynasty son of the sun god Re. rise of Athens to major political power. i. the unatoned wrongs and to offer the comfort of village and the town are artificial environments continued life. victory of Athens over previously undefeated Persians. “The four As history has shown.C. these buildings tend to be more durable and opaque or transparent glass walls? Do the impressive than those erected for mere mortals.: The age of Pericles: Athens is “democracy by name. The Late Period (715–332 B.): Unification of Egypt by Mentuhotep II of Thebes.C.C. a building rep- paintings served as decorations for dwellings. the falcon god. It is no accident that religious buildings have an However. Several other questions always arise: Who commissioned buildings? Who built them? For whom and for what purpose were they built? What form Laying the foundations ANTIQUITY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY 2900 B. 750 B. In keeping with the elevated position of the exterior is presented. ANTIQUITY (2900 B. rebirth or resurrection after death. 391 A. Hence. Abu Simbel. outer courts or fences create a sense of openness or distance? EGYPT: GREECE: ROME: The Old Kingdom (2850–2052 B. role to play when it comes to building.: Foundation of the Attic maritime alliance as a protective force against the Persians.: Nero becomes emperor.

however. built in Saqqara Old Kingdom are the tombs which served as places between 2780 and 2680 B. in which the dead person had lived. Moreover. greatest..C. Against a background had meanwhile acquired a square plan and smooth of unchanging ritual conditions. Each pyramid has a mortuary temple which had its own priests and in which the pharaoh was commemorated. Egypt. the culmination of mammoth technical and social projects. the pharaohs began to walls of the sacrificial area were decorated with be seen as sons of the sun-god Re and sun worship reliefs of harvest scenes and sacrificial offerings in became the official religion. The pyramids of the pharaohs Mycerinus.C. like the Pyramids of Giza. The Egyptian tombs are all located on the west bank of the river Nile where the valuable fertile flood plains end and the sun sets over the hostile desert. The pyramids. little remains even towns. so that the tower by this quiet stream was determined by this reached a height of approximately 60 metres. palaces and As with other advanced civilisations. The perpetual cycle. or to make the tomb more prominent. hundreds of workers were settled near the building site and many lost their lives moving the stones which weighed many tons. of course.C. Chephren and Cheops). Entire houses. of the ordinary dwellings built by the ancient were often replicated. have been to provide greater security for the tomb only possible if the body remained intact. replica of the pharaoh’s palace in Memphis. Construction of such buildings often took an entire lifetime.. were therefore life- dimensions were laid on top of Zoser’s mastaba. Death was seen as a passage to reason behind the introduction of the pyramid may another form of life and this passage was. (and guarantee that the corpse would not be great efforts were made to preserve corpses. ANTIQUITY (2900 B. walls. Enormous volumes of stone were piled over the small burial chambers of the pharaohs. 4th Dynasty.The Pyramids of Giza (Mycerinus. They symbolised were always built on the high west bank of the Nile the sunbeams on which pharaohs were believed to above the actual burial chamber which was con- have been transported to Re. Cheops and Chephren are visible from far and wide at the edge of the desert near Cairo. which was then prepared for burial (this is the stepped pyramid represented a staircase which how the famous mummies originated). the king who was regarded as a god. Five rectangular blocks of decreasing far from being disastrous. The only extant architectural relics of the Thus the tomb of the pharaoh Zoser.D. Stepped structures were erected as an image of social hierarchy and stood for all to see as indestructible guarantors of the eternal validity of Egyptian culture. middle of the 3rd century B. a Egypt’s existence depended on the Nile whose compact block with stepped limestone or brick annual floods left behind a layer of fertile mud and. were reserved for the body of The fact that from then on the pharaohs’ tombs the pharaoh.C.–540 A. as enhancing. other rooms were exterior walls. which case the “supplies” ran out. Thus. The disturbed).) 7 . Food and the dead pharaoh climbed to reach heaven. Awareness of the eternity of death led to the development of a complex death cult as one of the main components of Egyptian culture. became monuments can probably be explained by The brain and entrails were removed from the a desire to give visual form to religious symbolism: corpse. other offerings were laid in the tomb. was conceived as a of worship. The world view of the people who lived these block tombs were known. Sacrificial chambers features were eroded with time). the During the 3rd century B. had often built around the sacrificial chamber so that the become shining columns faced with a shimmering dead person would not be deprived of his/her layer of limestone and topped with gold (both these accustomed level of comfort. Egyptians. Sunbeams of stone cealed deep in the rock.

miniature from the French chronicle by Jehan Foucquet. portraits of patrons and inscrip- architect and art critic Vasari: the (West) Goths had tions provide numerous reminders of the architects. astronomy. The abbey of scientific development. A law on the transfer of money (giro bank) is passed in Venice. 1260: According to the theory of alchemy. Even The fact that the Gothic style originated in the Île de if different sectors of society interpret them in France. who had Of the many Romanesque schools of architecture replaced the Carolingians as rulers of the Western in France. their town and suggested. they still fulfil the same purpose. The school in the Île Capet as King. the term Gothic ex- social classes – their symbolism. it also embodies the (formulation of the Papal claim to world rule). The pride of the guilds was on display rather dubious connotations: it was used deroga- for all to see. this replaced the Romanesque style in France and area became the centre of French cultural and ultimately the entire Western world. It and 1144. but should belong to a transitional style. she is imprisoned by the English and burned as a witch (1431). rhetoric. geometry). Joan of Arc liberates Orleans and succeeds in setting up the coronation of Charles VII as King of France (1429). the mechanical clock with stop wheel is invented in Italy. area was the power base of the Capetians. and as the site of royal coronation and entombment. Lyons and Geneva become very important events. political and theological world view of all the Art historians fondly engage in disputes as to members of the society in question. 1445: First book printed by Johann Gutenberg in Mainz. above all the pressed the epitome of contradiction and lack of figures and window images. glass windows gradually spread. Princes to elect a king in the “Golden Bull”. The secular ruler must implement death penalty as the church “does not thirst for blood”. King Charles V (the Wise. Ca. 1364–80) moves to Paris. spectacles are produced in Italy. St. 1311: Dante starts work on the Divine Comedy. . Martin Behaim designs the first globe. 1318: Development of a new system of payment. 1353: Boccacio completes his collection of stories. 1447: Foundation of the Vatican library. The new choir Focusing on this world Ca. The term “Gothic” itself originally had themselves. Denis. 1350: Division of the English parliament into the upper house (House of Lords) and lower house (House of Commons) which is given right of petition. 1347: Outbreak of the plague in Europe. arithmetic. With its King’s Gallery on the façade. the foot-operated loom is invented. It is extremely difficult to put an exact date on the philosophy of society and is an expression of the transition from Romanesque to the Gothic style. Antwerp. This different ways. Ca. 1378–1417: The Great Schism with opposition Popes in Avignon and Rome marks a nadir in papal power. 1356: Emperor Charles IV confirms the sole right of the seven German 1492: Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. 1300: Pharmacy is recognised as a profession in Germany. were absolute design of the cathedrals speaks the language of all Barbarians. 1472. is undisputed. 1309: Pope Clemens V transfers the Papal see to Avignon (“Babylonian imprisonment of the church”). in Vasari’s opinion. The Empire and. the abbot of St. masses in Bruges. Germany. In some places. The anonymity of the Middle Ages torily in the 16th century by the Italian painter. 1275: Marco Polo reaches Peking. the cathedral is seen to which launched the Gothic style. Between 1140 epitomise Gothic architecture to the present day. 1302: Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal Bull “Unam sanctam” 30 GOTHIC (1130–1500) However. it lends visual legitimacy to the royal claim to power (like the imperial Romanesque From solid to skeletal structures cathedral). 1254: Royal Chaplain Robert de Sorbon establishes the school of theology in Paris (known as the Sorbonne from the 14th century). replaced was the symbol of the new power of the French the old narrow choir with a new one. Terms such in the conviction that they were working together to 1130–1500 as “Romanesque Early Gothic” have also been erect a symbol of their faith. Ca. metals consist of mercury. everyone from intellectuals to simple people. some continued to work in the traditional Frankish Empire in 987 with the election of Hugo style up to the mid-13th century. dialectics) and “quadrivium” (music. or perhaps cathedrals as the fulfilment of a mandatory task. 1415: Czech reformer Johann Hus is burned as a heretic. was abandoned. These people whether Durham cathedral should be classified as no longer were involved in the construction of GOTHIC late Romanesque or early Gothic. the area around Paris. Denis near Paris is acknowledged as the building Of all building types. 1339–1453: “Hundred Years War” between England and France. 1481: Beginning of the inquisition in Spain. 1250: Medieval division of the “liberal arts” into “trivium” (grammar. sulphur and salt and can be transformed into each other (with the help of the “stone of wisdom”).CLASSICAL CATHEDRAL GOTHIC IN FRANCE 1130–1300 kings and spread throughout France along with the influence of the crown. When they succeeded in re-uniting de France developed the style which eventually the country under their rule in the 11th century. can be understood by taste as late as 1800. brought about the ultimate demise of the Roman artists and citizens involved in the project. Suger. the Decameron.

The rose window also features here for the first time. The vaults were identified as a suitable alternative. the crossing was Denis. but the weight of the vault and the flying buttress system made it entire structure was also significantly reduced. was converted from 1137 onwards by Abbot Suger. which originates from the 7th century. sibyls and Old Testament prophets. This meant that not only were (division) of the contours. dynamic. abbey church near Paris. It was a single large uniform space. choir. quence. The former individual were apostles and prophets which “carry” chapels were replaced by light. What is fascinating about all of and give the exterior wall of the choir a wave-like this from today’s perspective. The upper part of Suger’s choir was also redesigned in the high Gothic style. The double-tower west front with its dynamic articulation is also very important in terms of the trend it set for the development of Gothic cathedral architecture. radiating chapels and parts of the crypt are extant. The first parts of the church to be reconstructed were the double-tower façade in the west and the choir in the east. ambulatory. The wide portals had deeply carved jambs which were decorated with columns and figures of kings and queens. these technical details had a significance beyond Denis has a double ambulatory with chapel niches their abstract structural functions. Denis no longer consisted of ribs already existed in Romanesque architecture separate introspective spaces built simply in a se- and had been used mainly by the Normans. is that this belief form. Of the original choir only the pillars. This reflects an essential feature of Gothic thrust than the round-headed arches of the barrel architecture: the discovery and consequent re- vault. changed and simply extended through the addition It is important to remember that for Abbot Suger all of a larger and more complex choir. The round or square structural pillars were evaluation of the choir as an important religious surrounded by responds – semi-columns which focus. It was possible to build the ribs first transept was sometimes omitted. Pointed arch rib give the church interior a completely new look. purpose to fulfil. consecrated in 1144 The abbey. The planned nave which would join the two parts was not built until the 13th century in the high Gothic style. accompanied by an extreme dissection bulk to a minimum. the side aisles and then fill in the surface between the ribs (the continuing into the choir ambulatories. As was the case with the Carolingian nave in continued in the ribs to buttress or transmit the St. He saw a symbolic which open directly on to the ambulatory and are and mystical significance in each detail: the columns not separate structures. free. heighten this impression of unity. pointed arches exert a weaker lateral bright. The choir of St.was more spacious. possible to reduce and perforate the wall mass to St. The introduction of the rib the vaults easier to build. in many cases the nave was left un- thrust from the vault. To although usually for decorative purposes. The sculptures and precious interior fittings were for the most part destroyed during the French Revolution. cells). the ribs were given a structural function for no longer emphasised in the interior and the the first time. which are fused with the outer ambulatory wall with another. Denis. In St. caused a virtual revolution in architectural style. curved struc- Christianity and Jesus was the keystone linking one tures. GOTHIC (1130–1500) 31 . Gothic cathedral sculpture has its origins here. This plan was so irregular that it could no longer be All these technical innovations made it possible to adequately served by groin vaults. As the cells no longer had any structural This optical impression of spatial uniformity was. open. Parts of the west front were restored to their original form during restoration work undertaken in the 19th century. A few objects can today be found in the Louvre. Vault new choir of St. it was now possible to reduce their however. Denis was the burial church of the French kings and their tombs can be found in the choir and transept. St. Denis. colourful and Moreover.

ca. the effect of colour. The use of the tations of other forms and events. the only existing ancient textbook on architecture. Vitruvius drew up a definitive job description for the architect. The desire form of the Florence cathedral dome was initially to establish a modern way of life which linked up to defined in a model and with time this became stan- the rich cultivated legacy of ancient times led to a dard practice in the design of important buildings. The self-confident upper-classes ribs were concealed between the shells. This thriving. The architect provided an individual artistic service It that and always had the overall appearance of the Renaissance architecture developed in Florence was under these fertile conditions building in mind. He no longer saw himself as an and the surrounding state of Tuscany. The inner. In addition to essays on architectural history and construction theory. is acknowledged as marking the beginning of to painting and graphic arts. 1418–36 (axonometric projection based on Sanpaolesi) The powerful dome of Florence cathedral is seen as a technical masterpiece of its time. Experiments in Florence Florence was the indisputable forerunner in developments leading up to the Renaissance. Vitruvius. but found a much wider audience during the Renaissance. which created a distance from the recent inglorious The appearance of a building was not merely seen past and which helped to spread a sense of opti- as an expression of structural requirements and mism with regard to the future. The “Renaissance” (“rebirth” – a term also used to describe the renewed flourishing of a style. The distinctive developments of this period. civil engineering and mechanics. which Middle Ages – but as an independent creative artist. Filippo anonymous craftsman – as was the case in the Brunelleschi’s dome for Florence cathedral. the combined pursuit of the architect’s job to “make God’s ideas visible” and public service and intellectual activity is one of the thus follow “heavenly harmonies” of beauty. The load-bearing the 14th century. as which had hitherto almost completely dominated suited the proportions of the Gothic cathedral this area of the arts. RENAISSANCE (1420–1620) 43 . reaching in absolute tranquillity and the dwelling place became a focus in architecture in harmony to the crowning lantern. ambitious and critical republic had gradually worked its way up to a prominent position in Europe therefore differed from standard structural practice through trade. 1294–1467. fashion or philosophical perspective) of antiquity was less concerned with a precise imitation of ancient architecture than with rediscovering the philosophy and world view of ancient Greek and Roman civilisations. are still in use today. Vitruvius’s treatise had continued to be recorded down through the Middle Ages. Thus the inner dome was low. It in Italian towns wanted prestigious residences Florence cathedral. interior. displaying a double-shelled structure made it possible to design degree of realism which had never existed before. Portraits and represen- this new era in architectural history. dome by Brunelleschi. slimmer. Both consist of a combination of rows of stone laid in herringbone pattern and open ribs. The octagonal tambour was vaulted with a double-shell. various building materials. The extension of the cathedral choir which was built in the 13th century by Arnolfo di Cambio was not completed until the addition of Brunelleschi’s dome. for the first time since antiquity. stronger shell supports the lighter outer shell. strictly speaking. Leading citizens abstract systems of proportion but above all as an were counselled by humanists or themselves pur- expression of the architect’s design concept. It was sued humanistic studies. He also dealt with town planning. What was particularly new about this structure was the way in which a selfsupporting structure was created which did not require centring (a system which supports a dome during construction). By describing the universe as an architectural structure. in Gothic buildings in that the structural elements Medicis and Pittis supported all artistic endeavours were not exposed. he derived laws for the cosmos and architecture. represents the culmination of a Gothic construction This concept of individual artistic genius also spread task. comprehensive revival of the arts. which included a plan for his education and training. The technical terms from this. commerce and banking. The Pazzis.architect. merely an individual. the exterior and interior of the dome independently began to appear alongside the religious paintings of each other. was begun in 1420 and. while the outer dome was higher and As part of this trend.

its architect. however. the Latin name for the Palatin. pilasters with capitals from the (rustication). giving it a clearly formulated conceptual standard. The rediscovery of ancient knowledge also played a role in the revival of the domed building. philosophical and aesthetic ideas typical of the Renaissance. round arch windows (bifore) – the arch linking two The Palazzo Rucellai was one of the first works windows completely surrounded by small rus- by Alberti. His marked three floors. Man was defined as the centre of the world and this idea was converted to a system for the measurement and representation of space – central perspective in spatial design. For the first based on the ancient Roman model. He also engaged in the theory of art and recorded the principles of his architecture in books. science and politics. The horizontal ar- often left the actual job of construction to others. Moreover.) The palazzo was modelled on the the spirit of the new era and the widespread fortified houses found in Italian towns during the change it heralded. (This is derived from an inner courtyard (it took a few centuries for this “palatium”. literature. raw and uninviting.Filippo Brunelleschi: Foundling Hospital. Roman hill on which Emperor Augustus and his is one of the artists whose work fully embodies successors lived. open to their rectangular inner expression which went beyond pure functionality. This is expressed in architec- Middle Ages. Moreover. the Thus the exterior of Early Renaissance palaces was rusticated rather closed. sculpture. the horizontal effect was achieved by the use of crude massive emphasis in this building is also accompanied by a rough-textured blocks of stone with deep joints vertical accent. the palazzo. artists and intellectuals also began to show an interest in town planning and the proportions of the human body which had served as a basic unit for all design in (Greek) antiquity. which were enclosed by arcades and Florence was also the forerunner when it came to arcaded walks. Like Bramante. The upper floors were fitted with for the first time. secular building was allowed a power of were. by the façade of the power struggles of the 13th and 14th centuries. begun in 1419 The Foundling Hospital is one of Brunelleschi’s first buildings. which had been destroyed during the tural terms. Florence. Palazzo Rucellai. Brunelleschi is reputed to have used Euclid’s mathematical system of optics in its development. who was the most important Early ticated masonry bands. In ticulation of the rectangular. Florence. Early palaces time. Leon Battista Alberti. Both the ability and desire to build large domes like the 44 RENAISSANCE (1420–1620) . This channelled into the wall. and small rectangular windows on the ancient Classical orders were revived here again ground floor. Most of the buildings had Renaissance architect after Brunelleschi. Ionic and Corinthian pilasters are stacked on the façade. courtyards. the idea to take root). which would help them make a suitable statement cornice and powerful projecting eaves cornice about their status and achievements. which diminished in size as they awareness of himself as an artist meant that he saw moved upward and were separated by a string the design of a building as the main priority and course along the window sills. Leon Battista Alberti: Palazzo Rucellai. defensive. the design and construction of the monumental pri- Although the early Palazzo Rucellai does not have vate building. he was considered the first “universal man” (or “universal genius”). which played an important role in spreading the ideas behind Renaissance architecture. It is completely smooth. The circle as the most perfect form As a result of their wide variety of interests and the linking of religious. 1446–51 Palazzo Rucellai reintroduces the Classical column order: Doric. Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. for example. mathematics. Its clear articulation and strictly proportioned forms already include some of the essential features of the Renaissance style. strictly symmetrical this he betrayed an attitude emphasising the worth façades was further emphasised by the base of the intellectual creation which was far in advance masonry being merely ornament of his time. painting. he excelled in a wide range of activities such as architecture. Raphael.

This is particularly true reluctance in adopting the Renaissance idea that of the changeover from the Renaissance to the the central plan was the only suitable plan for a BAROQUE AND specific point at which the desire for elaborate ornament. The Church had lost its modern version of the Early Christian basilica. 1634: Dismissal and murder of Wallenstein for negotiating with the Protestants. swirling movement. Baroque churches for the next two centuries. 1724: Official Parisian stock exchange is opened. 1701: Prince Frederick III of Brandenburg crowns himself Frederick I “King of Prussia”. 1664: Molière writes the play Tartuffe. The Sun King. was taken to such an extreme that it is possible to Ca. however. longitudinal plan. Mass flight of the Huguenots. as to the 1600–1780 1602: The Dutch East Indian company is founded in Batavia as the first modern limited company with 6. It would be more accurate. now reverted to the old style “L’état c’est moi”: Louis XIV. The side aisles were replaced by a in 1545.THE EMERGENCE OF THE BAROQUE IN ITALY 1600–1700 and central crossing. 1622: Richelieu is appointed Cardinal and becomes a powerful influence in French politics. in a portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701). was converted into a longitudinal scheme through the Life as a party Revising the Renaissance addition of a nave to the central scheme – by Carlo The transition from one architectural era to the next Maderna in 1607–26. With this pier church. therefore. was proved the fallacy on which many of the designed in the mid-16th century by one of the fundamentals of the Catholic faith were based. On the contrary. which opened off reforms within the Catholic church and the start of a the nave and had a structural function as fierce campaign against Protestantism. developments symptomatic of a general trend. 1710: The German Meissen porcelain works are founded. for most important (Late) Renaissance architects. 1642: Obligatory school attendance is introduced in Saxony-Gotha. 1644: René Descartes publishes his “Principia philosophiae” (Principles of Philosophy). This reversion to a former model the clear articulation of Late Renaissance buildings Ca. Thus the Roman Catholic generally takes the form of a gradual process which Church. house of God. 1648: Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. BAROQUE AND ROCOCO (1600–1780) merely 1686: Sir Isaac Newton publishes his main work “Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica” (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). to describe it as the fusion of these spaces. St. a its place in the universe. France is unified under Colbert le Droit. Confession agreement (1555) is reiterated with inclusion of the Calvinists. A Increasingly severe measures were gradually basilical. 1638: Amsterdam theatre (first national theatre in Europe) is inaugurated. Peter’s in Rome. was not limited to architecture. 1666: “Académie des Sciences” is founded in Paris. emergence of the modern rational sciences had the Jesuit church Il Gesù in Rome (1568–75). The question arises. i. which began with the Council of Trent or tambour. monopoly in education and the religious building Giacomo da Vignola created a church type which had relinquished its position as the sole source of was to become the standard model for Catholic authority in architectural development. which had always shown a certain initially goes unnoticed. 1655: Rembrandt paints Ecce Homo. 1633: Gallileo is forced to retract his support of Copernican teachings. 1650: Urban postal service with post boxes in Paris. 1703: Peter the Great allows St Petersburg to be built on the Western model. 1673: The Test Act is passed in England excluding Catholics from state office (until 1828).e. The Index of abutments. 1685: Louis XIV of France repeals the Edict of Nantes. marked the introduction of long overdue series of individual chapel niches. 1675: Greenwich observatory is founded. The Renaissance speak of the Baroque. the nave 1562 there was widespread religious struggle and 1651: Publication of Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes (philosophical defence of absolute monarchy). painted interiors and ROCOCO Baroque. 1742: Première of Georg Friedrich Handel’s Messiah in Dublin. barrel-vaulted nave leads to a central introduced to counteract this trend. 1610: Barter is replaced by money-based economy.5 million guilders. The Counter crossing capped by a high dome resting on a drum Reformation. . the Augsburg 52 in architecture were 1689: Constitutional monarchy is established in England under the “Bill of Rights”. example with regard to the shape of the earth and Giacomo da Vignola. had led to an enormous loss of power by the The way that the new style grew directly out of the Roman Church in many areas. This plan is often described in terms of Forbidden Books was compiled in 1559 and from the interpenetration of two spaces. Shortly after its completion. the main church of Catholic Christians. Large parts of Late Renaissance is demonstrated by the fact that Europe had converted to Protestantism and the the acknowledged model for all Baroque churches. regular newspaper published in Berlin.

BAROQUE AND ROCOCO (1600–1780) 53 . which plays a central role in the spread of the Protestant faith. Like secular power. There were few Protestant Baroque churches whose influence spread beyond their immediate surroundings. Il Gesù combines a central plan with a nave in one building. The desire imaginations. the word “Baroque” was initially used to supporting define something which was seen as oddly shaped massed. 1568–75 The plan of Il Gesù provided a model for churches for the following two centuries. the vault formations do not yet intersect and the walls have no undulations – the main features behind the dynamism of High Baroque style. During the rose uniformly from the ground through two floors second half of the 18th century. the advantages of the similar delight in rich ornament. popular. as in the façade of divine right. urns. which was to exercise the main formative dows and doors were capped with complex influence on the development of Baroque archi- structures such as triangles and segments of tecture. were given concave and convex forms. The most varied parts of façades It was the advent of the Counter Reformation. it is generally used as an ornament and embellishment. Baroque architecture set out to tackle Il Gesù. The styles. is another exception to this rule: the city’s Protestant middle class wanted to build something which could compete with the majestic buildings of the Catholic royal house. which shared a overpower. it resulted from a dispute between King Henry VIII and the Pope. seen as absolute and its legitimisation a matter of moulded. Rome. achieved by means of the channelled pilasters which also line the interior of the drum on which the dome rests. bent. The sermon. composite capitals church nave in terms of Counter Reformation and other permutations of the ancient orders. Architecture. overflowing rationally composed concept. sculpture and painting did not enter their illusionistic conspiracy until later buildings. indeed. add up to mere chaotic heaping of architecture. A strict rhythmical linking of the spatial elements. This “barroco”. has a central plan. fused. oeil- was to dramatise the power and to appeal to the de-boef (oval) windows and cartouches (oval sensuous perceptions of the observer. strategies are obvious: the visitor’s eye is steered pilasters (including downward tapering “herm along the nave in the same way as it would be pilasters” terminating in a human torso) and directed along a triumphal path. as it marked the introduction of the continuous Baroque spaces which replaced the additive spatial principle of the Renaissance. impress and overwhelm not only elements were emphasised and Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola: Il Gesù. this new religious faith was not the product of a reformation “from below”. it was specifically and sometimes formed the entire ground floor as used as a term of abuse to describe the architecture a – possibly rusticated – socle area. vases. which was perceived as a This enormous variety of architectural possibilities crass aberration from the rules of Classical did not. Every attempt was made to blur clear to confuse. For example. which in turn were often dispersed. very fecund “Gesamtkunstwerk” (total work of art). Today. is also firmly rooted in the Renaissance. religious power was circles. on what later on became known as the Most Baroque architects had. Baroque design was multi-faceted but Like the names given to other artistic periods and always monumental in its overall effect. The rich painting here is also distinguished from the architectural details. which is acknowledged as the most important Protestant Baroque church. The Frauenkirche. of Borromini and Guarini. The Frauenkirche in Dresden. The idea garlands. meaning a misshapen pearl. Transepts and nave chapels are condensed and all the energy is directed to the dome crossing. Other typical decorative details included methods in the representation of both. was given a central role in the midst of the richly pompous Baroque environment.the persecution of Protestants (Huguenots) in France. contours and to individualise. making it possible columns with no load-bearing function. it was based on a adjective in the sense of “sweeping. However. Cornices were strongly gradated and the task of representing both authorities on a roof versions were often interrupted by window suitable scale and with due ceremony. while win- however. However. The churches of the Anglican faith in England are an exception. aims of the new style were to confuse and As in ancient Roman architecture. This was often based and ornate”. columns and pilasters were and tasteless: it derives from the Portuguese word paired or enlarged to form the colossal order. as was the case with the movement in the German Empire. broken and even. however. designed by Georg Bähr (1726–38). For example. s-shaped volutes. The express scrollwork with numerous curled edges). were all very to stage numerous other productions along the way. putti. using similar heads. decorate and convert walls into the most pliable swirling and dynamic A sweeping appeal to the senses forms possible.

and hence concentrated mainly on political changes actually marked the end of his Roman antiquity. were often excavations and their findings were described by monstrous in their proportions. 1764–90. His analysis of the spirit Rococo. 64 As the dates indicate. such as the utopias Conversely. Von Klenze sees the architecture of Classical Greece as “the architecture of the world for all time and there is no climate. the idea of ancient civilisations containing the origins of an architecture which embodies the eternal laws of harmony and beauty was even more popular in the 18th century than it was in the 15th and 16th centuries. Italy. and the writings of architect during the 1770’s. Peter’s in Rome. The plan. (Ledoux was at his consisted of ancient buildings and ruins in their most productive when he was appointed court country of origin. material or cultural difference which stands in the way of its general application”.) The new social models. columns and wall mass. which competed in size with St. Leo von Klenze makes the following comments: “There is. The wall is no longer the structural element but the column. for example Ledoux’s park- they published in 1762 (Antiquities of Athens).. This renewed focus on ancient architecture is logical in view of the fact that the Enlightenment continued the intellectual approaches of the Renaissance and Humanism. The gigantic domed building. follows the Renaissance ideal. was and will be one architecture. like the Newton cenotaph. Herculaneum and Pompeii. when the only available references the French Revolution of 1789. with clear elegant purity of line within of Greek art as “noble simplicity and quiet grandeur” CLASSICISM (1750–1840) excavations of the ancient cities of . that is the architecture which reached its culmination in the period of Greek history and education”. this style is not known as greater extent than was possible during the “revolution architecture” because it originates from Renaissance. Johann Joachim Winckelmann. expressed in “revolutionary” building projects. which had been could never have been built at the time. Paul’s in London and the Dome of the Invalides in Paris. career. severity. as part of the Classical movement publication of his book “Geschichte der Kunst des revolution architecture embodies a reaction to the Altertums” (History of the Art of Antiquity) founded excessive formal language of the Baroque and the modern theory of art. based on the Greek cross.e. from the 18th century Western supported by Boullée and Ledoux. CLASSICISM AS STATE ARCHITECTURE 1780–1840 Tranquillity. the prototype of which was the ancient temple. usually stereometric structures.D.compact. whether Rome had refined or falsified Greek culture. However. not least because in 79 A. the Panthéon marks the beginning of the Romantic period of French Classicism which was based on the splendour of ancient Rome. make this a very impressive building. The his designs. From 1751 to 1753. in that the ability Englishmen James Stuart and Nicholas Revett pro- to be built was no longer an essential criterion in its duced detailed drawings of ancient buildings which design. was intended to dominate its surroundings and mark the place where the city patron was buried. St. Hardly any destroyed and “preserved” when Vesuvius erupted of Boullée’s schemes were built. along with the rationality and purity of form. Soufflot’s contemporaries referred to the Panthéon as “the first example of perfect architecture”. keepers’ houses consisting of spheres with thin The smooth exterior walls poised on a minuscule surface. or had been far more strongly influenced by the Etruscans. were started in 1738 and 1748. i. sublimity In his “Sammlung architektonischer Entwürfe” (Collection of Architectural Designs) of 1830. Soufflot’s refusal to use a complicated system of pillars. Both camps could substantiate their arguments with archaeological insights to a far Jacques-Germain Soufflot: SainteGeneviève. which at the time was an insignificant province of What was revolutionary about this architecture was the Ottoman Empire. Many schemes. the young the fact that it broke with tradition. By the mid-18th century a strong dispute had arisen as to whether Greek or Roman antiquity should be given historical and architectural-historical priority. were always Europeans started to go on pilgrimages to Greece. with its 22 columns. The use of reinforced concrete on the portico. set a trend for modern architecture. It was Soufflot’s aim to achieve a synthesis of Gothic lightness with ancient form. who with the 1764 In stylistic terms. Paris. renamed Panthéon after the French Revolution The main building of its time. and the subsequent Vitruvius.

The British Museum represents one of the great achievements of European Classicism. the curve of which is mirrored by the dome. The playful integrative principle of the Baroque is replaced here by the block-based additive organisation of the building. which was designed from 1757 extensive uniformity to the external elevations and onwards by Jacques-Germain Soufflot. These consisted of and modesty. also used Rome’s Pantheon as a mo- gesture incorporated into this project: the unity of del for the design of his Monticello country house the gods. In the case of the British 1900. which became increasingly coarse and Museum in London. Jefferson had Palladio’s Villa Rotunda clarity and reduction of the exterior elevation and in mind when designing the house.g. the new style became known as neo- façades and the emphasis of the central axis was Classicism. The house with from which it took its name. The external formal language of a building was intended to express its function and history. tranquillity. which is why Doric and Ionic starkly juxtaposed. like the France can be seen in the church of Sainte- Greek peripteral temple. severity. sublimity appropriate evident in his design for the first US state university Sir Robert Smirke: British Museum. The same term was used in Germany. where the tradition of ethics and morality in place of pomp and rep- “Classical” architecture had been carried on since resentation. It has a powerful colonnade with 48 Ionic columns. omitted. the multi-talented architect and Roman antiquity was not the only contemporary statesman. The south side of the building is based on the style of Greek temple architecture. the building was re-dedicated as a tomb and memorial for important French citizens Thomas Jefferson and United States and renamed the Panthéon. but porticoes were often used on Palladianism. The form of the rises above a circle at the centre of a Greek cross. This reference to one architecture of the most important remaining buildings of Thomas Jefferson. revolutionary Paris by the unity of genius. Public buildings could now not only compete with religious or royal buildings. CLASSICISM (1750–1840) 65 . The severe monumentality of the museum design contrasts with the Baroque idea of the Gesamtkunstwerk. structure more clearly. Therefore. the building exudes a throughout the last decades of the 18th and first sense of self-confidence as opposed to reticence decades of the 19th centuries. building. Buildings were still strictly sym- the Renaissance. and through it to lines. when a colonnaded hall was built in initially for the revival in Classical tendencies around front of the building. for example. completely surround the building with columns. but actually outdo them in terms of architectural excellence. this would have given Geneviève in Paris. In 1791. is no coincidence. transition. it was originally planned to monumental. the dominance of right angles and straight link to the Late Renaissance. This is also elements. was replaced in outstretching wings stands on the crown of a hill. Despite Classical design principles dominated architecture the use of exposed brick. particularly in the form of metrical. 1823–47 The early 19th century in England is characterised by the “Greek revival”. and a spirit of In France and Britain. starkly juxtaposed Roman antiquity. between 1764 and 1790. e. Its plan is reminiscent of a Columns were once again used mainly for structural Renaissance church: a dome resting on a drum rather than decorative purposes. to which this building was dedicated and outside the gates of Charlottesville. or the task it had to fulfil. stereometric structures.would later exercise a key influence on German to the “grandeur” of the ideas embodied by the Classicism. in the way in which orders were preferred to the more decorative the dome crowns the church without any form of Corinthinan and composite capitals. As Just how early the (neo-)Classical trend started in the building itself is an elongated cube. columns was intended to reflect the nature of the Individual architectural elements are. London. the exploration of Classical Greek architecture which was quickly adopted as a model for the new Classical architecture. and built denied the building a clearly defined façade. the plan. however.

town planning still consisted mainly of the definition of building lines. The historical structure of the nent boundary of knowledge after the other: why city and its buildings were swept away without shouldn’t the limits of time and space also be consideration – Haussmann later boasted of having removed from culture? Thus elements from been responsible for demolishing 20. nature and architect in a Gesamtkunstwerk. political measure following the filled to the brim with Baroque. But where was the imagination of the architects.300 were located complemented by those from other cultures. and instead found employment in the urban factories. Greek. Concepts involving public health concerns. Assyrian and Renaissance ornamental forms. straighter roads. the most impressive example of which unadorned spaces prevalent at that time.52 m2. These were repeatedly plucked from their originally pure contexts. which had long since become outdated and were The Palace of Justice in Brussels. eaves heights and some fire safety regulations. A famous example of the latter is the regulation in Berlin whereby the minimum size of back yards of residential buildings had to be able to accommodate the turning circle of fire engines – all of 28. the castle represents the attempt to unite art. As a result of the strong growth in population and the migration to the cities of rural populations.matched only by the scant attention paid to historical stylistic references. the monarch had his “Wartburg” built high on top of a rock as a temple to Richard Wagner. Neuschwanstein castle. in a way which no other castle succeeds in doing. This building is a testimony to King Ludwig’s late Romantic introversion. Everything else was left open to the forces of competition. course of their conquests and were keen to copy. area was more often used for constructing large However. Inspired by the illusory world of the theatre. It was built in the middle of a wild romantic landscape on a site containing the ruins of a former Medieval castle. The craft movement tried to counteract this played no part. Roman. because the idea spread mass of the city wider. who saw no future for themselves in agriculture and village crafts. more difficult was also taken into account – a Technology and the natural sciences demolished cautionary one apparently unshakeable certainty and perma- revolutions of 1848. the population of the cities multiplied very quickly. of which 4. built in 1869–86 for King Ludwig II. The idea that the rich treasuries of style from which individual pieces boulevards would make the building of barricades could be adopted at random. the European colonial powers encountered in the The opportunity to use the removal of ring ramparts. was the biggest more space for parks. Even the boulevards which Baron development by encouraging designers and con- Haussmann had laid in Paris from 1853 to 1870 sumers to study exemplary crafts in the newly- showed little concern for such matters: the main founded museums. which in the old centre of Paris. Indian INDUSTRIAL ARCHITECTURE and Chinese elements also began to appear – more 74 often than not in the form of neo-styles and eclectic Fragile iron and glass structures mixtures which originated for the most part from The modern age had thus begun. which became popular from the Romantic period onwards. During the second half of the 19th century. this ultimately led to aim was to give the increasingly formless flowing a heightening of the crisis. built by Joseph an obstacle to the expansion of cities. The additional space surrounding the old city actually an interconnected stereometric structure. This gave rise to continued spatial expansion of the cities and the increasing density of their populations.000 houses in Western architectural history were enthusiastically the extended city area. In a reference to the Romanesque period. near Schwangau in the Allgau Neuschwanstein documents the transcendental image of the Middle Ages. it was can be found in Vienna. The extent to modern architecture? The fact that one path leading which elements from the past were imitated was out of the dead-end of Historicism had long since HISTORICISM AND INDUSTRIAL ARCHITECTURE (1840–1900) . was only exploited in a few administrative building of its time in Europe and was places. However. This 137- that the most perfect design forms had long since kilometre-long system accelerated the flow of been developed and it was now only a question of traffic and gave the capital city a suitably copying them. in keeping with the fear of empty ring roads. like that established by Peter Joseph Lenné in the 1840s for parks in Berlin. Museum collections were used as representative appearance. to provide Poelaert between 1866 and 1883.

This structure was 442 metres long and and up to 34 metres in height. cast and Crystal Palace to be erected. the highest Gothic arch which did membrane. Their semi-circular form represented simultaneously by different companies. built for the first years. world and fragility – these are the main aesthetic features exhibitions of metal structures. mainly by labourers. the Duke of Devonshire’s estate manager. the impression of tension During the second half of the 19th century. A cast iron arched bridge over the a mere seventeen weeks: eighty men fitted 18. prestigious achievements. it took more than half showcases for increasingly impressive technical a century before a wider public became familiar and with them. 1851.been discovered was overlooked. not merely with respect to the clear and rational structure of the design. Paxton perfected this remained the highest structure ever built for forty technique for his Crystal Palace. The steam engine was so well developed by development of rationalised construction. Thus it high-publicity Gustave Eiffel Joseph Paxton: Crystal Palace.300 girders) manufactured thirty metres.392 River Severn near Coalbrookdale. Paxton presented his design uninvited for the first World Exhibition in London. railway stations and exhibition buildings. Lightness. The Crystal Palace was an extremely wide. transparency. London. Paxton’s exhibition hall is acknowledged as the first example of prefabrication in building. 14. Thus the Crystal Palace is seen as a product of the industrial and commercial boom which coincided with the Industrial Revolution in England. It was also the first building high. The price of standardised crude (pig) iron began to decrease from around represented a pioneering achievement in the 1750. This represents a phenomenal achievement. The Eiffel Tower was 300 metres high and and standard glass panes. achievement of the wide-spanned Galérie des five-aisle hall. Joseph constructed a tower for the World Exhibition of Paxton. Fox and Henderson. through which rainwater drained.6 metres wide and 42. outside world merely by a thin glass and iron In comparison. 600 metres long. had been built between 1775 and 1779: five per day.300 columns and 2. destroyed by fire in 1936 Building in iron and glass is closely associated with the typical construction tasks of the 19th century: market arcades and passages. However. seventy. in wrought iron. the first of its panes of glass per week. whereas a similar degree of to be constructed using pre-fabricated and transparency in the walls could only be achieved elements became scientific exclusively. made it possible to prefabricate iron parts in large volumes. What was so revolutionary about the not collapse – that of Amiens cathedral – is 145 Crystal Palace was not only the new spatial metres long. bridges. which had been patented in 1748. HISTORICISM AND INDUSTRIAL ARCHITECTURE (1840–1900) 75 .3 metres experience it offered.4 hectares in size – in Hyde Park in less than five months. with steel girders spanning a width enclosed an enormous space separated from the of 114 metres. one man alone up to 108 kind. It made it possible to have parts (including parallel girders spanned a distance of approximately 3. This the end of the exhibition and re-assemble it in a difference was further emphasised by the fact that slightly modified form in Sydenham in London. 1889 in Paris which reached a height inconceivable had a glasshouse built which was 100 metres long. The lightness and production in England for that year! Standardisation transparency of this fragile-looking structure also alone made it possible to dismantle the structure at distinguished it clearly from a masonry arch. The engineers. World Exhibition which was staged in London in It was accompanied by the equally impressive 1851. for its time: the tower of Ulm cathedral was planned 38 metres wide and 20 metres high. The structure 47 metres high. Only this the end of the 18th century that it could be used to level of standardisation made it possible for the produce increasing volumes of pig. succeeded in building the hall – which is 8. Furthermore. it was spanned between two masonry abutments. The puddling process for iron. It used cast to reach 162 metres but had to be abandoned at iron columns. 120 metres wide machines. Between 1836 and 1840. where it was destroyed by fire in 1936. The Crystal a complete departure from the structure and Palace consumed one third of the annual glass appearance of timber bridges.

production in Detroit. 1903: First flight by the Wright brothers in a biplane. . which aimed to paltry sanitary conditions (insufficient running water bring human development into harmony with that and toilets. were overfilled and often in the founding of movements such as the German poorly and Wandervogel (rolling stone) youth movement and ventilation in these flats was usually matched by maintained. Imperialistic powers quell the anti-European revolution of the “Boxer” secret society in China. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff found the Expressionist artistic group. Television successfully presented for the first time in London. 1926: Première of Fritz Lang’s film Metropolis. Margarethe Steiff exhibits her “Teddy bear” at the Leipzig trade fair. In Austria. for diabetes. greed of their owners. 1937: Picasso paints his monumental work Guernica as a reaction to the bombarding of the city by the Fascists. 1913: The Indian poet and philosopher. Beginning of the Second World War. 1919: The Weimar Republic is declared in Germany. Thomas Mann publishes his novel Buddenbrooks. wavy women’s which had been built not on the basis of social or hair also became popular. i. They the population. ment. 1939: German troops invade Poland on September 1st. 1940: Discovery of the Stone Age cave paintings in Lascaux. Due to continuing People in the highly-developed countries no longer expansion of the cities. technical and social change. 1902: The Russian socialist Leon Trotsky flees from East Siberian exile to London. Illnesses associated of the universe.e. 1901: Theodore Roosevelt is elected President of the USA. no bathrooms). Back to nature classes also felt themselves unduly challenged by Industrialisation brought with it a hitherto unknown the speed of technological and social develop- level of economic. Ford Model T. and could only be reached on production and made do with inadequate living Sundays. this style of public health but solely with a view to maximising decoration became known as “Jugendstil”. such as rickets and tuberculosis. with poverty. A characteristic densely built tenement blocks which. Americans drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. open spaces and lived in the country and worked in agriculture. 1929: The New York stock exchange crashes – “Black Friday”. receives the Nobel Prize for Literature. 1927: Charles Lindbergh flies nonstop across the Atlantic. Many members of the upper New man and new building THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY 1900–45 1900: World Exhibition and Olympic Games in Paris. Hostility referred to a “secession” or departure from the First World War (until 1918). referred to the youthful and innovative nature of the The backlash against these inhuman and unnatural new philosophy. Rabindranath Tagore. name derived from a publication entitled “Jugend” were only populated by people who could not afford (youth). streams and long. and alienated from nature. 1917: October Revolution in Russia overturns the Tsars. 1910: Igor Stravinsky composes the ballet The Firebird. Charlie Chaplin plays the title role in the film The Great Dictator. and such as tendrils. which was first published in 1896 and better. 1921: Discovery of insulin as cure 1928: China is unified under Chiang 1905: Erich Heckel. 1920: Mary Wigman opens her school of dance in Dresden and founds modern expressive dance. were This focus on nature represented a promising very common and were an unavoidable outcome of development for architects and other artists the enormous disadvantages endured by many of seeking a way out of the rigidity of Historicism. due to the expression of this mood is embodied. In Germany. 1941: Japan enters the War with the attack on Pearl Harbour. Henry Ford starts mass production of the Model T. Lenin. while motifs were devoid of trees or any form of natural life. Arturo Toscanini appointed director of La Scala opera house in Milan. the workers. 1914: Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo leads to the outbreak of the 80 lighting FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY (1900–45) 1935: Nuremberg Racial Laws passed against the Jews in Germany. Alexander Fleming. The first electronic digital computer is built at the University of Pennsylvania. the “Bridge”. Trotsky and Stalin found the Soviet Union. Its profits for land owners and property developers. Penicillin is discovered by the English bacteriologist. Marcel Proust publishes the last (7th) volume of Remembrance of Things Past. The “reform of lifestyle” became a conditions. but countryside had become a vast distance away from moved to big cities where they worked in industrial many people. Beginning of prohibition in the USA. 1912: The Titanic sinks. 1945: Germany surrenders. Inadequate Rudolf Steiner’s anthroposophy. photograph from 1913. the style was referred conditions in the early 20th century was initially to as the “Sezessionsstil” (secession style) as it known as the “back to nature” movement. for example. Many people had to live in extremely popular topic for discussion.THE SEARCH FOR A NEW FORM 1890–1925 towards the modern metropolis which had emerged with industrialisation was not restricted to the working classes. Hermann Hesse publishes his novel Steppenwolf. Areas in which the endless streets used plant forms and flowing lines. Kai-Shek.

the prestigious boulevard of the rich Catalonian middle classes. The accentuated linearity design of the church of La Sagrada Familia in marked the re-introduction to architecture of Barcelona. wireless telegraphing) and interior and exterior space. was highly progressive. it also harboured the modern desire for a form which is derived from material and function. and roofs made to look like coral reefs covered with theoretical approaches behind it. which he mixed with Moorish elements. he failed to complete this project before flowing. In many countries. is reminiscent of a network of plant cells. which had begun as a conventional neo- dynamism. Gaudí interpreted the entire house or building as a sculpture and approached its design from a purely plastic perspective. opinion a dual one. which had last appeared to such a Gothic building. “The role of decoration in architecture is in my Antonio Gaudí y Cornet: Casa Battló. lamps and picture frames. His façades became porous fluid surfaces which resembled tendril-covered or coarse rock surfaces. as the movement was known there. at the same time highly individual. it became known as the “stile Liberty” (Liberty style) after the London department store. The roof resembles the scales of a dragon. Thus the aesthetic decorative effect should absence of straight walls and right angles in the be created equally by the material. The coloured ceramic crust of the façade glistens magnificently in the sunlight. Even more significant was the and using an ingenious structural system to achieve emphasis which proponents of the style placed on his effect. the structure luxury apartments of the Casa Battló or Casa Milá. automobile. heavy and static. access to way he turned away from traditional notions of information (telephone. of the way in which he concealed used in construction should no longer be brutally the steel structure behind thick stone facings. there was talk of the “modern style” and in Belgium and France of “Art Nouveau”. in which suited their nature and allowed their true effects to he decided every last detail. graphic a solution to the urgent need for accommodation. What specifically characterises “Art Nouveau” is the strongly individual art and craft dimension. designer.previously dominant artistic style and formal language. In Italy. Its restricted focus on the purely decorative is reminiscent of Historicism. witnessed an enormous increase in the means of however. aeroplane). Gaudí did this by applying a highly widespread extent in the upward-striving forms of individual interpretation and adaptation of the the Gothic. which was converted by Gaudí. Catalan architect Antonio Gaudí. windows were transformed into the entrances to caves. I FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY (1900–45) 81 . This building marks the beginning of the development of sculptural architecture. dynamic. decomposing them both of images (cinema). which differed significantly from region to region and country to country. and More important than the actual forms developed by partly in bringing life into an otherwise too evenly lit the Art Nouveau movement were the attitudes and space through the interaction of light and shadow. suitability and effect of materials the structure and suggesting its methods. abstract ceramic and glass mosaics. and the complete show. The transport (railway. and the function of a building. In 1883 the these transformed it into the beginning of a modern architect was commissioned to take over the design movement. In England itself. which with its imported textiles acted as an ambassador for the new style. With the balcony balustrades shaped like eye masks. The trend now favoured more However. as Gaudí also designed the furnishings and fittings. Gaudí’s credo was based on an These were far more appropriate to a period which all-embracing concept of architecture which was. however. the outstanding architect of the “Modernismo” in Spain. Barcelona. It consists partly in supporting Quality. Historicist architecture was massive. which stands on the Passeig de Gràcia. However. conversion 1905–07 Even the plan of Casa Battló. The movement which gently bends the corners and curves the walls is continued in the door knobs. Instead of being satisfied with the mere decoration of surfaces. the house. The exploited and concealed. graceful and ethereal forms. occupies a unique position in this movement. his death in 1926. designer and architect) wrote in 1902: one of the main tasks of 20th century architecture. gives the impression of looking down. which is entirely dependent on the personality of the artist in question. The same cannot the quality and suitability of materials: the materials be said. but treated in a way which over-abundant craftwork on his buildings. As the important Art could not be described as pointing the way towards Nouveau artist Henry van de Velde (painter. Gothic.

However.” to work on. Sensuous and almost exotic. Is ornament a crime? The formal language of the Art Nouveau style quickly degenerated to a level of mere trifle. is another example of the virtuosity of the architect. who wanted to so-called “industrial” buildings which were not convert an assumption (that well designed high- considered as part of the architect’s brief but the quality products valued by specialists would be concern of the engineer. its individual structural aspects and areas of life. it must be achieved in a way which would be produced by the supports and intermediate floors. which was in the course opened in 1900. The floral forms of the leek-green lamps growing out of the street paving reconciled the world of technology. he created a building which was seen as one of the first ostensibly Art Nouveau residential buildings in Europe. If the aim was to re-design the however. The dynamism of the traffic underground was reflected in its railings and glass roofs. which was planned and supervised by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. The focus on the widespread. plaster or timber. Its popularity faded as quickly as that of any passing fashion. manual methods. experts libraries. This association divide between arts and crafts and the “liberal” arts promoted the application of “good form” in was also disappearing. usually integrated into the grid pattern world. suitable and functional materials is real and good and. Famous examples include Hector decoration or the conception of a building. clustering and architecture was expressed here for the first time: edging of rods also represented a suitable use of the key issue was not reform of the concept of the material. The Jugendstil architect furniture. The stair balustrade demonstrates the development of ornamental forms from new structural solutions. The belief was that anything manufactured or constructed using high-quality Hector Guimard: Entrance to a Métro station. even prior to the First World War. 82 FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY (1900–45) . like concrete. He designed each structural detail on the basis of its aesthetic. Paris. Nothing was too banal for a designer organisation. they were. This house on the Rue Américaine in Brussels. be produced in large volumes and made available to Apart from the Chicago School. which was beginning to control daily life. beautiful. joined forces attitude undergoing a radical change: the traditional to found the Deutscher Werkbund. unlike William Morris. Iron or steel Ages. whose Postal Savings Bank in Vienna buildings. step by step. of like-minded German artists. It was now used for the with the 19th century Arts and Crafts movement. hence. Iron had been a common building of being rebuilt both literally and metaphorically. which had had little the masses at low prices. He succeeded in converting the strictures imposed by the typically narrow restricted sites in the city of Brussels into the virtues of transparency and lightness. factories and exhibition halls – and progressive entrepreneurs. glasshouses. craftsmen. with the longing for nature which they evoked. by Victor Horta in 1893 for the Tassel house in progressive architects and designers of the early Brussels. Instead of concealing the structural form 20th century were no longer anti-machine. so that goods could and filled in with large panes of glass. which is now used as a museum. swelling cast-iron forms surged up against rigid stone façades. With his villa for the industrialist Tassel in 1893. the greatest the aesthetically revolutionary staircase designed proponent of this movement who died in 1896. to create a totally new kind of architectural declared “nothing which is not useful can be decoration which follows the intentions of the beautiful”. the was believed that the technical requirements to use of which was gradually becoming more achieve this were now available. this approach had It was against this background that in 1907 a group previously only been used in bridges. 1899 Victor Horta exercised a considerable influence on Belgian architecture shortly before the turn of the century. it was re- Guimard’s entrance to the Paris metro which was design of the entire world. The latter took the form of the famous Weissenhof Estate. or no influence in Europe. Architects were now concerned with all building. The most important – mainly due to their buildings – were held in 1914 in Cologne and 1927 in Stuttgart. as can be seen in However. be it a lamp. Brussels. to see the machine as the root of all evil and structural frames even began to appear in the want to base production on purely traditional façades of more progressive buildings. as dictated by the material. compatible with the machine. The Werkbund staged exhibitions to spread its ideas and products. believe that by applying such principles it is possible was one of the most modern buildings of its time. With his entrances to the Paris Metro. and this attitude remained unchanged until the early 1970’s. first time in the design of interiors. 1900 Due to the effects of industrialisation and the migration of people from the country. the volume of traffic in cities increased significantly around 1900. who referred to himself as “L’architect d’art” succeeded in creating a symbol for the new mobility. staircase. and the bending. It material for some time. domestic appliances and even entire Otto Wagner. an armchair or a salt cellar. Hector Guimard. The integration of script into the iron frame also predicted the appearance of advertising in the public realm.Victor Horta: Musée Horta. This was not the only more marketable) into economic gain. this was now made visible and the realised that it was wrong to dream of the Middle decoration was derived from it. They of buildings. it had hitherto been hidden behind suitability and effect of materials represented a link stone. Iron was particularly suited to the creation of The aim which would later pervade all modern flowing lines. The style was subject to mockery and disdain in both artistic and wider public circles. train sheds.

000 people. and the furniture factory opportunities. These anthropomorphic values paved the way for the later emergence of the Rationalist movement. Hellerau by an association which would remain the owner of “Deutsche Werkstätten” (German workshops) the land and thereby eliminate any opportunity for became the economic heart of the estate. designed by Heinrich Surrounding farms would supply the garden city Tessenow and also known as the festival theatre. The ideas were first promoted by modern planners originates in the implemented in 1903–04 in the English town of concept of the garden city. The two lower retail floors are differentiated from the rest of the building by a marbled cladding of the façade and a variation in floor height. Vienna. The advantages of urban and rural living pronounced there than in the aims formulated by would be combined through the provision of Howard. “Tomorrow – A peaceful way to urban reform”. the first and for a large cities. Garden cities Hellerau Garden City near Dresden. This extreme reduction of design originates in an instinct for social responsibility: Loos. “We have overcome ornament.which saw the beginning of a wave of nostalgic revival. fulfilment awaits us. pronounced ornamentation in general as “a crime” – on the basis that decorated products were more difficult to produce than simple ones but could not be sold at higher prices. such as the Goldman & Salatsch house in Vienna. One and two storey houses would be desire to create reform and social harmony. Garden cities. However. which in subsequent years housing estate built after 1909 on the basis of an continued to be built in a romantic. was village architectural style. Adolf Loos: Goldman & Salatsch residential and commercial building. These bare surfaces alone represented a considerable gain when compared with the addiction to decoration expressed in excessively ornamented walls and overfilled rooms. and an built around a central park and along small tree-lined existence in harmony with nature. A progressive entrepreneur backed the would accommodate approximately 30. a precursor of Modernism. under the architectural direction of The aim in Germany was to achieve something Barry Parker and Raymond Unwin. The idea of garden purely residential estates located on the outskirts of cities originated in Great Britain. FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY (1900–45) 83 . The speculation. “Ornament is criminal in that it causes severe damage to people in terms of their health. The city streets will soon shine like white walls!” This prediction proved completely correct and his own buildings. His idea of town planning was based on the movements and requirements of people. cultural centre of the estate. such objects became unacceptable before they had actually worn out. were a provocation. Ebenezer Howard published that they be located within walking distance of the the agenda of the garden city movement in his book nearest railway station. national treasures and cultural development. we have reached a state which is devoid of ornament. Howard’s more than the mere improvement of living concept involved the acquisition of a site which conditions. It is no coincidence that the controversial shopping facilities and work project. the openings of which are simply cut into the white walls of the upper elevations. In a controversial article written in 1908. “greening” and “segregation” of the city later which was published in 1898. soon degenerated into associated with the Werkbund. who had travelled in the USA for three years. Look. The increased popularity and availability long time most industrialised country in the world. was even more streets. Letchworth. simple columns continue the rhythm of the window axes. with their smooth bare façades and simple forms. was opposed to the wasting of space which was a very scarce resource in modern cities. of the car made it possible to extend these suburbs which also suffered from the social consequences without taking into account the previous condition of economic progress. At this level. The “breaking up”. with fresh food. Furthermore. it proved impossible to was used as a training centre for rhythmic sustain the independence of garden cities from the gymnastics.” Moreover. small-town and overall plan by Richard Riemerschmid. 1909–11 The radical rejection of ornament in Adolf Loos’s polemical essays was consistently reflected in the simplicity of his buildings. the ambitious big cities. The Goldman & Salatsch corner building is defined by its clear structure. due to the fickle nature of taste and fashion. and therefore forced craftsmen to work for subsistence incomes. the time is nigh. Austrian architect Adolf Loos.

spread through large parts of the world within a few Of the few buildings realised in this style. But it is only the addition of one per cent intuition which makes the “material” into a work. Mendelsohn had begun to give form to an image of the future. in small sketches he produced in a trench on the Russian front. architecture” and also “functionalism”. nature of modern. – Form the functions. yellow.” The architect saw himself as the creator of a new order. convert the earth! – But form the world which awaits you. This represented a radical break group “de Stijl” (the style). the term “International Style” was of Piet Mondrian.Erich Mendelsohn: Schocken department store in Stuttgart. FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY (1900–45) 87 . The global uniformity of architecture. The Potsdam tower was quickly acknowledged as the epitome of built expressionism. built from 1926 to 28. the ultimate consequence of every Consequently it was referred to as the “new concept of art”. was to “abolish natural form” and “eliminate completely new aesthetic forms stripped of all that which stands in the way of pure artistic picturesque. transport put tasks in front of the architect in which the real moment represents 99 per cent of the design. Potsdam. which had emerged and spread within According to their manifesto. 1920–21 ERICH MENDELSOHN The Einstein Tower rises from the ground like a submarine periscope from the waves. any further. The aim to create a “pure reality”. also coined in connection with Rationalism. The modern age demanded 1917. is thoroughly in keeping with the which was designed by Gerrit Thomas Rietveld. their reality with the dynamism of your blood. the most years. – Simple and sure like the machine. gave rise to compositions such as those Around 1930. which would finally begin after the War. Einstein Tower on the Telegraph Hill. as Mendelsohn described reinforced concrete. design sketches. Industrial building tasks were a particularly interesting challenge – silos. and in 1917 built a controversial armchair consisting of standardised timber elements. it stood like an exclamation mark for the “building material of our new will for form”. which was founded in with the past. and important is probably the Schröder House in Utrecht culture in general. the aim of the Dutch a very short period. brighten their functions to a supra-sensuous level. The windows are carved deeply into curved hollows. and in which is hostile to nature and cannot be reduced Germany as “Neue Sachlichkeit” (new objectivity). increasingly rapid methods of Rietveld started out as a carpenter and furniture transport and communication.” The constructive mood of his programmatic sketches also pervaded Mendelsohn’s lectures: “Seize. industry. as it had blue and white rectangles separated by black lines. He described the relationship between function and aesthetics in the following sober terms: “Economics. The observatory mirrors also steer sunlight into the underground laboratories like the periscope guides the image of the sea surface into the body of the ship. He developed designs of daring dynamism which seemed to INTERNATIONAL STYLE OR RATIONALISM 1920–45 approach the observer from a void. Its entrance is like a cave opening its arms wide to embrace the visitor. clear and daring like the construction. furnaces. build. aviation hangars. His Schröder House was quite close to Rationalistic A radical break with the past architecture. Although its soft contours are based on masonry covered with cement. maker. associative or Historicist tendencies. These consisted of red. expression.

made of rectangular pieces of timber and boards laid above and below each other. “the tension as it is interconnecting main buildings in which the main aesthetically realised in the great rhythm. With this building. carpenter and architect. i. as city architect of Rotterdam provided excellent Function and structure formed a single unit. i. canopies and balcony railings. whereby each part in balconies and individual windows emphasise its position and measurement relates so completely individuality and the division into many individual FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY (1900–45) . whereby one supports the a glazed curtain façade and window bands can be aesthetic intention of the other.to the other parts. Conversely.” and hence “be able to exceed Classical purity through the absence of all superfluity”. in itself and as a whole that any – even the smallest – change results in a complete destruction of the balance. “to unfold the attraction of the cultivated material. straight lines. An ornament-free architecture demands the maximum purity of the architectural composition”. has influencing parts. Indebted to ideas of Window bands which articulated the entire width of material and functional suitability. J. the technology from the outside of the building. right angles. This had involved using contemporary technology and replaced the reign of symmetry which had lasted for applying the old virtues of the arts and crafts to the centuries as a defining force in architecture. in the functions of the school were accommodated. In German. is a good example of what Hook of Holland. Utrecht. which enabled the search for a balance between the elements. The crowning achievement of emphasise the exciting play of the distribution of these was the Gesamtkunstwerk. the glistening of the steel etc. Rietveld: Schröder house. conditions of the industrial age. However. examples of Rationalistic buildings with his The Bauhaus complex in Dessau. 88 The Bauhaus Another major feature of the style is the flat roof. as did glazed curtain which the Werkbund was based. which was Kiefhoek estate and community housing in the designed by Gropius. This made it possible to theory and practice. An “industrial art” was to be reducing the structural frame of buildings to produced. P. a completely new kind of art college. and many of the most from one part of the building to the next with. Rietveld also comes closer to realising the dream of “living in an art which has become reality” (Mondrian). like a mobile of balconies. design process. strict. it corrects by applying ornament. The Bauhaus. The distribution of coloured surfaces. What today’s architecture lacks in terms of this balance achieved with own resources. the either be added or removed. balconies or staircases in different colours the institution was to bring together art and crafts. The aim of example. The balanced complex of mutually referential and workshop section. 1924 Gerrit Rietveld. from the façade. Mondrian hoped for a development in which the design of the “tangible reality of our environment” would be able to “replace the work of art”. which requires a lot of light. The steel and reinforced production was seen as the ultimate aim of the concrete skeleton was exploited in every case. and clearly displaying J. In his theories. Dutch and Czech architecture “Neue Sachlichkeit” means clarity of form and purity of surface. the functionality façades or supports on which the houses seemed of products was the main concern. Architects such as Bruno Taut art in the 20th century. had become famous for his “rood-blauwe stoel” (red-blue chair).e. co-founder of the de Stijl movement. columns and cross beams. As early as 1921 he promoted is meant. the associations of builders and colour in their designs. which when introduced gave rise to an outbreak of was founded in Weimar in 1919 on the basis of a cultural strife in some places – as if the existence of concept developed by Walter Gropius. The dismantling of the visible into a geometrical abstract vocabulary. The wall surfaces look like dynamic fields set into a swaying dance. who was Western culture hinged on the shape of the roof! also its director. It will be objective without disintegrating into “barren Rationalism” but in that “will immediately experience something more elevated”. the flashing and rounding of the surface. Industrial to sway above the ground. where nothing can found on the lecture building. the building. made the chair look like a sculptural version of one of Piet Mondrian’s abstract studies. was seen as ensuring this process. The complex consists of three architecture as follows. smooth elementary forms which should look as if they could have been produced by machines. which he designed with the interior designer Truus Schröder. This mass. for important modern artists taught there. Oud. the Schröder house remained an exception because the visual impression of a flexible modular system did not fulfil either the production technology requirements or economic constraints of the day.e. Gerrit Th. the shining and brilliance of the colour. similar to those on the façade also became typical. Its name was a play on the and Le Corbusier also developed a distinctive use of “Bauhütten”. the “balanced asymmetry”. the clarity of the glass. It became the most influential Buildings were usually parallelepiped in shape and educational institution for architecture. design and plastered in white. whereby colours changed artisans of the Middle Ages.

had to be infinitely preferable to the random “habitat” complex. but also in an extremely low quality of both finish French film director Jacques Tati depicted a car- and form. in the West. buildings. which which and celebrated the abolition of the milk bottle as smothering in its never-ending. they quickly many towns and cities had been re-designed after disintegrated into substandard condition and a state the Second World War or extended through the of disrepair. on the concept might look in the real world: identical basis of which people lived in one place. Dynamic curves were applied consistently throughout the design and included the advertising boards and check-in counters. People was perceived as monotonous Félix Candela: Design for the restaurant in Xochimilco. Entire cold technology had finally been reached. Compared with the reduced rationalist buildings popular at the time. 1957–58 This restaurant. and looking as if Le beneficial effects eventually culminated. was an example of how this However. and shopped and pursued their leisure piled “higgledy piggledy” on top of each other. The 1960’s plans outlining solutions to completely planned towns and cities. worked in residential units of up to eleven floors in height. resulted in the disintegration of absolute height of impersonality. and the scale of its energy consumption.Eero Saarinen: Supporting member from the Trans World Airline Terminal. Montreal in 1967. 100 SECOND HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY (SINCE 1945) entrance halls. such as staircases. The drawing shows the imaginary lines of tension along which the vaulted spaces project out to the exterior. Candela. an architect. at a society on the basis of the number of cars it had the height of the Mies-van-der-Rohe-style imitation. Moshe Safdies’s belts. in which euphoria and enthusiasm for of traffic noise and the humming of air-conditioning the future and faith in human omnipotence and its systems and fluorescent lights. lifts a minor role in the decision to implement a radical and new approach to planning. shown at the World Exhibition in chaos of the old towns and cities. friendly Paris consisting only of such buildings. It was not neighbourhoods disintegrated over time. Modern town planners and of residents than was the case with smaller architects were firmly convinced that new. crude design and what the “city” had previously embodied. cheap and careless way in which developments in town planning. would be subject to . Mexico City. uninspired. This was long before a movement emerged which opposed combined with the effect of the new architecture this radical rationalistic faith in technology. sche- progress. filled in with parks and green completely replace an entire town. The activities in others. and measured the degree of civilisation of matic imitation. giving passengers the impression that they were setting off into a futuristic era. Disillusionment was mostly linked with Due to the fast. the way in which these new estates were built. another. “functional zoning” of the city. which Candela located in the water gardens of Xochimilco. Saarinen’s architecture represents the regaining of an individual profile and corporeality. developed a very economical construction method of shell vaulting for the construction of the curved roofs. Architects and planners had failed to addition of new estates. full This failure. with wide the housing crisis even contained dreams of the streets and abundant parking spaces which made construction of so-called “mega-structures” – them more suitable for cars. The extent of the take into account that that the communal parts of destruction they had suffered during the War played these enormous buildings. In his film “Playtime” of 1965. was Corbusier’s “Plan Voisin” of the 1920’s had been gradually acknowledged from around 1970 – mainly transformed into reality. engineer and entrepreneur. To have a newly considerably greater wear and tear – due to the fact constructed flat was the greatest conceivable that they were used by a considerably larger group happiness at the time. 1956–62 Y-shaped beams support the curved roof shells of the TWA terminal by Eero Saarinen: they evoke the image of a bird opening its wings in preparation for flight. New York. resembles an eight-petalled flower of paraboloids. and with functions series of enormous buildings which would partly or “divided” into zones.

which had actually classified as historical monuments. which is actually the most characteristic feature of the interior hall. it is not progress and human behaviour. 1960–63. finally died. was based colours.Hans Bernhard Scharoun: Philharmonie. swaying and asym- ideologies had been gaining in popularity from the metrical dynamic. and from the construction of enthusiasm for the advantages created by technical new cities like Brasilia and Chandigarh. which had been lauded as an ambitious and However. With the Philharmonie. which is reflected aesthetically in the popularity of bright also known as “organic architecture”. which represent freedom of Esotericism and other equally irrational political expression in their rounded. 1970’s few 19th and 20th century buildings were Attempts to achieve dematerialisation. He was looking for a curved contour to restrain the expansive force of the space. a notion which SCULPTURAL ARCHITECTURE had previously seemed inconceivable. but should aim to create were actually destroyed during the Second World harmony between the landscape and architecture War. Berlin The contour of the roof silhouette of the Philarmonie is defined by three curves. The most famous and town halls. the dominated the architecture of the 1950’s. the future and a desire to escape from reality. hovering. It can be seen. occasion- term applied almost exclusively to castles. example of this forced effort to achieve something workers’ housing and railway stations. whether strictly rationalistic architecture could ever This development was accompanied by a fear of adequately express freedom and democracy. unforced is the kidney-shaped table.e. which had started surprising that serious doubts should emerge as to with the Enlightenment. This movement. churches ally assumed bizarre forms. it was me the main criterion for architecture. The advent of the oil crisis one year later saw the demise of the Swaying. In 1975. for the construction of more and bigger roads. modern architecture. remained an equally lively force in late 1960’s onwards. Daylight penetrates the foyer through a glass roof on the west side of the building. “Organic” forms. In 1972. and not to factories. After some two hundred years. buildings were no longer to be treated as been destroyed since 1945 in West Germany than isolated structures. which also had rediscovery of Art Nouveau. the Club of Rome produced a controversial study on the “Limits of Growth”. This was despite the fact that up to the mid- through their form. extreme patterns. it was seen by many as a sign the demolition of existing structures to make way of the end of modern architecture. This development was post-War architecture. houses were seen as neither habitable nor capable expressing their opposition to large-scale plans for of being salvaged. the European in relation to the building was once again to beco- Year of the Preservation of Monuments. to which he gave a physical form with his architecture. began to talk about the “desolation of the cities”. for example. The acoustic waves of the music seem to have inscribed their lines in the staggered structures of the stalls and the graduated ceiling. Scharoun developed a spatial concept which had preoccupied him in expressive drawings since the 1920’s. They reveal the form of the hall ceiling from the outside. cinemas. The perception of man popularity and appreciation. nostalgia and the on Plato’s theory of proportion. Louis – epitomise 1950’s taste. this desire to give form an expression of progressive project two decades earlier – was its own was not only evident in developments in demolished in the summer of 1972 because the interior design. At the same discovered that more architectural monuments had time. in Eero SECOND HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY (SINCE 1945) 101 . He understood the collective experience of listening to music as the restraining of energy. i. a strong influence on the development of The city of the 19th century underwent a surge in Renaissance architecture. organic forms economic basis for unrestrained consumerism In view of the lessons learned from the above- which had been criticised by members of the described experiences with certain forms of younger generation. which came to When the estate of Minosu Yamasaki in St.

Aqueduct Ancient Roman water conduit whereby the town’s water supply was carried through an open or concealed water channel consisting of an elevated masonry or brick structure supported on several storeys of arches.and artisans in the Middle Ages. In Christian churchbuilding tradition it is a multipleaisle building with a longitudinal axis and a nave which is higher than the side aisles and lit by clerestory windows. The triangular area on the point above the supports is called the arcade spandrel. Apse In ancient Roman architecture: semicircular space built onto or above an elevated main space. the pointed arch is produced from two curves. plant or figurative decoration. blind arch. trichora Column figures cf. Arcaded walk (loggia) Open. They are found either on the exterior or along the side aisles and are linked across the roof through the flying buttresses. etc. the horizontal lintel of a temple which lies on the columns and is supported by them. In Christian architecture: usually semicircular termination of a rectangular longitudinal structure. Alternating system of supports Alternation of pillars and columns in the nave of a Romanesque basilica. Pier buttresses are used in the reinforcement of high walls and to counteract lateral thrust. Baptistery Independent religious building where Christian baptisms are held. Base The bottom of a column or pillar. The centrally planned rotunda with dome embodied the ideal in Renaissance architecture. Bifora Window divided by a column to form two separate arched openings. Choir Originally the term for the elevated area in Christian churches where the divine service is sung. The Roman Pantheon was seen as the highest achievement in terms of centrally-planned ancient buildings. The water font in which the person to be baptised was fully emerged stood in the centre of the room.g. Arcades can be built alongside each other or on top of each other along several floors of a building (arcade floor). vault). The Abbot’s house which is linked to the monastery often has its own chapel which sometimes has its own cloister. Choir ambulatory A passage surrounding the choir which is created through the continuation of the side aisles and is usually separated from the choir by arcades. The Ionic column is more slender than the Doric column and it has a base. Central perspective Optical impression whereby parallel lines converge as they recede towards a single point on the horizon level with the viewer’s eye (vanishing point). the keystone is the wedge-shaped stone at the highest point or crown of the arch. consecrated for the celebration of the sacraments. blind window The elements of an arch or window applied to a wall without any aperture for decorative and articulation purposes. In Early Christian and Medieval architecture a courtyard in front of a church (paradisus). sometimes called a minster. Altar A structure on which offerings to a deity are placed or sacrificed. baptistery. Column orders Ancient system of form and proportion whereby the column. An axis is an imaginary straight line which can be drawn longitudinally or horizontally through a building or part of a building. Cell One of the four compartments of the groin vault (cf. Colonnade Row of columns with vertical entablature (architrave) as distinct from an arcade. The area beyond the nave has been known as the choir since the 8th/9th century. Peter’s Square in Rome are a well known example. Bracket A stone protruding from a wall which serves as a base for balconies. The first stone in an arch is called the springer. figures and arches and is often decorated. The architrave itself supports the upper structure. Basilica Hall of commerce and justice in the Roman empire. Cathedral Bishop’s church in a town or city. Centrally-planned building Plan in which all parts relate to a central point and which is based on a geometrical figure (circle. Building type adopted by the Christians. palatine chapel. Most arch forms are developed from a circle or several segments of a circle: the round arch is semicircular. Ashlar Natural stone which is cut into regular rectangular blocks. Chapel Small independent space for religious worship or ceremonies which is added on to a church (e. square). GLOSSARY Abbey A monastery which is run by an Abbot or Abbess. Opposite of centrallyplanned building. A common feature of Italian Renaissance palazzos and public buildings. Caryatid Sculptured female figure used as a column to support an entablature or similar member. Bauhütte German name for associations of church builders Camposanto Italian name for a cemetery. Blind arcade. Axial plan/view/orientation (longitudinal plan) Plan based on the axes in a building. each with a radius equal to the span and meeting in a point at the top. Balustrade A parapet consisting of rows of small columns (balusters). Capital Head of column or pillar with ornamental. Buttressing/ flying buttress/ pier buttress Skeleton structure which is a particularly common feature in Gothic churches. architrave and cornice relate in such a way that they have a defined ”order”. Arch Vaulted structure in a wall opening or hall. Agora Open space in a Greek town used as a market-place or general meeting place. fluted shaft and capital which curves in a snail-like scroll or volute at each end. jamb (figures).). ellipse. The Doric column has no base and a fluted shaft and a slab as capital. technically defined in the crossing square plan. The bays of a building are counted along the longitudinal axis. The Corinthian column differs from the Ionic column in that it has a richly decorated capital of acanthus leaves and volutes at the corners. The altar in Christian churches is a table or slab on supports. Cloister A passage surrounding a square open courtyard in a monastery where the Stations of the Cross are held. capital. Colossal order Column order whereby the columns rise from . Architrave In ancient architecture and the styles which developed from it. Several blind arches form a blind arcade. Arcade The arrangement of several arches in a row is called an arcade. Cloverleaf cf. The colonnades in St. important component of church buildings. Atrium Central courtyard in the Roman residential building. Campanile Free-standing bell tower in Italian church complexes. The central perspective and its theoretical foundation was developed during the Early Renaissance period. The buttressing functions by dispersing the lateral thrust from the roof and the vaults. Clerestory (windows) Upper area of the walls of the nave in a basilica which is pierced by windows. The inner curve or surface of an arch forming the concave underside is called the intrados. Bay Area of a vault which is divided from the adjacent bay by a band. The arch offers the only way in which to span large spaces in stone structures as it absorbs the load and distributes it among the 112 GLOSSARY supports. Cella Windowless main chamber of the ancient temple which contains the cult image. Abutment Solid masonry structure which counteracts the lateral thrust of an arch or vault. vaulted arcaded hall or passage in or in front of a building.