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1.

0 Introduction
I choose The Last Class by Alphonse Daudet as my short storys analysis because I love
the story and it felt close to me as I am in last semester for my study. This short story reminds
me to appreciate every class that I have to attend in this last semester as I will not ever again
experience it anymore.
Hereby, I will explain a little bit of info on Alphonse Daudet. Alphonse Daudet was born
on May 13, 1840 in Nimes, France and died on December 16, 1897, and was believed that he
died in Paris. Alphonse Daudet was a French short-story writer and novelist, now
remembered chiefly as the author of sentimental tales of provincial life in the south of
France.
Basically, this story was set in the days of the Franco-Prussian war. Alphonse Daudet
stated in his short story that the French district of Alsace and Lorraine had been captured by
the Germans. The new teacher was to come the next day in a school in Alsace to teach
German in place of French and also replacing the teacher, Monsieur Hamel. This story tells
the effect of this news on the life at a school in Alsace.
In 1870, Prussia has conquered two states of France which are Alsace and Lorraine. A
boy from Alsace, named Franz, was on his way to school but unwilling to go because he
feared of his teacher, Monsieur Hamel. In this short story, Alphonse Daudet made Franzs
characters as a lazy and illiterate boy. While passing the Town Hall in his way to school, he
sees so many French overcrowded in front of the bulletin board. They are reading the latest
news on Prussian, their enemies. The news likely to be said that there will be no more French
school and the new teachers are already appointed. All French teachers had been ordered to
leave the country. Unfortunately, as Franz is illiterate, he cannot read the news and he just
runs off to school.
As soon as Franz arrived in school, he has been told that his French teacher is leaving.
Although he never interested in learning, Franz, as for the first time ever felt like blaming
himself. Franz tries his best to listen to Monsieur Hamels last class and surprisingly Franz
understood everything that Monsieur Hamel taught him that day. This last class has changed
Franz life and understanding. Franz, at last sees how important it is to be literate, how

essential it is to love ones mother tongue and how painful it is to be denied the right to learn
it.

2.0 Analysis
2.1 Plot
During exposition stage, Alphonse Daudet informed us that Franz, a lazy and illiterate
boy is late for his school. Franz is feared of his teacher, named Monsieur Hamel as
Franz feared from being scolded by him. Monsieur Hamel was going to examine his
class on participle but Franz knows nothing about it and made him wanted to stay
away from school and wandering about the fields. Alphonse Daudet told us that Franz
is not interested in studying and he is willing to wandering around rather than go to
school.
I was very late for school that morning, and I was terribly afraid of being
scolded, especially as Monsieur Hamel told us that he should examine us on
participles, and I did not know the first thing about them. For a moment I thought
of staying away from school and wandering about the fields. It was such as warm,
lovely day. I could hear the blackbirds whistling on the edge of the wood, and in
the Rippert field, behind the sawmill, the Prussians going through their drill. All
that much more tempting to me than the rules concerning participles
(paragraph 1)
Alphonse Daudet also in his first paragraph stated that Prussian had conquered Alsace
and Lorraine in the year 1870 and imposed new rules on the people of the region.
I could hear the blackbirds whistling on the edge of the wood, and in the Rippert
field, behind the sawmill, the Prussians going through their drill. (paragraph 1)
While for rising action stage, it happened when Franz passed on by the residence of
the mayors office. He saw people crowded the bulletin board where it given out all
the bad news and Franz wondered what it could be now.
As I passed the mayors office, I saw that there were people gathered about the
little board on which notices were posted. For two years all our bad news had

come from that boardbattles lost, conscriptions, orders from headquarters; and
I thought without stopping:
What can it be now? (paragraph 2)
Conflict stage happened when Franz noticed that his school somehow very different
from usual that morning. It was silence and even though he was late for school, his
teacher Monsieur Hamel looked at him without anger and spoke softly to him. It was
rather strangely for Franz as his teacher, Monsieur Hamel usually will shout out at
him.
Usually, at the beginning of school, there was a great uproar which could be
heard in the street, desks opening and closing, lessons repeated aloud in unison,
with our ears stuffed in order to learn quicker, and the teachers stout ruler
beating on the desk: (paragraph 7)
A little more quiet! (paragraph 8)
I counted on all this noise to reach my bench unnoticed; but as it happened, that
day everything was quiet, like a Sunday morning. Through the open window I saw
my comrades already in their places, and Monsieur Hamel walking back and
forth with the terrible iron ruler under his arm. I had no open the door and enter,
in the midst of that perfect silence. You can imagine whether I blushed and
whether I was afraid! (paragraph 9)
But no! Monsieur Hamel looked at me with no sign of anger and said very gently:
(paragraph 10)
Go at once to your seat, my little Frantz; we were going to begin without you.
(paragraph 11)
Meanwhile, the climax is when the teacher, Monsieur Hamel told the class that this
will be their last class with him as the orders from the Prussian came and asked the
school to teach nothing but German.
While I was wondering at all this, Monsieur Hamel had mounted his platform,
and in the same gentle and serious voice with which he had welcomed me, he said
to us: (paragraph 13)

My children, this is the last time that I shall teach you. Orders have come from
Berlin to teach nothing but German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. The
new teacher arrives to-morrow. This is the last class in French, so I beg you to be
very attentive. (paragraph 14)
Those few words overwhelmed me. Ah! the villains! that was what they had
posted at the mayors office. (paragraph 15)
My last class in French! (paragraph 16)
Falling action stage happened when Franz begin blaming himself for lazy and not
giving attention during the class. He listened to Monsieur Hamels last lecture and
surprisingly he understood every syllabus that Monsieur Hamel taught that day.
And I barely knew how to write! So I should never learn! I must stop short where
I was! How angry I was with myself because of the time I had wasted, the lessons
I had missed, running about after nests, or sliding on the Saar! My books, which
only a moment before I thought so tiresome, so heavy to carrymy grammar, my
sacred historyseemed to me now like old friends, from whom I should be
terribly grieved to part. And it was the same about Monsieur Hamel. The thought
that he was going away, that I should never see him again, made me forget the
punishments, the blows with the ruler. (paragraph 17)
Poor man! It was in honour of that last lesson that he had put on his fine Sunday
clothes; and I understood now why those old fellows from the village were sitting
at the end of the room. It seemed to mean that they regretted not having come
oftener to the school. It was also a way of thanking our teacher for his forty years
of faithful service, and of paying their respects to the fatherland which was
vanishing. (paragraph 18)
The resolution stage in this short story is when the teacher, Monsieur Hamel had to
say goodbye for the last time to his class when the clock in the tower of the village
church rang. Monsieur Hamel has no courage in saying goodbye to them with his
own mouth, he then wrote it on the blackboard. VIVE LA FRANCE!

Suddenly the church clock struck twelve, then the Angelus rang. At the same
moment, the bugles of the Prussians returning from drill blared under our
windows. Monsieur Hamel rose, pale as death, from his chair. Never had he
seemed to me so tall. (paragraph 27)
My friends, he said, my friends, II (paragraph 28)
But something suffocated him. He could not finish the sentence. (paragraph 29)
Thereupon he turned to the blackboard, took a piece of chalk, and, bearing on
with all his might, he wrote in the largest letters he could: (paragraph 30)
VIVE LA FRANCE! (paragraph 31)
Then he stood there, with his head resting against the wall, and without speaking, he
motioned to us with his hand: (paragraph 32)
That is all; go. (paragraph 33)
2.2 Themes
One of the themes that Alphonse Daudet was trying to show us is freedom. As we
can clearly see in this short story, their 2 region had been conquered by the Prussian
yet their freedom had been taken away from them. They no longer can learn their
mother tongue in school where the new orders from the Prussian has come and asked
all school to teach German.
As I passed the mayors office, I saw that there were people gathered about the
little board on which notices were posted. For two years all our bad news had
come from that boardbattles lost, conscriptions, orders from headquarters; and
I thought without stopping: (paragraph 2)
My children, this is the last time that I shall teach you. Orders have come from
Berlin to teach nothing but German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. The
new teacher arrives to-morrow. This is the last class in French, so I beg you to be
very attentive. (paragraph 14)
Those few words overwhelmed me. Ah! the villains! that was what they had
posted at the mayors office. (paragraph 15)

During that day, the sense of defeat and loss of freedom is even greater than any other
things they did on the country that teacher, Monsieur Hamel loves too much.
Then, passing from one thing to another, Monsieur Hamel began to talk to us
about the French language, saying that it was the most beautiful language in the
world, the most clear, the most substantial; that we must always retain it among
ourselves, and never forget it, because when a people falls into servitude, so
long as it clings to its language, it is as if it held the key to its prison.
(paragraph 22)
This extract showed how much Monsieur Hamel loves his country and the language.
As for any country, language is the pride of that country. Language is not only defines
the culture but the people, their literature and the history of the country. Some people
might think language as a medium of communication but for others it is so important
till it could bring the matters of life and death.
Another theme that Alphonse Daudet wanted to express in this short story is
appreciation. He was trying to tell us to appreciate every single thing teachers do in
order to give knowledge to their students. Even there is a saying, better late than
never but as in this short story it had been too late for the people of Alsace in
learning their own language. This is because they had already received an order from
the Prussian who had conquered their region, to only learn German in school.
Franz, the boy in this short story expresses his regretful of not giving attention to his
teacher, Monsieur Hamel, not being able learning all the grammar and syllabus that
he should be able to learn it in a short period.
And I barely knew how to write! So I should never learn! I must stop short where
I was! How angry I was with myself because of the time I had wasted, the lessons
I had missed, running about after nests, or sliding on the Saar! My books, which
only a moment before I thought so tiresome, so heavy to carrymy grammar, my
sacred historyseemed to me now like old friends, from whom I should be
terribly grieved to part. And it was the same about Monsieur Hamel. The thought

that he was going away, that I should never see him again, made me forget the
punishments, the blows with the ruler. (paragraph 17)
Poor man! It was in honour of that last lesson that he had put on his fine Sunday
clothes; and I understood now why those old fellows from the village were sitting
at the end of the room. It seemed to mean that they regretted not having come
oftener to the school. It was also a way of thanking our teacher for his forty years
of faithful service, and of paying their respects to the fatherland which was
vanishing. (paragraph 18)
Based on the extract above, Alphonse Daudet stated that during Monsieur Hamel last
class only the people of Alsace begin to understand how important the subject and
how grateful they are for having Monsieur Hamel as their teacher as he has served for
almost forty years of faithful.
2.3 Characters
Monsieur Hamel
He is a very sincere French teacher who willing to teach his students even they did
not paying any attention to his lesson. Monsieur Hamel knows the subject so well as
his experience in teaching French is forty years. He is passionate about French as he
did mention the beauty and importance of the language in his last class with the
students. Monsieur Hamel considers their language as the clearest, beautiful and
logical language in the world.
Then, passing from one thing to another, Monsieur Hamel began to talk to us
about the French language, saying that it was the most beautiful language in the
world, the most clear, the most substantial; that we must always retain it among
ourselves, and never forget it, because when a people falls into servitude, so
long as it clings to its language, it is as if it held the key to its prison.
(paragraph 22)
Another characteristic on Monsieur Hamel, he is very particular about discipline and
learning. He even punished Franz for always being late to school and got wrong
answers in the subject. Monsieur Hamel just wanted the best for his students as he
wants them to master in the language as it is their mothers tongue.

I WAS very late for school that morning, and I was terribly afraid of being
scolded, (paragraph 1)
Usually, at the beginning of school, there was a great uproar which could be
heard in the street, desks opening and closing, lessons repeated aloud in unison,
with our ears stuffed in order to learn quicker, and the teachers stout ruler
beating on the desk: (paragraph 7)
A little more quiet! (paragraph 8)
I will not scold you, my little Frantz; you must be punished enough; that is the
way it goes; every day we say to ourselves: Pshaw! I have time enough. I will
learn to-morrow. And then you see what happens. Ah! it has been the great
misfortune of our Alsace always to postpone its lessons until to-morrow. Now
those people are entitled to say to us: What! you claim to be French, and you can
neither speak nor write your language! In all this, my poor Frantz, you are not
the guiltiest one. We all have our fair share of reproaches to address to ourselves.
(paragraph 20)
In this short story too we can see clearly that Monsieur Hamel blames himself for
selfishness about not giving his fullest in teaching the students.
Have I not often made you water my garden instead of studying? And when I
wanted to go fishing for trout, have I ever hesitated to dismiss you? (paragraph
21)

Franz
Franzs characteristics in this short story are lazy and illiterate. This can be seen
clearly when he refused to go to school because his teacher wanted to examine on a
participles when he did not even know a thing about it. We knew Franz is illiterate
when he ignored the crowded that paid attention to a bulletin board.
Monsieur Hamel had told us that he should examine us on participles, and I
did not know the first thing about them. For a moment I thought of staying away
from school and wandering about the fields. (paragraph 1)

As I passed the mayors office, I saw that there were people gathered about the
little board on which notices were posted. For two years all our bad news had
come from that boardbattles lost, conscriptions, orders from headquarters; and
I thought without stopping: (paragraph 2)
Franz is a boy who loves outdoors, sunshine, birds and butterflies. This is happened
when he rather wander about the field than going to school.
It was such a warm, lovely day. I could hear the blackbirds whistling on the edge
of the wood, and in the Rippert field, behind the sawmill, the Prussians going
through their drill. All that was much more tempting to me than the rules
concerning participles;(paragraph 1)
During Monsieur Hamels last lecture, Franz blames himself for ignoring lessons. He
regretted for not being able to pay more attention to the lesson, being playful and not
know how important it is to learn his mothers tongue.
And I barely knew how to write! So I should never learn! I must stop short where
I was! How angry I was with myself because of the time I had wasted, the lessons
I had missed, running about after nests, or sliding on the Saar! (paragraph 17)
2.4 Setting
Town Hall
A new order from the Prussian who had conquered their two regions was posed on the
bulletin board in the Town Hall. The news is about the Frenchs class that going to be
banned in all school so do the Frenchs teacher who had been asked to leave the
country.
As I passed the mayors office, I saw that there were people gathered about the
little board on which notices were posted. For two years all our bad news had
come from that boardbattles lost, conscriptions, orders from headquarters;
(paragraph 2)
My children, this is the last time that I shall teach you. Orders have come from
Berlin to teach nothing but German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. The

new teacher arrives to-morrow. This is the last class in French, so I beg you to be
very attentive. (paragraph 14)
Furthermore, in this Town Hall also we can see different peoples reaction. Through
this short story we can see Franz confused when Wachter the blacksmith greet him
not to hurry to school. But then, Franz without knowing nothing was rushed to school
left them all alone in the Town Hall.
Then, as I ran across the square, Wachter the blacksmith, who stood there with
his apprentice, reading the placard, called out to me: (paragraph 4)
Dont hurry so, my boy; youll get to your school soon enough! (paragraph 5)
I thought that he was making fun of me, and I ran into Monsieur Hamels little
yard all out of breath. (paragraph 6)
School
The last class from Monsieur Hamel happened in this school. Monsieur Hamel
received an order from Prussian to not ever again teach French in that school yet he
had to leave the country. Everyone was sad regarding this news until the lazy boy in
his class understood what he taught that day when he, before know nothing about the
lesson. People of Alsace were gathered in the school as that day will be their last
lesson on French. In this school too, we witnessed transformation of lazy boy into
determine boy. Franz who at first was lazy and are not interested in studying
suddenly, motivated in learning French. He gave fully focus on his teacher that day.
My children, this is the last time that I shall teach you. Orders have come from
Berlin to teach nothing but German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. The
new teacher arrives to-morrow. This is the last class in French, so I beg you to be
very attentive. (paragraph 14)
My last class in French! (paragraph 16)
And I barely knew how to write! So I should never learn! I must stop short where
I was! How angry I was with myself because of the time I had wasted, the lessons
I had missed, running about after nests, or sliding on the Saar! My books, which

only a moment before I thought so tiresome, so heavy to carrymy grammar, my


sacred historyseemed to me now like old friends, from whom I should be
terribly grieved to part. And it was the same about Monsieur Hamel. The thought
that he was going away, that I should never see him again, made me forget the
punishments, the blows with the ruler. (paragraph 17)
Poor man! It was in honour of that last lesson that he had put on his fine Sunday
clothes; and I understood now why those old fellows from the village were sitting
at the end of the room. It seemed to mean that they regretted not having come
oftener to the school. It was also a way of thanking our teacher for his forty years
of faithful service, and of paying their respects to the fatherland which was
vanishing. (paragraph 18)
I was at that point in my reflections, when I heard my name called. (paragraph
19)
2.5 Moral Values
We should appreciate our teacher.
As what I can say through this short story, we should appreciate our teachers because
they were willing to teach us and bear with our attitude even though they were tired
of it. Teachers are valuable person that we should treat them nicely. They had
sacrifices too much on the students, their time and effort.
We should love our language, our mothers tongue.
To show one on of patriotism criteria, one should love their own language, mothers
tongue. We should proud of our own language and learn it as long as we can to master
the language. As I am saying this, I am not against other languages. As we still can
learn new things, it would be better to know one or two languages but first we should
love our own language.
3.0 Modification
3.1 Vocabulary
I WAS very late for school that morning, and I was terribly afraid of being scolded,
especially as Monsieur Hamel had told us that he should examine us on participles,
and I did not know the first thing about them. For a moment I thought of staying
away from school and wandering about the fields. It was such a warm, lovely day. I

could hear the blackbirds whistling on the edge of the wood, and in the Rippert field,
behind the sawmill, the Prussians going through their drill. All that was much more
tempting to me than the rules concerning participles; but I had the strength to resist,
and I ran as fast as I could to school.(paragraph 1)
I WAS very late for school that morning, and I was terribly afraid of being scolded,
especially as Monsieur Hamel had told us that he should examine us on verb form
and tenses, and I did not know the first thing about them. For a moment I thought of
staying away from school and wandering about the fields. It was such a warm, lovely
day. I could hear the crows whistling on the edge of the wood, and in the Rippert
field, behind the factory, the Prussians going through their drill. All that was much
more tempting to me than the rules concerning verb form and tenses; but I had the
strength to resist, and I ran as fast as I could to school.
Usually, at the beginning of school, there was a great uproar which could be heard in
the street, desks opening and closing, lessons repeated aloud in unison, with our ears
stuffed in order to learn quicker, and the teachers stout ruler beating on the desk:
(paragraph 7)
Usually, at the beginning of school, there was a great uproar which could be heard in
the street, desks opening and closing, lessons repeated aloud in arrangement, with
our ears stuffed in order to learn quicker, and the teachers stout ruler beating on the
desk: