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Content

Welding
Casting
Metrology
Unconventional
Other Machine tools
Jig Fixtures
NC CNC Robotics
Material Science
Metal Cutting, Metal forming, metrology
All PPTs

Three types of flames can be obtained by varying


the oxygen/acetylene (or oxygen/fuel gas) ratio.
If the ratio is about 1 : 1 to 1.15 : 1, all reactions are
carried to completion and a neutral flame is produced.
Most welding is done with a neutral flame. It is
chemically neutral and neither oxidizes or carburizes
the metal being welded.

Oxy-acetylene gas welding neutral flame

IES 2009 Conventional


Explain the three types of oxy-acetylene flames.
Indicate with the help of sketches the various
zones,

respective

temperature

ranges

and

applications of each type of flame.


[ 20 Marks]

A higher ratio, such as 1.5 : 1, produces an oxidizing


flame, hotter than the neutral flame (about 3300oC)
but similar in appearance.
Used when welding copper and copper alloys but
harmful when welding steel because the excess oxygen
reacts with the carbon, decarburizing the region
around the weld.

Oxy-acetylene gas welding Oxidising flame

Excess fuel, on the other hand, produces a carburizing


flame. Carburizing flame can carburize metal also.
The excess fuel decomposes to carbon and hydrogen,
and the flame temperature is not as great (about
3000oC).
Flames of this type are used in welding Monel (a
nickel-copper alloy), high-carbon steels, and some
alloy steels, and for applying some types of hard-facing
material.

Metal
MS
High carbon steel
Grey cast iron
Alloy steel
Aluminium
Brass
Copper, Bronze
Nickel alloys
Lead

Flame
N
R
N, slightly oxidizing
N
Slightly carburizing
Slightly oxidizing
N, slightly oxidizing
Slightly carburizing
N

Oxy-acetylene gas welding Carburizing flame

4/1/2015

Always use the special wrench or key provided by the

supplier to open and close acetylene cylinder valves


not provided with hand wheels. Such keys should
always be left on the cylinder while in use in case of an
emergency need to shut down

Five gases used for gas welding


1.

Acetelyne (C2H2) gives 50 MJ/Kg

Hydrogen (H2) 11 MJ/m3


3. Propane (Gasol) C3H8
2.

4. Propylene (THERMOLENE) C3H6

5.

LPG

Combustion of oxygen and acetylene (C2H2) in a


welding torch produces a temp. in a two stage reaction.
In the first stage

CH
2 2 O2 2CO H2

+ Heat
This reaction occurs near the tip of the torch.
In the second stage combustion of the CO and H2 and
occurs just beyond the first combustion zone.
2CO + O2 2CO2 + Heat
1
H2 + 2O2 H2O + Heat
Oxygen for secondary reactions is obtained from the
atmosphere.

IAS-2011 Main
Draw a self explanatory sketch of oxy-acetylene gas
cutting torch. Briefly explain how cutting is
effected.
[20-Marks]

4/1/2015

For thicker plates with specified contour, shearing


cannot be used and oxy-fuel gas cutting (OFC) is
useful.
Gas-cutting is similar to gas welding except torch tip.

Oxygen Torch Cutting (Gas Cutting)


Iron and steel oxidize (burn) when heated to a
temperature between 8000C to 10000C.
High-pressure oxygen jet (300 KPa) is directed against
a heated steel plate, the oxygen jet burns the metal and
blows it away causing the cut (kerf ).
For cutting metallic plates shears are used. These are
useful for straight-line cuts and also for cuts up to 40
mm thickness.

Fig- differences in torch tips for gas welding and gas cutting

Contd

For complete oxidation 0.287 m3 oxygen/kg of iron is


required

Contd

The drag lines shows the characteristics of the movement

of the oxygen stream.

Due to unoxidized metal blown away the actual


requirement is much less.
Torch tip held vertically or slightly inclined in the
direction of travel.
Torch position is about 1.5 to 3 mm vertical from plate.
Fig- positioning of cutting torch in oxy- fuel gas cutting

Drag is the amount by which the lower edge of the drag

line trails from the top edge.


Good cut means negligible drag.
Contd

Contd

4/1/2015

If torch moved too rapidly, the bottom does not get


sufficient heat and produces large drag so very rough
and irregular-shaped-cut edges.
If torch moved slowly a large amount of slag is
generated and produces irregular cut.

Gas cutting is more useful with thick plates.


For thin sheets (less than 3 mm thick) tip size should
be small. If small tips are not available then the tip is
inclined at an angle of 15 to 20 degrees.

Fig. Recommended torch position for cutting thin steel


Contd

IFS-2011

Low Hydrogen Electrode

What is meant by low -hydrogen electrode ?


[2-marks]

The basic coatings contain large amount of


calcium carbonate (limestone) and calcium
fluoride (fluorspar) and produce low hydrogen.
But it can absorb moisture therefore coated low
hydrogen electrodes are backed before use to a
temperature of 200oC to 3000C and stored in an
oven at 110oC to 150oC
Other types of electrode release large amount of
hydrogen, which can dissolve in the weld metal
and lead to embrittlement or cracking.

IFS-2011
What is the maximum output current that can be
drawn at 100% duty cycle from a welding power source
rated at 600A at 60% duty cycle.
[3-Marks]

Duty Cycle
The percentage of time in a 5 min period that a
welding machine can be used at its rated output
without overloading.
Time is spent in setting up, metal chipping, cleaning
and inspection.
For manual welding a 60% duty cycle is suggested and
for automatic welding 100% duty cycle.

Contd

4/1/2015

IAS-2013

I
Ia

Required duty cycle, Ta T


Where ,T = rated duty cycle
I = rated current at the rated duty cycle
Io = Maximum current at the rated duty cycle

The overall resistance in the welding circuits can be

quite low, high currents are generally required to


produce a resistance weld. Power transformers convert
the high-voltage, low-current line power to the highcurrent (up to 100,000 A) low-voltage (0.5 to 10 V)
power required for welding. While smaller machines
Fig. The desired temperature
distribution
across
the
electrodes and the work
pieces in lap resistance
welding.

Fig.
Typical
pressure cycle
welding. The
forging and
operations.

current
and
for resistance
cycle includes
post heating

may utilize single-phase circuitry. Time for a cycle will


be 10 to 100 milliseconds.

Projection welding
Limitations of spot welding.
1. Electrode

condition must be maintained


continually, and only one spot weld at a time.
2. For additional strength multiple welds needed.
Projection
welding (RPW) overcomes above
limitations.

Fig. The arrangement of the electrodes and the work in spot


welding, showing design for replaceable electrode tips.

Contd

4/1/2015

Dimples are embossed on work pieces at the weld


locations and then placed between large-area
electrodes, and pressure and current applied like spot
welding.
Current flows through the dimples and heats them
and pressure causes the dimples to flatten and form a
weld.

Projections are press-formed in any shape.


Multiple welds at a time.
No indentation mark on the surface.
Bolts and nuts can be attached to other metal parts.

Fig. Principle of
projection welding,
(a) prior to application of
current and pressure
(b) and after formation of
welds
Contd

IES 2007
What is the principle of resistance welding?
Indicate where the resistance is maximum in spot
welding operation.
[ 2 marks]

Flash Welding
It is similar to upset welding except the arc rather than

resistance heating.
One pieces is clamped with cam controlled movable

platen and other with is fixed platen.

Two pieces are brought together and the power supply is


switched on. Momentarily the two pieces are separated
to create the arc to melt the ends of the two pieces.
Then again the pieces are brought together and the
power switched off while the two ends are fused under
force. Most of the metal melted would flash out
through the joint and forms like a fin around the joint.
Faster than upset welding.

Contd

4/1/2015

Advantages
1. Butt welding is possible
2. Impurities and contaminants are squeezed out during this
operations so good quality welding
Applications

For Butt joint only

Heat is generated from the are as the ends of the two

members begin to make contact. An axial force is


applied at a control rate then weld is formed by plastic
deformation (Upsetting) of the joint, so flash is
needed.

Current and Voltage


1.

Current very low (1 to 10 A)

2. Voltage very high ( 10 kV to 1500 kV)

IES 2007 Conventional


Two steel sheets of thickness one mm are welded
by resistance projection welding technique. A
current of 30,000 A for 0005 second is made to
flow. The effective resistance of joint can be taken
as 100 micro ohms. The joint can be considered as
a cylinder of diameter 5 mm and height 15 mm.
The density of steel is 000786 gm/mm3. The heat
needed for welding steel is 10 J/mm3. Calculate the
efficiency of welding.
[20]

Friction Welding

IFS-2011
Discuss with figure the various steps required for
friction welding, mentioning at least two methods
of control.
[5-marks]

Machine is similar to a centre lathe.

Heat is obtained by the friction between the ends of

the two parts to be joined.

Power requirements 25 kVA to 175 kVA.


The axial pressure depends on the strength and

One part is rotated at a high speed and other part is

axially aligned and pressed tightly against it.

hardness of the metals being joined.


Pressure 40 MPa for low-carbon steels to as high as 450

Friction raises the temperature of both the ends. Then

MPa for alloy steels.

rotation is stopped abruptly and the pressure is


increased to join.
Contd

Contd

4/1/2015

Very efficient.
Wide variety of metals or combinations of metals can
be joined such as aluminium to steel.
Grain size is refined
Strength is same as base metal.
Only round bars or tubes of the same size, or
connecting bars or tubes to flat surfaces can join.
One of the components must be ductile.
Friction welding is a solid state welding.
A low contact pressure may be applied initially to
permit cleaning of the surfaces by a burnishing action.

Fig- friction welding process

Contd

IAS-2014

Plasma Arc Weld (PAW)


Similar to GTAW except the plasma caused by the arc is

constricted by a water-cooled orifice


Uses ionized gas jet (plasma) to cut materials resistant to

oxy-fuel cutting,
High velocity electrons generated by the arc impact gas

molecules, and ionize them.


The ionized gas is forced through nozzle, and the jet heats

the metal, and blasts the molten metal away.


Capable of high welding speeds where size permits
Argon is used as the shielding gas.

Advantage
Plasma arc has directional Stability, work to torch
distance is not critical and arc length can vary.
Lower heat input and lower filler metal needed
No edge preparation needed
Limitation
Expensive equipment
Restricted to flat and horizontal positions only
Maximum thickness limited 25 mm
Large amount of ultraviolet and infrared rays are emitted.

4/1/2015

Application
Stainless steel
Nickel based alloy
Suitable for refractory metal coating like alumina on
graphite nozzles for rockets.

Welding design and defect


Welding Problem
Cracking of weld metal
Cracking of base metal
Spatter
Distortion
Slag inclusion
Porosity

Lamellar Tearing

Causes
High joint rigidity
Excessive stresses
Arc blow
Poor joint selection
Improper cleaning in multipass welding
Excessive H2, O2, N2, in the
welding atmosphere or Damp
electrodes
inclusions such as Mn Fe and S
in the base metal and/or
residual stress

Cracks occur when localized stresses exceed the


ultimate tensile strength of material.
These stresses are developed due to shrinkage during
solidification of weld metal.
Cracks may be developed due to poor ductility of base
metal, high sulphur and carbon contents, high arc
travel speeds i.e. fast cooling rates, too concave or
convex weld bead and high hydrogen contents in the
weld metal

Cold-cracking in steel weldments depends on

1. Carbon equivalent
2. Heat input
3. Effective thickness
3. Hydrogen content in weld pool

2

Ta I T 60 160 T T 23.4375
100
Ia
2

PREHEATING is done to prevent hot cracking.

4/1/2015

IES 2011 Conventional


Enumerate four defects caused due to residual stresses in
welded joints.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a- c welding machine?

[2 Marks]
Ans.
1. Distortion
2. Cracking in the base metal
3.

Lamellar Tearing

4. Reduction of fatigue strength

Advantages:
1. Welding transformer and its controller is very much cheaper as compared to D.C
set.
2. No rotating parts so less of wear and tear.
3. Troublesome magnetic fields causing arc blow is eliminated.
4. Efficiency is slightly more than DC setup.
Disadvantages:
1. Covered electrodes must be used. The AC arc cannot be used satisfactorily for bare
wire or lightly coated rods as the DC arc.
2. Higher voltage is to be used , consequently risk of shock is also more as compared
to DC Welding.
3. AC welding machines have moderate penetration.
4. More diamter is required to have more AC current to get more filler material
deposit rates and faster welding speeds.
5. Welding of cast iron, bronze and aluminium cannot be done using AC set up.

If the pressure is not applied properly or insufficient pressure is applied then


porosity may develop at the center of the nugget or cracks may be formed.
Stuck welds may be formed i.e. welds with unacceptable low bond strength.
If excessive pressure is applied then results in
Weld expulsion
Welds with low structural strength and low cosmetic quality.

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Effect of welding speed on grain structure:


Low speed tend to allow growing columnar grain to
follow the arc, curving in behind the moving heat
source also has grain refining effect.
High speed welds tend to produce solidification
pattern in which columnar crystals grow in parallel,
straight rows to the weld centreline. This grain
structure tends to be weaker under stress.
High weld speed produce finer cell spacing than slow
speed welding.

A consumable electrode in a gas shield.


Arc is between workpiece and an automatically fed barewire electrode.
Argon, helium, and mixtures of the two can be used.
Any metal can be welded but are used primarily with the
non-ferrous metals.
When welding steel, some O2 or CO2 is usually added to
improve the arc stability and reduce weld spatter.
Applications
Fast and economical.
A reverse-polarity dc arc is generally used because of its
deep penetration, spray transfer, and ability to produce
smooth welds with good profile

DIFFUSION WELDING
It is a solid state welding process which produces
coalescence of the faying surfaces by the application
of pressure and elevated temperatures (about 50 to
80% of absolute melting point of the parent
materials) for a time ranging from a couple of minutes
to a few hours.
Produces high quality bonds with good strength with
little or no distortion.
Can join very dissimilar materials.
A solid filler metal may or may not be inserted.
Materials welded for aircraft and rocket industry:
Boron, Titanium, Aluminium, Ceramic, Composite,
Graphite, Magnesium etc.

TIG
Arc is established between a non-consumable tungsten electrode
and the workpiece.
Tungsten is alloyed with thorium or zirconium for better currentcarrying and electron-emission characteristics.
Arc length is constant, arc is stable and easy to maintain.
With or without filler.
Very clean welds.
All metals and alloys can be welded. (Al, Mg also)
Straight polarity is used.
Weld voltage 20 to 40 V and weld current 125 A for RPDC to 1000
A for SPDC.
Shielded Gas: Argon
Torch is water or air cooled

IAS-2011

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Submerged Arc welding (SAW)


A thick layer of granular flux is deposited just ahead of

a bare wire consumable electrode, and an arc is


maintained beneath the blanket of flux with only a few

Most suitable for flat butt or fillet welds in low

carbon steel (< 0.3% carbon).


The process is not recommended for high-carbon

steels,

small flames being visible.


A portion of the flux melts. Molten flux and flux

tool

steels,

aluminum,

magnesium,

titanium, lead, or zinc.

provides thermal insulation, slows cooling rate and


produce soft, ductile welds.
Contd

Characteristic of submerged arc welding


High speeds,
High deposition rates,
Deep penetration,
High cleanliness (due to the flux action).

Advantages

Limitations

Wire electrodes are inexpensive.

Extensive flux handling,

No weld spatter.

Contamination of the flux by moisture.

Nearly 100% deposition efficiency.

Large-grain-size structures.

Lesser electrode consumption.

Welding is restricted to the horizontal position.


Chemical control is important

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IES-2010
How do zirconium and thorium affect the tungsten
electrode in the GTAW process? What is weld decay
in Ni Cr steels ?

IES-2010
Is it possible to weld tantalum to steel, if yes, by
which method ? Explain
the term hot cracks in
welding and write four important causes.

The tungsten electrode which is often alloyed with thorium or


zirconium to provide better current-carrying and electron-emission
characteristics .

WELD DECAY
During welding of steel ; formation of chromium carbide
along the grain boundaries may take place.
This results in the depletion of chromium percentage in
the adjoining region of grain boundary.
If this depletion of Chromium percentage is more than
12% which is needed to maintain a passive layer then the
region will be susceptible to corrosion, resulting in
intergranular attack.
Intergrannular corrosion causes loss of metal in the
region that parallels the weld deposit. This corrosion
behaviour is called as weld decay.

Yes, tantalum can be welded to steel by using explosive


welding.
Hot cracks are caused by
Joint design
Restraint imposed on weld
Hot cracks are also caused by low melting constituents
,that extend the temperature range of low hot strength and
low ductility to temperatures below that of the alloy. Eg, in
steel presence of phisphides and sulfides and copper can
seggregate grainboundaries and cause cracking.
Weld beads with high depth to width ratio can promote
the build up of low melting phases at pool centerline and
thus cause hot cracking.

Explosion Welding
Done at room temperature in air, water or vacuum.
Surface contaminants tend to be blown off the surface.
Typical impact pressures are millions of psi.
Well suited to metals that is prone to brittle joints

Important factors are,


Critical velocity
Critical angle
The cladding plate can be supported with tack welded
supports at the edges, or the metal inserts.

when heat welded, such as,


Aluminum on steel
Titanium on steel
Contd

Contd

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Typically the detonation velocity should not exceed


120% of the sonic velocity in the metal.

Contd

Advantages,
Can bond many dissimilar, normally unweldable
metals
The lack of heating preserves metal treatment
The process is compact, portable, and easy to contain
Inexpensive
No need for surface preparation

Contd

High velocity explosives, 4572-7620 m/s.


TNT
RDX
PETN
Composition B
Composition C4
Datasheet
Primacord
Medium velocity explosives, 1524-4572 m/s
Ammonium nitrate
Ammonium perchlorate
Amatol
Nitroguonidine
Dynamites
diluted PETN
Contd

Disadvantages,
The metals must have high enough impact resistance,
and ductility (at least 5%)
The cladding plate cannot be too large.
Noise and blast can require worker protection, vacuum
chambers, buried in sand/water.

Contd

Typical applications:
Very large plates can be cladded.
Joins dissimilar metals.

(titanium to steel, Al to steel, Al to Cu etc.)


Join tube to tube sheets of large heat exchangers.

Contd

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IES-2010
Discuss short circuiting metal transfer in GMAW
mentioning its suitability.
Also define the term
transition current, with figure.

TRANSITION CURRENT:
At a current above the critical
value called the transition
current
transfer
higlhly
directed stream of discrete
droplets of metal in the form of
spray occurs.
Below
transition
current
transfer
mode
becomes
globular and above tansition
current it is spray transfer.
Spray Transfer is achieved by
high current and larger
diameter of electrode wire.

IES 2010
In metal casting define the terms chaplet and resin

binder. Write the merits and demerits of shell


moulding process.

Fig (a) shows the initiation of arc. Under the intense heat of arc
electrode tip melts away and forms a globule of molten metal at the tip.
Fig(b) As the electrode wire is fed towards the work piece, the molten
tip touches the weld metal pool and
Fig (c) when the tip touches the metal pool short circuiting takes place,
that short circuits electrode to the workpiece. This reduces Voltage
across the arc.
Fig (d) The metal tip gets pinched by the surface tension of the weld
metal pool as well as the magnetic force due to current flow. Finally the
metal is pinched away and the arc gets ignited again, and the cycle is
repeated all over again.

Casting

Chaplet: Chaplets are used to support cores inside the


mould cavity to take care of its own weight and overcome
the metallostatic forces. Since some of this metal will
melt during the operation. Since they ultimately become
part of the final casting, chaplets must be made from the
same alloy as that being cast.
Resin binder : Resign binder is a thermosetting phenolic

resin (phenol formaldehyde) which acts as a binder. When


heated pattern is come in contact with fine sand and resign
mixture a shell is produced.

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Merits
Good dimensions tolerance
Good surface finishing
High production rate.

IES-2010
Explain why the strength to weight ratio of die cast
parts increases with decreasing wall thickness.

Demerits
Part size limited
Expensive pattern and equipment required.

IES-2010
Density is another property engineers may considers
especially for compact, high efficiency and light weight
application. Material strength helps determine if a
design made out of die cast metal can be slimmed
down for weight saving, and hence when decrease as
thickness increase. Strength to weight ratio of die
cast part.

Explain the term stack molding.

IAS2011
Stack moulding are high production plastic injection

moulds with multiple parting line, with stack


moulding we can produce multiple injection moulded
plastic parts more economically over a large
production run, stack moulding uses small machines
that stack vertically take up less space, reduce run cost.
Advantage of stack moulding
Increase output efficiency
Fewer machines requires
Multiple parts designs produces simultaneously.

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Runner: A runner is commonly a horizontal channel

which connects the sprue with gates, thus allowing the


molten metal to enter the mould cavity. The runners
are of larger cross-section and often streamlined to
slow down and smooth out the flow, and are designed
to provide approximately uniform flow rates to the
various parts of the mould cavity. Runners are
commonly made trapezoidal in cross-section.

Liquid shrinkage and solid shrinkage


Liquid shrinkage refers to the reduction in volume

when the metal changes temperature from pouring to


solidus temperature in liquid state. To account for this,
risers are provided in the moulds.
Solidification shrinkage refers to the reduction in
volume when metal changes from liquid to solid state
at the solidus temperature. To account for this, risers
are provided in the moulds.
Solid shrinkage is the reduction in volume caused,
when a metal loses temperature in the solid state. The
shrinkage allowance is provided to take care of this
reduction.

Contd

Gray CI with a carbon equivalent of 4.3% has

negative shrinkage, that is, it actually expands


upto 2.5% because of graphite precipitation. So,
for this, no riser is needed.

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Metallurgical defects
During solidification nucleation event produces a

crystal or grain and latent heat removed.


During cooling thermal vibrations reduces.

Hot tears or hot cracking, cause of this defect is that


stresses and strains built up during solidification are too
high compared to the actual strength of the semisolid
material. This type of defects occurs in the lower part of
the solidification range, close to the solidus, when the
alloy has a wide solidification temperature range and a
small amount of liquid, when the solid fraction is more
than 0.9, the hot tearing is easy to occur. Proper mould
design prevents this type of defect.

The mis-run and cold shut defects are caused either by


a lower fluidity of the mold or when the section
thickness of the casting is very small. Fluidity can be
improved by changing the composition of the metal
and by increasing the pouring temperature of the
metal.

Riser Size: Freezing time or riser or casting depends upon the

Principle of riser design


Riser size, shape and location, as well as the type of
connection between the riser and casting.

amount of heat in a casting (Directly) and depends inversely upon


the surface area of the casting. Based on this facts many relations
have been suggested by different scientists. The riser should also
be designed to conserve the metal.
Riser Shape: Riser should tall enough so that any shrinkage cavity
in the riser ( pipe formation ) does not penetrate into the castings.
The shrinkage cavity must lie above the neck. The neck should be
as short as possible and also solidify longer than the casting.
Riser location: It should be located so that directional
solidification occurs from the extremities of the mould cavity back
towards riser. Since the thickest regions of a casting will be last to
freeze, the riser should be feed directly into these locations.

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IES 2011 Conventional

Conventional Question ESE 2003

A round casting is 20 mm in diameter and 50 mm in

length. Another casting of the same metal is elliptical in


cross section, with a major to minor axis ratio of 2, and

Compare the solidification time of two optimum side

has the same length and cross-sectional area as the

risers of the same volume with one has cylindrical shape

round casting. Both pieces are cast under the same

and other is parallopiped.

[30 Marks]

conditions. What is the difference in the solidification


times of the two castings ?

[10 Marks]

Areaof ellipseab
Circumference 3ab 3aba3b
2 a2 b2 /2 (approx.)

Modulus Method
It has been empirically established that if the modulus

of the riser exceeds the modulus of the casting by a

D2 D2

factor of 1.2, the feeding during solidification would be

satisfactory.
MR = 1.2 Mc
Modulus = volume/Surface area
In steel castings, it is generally preferable to choose a

riser with a height-to-diameter ratio of 1.


Contd

Conventional Question IES-2008


Calculate the size of a cylindrical riser (height and diameter

Caines Method
Freezing ratio = ratio of cooling characteristics of casting to
the riser.
A

X V Casting
A
V Riser

equal) necessary to feed a steel slab casting of dimensions


30 x 30 x 6 cm with a side riser, casting poured horizontally

The riser should solidify last so x > 1

into the mould.

According to Caine

[Use Modulus Method]


[10 - Marks]

Y=

X=

a c
Yb

Vriser
and a, b, c are constant.
Vcasting

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Table: Constants in Caines Method

Naval Research Laboratory Method

Conventional Question IES-2007


Calculate the size of a cylindrical riser (height and

diameter equal) necessary to feed a steel slab


casting of dimensions 25 x 25 x 5 cm with a side
riser, casting poured horizontally into the mould.
[Use Caines Method]
[ For steel a = 0.10, b = 0.03 and c = 1.00 ]

This method is a simplification of Caine's


method. In this method, freezing ratio is replaced
by Shape Factor.
The shape factor is defined as
Shape Factor= (Length+Width)/Thickness
The underlying argument is that calculating
volumes and surface areas is too complicated and
therefore simplification would be desirable. The
length, width and thicknesses are computed from
the maximum dimensions of the casting section.

Procedure for getting riser size is as follows:


1. Calculate the shape factor for the given casting.
2. Obtain riser volume to casting volume ratio from the
graph . (or the table provided in questions)
3. Calculate riser volume Vr .
4. For cylindrical riser (h=D), Vr = (.D3 )/4
5. Obtain the diameter.
For circular plates, the length and width are same as that
of the diameter.
But for cylinders, the width and thickness are same as the
diameter for calculating the shape factor.
But for calculating the riser volume actual casting volume
is to be used.

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Example

The other shape of interest is hollow cylindrical shape. In


these the heat removal is restricted , a correction factor k,
needs to be applied to get the effective plate thickness. If T
is the true wall thickness
Core
0.5T
diameter
Correction 1.17
factor

2T

4T

1.14

1.02

1.00

Shape Factor = (Length+ width)/(k.T)

GATE-2015
The dimensions of a cylindrical side
riser(height = diameter) for a 25 cm x 15 cm x 5
cm steel casting are to be determined. For the
tabulated shape factor values given below, the
diameter of the riser (in cm)________
Shape Factor

10

12

Riser volume /
Casting Volume

1.0

0.70

0.55 0.50 0.40 0.35

Normally the risers are located at the heaviest sections and they themselves act as
feeders for thin sections. But when smaller sections are connected to thicker
sections, the riser should have larger volume to cater this appendage.
The total volume of the casting is taken as the volume of the main section plus
the effective percentage of the appendage volume, called the parasitic volume.

Calculate the height of cylindrical riser(height=diameter)


necessary to feed the steel slab casting 25 x 25 x 5 with a
side riser, casting poured horizontally into the mold.
Solution:
Shape Factor = (25+25)/5 = 10
From graph at shape factor 10 (riser volume/casting volume) is
0.47.
Riser Volume(Vr ) = (riser volume/casting volume) x casting
volume
Riser Volume = 0.47 x 25 x 25x 5 =1468.75 cm3
For cylindrical riser of height = diameter
Vr = (.D3 )/4
1468.75= (.D3 )/4
D = 12.32 cm

Shape Factor = lengthwidth 2515 8


thickness
5
Fromthe given table, for shape factor of 8,
ratio of Riser volume to casting volume is 0.5,
Volume of riser = 0.5 x casting volume
0.5 x 25 x 15 x 5 =937.5 cm3
For a cylindrical riser with height = diameter
3
V D
4
3
937.5 D D 10.60cm
4

Example
Calculate the risering requirement for the casting
shown in fig.

GRAPH-2

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First neglect the branch and calculate shape factor for main
plate ;
Shape Factor = (25+12.5)/5 = 7.5
From graph at shape factor 7.5 (riser volume/casting volume)
is 0.575
Riser Volume(Vr ) = (riser volume/casting volume) x casting
volume
Riser Volume = 0.575 x 25 x 12.5x 5 =898.437 cm3
The branch Volume=2.5 x 2.5 x 10 =62.5cm3
This is plate feeding the bar with thickness ratio (2.5/5) of 0.5.
From the graph we get parasitic volume of 30%
Hence, riser volume = 0.3 x 62.5 + 898.437=917.185cm3
Vr = (.D3 )/4
or 917.185= (.D3 )/4
or D = 10.53 cm

Grain fineness test


Permeability test
Sand mould strength test
Moisture Content test
Clay content test
hardness test

Types of Gate or In-gate


Top gate: Causes turbulence in the mould cavity, it is prone
to form dross, favourable temperature gradient towards the
gate, only for ferrous alloys.
Bottom gate: No mould erosion, used for very deep moulds,
higher pouring time, Causes unfavourable temperature
gradients.
Parting Gate: most widely used gate, easiest and most
economical in preparation.
Step Gate: Used for heavy and large castings, size of ingates
are normally increased from top to bottom.

Pouring Metal Defects


The likely defects in this category are
Mis-runs and
Cold shuts
A mis-run is caused when the metal is unable to fill
the mold cavity completely and thus leaves unfilled
cavities.
A cold shut is caused when two streams while meeting
in the mold cavity, do not fuse together properly thus
forming a discontinuity in the casting.
Contd

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Cupola
The mis-run and cold shut defects are caused either by
a lower fluidity of the mold or when the section
thickness of the casting is very small. Fluidity can be
improved by changing the composition of the metal
and by increasing the pouring temperature of the
metal.

Cupola has been the most widely used furnace for


melting cast iron.
In hot blast cupola, the flue gases are used to preheat the
air blast to the cupola so that the temperature in the
furnace is considerably higher than that in a
conventional cupola. Coke is fuel and Lime stone
(CaCO3) is mostly used flux.
Cost of melting low.
Main disadvantages of cupola is that it is not possible to
produce iron below 2.8% carbon.
Steel can be also prepared in cupola by employing
duplexing and triplexing operations.

IES 2007
What is permeability? Permeability is more important
in the basic process of sand casting than porosity. Give
one important reason for this feature.
[2 marks]

Permeability: Gases evolving from the molten metal


and generated from the mould may have to go
through the core to escape out of the mould. Hence
cores are required to have higher permeability.
Permeability Number: The rate of flow of air passing
through a standard specimen under a standard pressure is
termed as permeability number.
The standard permeability test is to measure time
taken by a 2000 cu cm of air at a pressure typically of
980 Pa (10 g/cm2), to pass through a standard sand
specimen confined in a specimen tube. The standard
specimen size is 50.8 mm in diameter and a length of
50.8 mm.

Then, the permeability number, R is obtained by

R VH
pAT

Calculate the permeability number of sand if it takes 1 min

25 s to pass 2000 cm3 of air at a pressure of5 g/cm2 through


the standard sample.

Where V= volume of air = 2000 cm3


H = height of the sand specimen = 5.08 cm
p = air pressure, g/cm2
A = cross sectional area of sand specimen = 20.268 cm 2
T = time in minutes for the complete air to pass through

p 5.0g / cm2
T 1min25s 1.417min
R 501.28 70.75
51.417

Inserting the above standard values into the


expression, we get

R 501.28
pT
.

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Friability: The ability to crumble should be a very

important consideration at the time of removal.

Collapsibility: At the time of cooling, casting shrinks, and

unless the core has good collapsibility (ability to decrease


in size) it is likely to provide resistance against shrinkage
and thus can cause hot tears.

Carbon Dioxide Moulding


Sodium silicate (water glass, SiO2:Na2O) is used as a binder.

This is essentially a quick process of core or mould


preparation.
The mould is prepared with a mixture of sodium silicate and
sand and then treated with carbon dioxide for two to three
minutes such that a dry compressive strength of over 1.4
MPa is arrived.
The carbon dioxide is expected to form a weak acid, which
hydrolyses the sodium silicate resulting in amorphous silica,
which forms the bond.
The introduction of CO2 gas starts the reaction by forming
hydrated sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 + H2O).

The compressive strength of the bond increases with

standing time due to dehydration.


Because of the high strength of the bond, the core need not

be provided with any other reinforcements.


It does not involve any distortions due to baking and also

better dimensional accuracies are achieved.


The sand mixture does not have good shelf life and

therefore should be used immediately after preparation.

Contd

Purpose

Muller's are normally used in foundries to mix the sands.


Type
1.
2.

Batch muller for small foundries


Continuous muller for large scale productions

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Distortion Allowance
A metal when it has just solidified is very weak and
therefore is likely to be distortion prone.
This is particularly so for weaker sections such as long
flat portions, V, U sections or in a complicated casting
which may have thin and long sections which are
connected to thick sections.
The foundry practice should be to make extra
material provision for reducing the distortion.

Single Crystal Casting


The process is effectively:
1. Prepare a mold so that one end is a heated oven, and
the other end chilled. The part should be oriented so
that the cooling happens over the longest distance.
2. Cast metal into the mold
3. Solidification will begin at the chill plate. These
dendrites will grow towards the heated end of the
part as long dendritic crystals. The part is slowly
pulled out of the oven, past the chill plate.
4. Remove the solidified part.

Creep and thermal shock resistance properties.

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Investment Casting
Investment casting process or lost wax process
Basic steps:
1. Produce expendable wax, plastic, or polystyrene patterns.
2. Assemble these patterns onto a gating system
3. Investing or covering the pattern assembly with refractory
slurry
4. Melting the pattern assembly to remove the pattern material
5. Firing the mould to remove the last traces of the pattern
material
6.Pouring molten metal
7. Knockout, cutoff and finishing.
Fig. Investment flask-casting procedure

Ceramic Shell Investment Casting


In ceramic shell investment casting a ceramic shell is

built around a tree assembly by repeatedly dipping a


pattern into a slurry (refractory material such as
zircon with binder).
After each dipping and stuccoing is completed, the

assembly is allowed to thoroughly dry before the next


coating is applied.

IES 2009
2 marks

Slush Casting
Slush casting is a variation of the permanent mold process

in which the metal is permitted to remain in the mold only


until a shell of the desired thickness has formed.
The mold is then inverted and the remaining liquid is
poured out.
When the mold halves are separated, the resulting casting
is a hollow shape with good surface detail but variable wall
thickness.
Frequently used to cast low-melting-temperature metals
into ornamental objects such as candlesticks, lamp bases,
and statuary.

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Errors

IES 2010

Systematic errors or fixed errors (Bias): Due to faulty

What is meant by interchangeable manufacture ?


Discuss a Go gauge.

or improperly calibrated instruments. These may be


reduced or eliminated by correct choice of instruments.
Eg. calibration errors, Errors of technique etc.
Random errors: Random errors are due to non-specific

cause like natural disturbances that may occur during


the experiment. These cannot be eliminated.
Eg. Errors stemming from environmental variations, Due
to Insufficient sensitivity of measuring system

Accuracy & Precision


Accuracy - The ability of a measurement to match the actual

(true) value of the quantity being measured. The expected


ability for a system to discriminate between two settings.
Smaller the bias more accurate the data.
Precision - The precision of an instrument indicates its
ability to reproduce a certain reading with a given accuracy
OR it is the degree of agreement between repeated results.
Precision data have small dispersion ( spread or scatter ) but
may be far from the true value.
A measurement can be accurate but not precise, precise but
not accurate, neither, or both.
A measurement system is called valid if it is both accurate
and precise.

Repeatability
It is the ability of a measuring system to reproduce
output readings when the same input is applied to it
consecutively, under the same conditions, and in the
same direction.
Imperfections in mechanical systems can mean that
during a Mechanical cycle, a process does not stop at the
same location, or move through the same spot each
time. The variation range is referred to as repeatability.

Reliability of measurement
It is a quantitative characteristic which

implies
confidence in the measured results depending on
whether
or
not
the
frequency
distribution
characteristics of their deviations from the true values
of the corresponding quantities are known. It is the
probability that the results will be predicted.

Which of these targets represents


accurate
shooting?
Precise
shooting? Reliable shooting?

A change in one variable, such as wind,


alters the results as shown. Dose this
show which shooting was the most
reliable?

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Calibration
It is the setting or correcting of a measuring device
usually by adjusting it to match or conform to a
dependably known value or act of checking.

IAS 2013

Calibration determines the performance characteristics


of an instrument, system or reference material. It is
usually achieved by means of a direct comparison against
measurement standards or certified reference materials.
It is very widely used in industries.
A calibration certificate is issued and, mostly, a sticker is
provided for the instrument.

IFS 2013

IAS 2014

Why is a unilateral tolerance


preferred over bilateral tolerance ?
This system is preferred for Interchangeable manufacturing.
It is easy and simple to determine deviations.
It helps standardize the GO gauge end
Helpful for operator because he has to machine the upper

limit of the shaft and the lower limit of the hole knowing
fully well that still some margin is left for machining before
the part is rejected.

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Methods of Measurement

Direct method
Indirect method e.g density
3. Absolute method or Fundamental method e.g
lenghth form definition
4. Comparison method e.g comparator
5. Deflection method e.g. Dial Indicator
1.

2.

American Standard Association Tolerance System


1. Heavy force shrunk fit
2. Medium force fit
3. Tight fit
4. Wringing fit
5. Snug fit
6. Medium fit
7. Free fit
8. Loose fit

Snug fit

1/3
Tolerance = 0.0004D
and Deviation 0

Mediumforce fit :

1/3
1/3
Tolerance = 0.0006D
and Deviation 0.0005D 0.0006D

Snug fit is applicable where no shake is permissible


Medium force fit is applicable for shrink fit on cast

iron

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IFS 2012

Drift: It is a slow change of a metrological characteristics of a

measuring instruments
Resolution: It is the smallest change of the measured

quantity which changes the indication of a measuring


instruments
Sensitivity: The smallest change in the value of the
measured variable to which the instrument respond is
sensitivity. It denotes the maximum changes in an input
signal that will not initiate a response on the output.
Rule of 10 or Ten-to one rule: That the discrimination
(resolutions) of the measuring instrument should divide the
tolerance of the characteristic to be measured into ten parts.
In other words, the gauge or measuring instrument should be
10 times as accurate as the characteristic to be measured.

IAS 2012

IFS 2011

IAS 2011

IAS 2010

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IES 2010
Why is a unilateral tolerance preferred over bilateral

tolerance ?
In surface roughness, discuss with a figure Root

Mean Square method.

Need for Unconventional Processes

Need for Unconventional Processes

New materials having high strength and hardness, such as

nimonic alloys and alloys with alloying elements such as


tungsten, molybdenum, and columbium are difficult to
machine by the traditional methods.

Complex shapes.
A very high accuracy is desired besides the complexity of

the surface to be machined.

By conventional machining the MRR reduces with an

increase in the work material hardness.


Need

for development of

processes

which

utilize

non-traditional
other

machining

methods

such

as

electrochemical processes for the material removal.

Classification of NTMM
The Non-traditional Machining Methods are classified
according to the major energy sources employed in
machining.

1. Thermal Energy Methods


Electrical discharge machining (EDM)
Laser beam Machining (LBM)

1. Thermal Energy Methods

Plasma Arc Machining (PAM)

2. Electro - Chemical Energy Method

Electron Beam Machining(EBM)

3. Chemical Energy Methods

Ion Beam Machining (IBM)

4. Mechanical Energy Methods

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2. Electro - Chemical Energy Method


Electro-Chemical Machining (ECM)

3. Chemical Energy Methods


These methods involve controlled etching of the
workpiece material in contact with a chemical solution.

Electro-Chemical grinding (ECG)


Chemical Machining Method (CHM).

Electro-Chemical Honing (ECH)


Electro-Chemical Deburring (ECD)

4. Mechanical Energy Methods


Ultra Sonic Machining (USM)
Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM)
Water Jet Machining (WJM)

Shapes Cutting Capability


The various NTMM have some special shape cutting
capability as given below:
1. Micro-machining and Drilling : LBM and EBM

Some Observations
EDM has the lowest specific power requirement and can
achieve sufficient accuracy.
ECM has the highest metal removal rate, MRR.
USM and AJM have low MRR and combined with high
tool wear, are used for non-metal cutting.
LBM and EBM have high penetration rates with low
MRR and, therefore, are commonly used for micro
drilling, sheet cutting, and welding.
CHM is used for manufacturing PCB and other shallow
components.
PAM can be used for clean, rapid cuts and profiles in
almost all plates upto 20 cm thick with 5o to 10o taper.

Water Jet Machining


Narrow jet of water directed, at high pressure and

velocity, against surface of workpiece


Jet of water erodes surface of workpiece, thereby

2. Cavity sinking and standard Hole Drilling: EDM and

USM

cutting workpiece
Computer control to achieve shape

3. Fine hole drilling and Contour Machining: ECM


4. Clean, rapid Cuts and Profiles: PAM
5. Shallow Pocketing: AJM
192

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IAS2014

Water Jet Machining

193

Physical Principle
Basic process

Physical Principle
An arc jumps between two points along the path of least
resistance.

Physical Principle

Physical Principle

The energy of the arc is so concentrated that it causes the


electrode, and the work to melt. But the electrode
material is chosen so that it melts less.

The metal and dielectric fluid is partly vaporized,


causing sudden expansion.

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Physical Principle
The blast from the expanding vapors knocks some
molten particles loose, and the remaining molten metal
hardens.

Advantages
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Disadvantages
1. Only electrically conductive materials can be machined
by EDM. Thus non - metallic, such as plastics, ceramics
or glass, cannot be machined by EDM.
2. Electrode wear and over-cut are serious problems.
3. A re-hardened, highly stressed zone is produced on the
work surface by the heat generated during machining.
This brittle layer can cause serious problems when the
part is put into service.
4. Perfectly square corners cannot be made by EDM.
5. High specific energy consumption (about 50 times that
in conventional machining)
6. MRR is quite low

IAS2011

Hardness, toughness or brittleness of the material poses no


problems. Due to this EDM can be used for machining
materials that are too hard or brittle to be machined by
conventional methods.
The method does not leave any chips or burrs on the work
piece.
Cutting forces are virtually zero, so very delicate and fine
work can be done.
The process dimension repeatability and surface finish
obtained in finishing are extremely good.
The characteristic surface obtained, which is made up of
craters, helps in better oil retention. This improves die life.
Because the forces between the tool and the workpiece and
virtually zero, very delicate work can be done.

EDM Tool
The usual choices for tool (electrode) materials are
Copper,
brass,
alloys of zinc and tin,
hardened plain carbon steel,
copper tungsten,
silver tungsten,
tungsten carbide,
copper graphite, and graphite.

Electrochemical Machining
Electrochemical machining is the reverse of electro
plating
The work-piece is made the anode, which is placed in
close proximity to an electrode (cathode), and a highamperage direct current is passed between them through
an electrolyte, such as salt water, flowing in the anodecathode gap.
Metal is removed by anodic dissolution and is carried
away in the form of a hydroxide in the electrolyte for
recycling or recovery.
MRR in ECM depends on atomic weight of work material

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Electrochemical Machining
Variation in the current density will result in work
taking the electrodes shape.
The electrode is fed with a constant velocity, and the
electrolyte is fed through the tool.

Fig- Electrochemical Machining process

Advantages

Disadvantages

1. Complex three-dimensional surfaces can be machined


accurately. Good for low machinability or complicated
shapes.

1.

2. As ECM leads to atomic level dissolution, the surface


finish is excellent (Ra 0.2 to 0.6 m) with almost stress
free machined surface and without any thermal
damage.

3.
4.

3. The tool wear is practically nil which results in a large


number of components produced per tool.

mm3/min)

4. MRR is highest (1600


among NTMM and
comparable with conventional machining.

2.

5.
6.
7.

Use of corrosive media as electrolytes makes it difficult to


handle.
Sharp interior edges and corners (< 0.2 mm radius) are
difficult to produce.
Very expensive machine.
Forces are large with this method because of fluid pumping
forces.
Very high specific energy consumption (about 150 times
that required for conventional processes),
Not applicable with electrically non-conducting materials
and jobs with very small dimensions
Lower fatigue strength

IAS2012
Refer note

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IFS2012

Tool
Tool materials: Copper, brass, bronze, Al, Stainless

Steel, Cupro nickel, etc.

For laser beam machining


Materials: All materials except those with high thermal
conductivity and high reflectivity.

IAS2011

Abrasive Jet Machining (Dry)

It is similar to sand blasting, except that a very narrow jet of

gas and abrasive particles achieves localized cutting.


It removes material through the eroding action of a high

velocity stream of abrasive-laden gas.


The gas is first compressed and mixed with the abrasive

powder in a mixing chamber and passed through outlet


nozzle.
Computer is used to position the jet.
Gas Pressure about 7 atm
Velocity of jet about 300 m/s
Jet Diameter 0.12 mm to 1.25 mm
Abrasive used: Al2O3 , SiC with particle size 10 to 50 m
Tool (nozzle) material tungsten carbide or sapphire
Tool (nozzle) Life about 30 hours
216

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Advantages of AJM

Abrasive Jet Machining

Can be used in any material, conductive, non-

conductive, ductile or brittle


Good dimensional accuracy (0.05 mm)
Good Surface finish 0.25 to 1.25 m
Due to cooling action of gas stream no thermal damage

on the work surface


Due to negligible force delicate workpiece can be
217

Disadvantages of AJM

machined.

Application of AJM
Cutting and drilling on metal foils and thin

Low MRR

sections of ceramics and glass

Possibility of stray cutting


Embedding of abrasive particles in soft workpiece

Intricate holes in electronic components such as

resistor paths in insulation

Dust control needed

Engraving of characters on toughened glass

automobile windows
Cleaning, polishing and deburring the surface

Electron Beam Machining

IFS-2011

Workpiece placed in vacuum chamber

Write the advantages, limitations and applications of

High-voltage

electron beam machining. What is the safety problem

workpiece

connected with EBM?

electron

beam

directed

toward

Energy of electron beam melts/ vaporizes selected

[5-Marks]

region of workpiece
Electron beam moved by deflection coils
Similar process to EB welding
222

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Electron Beam Machining

Advantage
There is no effect of local heat on workpiece as the

temperature of surrounding material (25 50 m away


from the machining spot) is not raised

223

Disadvantage

Application

Necessity of vacuum

All materials can be machined

Not suitable for large workpiece

Drill small holes for thin plates

Little taper produced on holes

Cutting narrow slots

Very high specific power consumption

Safety

IFS2014 IAS2013

High velocity electron may produce X-ray

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Laser Beam Machining

Laser Beam Machining

Direct laser beam against surface of workpiece, as in

laser welding
Successive pulses from laser gun vaporize tiny bits of

workpiece
Location of laser beam controlled by computer
Workpiece need not be conductive
Cuts are tapered
Gotta trap overshoot from laser beam
229

Laser Beam Machining

230

IES 2011 Conventional

Produces large remelt zone

What is creep feed grinding? Discuss its salient


features, advantages, and application.
[10 marks]

Can produce holes as small as 0.0005 mm diameter


Can produce deep holes
Used to produce cooling holes in blades/vanes for jet

engines

231

Creep feed grinding


This machine enables single pass grinding of a surface
with a larger down feed but slower table speed than that
adopted for multi-pass conventional surface grinding.
In creep-feed grinding, the entire depth of cut is
completed in one pass only using very small in-feed
rates.

State the basic advantage of a creep feed


grinder over a conventional surface
Productivity is enhanced and life of the grinding wheel is
extended.
Economic

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Application

IAS2014

Grinding shaped punches


Key seats
Twist drill flutes
Roots of turbine blades
Various complex superalloy parts

G Ratio

Grade

The grinding ratio or G ratio is defined as thee cubic mm


of stock removed divided by the cubic mm of wheel lost.

The worn out grit must pull out from the bond and make
room for fresh sharp grit in order to avoid excessive rise
of grinding force and temperature.

In conventional grinding, the G ratio is in the range 20: 1


to 80: 1.

A soft wheel should be chosen for grinding hard


material.

The G ratio is a measure of grinding production and


reflects the amount of work a wheel can do during its
useful life.

A hard wheel should be chosen for grinding soft


material.

As the wheel losses material, it must be reset or


repositioned to maintain workpiece size.

IES2009

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IAS2012

Fig- cutting action of abrasive grains

Interaction of the grit with the workpiece

Interaction of the grit with the workpiece

Shape of grit is very important because it determines the


grit geometry e.g. rake and clearance angle.

Grit with favourable geometry can produce chip in shear


mode.

The grits do not have definite geometry unlike a cutting


tool.

However, grits having large negative rake angle or


rounded cutting edge do not form chips but may rub or
make a groove by ploughing leading to lateral flow of the
workpiece material.

Fig- Grits engage shearing, ploughing and rubbing

Why is aluminium oxide preferred to


silicon carbide in grinding steel?

Why diamond is not used for steel?

Al2O3 is tougher than SiC. Therefore it is

On ferrous materials, diamonds are not suitable


because of the diffusion of carbon atoms from
diamond to the work-piece material.

preferred to grind material having high tensile


strength like steel. Moreover, Al2O3 shows higher
chemical inertness than SiC towards steel leading
to much improved wear resistance during
grinding.

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Centerless Grinding

IES 2010
Draw the typical configuration of Internal Centre less
grinding mentioning main advantage and use.

Centerless Grinding

Centerless Grinding

Centerless grinding makes it possible to grind both


external and internal cylindrical surfaces without
requiring the workpiece to be mounted between centers
or in a chuck.

The regulating wheel controls the rotation and


longitudinal motion of the workpiece and usually is a
plastic- or rubber-bonded wheel with a fairly wide face.

This eliminates the requirement of center holes in some


workpieces and the necessity for mounting the
workpiece, thereby reducing the cycle time.

The workpiece is held against the work-rest blade by the


cutting forces exerted by the grinding wheel and rotates
at approximately the same surface speed as that of the
regulating wheel.

Two wheels are used. The larger one operates at regular


grinding speeds and does the actual grinding. The
smaller wheel is the regulating wheel. It is mounted at
an angle to the plane of the grinding wheel.

State the disadvantages of centreless


cylindrical grinding machine?

It does not grind concentrically with centres.


Large diameter short workpiece are difficult to
control in the process
It may not improve workpiece perpendicularity.

Loading
Some grinding chips get lodged into the spaces between

the grits resulting in a condition known as loaded wheel.


Loading is generally caused during the grinding of soft

and ductile materials.


A loaded grinding wheel cannot cut properly and need

dressing.

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Dressing

Truing

Dressing is the conditioning of the wheel surface which


ensures that grit cutting edges are exposed from the
bond and thus able to penetrate into the workpiece
material.

Truing is the act of regenerating the required geometry


on the grinding wheel.

In dressing attempts are made to splinter the abrasive


grains to make them sharp and free cutting and also to
remove any residue left by material being ground.

Truing and dressing are commonly combined into one


operation for conventional abrasive grinding wheels, but
are usually two distinctly separate operation for super
abrasive wheel.

Dressing therefore produces micro-geometry.

IFS-2011

Rose Reamer

What is the main difference between rose reamer


and chucking reamer ? Write in short about shell
reamer.
[5-marks]

Chucking Reamer
Fluted
chucking
reamers have relief
behind the edges of the
teeth as well as beveled
ends. They can cut on
all portions of the teeth.
Their
flutes
are
relatively short and they
are intended for light
finishing cuts.

Truing is also required on a new conventional wheel to


ensure concentricity with specific mounting system.

Rose chucking reamers


are ground cylindrical
and have no relief
behind the outer edges
of the teeth. All cutting
is done on the beveled
ends of the teeth

Shell Reamer
Shell reamers often are
used for sizes over 20
mm to save cutting-tool
material. The shell,
made of HSS for smaller
sizes and with carbide
edges for larger sizes or
for
mass-production
work.

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Advantages of Down Milling


1. Suited to machine thin and hard-to-hold parts since
the workpiece is forced against the table or holding
device by the cutter.
2. Work need not be clamped as tightly.
3. Consistent parallelism and size may be maintained,
particularly on thin parts.
4. It may be used where breakout at the edge of the
workpiece could not be tolerated.
5. It requires upto 20% less power to cut by this method.
6. It may be used when cutting off stock or when milling
deep, thin slots.

Disadvantages of Down Milling


1. It cannot be used unless the machine has a backlash
eliminator and the table jibs have been tightened.

What are the superabrasive


materials for grinding wheel?
Hardest material diamond and cubic boron nitride

second hardest materials.

2. It cannot be used for machining castings or hot rolled


steel, since the hard outer scale will damage the cutter.

1. Work materials-Tensile strength


2. Helix angle-increase in helix angle reduce thrust
3. Point angle Increases with in point angle
4. Web thickness- Axial thrust will reduce by thinning

the web

44

4/1/2015

Gear Hobbing
The HSS or carbide cutter having teeth like gear milling
cutter and the gear blank apparently interact like a pair
of worm and worm wheel.
The hob (cutter) looks and behaves like a single or
multiple start worms.

(a) Straight (b) helical tooth and (c) worm wheel

Gear Hobbing
Having lesser number (only three) of tool work

motions, hobbing machines are much more rigid, strong


and productive than gear shaping machine.
But hobbing provides lesser accuracy and finish and is

used only for cutting straight or helical teeth (single) of


external spur gears and worm wheels.

Disadvantages of gear Hobbing


(a) Gear hobbing cannot generate internal gears and
bevel gears.
(b) Enough space has to be there in component
configuration for hob approach.

Advantages of Gear Hobbing


(a) The method is versatile and can generate spur,
helical, worm and worm wheels.
(b) Since gear hobbing is a continuous process, it is
rapid; economical and highly productive.
(c) The method produces accurate gears and is suitable
for medium and large batch production.
(d) The cutter is universal, because it can cut all gears of
same module, irrespective of number of teeth on the
gear.

IFS 2013

Applications of Hobbing
The gears produced by gear hobbing are used in

automobiles, machine tools, various instruments, clocks


and other equipments.

45

4/1/2015

Jig

Fixtures

Both jigs and fixtures hold, support, and locate the


work piece.
A jig also guides the cutting tool.

Both jigs and fixtures


hold, support, and
locate the work piece.
A
fixture
has
a
reference point for
setting the cutting tool
with reference to the
work piece.

3-2-1 Locating Principle


A workpiece, just like any free solid body, has six
degrees of freedom (some researchers have referred
this to the twelve degrees of freedom by considering
the +/- movements in each category)
For locating it is necessary to arrest all these six degrees
of freedom to ensure the mechanical stability.
A single locator in Plane 1 would arrest the linear
motion along the X-axis.
A second locator in the same plane would arrest the
rotary motion about the Z-axis.
Another locator placed in the same plane would arrest
the rotary motion about the Y-axis.

Adding one more locator in Plane 1 would not serve any


purpose.
So fourth locator is placed in Plane 2 which is
perpendicular to Plane 1. This would restrict the linear
motion along the Y-axis.
The fifth locator is placed in the Plane 2 which can
arrest the rotational motion about the X-axis.
The sixth locator placed in Plane 2 would not serve any
purpose.
So, sixth locator is placed in Plane 3 which is
perpendicular both the planes 1 and 2. This would
arrest the linear motion along the Z-axis.

IES - 2007

Fig. A
component with
six locators

According to the principle of location in jigs and


fixtures, how many degrees of freedom are to be
eliminated to have a body fixed in space?
(a) 3
(b) 4
(c) 5
(d) 6

46

4/1/2015

Considering 12 DOF
You must fix all the 12 degrees of freedom except the three

transitional degrees of freedom (-X, -Y and -Z) in order to


locate the work piece in the fixture. So, 9 degrees of
freedom of the work piece need to be fixed.
Rest the work piece on three non-collinear points of the
bottom surface (XY), and you will be able to fix
the +Z, CROT-X, ACROT-X, CROT-Y and ACROTY degrees of freedom.
Now, rest the work piece at two points of side surface (XZ),
and you will be able to fix the +Y and CROT-Z and ACROTZ degrees of freedom.
Now, rest the work piece at one point of the adjacent
surface (YZ), and you will be able to fix the +X degrees of
freedom.

GATE - 2005
When 3-2-1 principle is used to support and locate a
three dimensional work-piece during machining,
the number of degrees of freedom that are
restricted is
(a) 7
(b) 8
(c) 9
(d) 10

Points to ponder
When more than one locator is placed on a surface

(plane), they should be distributed as far apart as


possible on the surface.
While selecting the surface for the largest locators,

consideration should be given to the largest area of the


workpiece.

GATE - 2001
3-2-1 method of location in a jig or fixture would
collectively restrict the workpiece in n degrees of
freedom, where the value of n is
(a) 6
(b) 8
(c) 9
(d) 12

GATE-2013 (PI)

IES 2011

In the 3-2-1 principle of fixture design, 3 refers to the

In the 3-2-1 principle of fixture 3 refers to number of

number of

(a) Setups possible

(a) Clamps equired

(b) Clamps required

(b) Locators on the primary datum face

(c) Positions on primary face

(c) Degrees of freedom of the workpiece

(d) Locating positions

(d) Operations carried out on the primary datum face

47

4/1/2015

IES 1999
Assertion (A): Spherical washers are used to locate
the job in the fixtures.
Reason (R): 3-2-1 principle should be adopted to
locate the job.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

Clamping
To restrain the workpiece completely a clamping device

IFS 2012

IAS 2012

is required.
Holds the workpiece securely in a jig or fixture against

the forces applied over it during on operation.


Device should be incorporated into the fixture, proper

clamp in a fixture directly influence the accuracy and


quality of the work done and production cycle time.

Cam Clamps
Provide clamping force because of the contour of the cam

surface that comes into contact with the plate used for the
clamping.
Plate is pushed down by the cam against the spring
pressure to hold the part in place.
Cam clamps are quick in operation.
Cam clamps are of three types, eccentric cam, flat spiral
cam and cylindrical cam.
The design shown in Fig. is flat spiral and is the most
commonly used clamp.
Fig. A cam clamp used
for quick and easy
clamping a part

The design shown is indirect pressure clamping where


the pressure is transmit to the part through the plate.
This is more stable and the vibrations during
machining do not affect the a part clamping.

Fig. An example of a
fixture held by a cam
clamp

48

4/1/2015

Duplex Fixture

IFS-2011
What are the functions of jig ? Draw a jig to machine
four holes in a plate. What are two reasons for not
having drill bushings actually touching the workpiece
? What is a duplex fixture ?
[10-marks]

It is a type of multi-station fixtures used primarily for


high speed, high volume production runs where the
machining cycle must be continuous.
It uses only two stations. Once the machining operation
is complete at station one, the fixture is revolved and the
machining is started at
station two. During this
period, the machined part
is unloaded from station
one and a fresh part is
loaded there, and so on

Diamond Pin Locator


Diamond pins are often used for radial location .
One cylindrical locator (Pin A) arrests five degrees of
freedom, second cylindrical locator at the position B
will arrest the sixth degree of freedom.
If the two holes are identical in size then any pin can be
made the principal locator. However, if one of the holes
is larger then the principal locator will be placed in the
larger hole.
The second locator is made slightly smaller than the
hole and relieved from both sides to take care of the
variation in the X direction. The cylindrical surfaces
will locate the part in the Y direction.

49

2.1 NC CNC DNC

What is NC/CNC?
NC is an acronym for Numerical Control and CNC is an

acronym for Computer Numerical Control.

What is the difference between NC and CNC ?


The difference between NC and CNC is one of age and

capability.
The earliest NC machines performed limited functions
and movements controlled by punched tape or punch
cards.
As the technology evolved, the machines were equiped
with increasingly powerful microprocessors (computers)
with the addition of these computers, NC machines
become CNC machines.
CNC machines have far more capability than their
predecessor.
contd..

What is the difference between NC and CNC ?


Some of the enhancements that came along with CNC

include: Canned Cycles, Sub Programming, Cutter


Compensation, Work coordinates, Coordinate system
rotation, automatic corner rounding, chamfering, and Bspline interpolation.

What is a Conversational Control


CNC machine tool builders offer an option what is

known as the conversational control. This control lets


the

operator/programmer

use

simple

descriptive

language to program the part. The control then


displayed a graphical representation of the instructions
so the operator/programmer can verify the tool path.

Are CNC machines faster than


conventional machines?
Yes, No, Sometimes. When it comes to making a single,

simple part it is hard to beat a conventional mill or lathe.

CNC machines move faster in rapid travel than


conventional machines.

Are CNC machines more accurate


than conventional machines?
Yes, they can be. But like anything else it depends on

who is running the machine, how well the machines has


been maintained, quality of setup and so on.

NC/CNC Machines-Advantages
High Repeatability and Precision e.g. Aircraft parts

Volume of production is very high


Complex contours/surfaces need to be machined. E.g.

Turbines
Flexibility in job change, automatic tool settings, less
scrap
More safe, higher productivity, better quality
Less paper work, faster prototype production, reduction
in lead times

NC/CNC Machines-Disadvantages
Costly setup, skilled operators
Computers, programming knowledge required
Maintenance is difficult

Stepper Motor
The stepper motor is special type of synchronous motor

which is designed to rotate through a specific angle


(Called step) for each electrical pulse received from the
control unit.

IAS-2010 Main
Illustrate with the help of neat sketches the differences
between open-loop and closed-loop control in NC
system. Why is feedback not possible in open-loop

control system ?
[22- Marks]

Basic CNC Principles

IAS2010

IAS2013

IAS2014

Basic Length Unit (BLU)


In NC machine, the displacement length per one pulse

output from machine is defined as a Basic Length Unit


(BLU).
In the CNC computer each bit (binary digit) represents 1
BLU.
Bit = BLU
Example: If one pulse makes a servo motor rotate by one
degree and the servo motor moves the table by 0.0001
mm, one BLU will be 0.0001 mm.
The lead of a ball screw is related to the displacement
unit of the machine tool table.

GATE 2008 (PI)


A stepper motor has 150 steps. The output shaft of the

motor is directly coupled to a lead screw of pitch 4 mm,


which drives a table. If the frequency of pulse supply to
the motor is 200 Hz, the speed of the table (in mm/min)
is
(a) 400

(b) 320

(c) 300

(d) 280

Example
A DC servomotor is coupled directly to a leadscrew

which drives the table of an NC machine tool. A


digital encoder, which emits 500 pulses per
revolution, is mounted on the other end of the
leadscrew. If the leadscrew pitch is 5 mm and the
motor rotates at 600 rpm, calculate
(a) The linear velocity of the table
(b) The BLU of the NC system
(c) The frequency of pulses transmitted by the encoder.

10

IES 2011 Conventional


The table of a CNC machine is driven by a Lead screw which

is rotated by a DC servomotor. A digital encoder which emits


1000 pulses per second is mounted on the lead screw as a
feedback device. If the lead screw pitch is 6 mm and motor

rotates at 500 rpm, find


1.

Basic length Units of the system

2.

Linear velocity of the table.

3.

Frequency of pulses generated by the feedback device.


[5 Marks]

IAS-2010 Main
In open-loop NC system the shaft of a stepping motor is
connected directly to the lead screw x-axis of the
machine table. The pitch of the lead screw is 3.0 mm.
The number of step angles on the stepping motor is 200.
Determine how closely the position of the table can be
controlled, assuming that there are no mechanical errors
in the positioning system.
Also, what is the required frequency of the pulse train
and the corresponding rotational speed of the stepping
motor in order to drive the table at a travel rate of 100
mm/min?
[8- Marks]
Q.6.(b) (ii) What is meant by Part Programming ? Discuss point to point control,
and its applications.
Part programs for simple components can be carried out manually. However, if the component has complex
features which require too many repetitive and/or tedious calculations for preparing its program for cutter
path description, then it is recommended that computer-aided part programming be resorted to.
To be a good CNC programmer, one should have a fair knowledge about the machine tools, cutting tools
and fixtures to be used and the manufacturing process. He also should have a good understanding of
geometry, algebra and trigonometry. In fact, machine shop experience is the pre-requisite for a good

11

programmer as only careful process planning can lead to efficient and practical programs.

The following are the steps to be followed


while developing the CNC part programs.
Process planning
Axes selection
Tool selection
Cutting process parameters planning
Job and tool setup planning
Machining path planning
Part program writing
Part program proving

Control Systems possible in CNC Machine


Point to point mode:

12

Programming Key Letters


O - Program number (Used for program identification)
N - Sequence number (Used for line identification)
G - Preparatory function
X - X axis designation

Y - Y axis designation
Z - Z axis designation
R - Radius designation
F Feed rate designation

S - Spindle speed designation


H - Tool length offset designation
D - Tool radius offset designation
T - Tool Designation
M - Miscellaneous function

Table of Important G codes


Code

Meaning

Format

G00

Rapid Transverse

N__G00 X___ Y___ Z___

G01
G02

Linear Interpolation
Circular Interpolation,
CW

N__G01 X___ Y___ Z___ F___

Circular Interpolation,
CCW

N__G03 X___ Y___ Z__R__F___

G04
G17

Dwell
XY Plane

N__G04P___

G18
G19

XZ Plane

G03

N__G02 X__ Y__ Z___ R___ F___


N__G02 X___ Y__Z__I ___J __K __ F __

N__G03 X__ Y__Z__I __J __K __ F __

YZ Plane

13

Table of Important G codes


Code

Meaning

Format

G20/G70 Inch Unit

G21/G71
G28
G40

G41
G42
G43

Metric Unit
Automatic Return to Reference
Point
Cutter compensation cancel
Cutter compensation left
Cutter compensation right
Tool length compensation
(plus)

N__G41D__
N__G42D__
N__G43H__

Table of Important G codes


Code Meaning

Format

G44

Tool length compensation


(minus)

N__G44H__

G49

Tool length compensation


cancel
Cancel canned cycles

G80

G81
G90
G91
G92

N__G81 Z__R__F__
Drilling cycle
Absolute positioning
Incremental positioning
Absolute preset, change the N__G92X__Y__Z__
datum position

14

Rapid traverse: G00


G00:
to make the machine move at maximum speed.
It is used for positioning motion.

G90 G00 X20.0 Y10.0


End

G90:
absolute
coordinates

(20,10)
(10,10)

(0,0)

Start

Linear interpolation: G01


G01:
linear interpolation at feed speed.

G91 G0l X200.0 Y100.0 F200.0


G91:
incremental
coordinates

Y
End

100.0

Start

200.0

15

Circular interpolation: G02, G03


G02, G03:
For circular interpolation, the tool destination and the circle

center are programmed in one block

G02 is clockwise interpolation, G03 is counterclockwise

interpolation

G02
R

G17
G03X __Y __I __ J __F __;

G
02
R

G18
G03X __Z __I __ K __F __;

G02
R

G19 Y __Z __
F __;
G03
J __ K __
End
point

Circle center, radius

Circular interpolation: G02, G03


Y
X

R=-50mm

End

Specify R with
sign before it:
180 +R

Start

>180 -R

R=50mm

G91 G02 X60.0 Y20.0 R50.0 F300.0


G91 G02 X60.0 Y20.0 R-50.0 F300.0

16

Circular interpolation: G02, G03


N0010 G92 X200.0 Y40.0 Z0 ;
N0020 G90 G03 X140.0 Y100.0 I -60.0 F300
N0030 G02 X120. 0 Y60.0 I- 50.0

G92:
To define working
coordinate

Or

N0010 G92 X200.0 Y40.0 Z0


N0020 G90 G03 X140.0 Y100.0 R60.0 F300
N0030 G02 X120.0 Y60.0 R50.0
Y
100

G90:
absolute
coordinates

R50
R60

60
40

X
O

90 120 140

200

Tool-Radius Compensation
Tool-radius compensations make it possible to
program directly from the drawing, and thus eliminate
the tool-offset calculation

G41 (G42) D
D: the radius of tool to compensate is saved in a memory unit that

is named D

G41/G42 is directly related with direction of tool movement and

which side of part is cut.

17

Tool-Height Compensation
G43 (G44) H
H: specified memory unit used to save height
compensation of tool.

Positive compensation (G43):


real position = specified position + value saved in H
Negative compensation (G44):
real position = specified position - value saved in H

Tool-Height Compensation
Example:
N0010 G91 G00 X12.0 Y80.0

G91:
incremental
coordinates

N0020 G44 Z-32.0 H02


If we put 0.5mm into H02,
real position = -32.0 - 0.5 = -32.5

Cancel tool-height compensation: G49

18

Table of Important M codes


M00 Program stop

M01 Optional program stop


M03 Spindle on clockwise
M04 Spindle on counterclockwise

M05 Spindle stop


M06 Tool change
M08 Coolant on
M09 Coolant off
M10 Clamps on
M11 Clamps off
M02 or M30 Program stop, reset to start

Example of CNC Programming


What Must Be Done To Drill A Hole On A CNC
Vertical Milling Machine

19

Tool Home

Top
View

1.) X & Y Rapid To Hole Position

Front
View

Top
View

2.) Z Axis Rapid Move


Just Above Hole
3.) Turn On Coolant
4.) Turn On Spindle

Front
View

.100

20

Top
View
5.) Z Axis Feed Move to
Drill Hole

Front
View

Top
View

6.) Rapid Z Axis Move


Out Of Hole

Front
View

21

Top
View

7.) Turn Off Spindle


8.) Turn Off Coolant

Front
View

9.) X&Y Axis Rapid


Move Home

Heres The CNC Program!

Top
View

Front
View

Tool At Home

O0001
N005 G54 G90 S600 M03
N010 G00 X1.0 Y1.0
N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M08
N020 G01 Z-.75 F3.5
N025 G00 Z.1 M09
N030 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0
N035 M30

22

IAS2011

APT language form PPTs

IES-2008

Name the four types of statements in a complete APT


part program. Prepare part program for geometry
description of the contour shown in the figure below:
Y
[15-Marks]
30

40

20

L2

L3
135

80

20

C1

L4
L1
C2
L5
P2

20

20

P1
X

23

Answer:
PARTNO CONTOUR
MACHIN/MILL, 1
CLPRNT
UNITS/MM
P0 = POINT/0.0, 0.0, 0.0
P1 = POINT/110.0, 20.0, 0.0
P2 = POINT/20.0, 20.0, 0.0
P3 = POINT/90.0, 110.0, 0.0
P4 = POINT/20.0, 100.0, 0.0
P5 = POINT/50.0, 130.0, 0.0
L1 = LINE/P2, ATANGL, 90, XAXIS
L2 = LINE/P4, ANTNGL, 45, XAXIS
L3 = LINE/P5, ATANGL, 135, L2
L4 = LINE/P1, PERPTO, L3
L5 = LINE/P1, PERPTO, L4
C1=CIRCLE/CENTER, P3, RADIUS, 20.0
C2=CIRCLE/CENTER, P1, RADIUS, 20.0
PL1=PLANE/P1, P2, P3

Contd.
CUTTER/25.0
TOLER/0.1
INTOL/0.05
OUTTOL/0.05
FEDRAT/200
SPINDL/500, CLW
COOLNT/ON
FROM/P0
GO/TO, L1, TO, PL1, TO, L5
GOLFT/L1, PAST, L2
GORGT/L2, PAST, L3
GORGT/L3, TANTO, C1
GOFWD/C1, PAST, L4
GOFWD/L4, PAST, C2
GORGT/C2, PAST, L5
GORGT/L5, PAST, L1

24

Contd.
RAPID
GOTO/P0
COOLNT/OFF
SPINDL/OFF
END
FINI

IES-2007

Prepare part using APT language for milling the contour


shown in Fig. in a single pass. D
[20-Marks]
110

R30
Q

110
120

E
R40

40

+ 40

100

P
Material : M S.
8 mm

25

Answer:
PARTNO CONTOUR
MACHIN/MILL, 2
CLPRNT
UNITS/MM
P0 = POINT/0.0, 0.0, 10.0
PTA = POINT/0.0, 0.0, 0.0
PTB = POINT/0.0, 120.0, 0.0
PTC = POINT/30.0, 150.0, 0.0
PTD = POINT/140.0, 150.0, 0.0
PTE = POINT/140.0, 40.0, 0.0
PTF = POINT/100.0, 0.0, 0.0
PTQ = POINT/30.0, 120.0, 0.0
PTP = POINT/140.0, 0.0, 0.0
LAB = LINE/PTA, PTB
LCD = LINE/PTC, PTD
LDE = LINE/PTD, PTE
LAF = LINE/PTA, PTF
CBC = CIRCLE/CENTRE, PTQ, RADIUS, 30.0
CEF = CIRCLE/CENTRE, PTP, RADIUS, 40.0
PL1=PLANE/PTA, PTB, PTC

26

Contd.
CUTTER/25.0
TOLER/0.1
INTOL/0.05
OUTTOL/0.05
FEDRAT/200
SPINDL/500, CLW
COOLNT/ON
FROM/P0
GO/TO, LAB, TO, PL1, TO, LAF
GOLFT/LAB, TANTO, CBC
GOFWD/CBC, PAST, LCD
GORGT/LCD, PAST, LDE
GORGT/LDE, PAST, CEF
GORGT/CEF, PAST, LAF
GORGT/LAF, PAST, LAB

Contd.
RAPID
GOTO/P0
COOLNT/OFF
SPINDL/OFF
END
FINI

27

IES-2006

Prepare part program to machine the contour shown in


the figure using APT on CNC milling machine.
[15-Marks]
R30

R20

100 mm
80

50

60
200 mm

Material: MS

Thickness: 8.0 mm
R30

L2

C2

P3

C1
R20

P2
L3
100 mm

80

L1

X
P1

60

50

L4

200 mm

28

P4

R30

L2

P3

C1

Answer:

C2

R20

PARTNO CONTOUR
MACHIN/MILL, 3
CLPRNT
80 L1
UNITS/MM
P0 = POINT/0.0, 0.0, 10.0
P1 = POINT/0.0, 0.0, 0.0
P2 = POINT/60.0, 80.0, 0.0
P3 = POINT/150.0, 100.0, 0.0
60
P1
P4 = POINT/200.0, 0.0, 0.0
C1 = CIRCLE/ CENTER, P2, RADIUS, 20
C2 = CIRCLE/CENTER, P3, RADIUS, 30
L1 = LINE/P1, LEFT, TANTO, C1
L2 = LINE/LEFT, TANTO, C1, LEFT, TANTO, C2
L3 = LINE/P4, RIGHT, TANTO, C2
L4 = LINE/P1, P4
PL1=PLANE/P1, P2, P3

P2
L3
100 mm

X
50

L4

200 mm

Contd.
CUTTER/25.0
TOLER/0.1
INTOL/0.05
OUTTOL/0.05
COOLNT/ON
SPINDL/500, CLW
FEDRAT/200
FROM/P0
GO/TO, L1, TO, PL1, TO, L4
GOLFT/L1, TANTO, C1
GOFWD/C1, PAST, L2
GOFWD/L2, TANTO, C2
GOFWD/C2, PAST, L3
GOFWD/L3, PAST, L4
GORGT/L4, PAST, L1

29

P4

Contd.
RAPID
GOTO/P0
COOLNT/OFF
SPINDL/OFF
END
FINI

Home Work
Write a complete part program in APT for machining
the product which is given in the diagram. Thickness of
the workpiece is 6 mm. All dimensions are in mm.
[15]

30

PARTNO CONTOUR
MACHIN/MILL, 1
CLPRNT
UNITS/MM
P0 = POINT/-25.0,-25.0, 25.0
P1 = POINT/0.0, 0.0, 6.0
P2 = POINT/117.0, 32.0, 6.0
P3 = POINT/117.0, -32.0, 6.0
C1=CIRCLE/CENTER, P1, RADIUS, 10.0
C2=CIRCLE/CENTER, P2, RADIUS, 12.5
C3=CIRCLE/CENTER, P3, RADIUS, 12.5

L1 = LINE/RIGHT, TANTO, C1, RIGHT, TANTO, C3


L2 = LINE/LEFT, TANTO, C1, LEFT, TANTO, C2
C4=CIRCLE/XLARGE, OUT, C2, OUT, C3, RADIUS, 62
PL1=PLANE/P1, P2, P3
REMARK POSTPROCESSOR STATEMENT FOLLOW
CUTTER/50.0
TOLER/0.01
INTOL/0.05
OUTTOL/0.05
FEDRAT/200
SPINDL/1000, CLW
COOLNT/ON

31

REMARK MOTION STATEMENT FOLLOW


FROM/P0
GO/TO, L1, TO, PL1, TANTO, C1
GORGT/L1, TANTO, C3
GOFWD/C3, TANTO, C4
GOFWD/C4, TANTO, C2
GOFWD/C2, PAST, L2
GOFWD/L2, TANTO, C1
GOFWD/C1, PAST, L1
RAPID
GOTO/P0
COOLNT/OFF
SPINDL/OFF
END
FINI

IES 2011 Conventional


State the method of defining line segment of

cutter motion using APT program format.


[5 Marks]

32

Line (LINE)
LIN1 = LINE/ P1, P2
y
P2

P1

LIN1
x

Line (LINE)
L12 = LINE/ PT4, ATANGL, 20, XAXIS
L14 = LINE/ PT1, ATANGL, 40
L15 = LINE/ 32, -3, 2, ATANGL, -15, XAXIS
L16 = LINE/ PT3, ATANGL, 40, YAXIS
y
PT3

L14

40

L12

PT1

L16

PT4

40
L15

20
15

(32, -3, 2)

33

Line (LINE)
L2 = LINE/ PT51, RIGHT, TANTO, C11
L3 = LINE/ PT40, RIGHT, TANTO, C11
L4 = LINE/ PT40, LEFT, TANTO, C11
L3

Right

PT40

L1
Left
Left

L4

PT51
Right

L2

Line (LINE)
LN3 = LINE/ PNT6, PARLEL, LN15
LN4 = LINE/ PNT5, PERPTO, LN13
y
PNT6

PNT5

LN3
LN4

LN15

LN13

34

IAS2012

35

What is an industrial robot?


A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional
manipulator designed to handle material, parts, tools or
specialized devices through variable programmed
motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.

Advantages of Robots

Robotics and automation can, in many situation, increase

productivity, safety, efficiency, quality, and consistency of


products
Robots can work in hazardous environments
Robots need no environmental comfort
Robots work continuously without any humanity needs and
illnesses
Robots have repetable precision at all times
Robots can be much more accurate than humans, they may have
mili or micro inch accuracy.
Robots and their sensors can have capabilities beyond that of
humans
Robots can process multiple stimuli or tasks simultaneously,
humans can only one.
Robots replace human workers who can create economic
problems

36

Disadvantages of Robots

Robots lack capability to respond in emergencies, this can cause:


Inappropriate and wrong responses
A lack of decision-making power
A loss of power
Damage to the robot and other devices
Human injuries
Robots may have limited capabilities in
Degrees of Freedom
Dexterity
Sensors
Vision systems
Real-time Response
Robots are costly, due to
Initial cost of equipment
Installation Costs
Need for peripherals
Need for training
Need for Programming

Asimov's three laws of robotics


First law (Human safety):
A robot may not injure a human being, or, through
inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
Second law (Robots are slaves):
A robot must obey orders given it by human beings,
except where such orders would conflict with the First
Law.
Third law (Robot survival):
A robot must protect its own existence as long as such
protection does not conflict with the First or Second
Law.

37

All robots have the following basic components:


1. Manipulators: the mechanical unit, often called the
"arm," that does the actual work of the robot. It is

2.

3.

4.
5.

composed of mechanical linkages and joints with actuators


to drive the mechanism directly or indirectly through gears,
chains, or ball screws.
Feedback devices: transducers that sense the positions of
various linkages and joints and transmit this information to
the controllers in either digital or analog Form.
End effectors: the "hand" or "gripper" portion of the
robot, which attaches the end of the arm and perform the
operations of the robot.
Controller: the brains of the system that direct the
movements of the manipulator.
Power supply

Q.6.(a) (iv)

What are a manipulator, wrist and end effectors for a robot ?

Ans.6.(a) (iv) manipulator : - manipulator are built as serial chains or parallel chains
or occasionally a
combination of both. Links and joints (revolute and prismatic) that are mostly used in manipulators. In
spatial manipulators (open chains) adjacent axes are parallel or perpendicular to each other.
Wrists : - Wrists roll, yaw and pitch. There are 3 motions and 3 actuators are

required for motion.

End effector : - continuous path motion painting application are an


example when the end effector
has to move over a desired curve in space. The robot end effector is required to reach the centre of circle
the target point. The circle on extreme left shows the situation when the robot has poor
accurancy
and poor repeatability. The circle in the middle shows the EE had been repeatedly reaching positions
which are closely together through way
from the target point.

IES2010

38

Robotic Arc-Welding Cell


Robot performs
flux-cored arc

welding (FCAW)
operation at one
workstation
while fitter
changes parts at
the other
workstation

Ans PPT

39

IFS2013

IFS2011

Q.6.(b) (iii) In FMS define the terms : Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) and DNC. Explain
the
terms
chucking reamers and climb milling. What effect does the helix angle have on drill performance. Explain
the terms combined cuts and
multiple cuts.
Ans.6.(b) (iii) Automatic guided vehicle (AGV) : - It is mobile robot that follows markers or wire in the
floor or uses vision or lasers. They are most of ten used in industrial application to move material around
40

a manufacturing
facility or a warehouses. AGV system lareliable horizontal transportation when
spacels at a premium and flexibility is critical e.g Aerospace,
Automotive, clean room.
Direct numerical control (DNC) : - It is commonly manufacturing term for
networking CNC
machine tool. On some CNC machine controllers the
available memory is too small to contain the
machine programmed. So in this case the programme is stored in separate computer and sent directly to
the machine. If the computer connected to a number of machines it can
distribute
programme to different machine required. DNC networking or
DNC communication is always required
when CAM programme are th run or
some CNC machine control.
Helix angle effect : - An increase in the helix angle to more quickly remove chips
but
a
decrease in helix angle in the interest of greater strength of
cutting
edges,
in
the
drilling
performance.
IES2010

IAS2011

CAD

41

CAM

Automations

FMS

from PPTS

42

MATERIALSCIENCEQUESTIONANDANSWER (CONVENTIONALTYPE)
Q-1:
A-1:

What are coordination number of BCC, FCC and HCP crystal structure?
CN, the coordination number, which is the number of closest neighbors to which an atom is bonded.
CN of BCC structure is 8
CN of FCC structure is 12
CN of HCP structure is 12

BCC

FCC

HCP

Q-2:
A-2:

What are packing factors of BCC, FCC and HCP crystal structure?
APF, the atomic packing factor, which is the fraction of the volume of the cell actually occupied by
the hard spheres. APF = Sum of atomic volumes/Volume of cell.
APF of BCC structure is 0.68
APF of FCC structure is 0.74
APF of HCP structure is 0.74

Q-3:
A-3:

How many slip planes are there in BCC, FCC and HCP crystal structure?
Crystal
BCC
FCC
HCP

Q-4:
A-4:

[1 2 0]

Slip Planes
{110}, {112}, {123}
{111}
Basal plane, Prismatic & Pyramidal planes

Show crystalographic directions [1 2 0], [1 3 3], [1 1 0 0], [1 2 0]


The length of the vector
projection on the axis x,
y and z respectably
a/2, b, 0c

Crystalographic Directions

Page 1 of 14

[1 3 3]

a/3, b, c

[1 1 0 0]

0.866a, -0.866a, 0a, 0c

[1 2 0]

a/2, -b, 0c

Page 2 of 14

Q-5:
A-5:

Show crystalographic planes [1 0 2], [2 2 1], [6 3 2], [10 1 0]


Crystalographic Planes
[1 0 2]

[ 2 2 1]

[632]

[10 1 0]
Plane
ABCD

Page 3 of 14

Q-6:
A-6:

Show Burgers vector in edge and screw dislocations.


Burgers vector in edge dislocations
Burgers vector in screw dislocations

Q-7:
A-7:

Why fine grained structure is harder than coarse grain structure?


The smaller the grain size, the more frequent is the pile up of dislocations. With decrease in grain
size, the mean distance of a dislocation can travel decreases, and soon starts pile up of dislocations at
grain boundaries. This leads to increase in yield strength of the material.

Q-8:
A-8:

What is the type of solid solution (a) copper and nickel (b) Iron and carbon
(a) copper and nickel
Cu-Ni forms a sunstitutional solid solution. If a melt of Cu and Ni with any composition is
cooled, a solid solution begins to freeze out. This solid solution is richer in Ni than the liquid
solution. As the two phase system of solid plus melt is cooled further, the mole fractin of Ni
decreases in both the solid solution and the liquid melt.
(b) Iron and carbon
Fe-C forms an interstitial solid solution; the C atoms occupy interstices in the crystal
structure of substance Fe. The Fe-Fe3C is characterized by five individual phases. Five
phases that exist in the Fe-C diagram are: ferrite (BCC) Fe-C solid solution, -austenite
(FCC) Fe-C solid solution, -ferrite (BCC) Fe-C solid solution, Fe3C (iron carbide) or
cementite - an inter-metallic compound and liquid Fe-C solution.

Q-9:
A-9:

Differentiate between the following; a) age hardening b) strain hardening c) precipitation


hardening.
a) Age hardening or c) precipitation hardening.
Age hardening is produced by solution treating and quenching an alloy. Term Age hardening is used
to describe the process because strength develops with time. Requisite for precipitation hardening to
take place is that second phase must be soluble at an elevated temperature but precipitates upon
quenching and aging at a lower temperature. This limits the alloy systems which can be
strengthened by precipitation hardening. For example: Al-alloys, Cu-Be alloys, Mg-Al alloys, Cu-Sn
alloys. If the precipitation occurs at normal ambient temperatures, it is called natural aging. Some
alloy systems needed to be aged at higher temperatures and the process is known as artificial aging.
Most precipitation hardened alloys are limited in their maximum service temperatures, which may
lose their strength at elevated temperatures due to over-aging.
b) Strain hardening
Phenomenon where ductile metals become stronger and harder when they are deformed
plastically is called strain hardening or work hardening.
During plastic deformation, dislocation density increases. And thus their interaction with
each other resulting in increase in yield stress.

Dislocation density () and shear stress () are related as, = o + A


Page 4 of 14

Q-10: Explain the effect of mean stress on fatigue life.


A-10: Failure that occurs under fluctuating/cyclic loads Fatigue. Fatigue occurs at stresses that
considerable smaller than yield/tensile strength of the material. S-N testing is done under
alternating (completely reversed) loading and stress. Here mean stress (m) is zero. If mean stress is
present then fatigue life will change according to the following diagram.

Following empirical curves are used to estimate mean stress effects on fatigue life
a. Soderberg (USA, 1930)
b. Goodman (England, 1899)
c. Gerber (Germany, 1874)
d. Morrow (USA, 1960s)
Q-11: Explain the difference between Soderberg line and Goodman line.
A-11:

Alternating stress ( a ) =
Mean stress ( m ) =

max min
2

max + min
2

Yield strength = y
Ultimate TensileStrength = u

1.

Goodman Line

2.

Soderberg Line

a m
+
=1
e ut
a m
+
=1
e y

Most actual test data tend to fall above the Goodman line.
The Soderberg line is very conservative and seldom used.

Q-12: What are creep resistant alloy? Give composition of Nimonic 90 and Vitallium HS 21.
A-12: Creep resistant alloy
To make creep resistance alloy we have to strengthen the solid solution by mechanisms which cause
dislocation locking and those which contribute to lattice friction hardening.
The alloy can also be hardened by precipitation. Some solute alloying elements is added in reducing
the rate of climb and cross-slip processes.
Page 5 of 14

Example: The nickel alloy (Inconol, Nimonic), ferritic steel, austenitic steel 16-25-6, etc.
Composition of Nimonic 90
Cr-20%, Co-16%, Ti-2.3% Al-1.40 %, Fe-0.5%, C-0.08%, Mn-0.06%, Si-0.017% and Ni -58%
Composition of Vitallium HS 21
C 0.25%, Cr 27%, Ni 3 %, Mo 5%, Fe 1%, Mn 1%, Si -1%, Co - bal
Q-13: Differentiate between temper embrittlement and hydrogen embrittlement.
A-13: Temper embrittlement
Tempering of some steels may result in a reduction of toughness what is known as temper
embrittlement. This may be avoided by (1) compositional control, and/or (2) tempering above 575oC
or below 375oC , followed by quenching to room temperature. The effect is greatest in Martensite
structures, less severe in bainitic structures and least severe in pearlite structures. It appears to be
associated with the segregation of solute atoms to the grain boundaries lowering the boundary
strength. Impurities responsible for temper brittleness are: P, Sn, Sb and As. Si reduces the risk of
embrittlement by carbide formation. Mo has a stabilizing effect on carbides and is also used to
minimize the risk of temper brittleness in low alloy steels.
Hydrogen embrittlement
Hydrogen embrittlement is more failure than a form of corrosion, but it is often results from the
hydrogen, produced from corrosion. Atomic hydrogen produced during corrosion diffuses
interstitially through crystal lattice, and interferes with dislocation motion, leading to failure. It is
similar to stress corrosion in the sense that ductile materials experience brittle failures as a result.
Counter measures to hydrogen embrittlement include: heat treatment to reduce strength of the
alloy; removal of source of hydrogen; baking the component to drive out any dissolved hydrogen.
Q-14: What is diffusion couple? Give two examples.
A-14: Diffusion couple is made by two metals A and
B. Two containers of two metals are joined
together by removing the barrier between
them. This couple is heated for an extended
period at a higher temperature, but certainly
lower than the melting points of A and B, and
then cooled to room temperature. It is
observed that atoms A have migrated into
atoms B and atoms B have migrated into
atoms A. There is a net flow of atoms from
higher concentration to lower concentration
regions. This type of diffusion is known as
inter-diffusion or impurity diffusion.
Example
(i)
Copper and Nickel couple
Gold and Silver couple
(ii)

Fig. Diffusion couple of two metals


Page 6 of 14

Q-15: Explain how annealing and normalizing are diffusion controlled processes?
A-15: Annealing can be defined as a heat treatment process in which the material is taken to a high
temperature, kept there for some time and then cooled. Carbon atoms diffuse in BCC and FCC by
interstitial diffusion process. High temperatures allow diffusion processes to occur fast. The time at
the high temperature (soaking time) must be long enough to allow the desired transformation to
occur.
Normalizing is used to refine the grains and produce a more uniform and desirable size distribution.
It involves heating the component to attain single phase (e.g.: austenite in steels), then cooling in
open air atmosphere. In normalizing also high temperature allows diffusion process to occur fast.
Q-16: What is a Eutectic system? Explain copper/silver and lead/tin eutectics.
A-16: Many binary systems have components which have limited solid solubility, e.g.: Cu-Ag, Pb-Sn. The
regions of limited solid solubility at each end of a phase diagram are called terminal solid solutions
as they appear at ends of the diagram.
Many of the binary systems with limited solubility are of eutectic type, which consists of specific
alloy composition known as eutectic composition that solidifies at a lower temperature than all other
compositions. This low temperature which corresponds to the lowest temperature at which the liquid
can exist when cooled under equilibrium conditions is known as eutectic temperature. The
corresponding point on the phase diagram is called eutectic point. When the liquid of eutectic
composition is cooled, at or below eutectic temperature this liquid transforms simultaneously into
two solid phases (two terminal solid solutions, represented by and ). This transformation is
known as eutectic reaction and is written symbolically as:
Liquid (L) solid solution-1 () + solid solution-2 ()
This eutectic reaction is called invariant reaction as it occurs under equilibrium conditions at a
specific temperature and specific composition which can not be varied.
Thus, this reaction is represented by a thermal horizontal arrest in the cooling curve of an alloy of
eutectic composition. A typical eutectic type phase diagram is shown in figure-4 along with a cooling
curve.

Eutectic system of Copper and Silver


In the Copper-silver binary eutectic system, the invariant point is located at 71.9 wt% Ag + 28.1 wt%
Cu at 779oC

Page 7 of 14

Eutectic reactions for copper-silver


L (71.9 wt% Ag + 28.1 wt% Cu)

cooling
R
heating

(8.0 wt% Ag + 92 wt% Cu) +


(91.2 wt% Ag + 8.8 wt% Cu)

Eutectic system of Lead and Tin


In the lead-tin binary eutectic system, the invariant point is located at 61.9 wt% Sn + 38.1 wt% Pb at
183oC

Page 8 of 14

Eutectic reactions for Lead and tin


L (61.9 wt% Sn + 38.1 wt% Pb)

cooling
R
heating

(18.3 wt% Sn + 81.7 wt% Pb) +


(97.8 wt% Sn + 2.2 wt% Pb)

Q-17: What are hypoeutectoid and hypereutectoid steels, explain.


A-17: Hypoeutectoid Steel
Plain carbon steels in which carbon percentage is less than 0.8% are called hypoeutectoid steel.
Hypereutectoid Steel
Plain carbon steels in which carbon percentage is more than 0.8% are called hypoeutectoid steel.

Q-18: What is 0.8% C, steel, what are its special properties?


A-18: Steel which contains 0.8% C is known as eutectoid composition. In the solid state when
cooled below 723oC a eutectic reaction takes place one solid phase (-iron) having eutectoid (0.8% C)
composition transforms into two different solid phases ferrite and Fe3C (cementite). This
particular composition of ferrite and cementite is known as pearlite.

Q-19: What is tempered martensite?


A-19: Cooling the austenized steel to temperature
just above Ms temperature, holding it there
until temperature is uniform, followed by
cooling at a moderate rate to room
temperature before austenite-to-bainite
transformation begins. The final structure
is tempered Martensite

Page 9 of 14

Q-20: What is the driving force in the formation of Spheroidite?


A-20: The driving force for the formation of spheroidite is the net reduction in ferrite-cementite phase
boundary area.
Q-21: What is the difference between martempering and austempering?
A-21: Martempering is a modified quenching procedure used to minimize distortion and cracking that
may develop during uneven cooling of the heat-treated material. It involves cooling the austenized
steel to temperature just above Ms temperature, holding it there until temperature is uniform,
followed by cooling at a moderate rate to room temperature before austenite-to-bainite
transformation begins. The final structure of martempered steel is tempered Martensite.

Austempering is different from martempering in the sense that it involves austenite-to bainite
transformation. Thus, the structure of austempered steel is bainite. Advantages of austempering are
improved ductility; decreased distortion and disadvantages are need for special molten bath; process
can be applied to limited number of steels.

Q-22: What is the difference between nitriding and carbonitriding processes?


A-22: Nitriding
Nitriding is carried out in the ferritic region. No phase change occurs after nitriding. The part to be
nitrided should posses the required core properties prior to nitriding. During nitriding, pure
ammonia decomposes to yield nitrogen which enters the steel. The solubility of nitrogen in ferrite is
small. Most of the nitrogen, that enters the steel, forms hard nitrides (e.g., Fe3N). The temperature
of nitriding is 500-590oC. The time for a case depth of 0.02 mm is about 2 hr. In addition to providing
outstanding wear resistance, the nitride layer increases the resistance of carbon steel to corrosion in
moist atmospheres.
Page 10 of 14

Carbonitriding
Carbonitriding is a lower cost surface hardening process that provides a thin, high hardness case on
lower hardenability steels. Carbonitriding involves the diffusion of both carbon and nitrogen into the
base steel. The carbon provides the base metal with a high carbon surface, and the nitrogen provides
the case with an added boost of hardenability to insure full case hardness. The addition of nitrogen
makes the carbonitriding process especially suited to plain, low carbon steel that would not
otherwise respond to standard carburizing. Carbonitriding is usually carried out in a temperature
range of 820-900C in a gaseous atmosphere adding between 0.5 to 0.8% carbon and 0.2-0.4% (< 5%)
nitrogen to the surface of plain carbon steel or low alloy steel.
Q-23: What are the high-strength low-alloy steel?
A-23:
High-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA) is a type of alloy steel that provides better mechanical
properties or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel.
HSLA steels vary from other steels in that they are not made to meet a specific chemical composition
but rather to specific mechanical properties.
They have low carbon content between 0.050.25% to retain formability and weldability.
Other alloying elements include up to 2.0% manganese and small quantities
of copper, nickel, niobium, nitrogen, vanadium, chromium,
molybdenum, titanium, calcium, rare
earth elements, or zirconium.
Copper, titanium, vanadium, and niobium are added for strengthening purposes.
These steels are not strengthened by heat treatment due to low carbon content.
Q-24: Give composition and use of (a) Hadfield steel (b) Maraging steel (c) Spring Steel (d) Rail
Steel (e) Invar Steel
A-24:
Composition
Use
(a) Hadfield steel
C 1.1 to 1.4%, Mn 11-14%, rest Fe
Jaw crusher plate, Nuts and
bolts, Chains
(b) Maraging steel
C <0.03%, Ni-25%, Co 7-10%, Mo 3 -5%, Ti Aircraft under carriage parts,
1.75 %, Al- 0.2%, other trace, rest Fe
portable bridges and booster
motor in missile
(c) Spring Steel
C 0.55 0.65%, Si 0.1 0.35%, Mn 0.7 1.0 Spring
%, Cr 0.4 0.6%, Ni 0.4 0.7%, Mo 0.15
0.25%, rest Fe

(d) Rail Steel

C 0.4 0.6 %, Mn -1.5%, rest Fe

(e) Invar Steel

Ni 32%, Fe-68%

Rail
Precision measuring
instrument, survey measuring
tapes

Q-25: What is nodular cast Iron? How it is made?


A-25: Nodular (or ductile) cast iron: Alloying additions are of prime importance in producing these
materials. Small additions of Mg / Ce to the gray cast iron melt before casting can result in graphite
to form nodules or sphere-like particles. Matrix surrounding these particles can be either ferrite or
pearlite depending on the heat treatment. These are stronger and ductile than gray cast irons.
Q-26: What is Superalloy? Give composition and use of Waspalloy, and Inconel?
A-26: Superalloys as a class constitute the currently reigning aristocrats of the metallurgical world. They
are the alloys which have made jet flight possible, and they show what can be achieved by drawing
together and exploiting all the resources of modern physical and process metallurgy in the pursuit of
a very challenging objective.
Page 11 of 14

Applications of Superalloy?
Gas Turbine Engines
Blades, vanes, disks, combustors

Space Vehicles
Rocket motors

Nuclear Reactors

Submarines

Petroleum Equipment
Composition
Waspalloy
Cr-19%, Co-13%, Ti-3%, Al 1.4%, Zr 0.06 %,
C 0.08%, rest Ni
Inconel
Cr 15%, Ti 2.4%, Al 1%, Nb 1%, Ta 1%, Fe
7%, C 0.04%, rest Ni

Use

For
high
temperature
application upto 900oC
For
high
temperature
application upto 820oC

Q-27: What are PTFE, Nylon 6, Nylon 610, Perspex, where they are used?
A-27:
What is?
Use
PTFE
Fluorocarbons (PTFE or TFE) or Teflon. It Anticorrosive seals, chemical
is chemically inert in almost all pipes and valves, bearings, anti
environments,
excellent
electrical adhesive coatings, high
properties; low coefficient of friction; may be temperature electronic parts.
used to 260oC; relatively weak and poor
cold-flow properties.

Nylon 6

Nylon 6 or polycaprolactam or cast nylon is


polymer developed
to
reproduce
the
properties of nylon 6,6. Unlike most
other nylons, nylon 6 is not a condensation
polymer, but instead is formed by ringopening polymerization.

Synthetic fibers

Nylon 610

Polyhexamethylene sebacamide

Flexible tubes

Perspex

PMMA-polymethyle methacrylate

Domestic article

Q-28: What are conducting polymers and conducting ceramics? Give 2 examples of each.
A-28: Conducting Polymers
Due to the kind of bonding, polymers are typically electrical and thermal insulators. However,
conducting polymers can be obtained by doping, and conducting polymer-matrix composites can be
obtained by the use of conducting fillers. They decompose at moderate temperatures (100 400oC),
and are lightweight. Other properties vary greatly. . The most recent research in this has been the
development of highly conducting polymers with good stability and acceptable processing attributes.
Example: Polyacetylene, Polyphenylene, Polypyrroles
Conducting Ceramics
Conductive ceramics, advanced industrial materials that, owing to modifications in their structure,
serve as electrical conductors. Like metals, conducting ceramics have overlapping electron energy
bands and are therefore excellent electronic conductors. They constitute complex systems based on
oxide and non-oxide phases.
Examples: lead oxide (PbO), ruthenium dioxide (RuO2), bismuth ruthenate (Bi2Ru2O7)
Page 12 of 14

Q-29: What are silicon carbide and silicon nitride, what are their strength and hardness?
A-29: Silicon carbide (SiC)
It is known as one of best ceramic material for very high temperature applications. It is used as
coatings on other material for protection from extreme temperatures. It is also used as abrasive
material. It is used as reinforcement in many metallic and ceramic based composites. It is a
semiconductor and often used in high temperature electronics.
Ultimate tensile strength of SiC is 300 MPa
Hardness of SiC is 2500 VPN (Vickers Pyramid Number)
Silicon nitride (Si3N4)
It has properties similar to those of SiC but is somewhat lower, and found applications in such as
automotive and gas turbine engines.
Ultimate tensile strength of Si3N4 is 580 MPa
Hardness of Si3N4 is 2300 VPN (Vickers Pyramid Number)
Q-30: What are dispersion strengthened and particulate composites? Give two examples of
each.
A-30: Dispersion-strengthened composites
In this composite, particles are of 0.01-0.1 m in size.
Strengthening occurs as a result of dislocation motion hindrance. It is similar to that of
precipitation hardening in metals.
Matrix bears the major portion of the applied load, while dispersoids obstruct the motion of
dislocations.
Example: thoria (ThO2) dispersed Ni-alloys (TD Ni-alloys) with high-temperature strength; SAP
(sintered aluminium powder) where aluminium matrix is dispersed with extremely small flakes of
alumina (Al2O3).
Particulate composites
These composites contain large number of coarse particles.
These composites are designed to produce combination of properties rather than increase the
strength.
Mechanical properties are characterized by rule-of-mixtures.
Particulate composites are usually made of all three conventional engineering materials, namely
metals, polymers and ceramics.
Example: tungsten carbide (WC) or titanium carbide (TiC) embedded cobalt or nickel based cutting
tools. Aluminium alloy castings containing dispersed SiC particles are widely used for automotive
applications including pistons and brake applications.
Q-31: Describe the following
(a) Ceramic matrix composite
(b) Metal matrix composite
(c) Carbon Carbon Composite
A-31: (a) Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs)
They are a subgroup of composite materials as well as a subgroup of technical ceramics. They consist
of ceramic fibers embedded in a ceramic matrix, thus forming a ceramic fiber reinforced ceramic
(CFRC) material. The matrix and fibers can consist of any ceramic material,
whereby carbon and carbon fibers can also be considered a ceramic material.
(b) Metal Matrix Composites (MMC)
Metal Matrix Composites are composed of a metallic matrix (aluminium, magnesium, iron, cobalt,
copper) and a dispersed ceramic (oxides, carbides) or metallic (lead, tungsten, molybdenum) phase.

Page 13 of 14

(c) Carbon Carbon Composite


It is a composite material consisting of carbon fibre reinforcement in a matrix of graphite. It was
developed for the nose cones of intercontinental ballistic missiles. It has been used in the brake
systems of Formula One racing cars. Carboncarbon is well-suited to structural applications at high
temperatures, or where thermal shock resistance and/or a low coefficient of thermal expansion is
needed.
Q-32: Explain the following in corrosion
(a) Redox
(b) Electrolyte
A-32:

(a) Redox corrosion


Corrosion of metals is the most common type of corrosion and is a process involving an exchange
of electrons between two substances, one of them being the metal. In this process, the metal
usually loses electrons, becoming oxidized, while the other substance gains electrons, becoming
reduced. For this reason, corrosion is classified as an oxidation-reduction or redox reaction.
While many redox reactions are extremely important and beneficial to society (for example, those
that are used to make batteries), the redox reactions involved in corrosion are destructive.
(b) Electrolyte corrosion
Electrochemical corrosion takes place in the presence of an electrolyte, which is simply a fluid
conducting electricity, by migration of ions. Water generally contains mineral ions, hydrogen ions
and hydroxyl ions. In this case of atmospheric corrosion, humidity in the air does the job of an
electrolyte.

Q-33: Explain (a) Degradation of polymer (b) Corrosion of ceramics


A-33: (a) Degradation of polymer
As other engineering materials, polymers also deteriorated during their service. However, in
contrast to electrochemical nature of metal corrosion, polymer degradation is of
physiochemical in nature.
As polymer structures are complex, so are the mechanisms involved in their deterioration.
Many factors involved in degradation of polymers, like temperature, radiation,
environment, moisture, bacteria or external loads/stress.
Polymers degrade mainly in three forms swelling and dissolution, bond rupture, and
weathering.
(b) Corrosion of ceramics
As ceramics are made of metals and non-metals, they can be considered as already corroded.
Ceramics do get deteriorated during their service under extreme temperatures and external
loads.
Factors effecting life of ceramic components include: temperature, external loads, vibrations,
environment, etc.
Life span of ceramics can be increased by controlling the environment they are exposed to;
operational loads and temperatures; altering the component design.
Q-34: Give composition and uses of Permalloy and Cammalloy
A-34:
Composition
Use
Permalloy
45 Permalloy (55%Fe-45%Ni),
Application of soft magnets (Permalloy)
include: cores for electro-magnets, electric
79 Permalloy (79% Ni-4% Mo-17 %Fe),
motors, transformers, generators, and
other electrical equipment.
Cammalloy
66.5% Ni, 30% Cu, 3.5% Fe
Soft magnetic material, Curie point is
100oC
Page 14 of 14

For -2015

Rev1

Metal Cutting, Metal Forming & Metrology


Theory, Questions & Answers (All Questions are in Sequence)
IES-1992-2014 (23 Yrs.), GATE-1992-2014 (23 Yrs.), GATE (PI)-2000-2014 (15 Yrs.), IAS-1994-2011
(18 Yrs.), some PSUs questions and conventional questions are added.
Section-I: Theory of Metal Cutting

Theory & Questions

Chapter-1: Basics of Metal Cutting


Chapter-2: Force & Power in Metal Cutting
Chapter-3: Tool life, Tool Wear, Economics and Machinability

Answer &Explanation

Page-2
Page-9
Page-16

Page-137
Page-141
Page-151

Page-34
Page-44
Page-55

Page-160
Page-165
Page-166

Page-60
Page-65
Page-75
Page-86
Page-99
Page-117

Page-167
Page-168
Page-171
Page-176
Page-179
Page-184

Page-127

Page-185

--

Page-188

Section-II: Metrology
Chapter-4: Limit, Tolerance & Fits
Chapter-5: Measurement of Lines & Surfaces
Chapter-6: Miscellaneous of Metrology

Section-III: Metal Forming


Chapter-7: Cold Working, Recrystalization and Hot Working
Chapter-8: Rolling
Chapter-9: Forging
Chapter-10: Extrusion & Drawing
Chapter-11: Sheet Metal Operation
Chapter-12: Powder Metallurgy
Section-IV: Cutting Tool Materials
Section -V: Forging Analysis
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 1 of 205

Rev.1

IAS 2009 i
IAS2009main

GATE 2014
GATE2014

p
p
y Name four independent
variables and three dependent

TheoryofMetalCutting

B SKM d l
BySKMondal

variables in metal cutting.

[ 5 marks]

I d
IndependentVariables
d tV i bl

D
DependentVariables
d tV i bl

Startingmaterials
Startingmaterials

Forceorpowerrequirements
Forceorpowerrequirements

(tool/work)

Maximumtemperaturein

Toolgeometry

cutting

CuttingVelocity

Surfacefinish

g rake
Better surface finish is obtained with a large
angle because
(a) the area of shear plane decreases resulting in the
decrease in shear force and cutting force
(b) the tool becomes thinner and the cutting force is
reduced
( ) less
(c)
l
h
heat
i accumulated
is
l d in
i the
h cutting
i zone
(d) the friction between the chip and the tool is less

Lubrication
Lubrication
1

IES 2013
IES2013

Feed&Depth ofcut

S 200
IES2001

Carbide tool is used to machine a 30 mm diameter


steel shaft at a spindle speed of 1000 revolutions per
minute. The cutting speed of the above turning
operation is:
( ) 1000 rpm
(a)

IES1995

For cutting of brass with singlepoint


single point cutting tool
on a lathe, tool should have
( ) Negativerakeangle
(a)
N ti k
l
(b) Positiverakeangle
(c) Zerorakeangle
(d) Zerosidereliefangle

(b) 1570 m/min

Singlepointthreadcuttingtoolshouldideally
have:
a)) Zerorake
b) Positiverake
c) Negativerake
d) Normalrake

(c) 94.2 m/min


(d) 47.1 m/min

Cuttingpowerconsumptioninturningcanbe
C tti

ti i t
i
b
significantlyreducedby
g
y
y
(a)Increasingrakeangleofthetool
(b)Increasingthecuttinganglesofthetool
(c)Wideningthenoseradiusofthetool
(d)I
(d)Increasingtheclearanceangle
i h l

Assertion (A): For a negative rake tool, the specific


cutting pressure is smaller than for a positive rake
tool under otherwise identical conditions.
Reason (R): The shear strain undergone by the chip
in the case of negative rake tool is larger.
larger
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correctt explanation
l
ti off A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Page 2 of 205

S 2005
200
IES

IES1993

GATE1995;2008

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Assertion (A): Carbide tips are generally given


negative rake angle.
Reason (R): Carbide tips are made from very hard
materials.
( ) Both
(a)
B th A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true
t
and
d R is
i the
th
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Rev.1

S 2002
IES
Assertion (A): Negative rake is usually provided on
carbide tipped tools.
Reason (R): Carbide tools are weaker
in
compression.
( ) Both
(a)
B th A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true
t
and
d R is
i the
th
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

IES2011
Which one of the following statement is NOT correct
with reference to the purposes and effects of rake angle
of a cutting tool?
(a) To guide the chip flow direction
(b) To reduce the friction between the tool flanks and
the machined surface
(c) To add keenness or sharpness to the cutting edges.
(d) To provide better thermal efficiency.

( )
GATE 2008(PI)
Brittle materials are machined with tools
having zero or negative rake angle because it
(a) results in lower cutting force
( ) improves surface finish
(b)
(c) provides adequate strength to cutting tool
(d) results in more accurate dimensions

10

11

12

ForIESOnly

Cast iron with impurities of carbide requires a


particular rake angle for efficient cutting with single
point tools, what is the value of this rake angle, give
reasons for
f your answer.

[ 2 marks]
k ]

Answer: Free carbides in castings reduce their machinability


and cause tool chipping or fracture, necessitating tools with
high toughness. Zero rake tool is perfect for this purpose.

Considerthefollowingcharacteristics
1. Thecuttingedgeisnormaltothecuttingvelocity.
2. Thecuttingforcesoccurintwodirectionsonly.
Th tti f

i t di ti
l
3. Thecuttingedgeiswiderthanthedepthofcut.
Thecharacteristicsapplicabletoorthogonalcutting
wouldinclude
(a) 1and2
(b) 1and3
(c) 2and3
(d) 1,2and3
1 2and3

13

IES 2012
IES

Which one of the following statements is correct about


an oblique cutting?
(a) Direction of chip flow velocity is normal to the
cutting edge of the tool
(b) Only
O l two
t
components
t off cutting
tti
f
forces
actt on the
th
tool
(c) cutting edge of the tool is inclined at an acute angle
to the direction of tool feed
(d) Cutting edge clears the width of the workpiece

14

IES2006

Duringorthogonalcutting,anincreaseincuttingspeed
causes
(a)Anincreaseinlongitudinalcuttingforce
(b)Anincreaseinradialcuttingforce
(c)Anincreaseintangentialcuttingforce
( )
(d)Cuttingforcestoremainunaffected
g

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

IES 2014
IES

S 1994
99
IAS

IES2007Conventionall

16

Whichofthefollowingisasinglepointcutting
tool?
(a) Hacksawblade
(b) Millingcutter
(c) Grindingwheel
(d) Partingtool
P ti t l

Page 3 of 205

15

IES 2012
IES
()
g
g
p
g
Statement(I):Negativerakeanglesarepreferredonrigidset
upsforinterruptedcuttinganddifficulttomachine
materials.
Statement(II):Negativerakeangledirectsthechipsontothe
machinedsurface
( ) Both
(a)
B h Statement
S
(I) and
d Statement
S
(II) are individually
i di id ll
true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of
Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually
p
of
true but Statement ((II)) is not the correct explanation
Statement (I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true
Rev.1
18

IES2003
The angle of inclination of the rake face with
respect to the tool base measured in a plane
perpendicular to the base and parallel to the width
of the tool is called
(a) Back rake angle
(b) Side rake angle
(c) Side cutting edge angle
((d)) End cutting
g edge
g angle
g

The diameter and rotational speed of a job are 100 mm and


500 rpm respectively.
respectively The high spot (Chatter marks) are
found at a spacing of 30 deg on the job surface. The chatter
frequency is
(a) 5 Hz

(b) 12 Hz

(c) 100 Hz

19

20

Consider the following statements:


In an orthogonal, singlepoint metal cutting,
as the
th sidecutting
id
tti edge
d angle
l is
i increased,
i
d
1. The tangential
g
force increases.
2. The longitudinal force drops.
3. The
Th radial
di l force
f
i
increases.
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
( ) 2 and 3 only
(c)
( ) 1, 2 and 3
(d)

Thrustforcewillincreasewiththeincreasein
(a) Sidecuttingedgeangle
(b)T l
(b)Toolnoseradius
di
(c) Rakeangle
(d)Endcuttingedgeangle.

22

Assertion (A): For drilling cast iron,


iron the tool is
provided with a point angle smaller than that
required for a ductile material.
material
Reason (R): Smaller point angle results in lower
rake
k angle.
l
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individuallyy true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is falseFor-2015
but R is(IES,
true GATE & PSUs)
25

Thetoollifeincreaseswiththe
(a) Increaseinsidecuttingedgeangle
(b) Decreaseinsiderakeangle
D
i id k
l
(c) Decreaseinnoseradius
(d) Decreaseinbackrakeangle

(d) 500 Hz

IES 2010
IES2010

S 1995
99
IAS

IES2006

S 1996
996
IAS

GATE(PI)1990

21

IES1995
The
the fface and
the flank
Th angle
l between
b t
th
d th
fl k off the
th
single point cutting tool is known as
a) Rake angle
b) Clearance angle
g
c) Lip angle
d) Point angle.
angle

23

IES 2012
IES

IES2002
Consider the following statements:
The strength of a single point cutting tool depends
upon
1. Rake angle
2. Clearance angle
3. Lip angle
Which of these statements are correct?
( ) 1 and
(a)
d3
(b) 2 and
d3
(c) 1 and 2
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Page 4 of 205

24

26

Toollifeincreasewithincreasein
(a)Cuttingspeed
(b)N di
(b)Noseradius
(c)Feed
(d)Depthofcut

Rev.1

27

Consider the following statements with respect


to the effects of a large nose radius on the tool:
1. It deteriorates
d t i
t surface
f
fi i h
finish.
2. It increases the possibility of chatter.
3. It improves tool life.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 only
(b) 3 only
( ) 2 and
(c)
d 3 only
l
(d) 1, 2 and
d3

Consider the following statements about nose


radius
1 It improves tool life
1.
2. It reduces the cutting force
3. It improves the surface finish.
Select the correct answer using
g the codes g
given below:
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1,
1 2 and 3

28

IES 2009
IES2009

29

Tool geometry of a single point cutting tool is specified by


the following elements:
1. Back rake angle
2. Side rake angle
3. End cutting edge angle
4. Side cutting edge angle
5. Side relief angle
6. End relief angle
7. Nose radius
The correct sequence of these tool elements used for
correctly specifying the tool geometry is
( ) 1,2,3,6,5,4,7
(a)
( ) 1,2,6,5,3,4,7
(b)
30
(c) 1,2,5,6,3,4,7
(d) 1, 2, 6, 3, 5, 4,7

S 993
IES1993

The following tool signature is specified for a single


single
point cutting tool in American system:
10, 12, 8,
8 6,
6 15, 20, 3
What does the angle 12 represent?
(a) Side cuttingedge angle
(b) Side rake angle
(c) Back rake angle
(d) Side
Sid clearance
l
angle
l

In ASA System,
System if the tool nomenclature is 8655
8655
10152mm, then the side rake angle will be
( ) 5
(a)
(b) 6
( ) 8
(c)
(d) 10

34

A cutting tool having tool signature as 10, 9, 6, 6, 8, 8,


2 will have side rake angle
(b) 9o

(c) 8o

(d) 2o

32

G
20 0 ( )
GATE
2010(PI)

GATE2008
In a single point turning tool, the side rake angle
and orthogonal rake angle are equal. is the
principal cutting edge angle and its range is
0o 90o . The chip flows in the orthogonal plane.
The value of is closest to
(a) 00
(b) 450
0
(c) 60
(d) 900

ISRO2011

(a) 10o

31

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

IES 1994
IES1994

IES 1995
IES1995

IES2009

The tool geometry of a single point right handed turning


tool is provided in the orthogonal rake system (ORS).
The sum of the principal (major) cutting edge angle and
the auxiliary (minor) cutting edge angle of the above tool
is 90o. The inclination angles of the principal and the
auxiliary cutting edges are both 0o. The principal and
auxiliary orthogonal clearance angles are 10o and 8o,
respectively. The rake angle (in degree) measured on the
orthogonal plane is
(a) 0
(b) 2
(c) 8
(d) 10
Page 5 of 205

35

33

IAS 2009Main

Rev.1

36

GATE2001

IES1994

GATE2011

During
D i orthogonal
h
l cutting
i off mild
ild steell with
ih
a 10 rake angle tool, the chip thickness ratio
was obtained as 0.4. The shear angle (in
degrees)
g
) evaluated from this data is
(a)6.53
(b)20.22
( )
(c)22.94
( )
(d)50.00

A single point cutting tool with 12


12 rake angle is
used to machine a steel work piece. The depth of
cut i.e.
cut,
i e uncut thickness is 0.81
0 81 mm.
mm The chip
thickness under orthogonal machining condition is
1 8 mm.
1.8
mm The shear angle is approximately
(a) 22
(b) 26
(c) 56
5
(d) 76

37

38

IES 2004

During pure orthogonal turning operation of a

In a machining operation chip thickness ratio

hollow cylindrical pipe, it is found that the

is 0.3 and the rake angle of the tool is 10. What

thickness of the chip produced is 0.5


0 5 mm.
mm The feed

is the value of the shear strain?

given to the zero degree


g
g
rake angle
g tool is 0.2

(a) 0.3
0.31

(b)

0.133
0.

mm/rev. The shear strain produced during the

(c) 3.00

(d)

3.34

operation is .

A single point cutting tool with 120 rake angle is


used for orthogonal machining of a ductile
material.

The

shear

plane

angle

for

the

theoretically minimum possible shear strain to


occur
(a) 51

(b) 45

((c)) 330

((d)) None of these


For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

43

Minimum
shear
strain
in
Mi i
h
i
i
g
turning
g with a cutting
g
orthogonal
tool of zero rake angle is
(a) 0.0
00
((b)) 0.55
(c) 1.0
(d) 2.0

41

GATE 2012
GATE2012

GATE(PI)1990

39

IES 2009

GATE2014

40

The following parameters determine the


model of continuous chip formation:
1. True
T
f d
feed
2. Cutting
g velocityy
3. Chip thickness
4. Rake
R k angle
l off the
h cutting
i tool.
l
The p
parameters which g
govern the value of shear
angle would include
( ) 1,2 and
(a)
d 3 (b) 1,3 and
d4
(c) 1,2 and 4 (d) 2,3 and 4

p
g to an orthogonal
g
g
Details pertaining
metal cutting
process are given below.
Chip thickness ratio
04
0.4
Undeformed thickness
0.6 mm
R k angle
Rake
l
+10
Cutting speed
2.5 m/s
Mean thickness of primary shear zone 25 microns
The shear strain rate in s1 during the process is
(a) 0.1781105
(b) 0.7754105
5
( ) 1.010410
(c)
(d) 4.397105
Page 6 of 205

44

42

IES2004
Considerthefollowingstatementswithrespectto
thereliefangleofcuttingtool:
1 Thisaffectsthedirectionofchipflow
1.Thisaffectsthedirectionofchipflow
2.Thisreducesexcessivefrictionbetweenthetool
andworkpiece
d
k i
3.Thisaffectstoollife
4.Thisallowsbetteraccessofcoolanttothetool
workpieceinterface
p
Whichofthestatementsgivenabovearecorrect?
(a) 1and2
(b) 2and3
(c) 2and4
(d) 3and4
Rev.1
45

IES2006

IES2004

Considerthefollowingstatements:
1. Alargerakeanglemeanslowerstrengthofthe
cuttingedge.
cuttingedge
2. Cuttingtorquedecreaseswithrakeangle.
Whichofthestatementsgivenaboveis/arecorrect?
((a)) Only1
y
((b)) Only2
y
(c) Both1and2
(d) Neither1nor2

46

The
angle
Th rake
k angle
l off a cutting
tti tool
t l is
i 15,
shear
h
l 45
and cutting
g velocity
y 35 m/min.
/
What is the velocity
y
of chip along the tool face?
(a) 28.5 m/min

(b)

27.3 m/min

(c) 25.3 m/min

(d)

23.5 m/min

47

48

IES 2014
IES

IES2008
Considerthefollowingstatements:
Inanorthogonalcuttingthecuttingratioisfoundtobe
0 75.Thecuttingspeedis60m/minanddepthofcut2 4
075.Thecuttingspeedis60m/minanddepthofcut24
mm.Whichofthefollowingarecorrect?
1
1.
Chipvelocitywillbe45m/min
Chipvelocitywillbe45m/min.
2. Chipvelocitywillbe80m/min.
3 Chipthicknesswillbe18mm.
3.
Chipthicknesswillbe1 8mm
4. Chipthicknesswillbe32mm.
Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodegivenbelow:
l
h
h
d
b l
(a) 1and3
(b) 1and4
(c) 2and3
(d) 2and4

IES2001

In an orthogonal turning process, the chip thickness =


0.32 mm, feed = 0.2 mm/rev. then the cutting ratio will
be
(a) 2.6
(b) 3.2
(c) 1.6
(d) 1.8

IAS2003

52

(a)

V cos
cos( )
V cos
sin( )

(b)
(d)

V sin
cos ( )

V sin
sin( )

50

IES2003
An orthogonal cutting operation is being
carried out under the following conditions:
cutting
tti speed
d = 2 m/s,
/ depth
d th off cutt = 0.5 mm,
chip thickness = 0.6 mm. Then the chip
velocity is
(a) 2.0
2 0 m/s (b) 2.4
2 4 m/s
(c) 1.0 m/s (d) 1.66 m/s

If is the rake angle of the cutting tool,


tool is the
shear angle and V is the cutting velocity, then the
velocity
l it off chip
hi sliding
lidi
along
l
th shear
the
h
plane
l
i
is
given by

(c)

49

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

IES2004,ISRO2009

Match.ListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswer
usingthecodesgivenbelowtheLists:
ListI
ListII
A. Planapproachangle
1.
Toolface
B Rakeangle
B.
2
2.
Toolflank
C. Clearanceangle
3.
Toolfaceandflank
D Wedgeangle
D.
W d
l
4.
C i d
Cuttingedge
5.
Toolnose
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 1
4
2
55
(b) 4
1
33
2
(c) 4
1
2
3
(d) 1
4
3
5

51

IAS2002

Inorthogonalcutting,shearangleistheanglebetween
Inorthogonalcutting shearangleistheanglebetween
((a)) Shearplaneandthecuttingvelocity
p
g
y
(b) Shearplaneandtherakeplane
(c) Shearplaneandtheverticaldirection
(d) Shearplaneandthedirectionofelongationofcrystalsin
thechip

Page 7 of 205

53

Rev.1

54

IAS2000

IAS1998

IAS1995

The cutting velocity in m/sec,


m/sec for turning a work piece
of diameter 100 mm at the spindle speed of 480 RPM is
(a) 1.26

(b)

2.51

(c)

48

(d)

151

55

56

G
2009 ( ) CommonDataS1
GATE
2009(PI)

G
2009 ( ) CommonDataS2
GATE
2009(PI)

An orthogonal turning operation is carried out at 20

An orthogonal turning operation is carried out at 20

m/min cutting speed, using a cutting tool of rake angle

m/min cutting speed, using a cutting tool of rake angle

15o. The chip thickness is 0.4 mm and the uncut chip

15o. The chip thickness is 0.4 mm and the uncut chip

thickness
hi k
i 0.2 mm.
is

thickness
hi k
i 0.2 mm.
is

The shear plane angle (in degrees) is

The chip velocity (in m/min) is

((a)) 26.8

((a)) 8

((b)) 27.8
7

((c)) 28.8

((d)) 29.8
9

((b)) 10

((c)) 12

61

GATE1995
Plainmillingofmildsteelplateproduces
(a) egu a s aped d sco t uous c ps
(a)Irregularshapeddiscontinuouschips
(b)Regularshapeddiscontinuouschip
(c)Continuouschips ithoutbuiltupedge
(c)Continuouschipswithoutbuiltupedge
(d)Joinedchips

59

IES 2007
IES2007

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

57

((d)) 14
4

58

Duringmachining,excessmetalisremovedintheform
ofchipasinthecaseofturningonalathe.Whichofthe
followingarecorrect?
C ti
Continuousribbonlikechipisformedwhenturning
ibb lik hi i f
d h t
i
1. Atahighercuttingspeed
2. Atalowercuttingspeed
A l

i
d
3. Abrittlematerial
4. Aductilematerial
Ad
il
i l
Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodegivenbelow:
( ) 1and3
(a)
d
(b) 1and4
d
(c) 2and3
(d) 2and4

In an orthogonal cutting, the depth of cut is halved and


the feed rate is double. If the chip thickness ratio is
unaffected with the changed
g
cutting
g conditions,, the
actual chip thickness will be
((a)) Doubled
((b)) halved
(c) Quadrupled
(d) Unchanged.

GATE2002

IAS1997
Considerthefollowingmachiningconditions:BUEwill
Considerthefollowingmachiningconditions BUEwill
formin
(a) Ductilematerial.

60

Abuiltupedgeisformedwhilemachining
Ab ilt
d i f
d hil
hi i
(a)Ductilematerialsathighspeed

(b)

(c) Smallrakeangle. (d)

Highcuttingspeed.

(b)Ductilematerialsatlowspeed
p

Smalluncutchipthickness.

(c)Brittlematerialsathighspeed
(d)Brittlematerialsatlowspeed

Page 8 of 205

62

Rev.1

63

Workbook
Ch1:MechanicsofBasicMachiningOperation

G
2009
GATE2009

IES1997

Friction
can be
F i ti att the
th toolchip
t l hi interface
i t f
b reduced
d
d by
b

Assertion (A): For high speed turning of cast iron


pistons, carbide tool bits are provided with chip
breakers.
Reason (R): High speed turning may produce long,
ribbon type continuous chips which must be broken
into small lengths which otherwise would be
difficult to handle and may prove hazardous.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation
l
i off A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

(a) decreasing the rake angle


(b) increasing
g the depth
p of cut
(c) Decreasing the cutting speed
(d) increasing the cutting speed

64

65

ESE2000(Conventional)
A l i off Metal
Analysis
M t l Cutting
C tti

BySKMondal

68

LinkedAnswerQuestionsGATE2013S1

GATE2010(PI)LinkedS2
g
g of an engineering
g
g alloy,
y, it has
In orthogonal
turning
been observed that the friction force acting at the chip
tool interface is 402.5 N and the friction force is also
perpendicular to the cutting velocity vector. The feed
velocity is negligibly small with respect to the cutting
velocity.
l it The
Th ratio
ti off friction
f i ti
f
force
t normall force
to
f
associated with the chiptool interface is 1. The uncut
chip thickness is 0.2
0 2 mm and the chip thickness is 0.4
04
mm. The cutting velocity is 2 m/s.
Assume that the energy expended during machining is
completely converted to heat. The rate of heat
generation (in W) at the primary shear plane is
(a) 180.5 (b)For-2015
200.5 (IES,
(c) 302.5
(d) 402.5
GATE & PSUs)
70

Option
p

Q. No

Option
p

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

10

20

66

GATE2010(PI)LinkedS1

The
the
Th following
f ll i data
d t from
f
th orthogonal
th
l cutting
tti test
t t
is available. Rake angle = 100, chip thickness ratio =
0.35, uncutt chip
hi thickness
thi k
= 0.51 mm, width
idth off cutt =
3 mm, yield shear stress of work material = 285
2, mean friction
N/
N/mm
f i ti
coefficient
ffi i t on tool
t l face
f
=
0.65,
Determine
()
(i)
Cutting force (F
( c)
(ii) Radial force
(iii) Normal force (N) on tool and
(iv) Shear force (Fs ).
)

67

Q. No

In orthogonal turning of an engineering alloy, it has


been observed that the friction force acting at the chip
tool interface is 402.5 N and the friction force is also
perpendicular to the cutting velocity vector. The feed
velocity is negligibly small with respect to the cutting
velocity. The ratio of friction force to normal force
associated with the chip
chiptool
tool interface is 1. The uncut
chip thickness is 0.2 mm and the chip thickness is 0.4
mm. The cutting velocity is 2 m/s.
The shear force (in N) acting along the primary shear
plane is
(a) 180.0 (b) 240.0 (c) 360.5 (d) 402.5
69

LinkedAnswerQuestionsGATE2013S2

In orthogonal turning of a bar of 100 mm diameter

In orthogonal turning of a bar of 100 mm diameter

with a feed of 0.25 mm/rev, depth of cut of 4 mm

with a feed of 0.25 mm/rev, depth of cut of 4 mm

and cutting velocity of 90 m/min, it is observed that

and cutting velocity of 90 m/min, it is observed that

the main (tangential)cutting force is perpendicular

the main (tangential)cutting force is perpendicular

to friction force acting at the chiptool


chip tool interface.
interface

to friction force acting at the chiptool


chip tool interface.
interface

The main (tangential) cutting force is 1500 N.

The main (tangential) cutting force is 1500 N.

y The orthogonal rake angle of the cutting tool in degree is

(a) zero

(b) 3.58

(c) 5

(d) 7.16

Page 9 of 205

y The normal force acting at the chiptool interface in N is

(a) 1000 (b) 1500


71

(c) 20oo

(d) 2500

Rev.1

72

GATE 2014
GATE2014
Which pair of following statements is correct for
orthogonal cutting using a singlepoint cutting
tool?
P. Reduction in friction angle increases cutting force
Q Reduction in friction angle decreases cutting force
Q.
R. Reduction in friction angle increases chip thickness
S Reduction
S.
R d i in
i friction
f i i angle
l decreases
d
chip
hi thickness
hi k
(a) P and R
(b) P and S
(c) Q and R
(d) Q and S

S 1999
999
IAS

GATE1997

In
process, rake
I an orthogonal
th
l cutting
tti
k angle
l off the
th

In a typical metal cutting operation, using a cutting

tool is 20 and friction angle


g
is 25.5.
5 5 Using
g

tool of positive rake angle = 10


10, it was observed

Merchant's shear angle relationship, the value of

that the shear angle was 20. The friction angle is

shear angle will be


( ) 39.5
(a)

(b)

42.25

(c) 47.75
47 75

(d)

50 5
50.5

73

Mild steel
machined
speed
t l is
i being
b i
hi d att a cutting
tti
d off
200 m/min with a tool rake angle of 10. The width of
cutt and
d uncutt thickness
thi k
are 2 mm and
d 0.2 mm
respectively. If the average value of coefficient of
f i ti between
friction
b t
th tool
the
t l and
d the
th chip
hi is
i 0.5 and
d the
th
shear stress of the work material is 400 N/mm2,

(b) 30

(c) 60

(d) 40

74

GATE 2008 (PI) Linked S 1


GATE2008(PI)LinkedS1

ESE2005Conventional

(a) 45

75

GATE 2008 (PI) Linked S 2


GATE2008(PI)LinkedS2

g
g experiment,
p
g
In an orthogonal
cutting
an HSS tool having

g
g experiment,
p
g
In an orthogonal
cutting
an HSS tool having

the following tool signature in the orthogonal reference

the following tool signature in the orthogonal reference

system (ORS)
(
) has
h been
b
used:
d 0107710751. Given

system (ORS)
(
) has
h been
b
used:
d 0107710751. Given

width of cut = 3.6 mm; shear strength of workpiece

width of cut = 3.6 mm; shear strength of workpiece

material = 460

N/mm2;

depth of cut = 0.25 mm;

material = 460 N/mm2; depth of cut = 0.25 mm;

coefficient of friction at toolchip interface = 0.7.

coefficient of friction at toolchip interface = 0.7.

(i) shear
h
angle
l and
d

Sh
Shear
plane
l
angle
l (in
(i degree)
d
) for
f minimum
i i
cutting
tti force
f

Mi i
Minimum
power requirement
i
t (in
(i kW) att a cutting
tti speed
d

(ii) Cutting and thrust component of the force.

is

of 150 m/min is

Determine

76

IES 2010
IES2010
The relationship between the shear angle ,
the friction angle and cutting rake angle
is given as

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

79

(a) 20.5

(b) 24.5

(c) 28.5

(d) 32.5

77

(a) 3.15

(b) 3.25

IES2005

(d) 3.45

78

IES2003

Which
is
Whi h one off the
h following
f ll i
i the
h correct
expression for the Merchant's machinability
constant?
(a) 2 +
(b) 2 +
(c) 2
(d) +
(Where = shear angle, = friction angle
and = rake angle)
Page 10 of 205

(c) 3.35

80

In orthogonal cutting test, the cutting force = 900 N,


the thrust force = 600 N and chip shear angle is 30o.
Then the chip shear force is
(a) 1079.4 N

(b)

969.6 N

(c) 479.4 N

(d)

69.6 N

Rev.1

81

IES 2014
IES

GATE 2007(PI)CommonData1
2007 (PI) C
D t 1
GATE

IES2000

In an orthogonal cutting operation shear angle = 11.31


11 31o ,
cutting force = 900 N and thrust force = 810 N. Then the
shear force will be approximately ( given sin 11.31o = 0.2)
(a) 650 N
(b) 720 N
(c) 620 N
(d) 680 N

In an orthogonal cutting test, the cutting force and


thrust force were observed to be 1000N and 500 N
respectively. If the rake angle of tool is zero, the
coefficient of friction in chiptool interface will be

(a)2

( b)2

( c)

( d) 2
2

82

g
g test,, the following
g
In an orthogonal
machining
observations were made
Cutting force
1200 N
Thrust force
500 N
T l rake
Tool
k angle
l
zero
Cutting speed
1 m/s
Depth of cut
0.8 mm
Chip thickness
1.5 mm
Chip speed along the tool rake face will be
( ) 0.83
(a)
8 m/s
/
(b) 0.53 m/s
/
85
(c) 1.2 m/s
(d) 1.88 m/s

IFS2012

An orthogonal machining operation is being carried out


under the following conditions :
depth of cut = 0.1 mm,
chip
h thickness
h k
= 0.2 mm,
width of cut = 5 mm,
rake angle = 10o
Theforcecomponentsalongandnormaltothedirection
ofcuttingvelocityare500Nand200Nrespectively.
Determine
(i)Thecoefficientoffrictionbetweenthetoolandchip.
(ii)Ul i
(ii)Ultimateshearstressoftheworkpiecematerial.[10]
h
f h
k i
i l [ ]
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

83

GATE 2011(PI)LinkedS1
GATE
2011 (PI) Linked S1

GATE 2007(PI)CommonData2
2007 (PI) C
D t 2
GATE

88

g
g test,, the following
g
In an orthogonal
machining
observations were made
Cutting force
1200 N
Thrust force
500 N
T l rake
Tool
k angle
l
zero
Cutting speed
1 m/s
Depth of cut
0.8 mm
Chip thickness
1.5 mm
Friction angle during machining will be
( ) 22.6
(a)
6o (b) 32.8
8o
( ) 57.1o
(c)
(d) 67.4
6 o
84

GATE 2011(PI)LinkedS2
GATE
2011 (PI) Linked S2

During orthogonal machining of a mild steel specimen


with a cutting tool of zero rake angle, the following data
is obtained:
Uncut chip thickness = 0.25 mm
Chip thickness = 0.75
0 75 mm
Width of cut = 2.5 mm
N
Normal
l force
f
= 950 N
Thrust force = 475 N
The shear angle and shear force, respectively, are
(a) 71.565
71 565o, 150.21
150 21 N
(b) 18.435
18 435o , 751.04
751 04 N
(c) 9.218o, 861.64 N
(d) 23.157o , 686.66 N
86

During orthogonal machining of a mild steel specimen


with a cutting tool of zero rake angle, the following data
is obtained:
Uncut chip thickness = 0.25 mm
Chip thickness = 0.75
0 75 mm
Width of cut = 2.5 mm
N
Normal
l force
f
= 950 N
Thrust force = 475 N
Theultimateshearstress(inN/mm2)ofthework
materialis
(a)235 (b)139
(c)564
(d)380

GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(1)

GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(2)

Inanorthogonalmachiningoperation:
I th
l
hi i
ti
Uncutthickness=0.5mm
Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15
Widthofcut=5mm
Widthofcut
5mm
Chipthickness=0.7mm
Chipthickness
0.7mm
Thrustforce=200N
Cuttingforce=1200N
A
AssumeMerchant'stheory.
M h t' th
Thecoefficientoffrictionatthetoolchipinterfaceis
( )
(a)0.23
(b)
(b)0.46
(c)0.85
(d)0.95
Page 11 of 205

89

87

Inanorthogonalmachiningoperation:
I th
l
hi i
ti
Uncutthickness=0.5mm
Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15
Widthofcut=5mm
Widthofcut
5mm
Chipthickness=0.7mm
Chipthickness
0.7mm
Thrustforce=200N
Cuttingforce=1200N
A
AssumeMerchant'stheory.
M h t' th
Thepercentageoftotalenergydissipateddueto
f
frictionatthetoolchipinterfaceis
h
l h
f
(a)30%
(b)42%
(c)58%
(d)70%
Rev.1

90

IES1995

GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(3)
Inanorthogonalmachiningoperation:
I th
l
hi i
ti
Uncutthickness=0.5mm
Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15
Widthofcut=5mm
Widthofcut
5mm
Chipthickness=0.7mm
Chipthickness
0.7mm
Thrustforce=200N
Cuttingforce=1200N
A
AssumeMerchant'stheory.
M h t' th
Thevaluesofshearangleandshearstrain,
respectively,are
l
(a)30.3 and1.98
(b)30.3 and4.23
(c)40.2 and2.97
(d)40.2 and1.65

The primary tool force used in calculating the total


power consumption in machining is the
((a)) Radial force

((b))

Tangential
g
force

(c) Axial force

(d)

Frictional force.

91

IES1997

S 2003 Conventional
C
i
l
ESE2003

97

93

GATE2014

The
Th radial
di l force
f
iin singlepoint
i l
i tooll during
d i
turning operation varies between
(a) 0.2 to 0.4 times the main cutting force
(b) 0.4
0 4 to 0.6
0 6 times the main cutting force
(c) 0.6 to 0.8 times the main cutting
g force
(d) 0.5 to 0.6 times the main cutting force

94

During turning a carbon steel rod of 160 mm diameter by a


carbide
bid tooll off geometry; 0, 0, 10, 8,
8 15, 75, 0 (mm)
(
) at speed
d off
400 rpm, feed of 0.32 mm/rev and 4.0 mm depth of cut, the
following observation were made.
made
Tangential component of the cutting force, Pz = 1200 N
Axial component of the cutting force,
force Px = 800 N
Chip thickness (after cut), 2 = 0.8 mm.
For the above machining condition determine the values of
(i) Friction force, F and normal force, N acting at the chip tool
interface.
interface
(ii) Yield shears strength of the work material under this
machining condition.
(iii) Cutting power consumption in kW.

Power
consumption
in
is
P
i
i metall cutting
i
i
mainly due to
(a) Tangential component of the force
(b) Longitudinal component of the force
(c) Normal component
p
of the force
(d) Friction at the metaltool interface

92

IES1999

Consider
the
forces
acting
on a
C
id
h following
f ll i
f
i
finish turning tool:
1. Feed force
2 Thrust force
2.
3. Cutting
g force.
The correct sequence of the decreasing order of
the magnitudes of these forces is
(a) 1, 2, 3
(b) 2, 3, 1
(c) 3, 1, 2
(d) 3, 2, 1

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

IES2001

A straight turning operation is carried out using a


single point cutting tool on an AISI 1020 steel rod.
rod
The feed is 0.2 mm/rev and the depth of cut is 0.5
mm. The tool has a side cutting edge angle of 60o.
The uncut chip thickness (in mm) is .

95

GATE 1995Conventional

IAS2003MainExamination

While
Whil turning
t
i a C15
C steel
t l rod
d off 160
6 mm diameter
di
t att
315 rpm, 2.5 mm depth of cut and feed of 0.16
mm/rev
/
b a tool
by
t l off geometry
t 00, 100, 80, 90,150, 750,
0(mm), the following observations were made.
Tangential component of the cutting force = 500 N
Axial component
p
of the cutting
g force = 200 N
Chip thickness = 0.48 mm
Draw schematically the Merchant
Merchantss circle diagram
for the cutting force in the present case.
Page 12 of 205

96

98

During
D i tturning
i process with
ith 7 6 6 8 30 1
(mm) ASA tool the undeformed chip thickness of
2.0 mm and
d width
idth off cutt off 2.5 mm were used.
d The
Th
side rake angle of the tool was a chosen that the
machining
hi i
operation
ti
could
ld be
b approximated
i t d to
t be
b
orthogonal cutting. The tangential cutting force and
th
thrust
t force
f
were 1177 N and
d 560
6 N respectively.
ti l
Calculate:
[30 marks]
( ) The
(i)
h side
d rake
k angle
l
(ii) Coefficient of friction at the rake face
(iii) The dynamic shear strength of the work material
Rev.1

99

GATE2007

GATE2007

In orthogonal turning of a low carbon steel bar


of diameter 150 mm with uncoated carbide
tool the cutting velocity is 90 m/min.
tool,
m/min The feed
is 0.24 mm/rev and the depth of cut is 2 mm.
The chip thickness obtained is 0.48
0 48 mm.
mm If the
orthogonal rake angle is zero and the principal
cutting edge angle is 90
90, the shear angle is
degree is
( ) 20.56
(a)
6
(b) 26.56
6 6
(c) 30.56
(d) 36.56

In orthogonal turning of low carbon steel pipe with


principal cutting edge angle of 90
90, the main cutting
force is 1000 N and the feed force is 800 N. The shear
angle is 25 and orthogonal rake angle is zero.
Employing Merchants theory, the ratio of friction
force to normal force acting on the cutting tool is
(a) 1.56
1 56

(b) 1.25
1 25

(c) 0.80
0 80

100

GATE2003CommonDataQuestions(2)
A cylinder
is
li d
i tturned
d on a llathe
th with
ith orthogonal
th
l
machining principle. Spindle rotates at 200 rpm. The
axial
i l feed
f d rate
t is
i 0.25 mm per revolution.
l ti
D th off cutt is
Depth
i
0.4 mm. The rake angle is 10. In the analysis it is found
th t the
that
th shear
h
angle
l is
i 27.75
Intheaboveproblem,thecoefficientoffrictionat
thechiptoolinterfaceobtainedusingEarnestand
Merchanttheoryis
(a)0.18
(b)0.36
(c)0.71
(d)0.98

(d) 0.64
0 64

GATE2008CommonDataQuestion(1)
Orthogonal
O th
l turning
t
i is
i performed
f
d on a cylindrical
li d i l work
k
piece with shear strength of 250 MPa. The following
conditions
diti
are used:
d cutting
tti velocity
l it is
i 180
8 m/min.
/ i feed
f d
is 0.20 mm/rev. depth of cut is 3 mm. chip thickness
ratio
ti = 0.5. The
Th orthogonal
th
l rake
k angle
l is
i 7o. Apply
A l
Merchant's theory for analysis.
Theshearplaneangle(indegree)andtheshear
(
)
forcerespectivelyare
(a)52:320N
(b)52:400N
(c)28:400N
(d)28:320N

102

GATE2008CommonDataQuestion(2)
Orthogonal
O th
l turning
t
i is
i performed
f
d on a cylindrical
li d i l work
k
piece with shear strength of 250 MPa. The following
conditions
diti
are used:
d cutting
tti velocity
l it is
i 180
8 m/min.
/ i feed
f d
is 0.20 mm/rev. depth of cut is 3 mm. chip thickness
ratio
ti = 0.5. The
Th orthogonal
th
l rake
k angle
l is
i 7o. Apply
A l
Merchant's theory for analysis.
ThecuttingandThrustforces,respectively,are
(a)568N;387N (b)565N;381N
(c)440N;342N
(d)480N;356N

104

105

GATE 2013
GATE2013

A medium carbon steel workpiece is turned on a


lathe at 50 m/min. cutting speed 0.8 mm/rev feed
and 1.5 mm depth of cut. What is the rate of metal
removal?
(a) 1000 mm3/min
(b) 60,000 mm3/min
(c) 20,000 mm3/min
((d)) Can not be calculated with the g
given data

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

A cylinder
is
li d
i tturned
d on a llathe
th with
ith orthogonal
th
l
machining principle. Spindle rotates at 200 rpm. The
axial
i l feed
f d rate
t is
i 0.25 mm per revolution.
l ti
D th off cutt is
Depth
i
0.4 mm. The rake angle is 10. In the analysis it is found
th t the
that
th shear
h
angle
l is
i 27.75
Thethicknessoftheproducedchipis
(a)0.511mm
(b)0.528mm
(c)0.818mm
(d)0.846mm

101

103

IES 2004
IES

GATE2003CommonDataQuestions(1)

106

GATE(PI)1991

A steel bar 200 mm in diameter is turned at a feed of


0.25 mm/rev with a depth of cut of 4 mm. The
rotational speed of the workpiece is 160 rpm. The
material removal rate in mm3/s is
(a) 160 (b) 167.6
167 6 (c) 1600
(d) 1675.5
1675 5

Page 13 of 205

107

Amount of energy consumption per unit volume of


metal removal is maximum in
((a)) Turning
g

((b)) Milling
g

(c) Reaming

(d) Grinding

Rev.1

108

GATE 2013 (PI) C


D
Q
i
GATE2013(PI)CommonDataQuestion

GATE2007
In
carbon
steel.
I orthogonal
th
l turning
t
i off medium
di
b
t l The
Th
specific machining energy is 2.0 J/mm3. The cutting
velocity,
l it feed
f d and
d depth
d th off cutt are 120 m/min,
/ i 0.2
mm/rev and 2 mm respectively. The main cutting
f
force
i N is
in
i
(a) 40
(b) 80
(c) 400
(d) 800

A disc of 200 mm outer and 80 mm inner diameter is


faced of 0.1 mm/rev with a depth of cut of 1 mm. The
facing operation is undertaken at a constant cutting
speed of 90 m/min in a CNC lathe. The main
(tangential) cutting force is 200 N.
Neglecting the contribution of the feed force
towards cutting power,
power the specific cutting energy
in J/mm3 is
( ) 0.2
(a)
(b) 2
( ) 200
(c)
(d) 2000

109

GATE2014
The main cutting force acting on a tool during the
turning (orthogonal cutting) operation of a metal is
400 N. The turning was performed using 2 mm
depth of cut and 0.1 mm/rev feed rate. The specific
cutting pressure is
(a) 1000

Example
Whentherakeangleiszeroduringorthogonalcutting,
showthat

s
pc

(1 r ) r
1+ r2

Where s is the shear strengrh of the material


p c = specific power of cutting
p thickness ratio
r = chip
= coefficient of friction in tool chip interface

110

111

GATE1993

GATE1992
The
off rake
angle
h effect
ff
k angle
l on the
h mean friction
f
l in
machining can be explained by
(A) sliding (Coulomb) model of friction
(B) sticking and then sliding model of friction
(C) sticking friction
((D)) Sliding
g and then sticking
g model of friction

The
Th effect
ff t off rake
k angle
l on the
th mean friction
f i ti angle
l in
i
machining can be explained by
( ) Sliding (coulomb)
(a)
(
) model of friction
(b) sticking
g and then siding
g model of friction
(c) Sticking friction
(d) sliding and then sticking model of friction

(b) 2000
(c) 3000
(d) 4000
112

IES2000

113

IES2004

Assertion
(A):
the
A
i
(A) In
I metall cutting,
i
h normall
laws of sliding friction are not applicable.
Reason (R): Very high temperature is
produced at the tool
toolchip
chip interface.
interface
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is
the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is
not the correct explanation of A
( ) A is
(c)
i true but
b R is
i false
f l
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
(d) A is false but R is true
115

Assertion (A): The ratio of uncut chip thickness to


actual chip thickness is always less than one and is
termed as cutting
g ratio in orthogonal
g
cutting
g
Reason (R): The frictional force is very high due to the
occurrence of sticking
g friction rather than sliding
g
friction
((a)) Both A and R are individuallyy true and R is the correct
explanation of A
((b)) Both A and R are individuallyy true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Page 14 of 205
116

114

IES2002
In
process, the
I a machining
hi i
h percentage off
heat carried away by the chips is typically
(a) 5%
(b) 25%
(c) 50%
(d) 75%

Rev.1

117

S 2003
IAS

IES1998
In
operation,
the
I metall cutting
i
i
h approximate
i
ratio of heat distributed among chip, tool
and work, in that order is
(a) 80: 10: 10 (b) 33: 33: 33
(c) 20: 60: 10 (d) 10: 10: 80

Asthecuttingspeedincreases
(a) Moreheatistransmittedtotheworkpieceandless
heatistransmittedtothetool
(b) Moreheatiscarriedawaybythechipandlessheatis
t
transmittedtothetool
itt dt th t l
(c) Moreheatistransmittedtoboththechipandthe
tool
((d)) Moreheatistransmittedtoboththeworkpieceand
p
thetool

118

Theinstrumentordeviceusedtomeasurethecutting
forcesinmachiningis:
( )T h
(a)Tachometer
t
(b)Comparator
(c)Dynamometer
(d)Lactometer

122

S 200
IAS2001

The
off a resistive
pickup
off
Th gauge factor
f
i i
i k
cutting force dynamometer is defined as the
ratio of
(a) Applied strain to the resistance of the wire
(b) The proportional change in resistance to the
applied strain
(c) The resistance to the applied strain
(d) Change in resistance to the applied strain
124

cutting

can

120

IES1996

A 'Dynamometer'
used
the
'D
' is
i a device
d i
d for
f
h
measurement of
(a) Chip thickness ratio
(b) Forces during metal cutting
(c) Wear of the cutting
g tool
(d) Deflection of the cutting tool

121

IES1998

The heat generated in metal


conveniently be determined by
(a) Installing thermocouple on the job
(b) Installing thermocouple on the tool
(c) Calorimetric setup
((d)) Using
g radiation py
pyrometer

119

IES1993

IES2011

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

S 2003
IAS

) Piezoelectric transducers and preferred


p
Assertion ((A):
over strain gauge transducers in the dynamometers for
measurement of threedimensional cutting forces.
Reason (R): In electric transducers there is a significant
leakage of signal from one axis to the other, such cross
error is negligible in the case of piezoelectric
transducers.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct
explanation of A
((b)) Both A and R are individuallyy true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Page 15 of 205
125

Which of the following forces are measured directly by


strain gauges or force dynamometers during metal
g?
cutting
1. Force exerted by the tool on the chip acting normally to
the tool face.
2. Horizontal cutting force exerted by the tool on the work
piece.
3. Frictional resistance of the tool against the chip flow
acting along the tool face.
4. Vertical
V i l force
f
which
hi h helps
h l
i holding
in
h ldi
the
h tooll in
i
position.
( ) 1 and
(a)
d3
(b) 2 and
d4
(c) 1 and 4
(d) 2 and 3
123

ForPSU&IES
In strain gauge dynamometers the use of how
many active
ti gauge makes
k the
th dynamometers
d
t
more
effective
( ) Four
(a)
(b) Three
(c) Two
(d) One

Rev.1

126

IES 2010
IES2010

ToolFailure
ToolWear,ToolLife&
ToolWear,ToolLife&Machinability
Machinability

B SKM d l
BySKMondal

Tool failure is two types


y 1. Slowdeath: The gradual or progressive wearing
away of rake face (crater wear) or flank (flank wear) of
the cutting tool or both.
y 2.Suddendeath:Failuresleadingtoprematureend
. Sudde deat : a u es ead g to p e atu e e d
ofthetool
y The suddendeath type
yp of tool failure is difficult to
predict. Tool failure mechanisms include plastic
deformation, brittle fracture, fatigue fracture or edge
chipping However it is difficult to predict which of
chipping.
these processes will dominate and when tool failure
will occur.

Flank wear occurs mainly on which of the

IAS 2009Main
[
[4
marks]
k ]

(a) Nose part and top face


(b) Cutting edge only
( ) Nose
(c)
N
part, front
f
relief
li f face,
f
and
d side
id relief
li f face
f
off the
h
cutting
g tool
(d) Face of the cutting tool at a short

distance

(b) Rake face


(c) Nose of the tool
(d) Cutting edge

129

IES 2014
IES

y Explainsuddendeathmechanismoftoolfailure.

following?

((a)) Relief face of the tool

128

127

S 2007
200
IES

Flank wear occurs on the

The fatigue failure of a tool is due to


(a) abrasive friction, cutting fluid and chip breakage
(b) Variable
V i bl thermal
th
l stresses,
t
chip
hi breakage
b k
and
d variable
i bl
dimensions of cut
(c) Abrasive friction, chip breakage and variable
dimensions of cut
(d) Chip breakage, variable thermal stresses and cutting
fluid

from

the cutting edge


130

131

Tool Wear
ToolWear

ToolWear

S 1994
99
IES
Assertion(A):Toolwearisexpressedintermsof
flankwearratherthancraterwear.
Reason(R):Measurementofflankwearissimple
andmoreaccurate.
( ) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe
(a)
B thA dR i di id ll t dRi th
correctexplanationofA
(b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the
correctexplanationofA
(c) AistruebutRisfalse
(d) AisfalsebutRistrue

(a)
( ) Flank
Fl k Wear
W
(b) Crater Wear
(c) Chipping
pp g off of the cutting
g edge
g

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

132

133

Page 16 of 205

134

Rev.1

135

G
20
GATE2014

FlankWear:(Wearland)
Reason
y Abrasion by
y hard p
particles and inclusions in the work

piece.
y Shearing off the micro welds between tool and work
material.
y Abrasion by fragments of builtupedge
built up edge ploughing
against the clearance face of the tool.
y At low
l speed
d flank
fl k wear predominates.
d i t
y If MRR increased flank wear increased.

FlankWear:(Wearland)

Cutting tool is much harder than the work


piece.
workpiece.
Yet the tool wears out during the toolwork
interaction, because
(a) extra hardness is imparted to the workpiece due to
coolant used
(b) oxide layers on the workpiece surface impart extra
h d
hardness
t it
to
(c) extra hardness is imparted to the workpiece due to
severe rate of strain
(d) vibration is induced in the machine tool

136

Effect
y Flank wear directly
y affect the component
p
dimensions

produced.
y Flank wear is usually the most common determinant of

tool life.

137

138

FlankWear:(Wearland)
Stages

FlankWear:(Wearland)
Primary wear

FlankWear:(Wearland)
Tertiary wear

y Flank Wear occurs in three stages


g of varying
y g wear rates

The region
g
where the sharp
p cutting
g edge
g is q
quicklyy
broken down and a finite wear land is established.

The region
g
where wear p
progresses
g
at a g
graduallyy
increasing rate.
y In the tertiary region the wear of the cutting tool has
become sensitive to increased tool temperature due to
high wear land.
y Regrinding is recommended before they enter this
region.
region

Secondar wear
Secondary
ear
The region
g
where the wear p
progresses
g
at a uniform rate.

139

GATE 2008 (PI)


GATE2008(PI)

S 2004
200
IES
Consider the following statements:
During the third stage of toolwear, rapid
deterioration of tool edge takes place because
1. Flank wear is only marginal
2. Flank wear is large
33. Temperature
p
of the tool increases g
graduallyy
4. Temperature of the tool increases drastically
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 3
(b) 2 and 4
(c) 1 and 4
(d) 2 and 3
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

140

142

During machining, the wear land (h) has been plotted


against
machining
time
(T) as given
in
i
hi i
i
i
i the
h following
f ll i
figure.

141

IFS2012
Explain
off flank
E l i the
th mechanism
h i
fl k wear off a cutting
tti
tool. Plot a flank wear rate curve and indicate the
region of tool failure.
[10 Marks]

For a critical wear land of 1.8 mm, the cutting tool life (in
minute) is
(a) 52.00
(b) 51.67
51.50
(d) 50.00
Page 17(c)
of 205
143

Rev.1

144

Craterwear

ToollifecriteriaISO
(Acertainwidthofflankwear(VB)isthemostcommon
criterion)
y Uniformwear:0.3mmaveragedoverallpast
Uniformwear:0 3mmaveragedoverallpast
y Localizedwear:0.5mmonanyindividualpast

CraterwearContd..

y More
common in
M
i ductile
d til materials
t i l which
hi h produce
d

y Crater depth exhibits linear increase with time.


time
y It increases with MRR.

continuous chip.
p
y Crater wear occurs on the rake face.
y At very high speed crater wear predominates
y For crater wear temperature is main culprit and tool

d f
defuse
i
into
the
h chip
hi material
i l & tooll temperature is
i

work piece tolerance or surface finish.

maximum
a
u at so
somee d
distance
sta ce from
o tthee too
tool ttip.
p.
145

S 2002
IES

y Crater wear has little or no influence on cutting forces,

146

147

S 2007
200
IAS

Craterwearontoolsalwaysstartsatsomedistance
fromthetooltipbecauseatthatpoint
(a) Cuttingfluiddoesnotpenetrate
(b) Normalstressonrakefaceismaximum
(c) Temperatureismaximum
((d)) Toolstrengthisminimum
g

148

S 1995
99
IES

S 2000
IES

Whydoescraterwearstartatsomedistancefrom
thetooltip?
(a) Toolstrengthisminimumatthatregion
(b) Cuttingfluidcannotpenetratethatregion
(c) Tooltemperatureismaximuminthatregion
((d)) Stressonrakefaceismaximumatthatregion
g

149

150

WearMechanism

IES2009Conventional

Craterwearispredominantin
(a) Carbonsteeltools
(b) Tungstencarbidetools
T
t bid t l
(c) Highspeedsteeltools
(d) Ceramictools

Craterwearstartsatsomedistancefromthetooltip
because
(a) Cuttingfluidcannotpenetratethatregion
(b) Stressonrakefaceismaximumatthatregion
(c) Toolstrengthisminimumatthatregion
((d)) Tooltemperatureismaximumatthatregion
p
g

Showcraterwearandflankwearonasinglepoint
Sh t
dfl k
i l i t
cuttingtool.Statethefactorsresponsibleforwear
onaturningtool.
t
i t l
[2marks]

1. Abrasionwear
2. Adhesionwear
3. Diffusionwear
4. Chemicaloroxidationwear

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

151

Page 18 of 205

152

Rev.1

153

S 2002
IAS

S 1995
99
IES

Consider the following actions:


1. Mechanical abrasion 2.
Diffusion
3. Plastic
Pl ti deformation
d f
ti
4.
O id ti
Oxidation
Which of the above are the causes of tool wear?
(a) 2 and 3
(b) 1 and 2
(c) 1, 2 and 4 (d) 1 and 3

154

h hi i
ff fi
k
Whychippingofforfinecracks
developedatthecuttingedge
developed at the cutting edge

MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrect
answerusingthecodesgivenbelowthelists:
ListI(Weartype) ListII(Associatedmechanism)
A. Abrasivewears
1.
Galvanicaction
B. Adhesivewears
2.
Ploughing action
C. Electrolyticwear
y
33.
Moleculartransfer
D. Diffusionwears
4.
Plasticdeformation
5
5.
Metallicbond
Code:A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 2
5
1
3
(b) 5
2
1
3
(c) 2
1
3
4
(d) 5
2
3
4155

The type of wear that occurs due to the cutting


action of the particles in the cutting fluid is
referred to as
(a) Attritions wear
(b) Diffusion
Diff i wear
(c) Erosive wear
(d) Corrosive wear

156

S 2003
IAS

h
NotchWear

Consider the following statements:


Chipping of a cutting tool is due to
1. Tool
T l material
t i l being
b i too
t brittle
b ittl
2. Hot hardness of the tool material.
3. High positive rake angle of the tool.
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 3
( ) 2 and
(c)
d3
(d) 1 and
d2

y Tool
T l material
t i l is
i too
t brittle
b ittl
y Weak
k design
d
off tool,
l such
h as high
h h positive rake
k angle
l
y As a result of crack that is already in the tool
y Excessive static or shock loading of the tool.

157

S 1996
996
IES
Notchwearattheoutsideedgeofthedepthofcutis
dueto
(a) Abrasiveactionoftheworkhardenedchipmaterial
(b) Oxidation
(c) Slipstickactionofthechip
((d)) Chipping.
pp g

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

S 1999
999
IAS

160

y Notch wear on the trailing edge is to a great extent an

oxidation wear mechanism occurring where the cutting


edge leaves the machined workpiece material in the feed
direction.
y But
B t abrasion
b i and
d adhesion
dh i wear in
i a combined
bi d effect
ff t can

contribute to the formation of one or several notches.

158

159

Listtheimportantpropertiesofcuttingtool
materialsandexplainwhyeachisimportant.
materials and explain why each is important

Whyareceramicsnormallyprovidedas
insertsfortools,andnotasentiretools?
inserts for tools and not as entire tools?

y Hardness at high temperatures this provides longer

life of the cutting tool and allows higher cutting speeds.


y Toughness to provide the structural strength needed
to resist impacts and cutting forces
y Wear
W
resistance
i t
to
t prolong
l
usage before
b f
replacement
l
t
doesnt chemically react another wear factor
y Formable/manufacturable can be manufactured in a
useful
use
u geo
geometry
et y
Page 19 of 205

161

Ceramicsarebrittlematerialsandcannotprovidethe
p
structuralstrengthrequiredforatool.

Rev.1

162

S 1992
992
IES

ToolLifeCriteria
Tool
T l life
lif criteria
it i can be
b defined
d fi d as a predetermined
d t
i d
numerical value of any type of tool deterioration which
can be
b measured.
d

Some of

the ways

y Actualcuttingtimetofailure.

Toollifeisgenerallyspecifiedby
(a) Numberofpiecesmachined
(b) Volumeofmetalremoved
V l
f t l
d
(c) Actualcuttingtime
(d) Anyoftheabove

y Volumeofmetalremoved.
y Numberofpartsproduced.
Numberofpartsproduced
y Cuttingspeedforagiventime
163

S 2012Main
20 2
i
IAS

y Lengthofworkmachined.

164

ValuesofExponentn

TaylorsToolLifeEquation

Define
tool
four
methods
D fi
t l life
lif and
d list
li t down
d
f
th d for
f
quantitative measurement of tool life.
q
[Marks12]

basedonFlankWear
Causes
y Slidingofthetoolalongthemachinedsurface
y Temperaturerise

VT n = C
166

IES 2012
IES

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Where,V=cuttingspeed(m/min)
T=Time(min)
n=exponentdependsontoolmaterial
C=constantbasedontoolandworkmaterialandcutting
167
condition.

S 2008
IES

InTaylor
stoollifeequationVTn =C,theconstantsn
C,theconstantsn
InTaylorstoollifeequationVT
andCdependupon
1 Workpiecematerial
1.Workpiecematerial
2.Toolmaterial
3.Coolant
( )
(a)1,2,and3
3
(b)1and2only
(c)2and3only
(d)1and3only
169

n = 0.08
8 to 0.2 for
f HSS tooll
= 0.1
0 1 to 0.15
0 15 for Cast Alloys
= 0.2 to 0.4 for carbide tool
[IAS1999; IES2006]
= 0.5 to
t 0.7 for
f ceramic
i tool
t l
[
[NTPC2003]
3]

168

S 2006
IES

InTaylor
stoollifeequationisVTn =constant.
InTaylor'stoollifeequationisVT
Whatisthevalueofnforceramictools?
( ) 0.15to0.25
(a)
t
(b) 0.4to0.55
t
(c) 0.6to0.75
(d) 0.8to0.9

Page 20 of 205

165

Which of the following values of index n is


associated with carbide tools when Taylor's tool life
equation, V.Tn = constant is applied?
(a) 01 to 015
(b) 02 to 04
( ) 0.45 to
(c)
t 06
6
(d) 065
6 to
t 09

170

Rev.1

171

S 1999
999
IES

S 1998
998
IAS

The approximately variation of the tool life


exponent 'n' of cemented carbide tools is
(a) 0.03
0 03 to 0.08
0 08
(b) 0.08
0 08 to 0.20
0 20
(c) 0.20 to 0.48
(d) 0.48 to 0.70

(
g
)
MatchList I(Cuttingtoolmaterial)withList
II
(Typicalvalueoftoollifeexponent'n'intheTaylor's
equationV.Tn =C)andselectthecorrectanswerusing
th d i
thecodesgivenbelowthelists:
b l th li t
List I
List II
A HSS
A.
1.
0.18
8
B. Castalloy
2.
0.12
C Ceramic
C.
C
i
3.
0.25
D. Sinteredcarbide 4.
0.5
Codes:A
d
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 1
2
3
4
(b) 2
1
3
4
( ) 2
(c)
1
4
3
( ) 1
(d)
2
4
3

172

( )
GATE2009(PI)
In an orthogonal machining operation, the tool life
obtained is 10 min at a cutting speed of 100 m/min,
while at 75 m/min cutting speed, the tool life is 30
min The value of index (n) in the Taylor
min.
Taylorss tool life
equation
(a) 0.262

(b) 0.323

174

G
200
GATE2004

tool failure occurred in 10 minutes.


minutes The speed was
changed to 232 rpm and the tool failed in 60 minutes.
Assuming straight line relationship between cutting

(d) 0.521

173

ISRO2011
A 50 mm diameter
steell rod
d
d was turned
d at 284 rpm and
d

(c) 0.423

S 2000
IES

In a machining operation, doubling the cutting


1
speed reduces the tool life to the of the original
8
value. The exponent n in Taylor
Taylor'ss tool life equation
VTn = C, is
(a )

1
8

(b)

1
4

(c )

1
3

(d )

1
2

In a tool life test, doubling the cutting speed


reduces the tool life to 1/8th of the original. The
Taylor'ss tool life index is
Taylor
1

( a )2

( b )3

( c )4

( d ) 8

speed
d and
d tooll life,
l f the
h value
l off Taylorian
l
Exponent is
(a) 0.21
0 21

(b) 0.13
0 13

(c) 0.11
0 11

(d) 0.23
0 23

175

176

S 1999,ISRO2013
999 S O 20 3
IES

177

S 2002
IAS

S 1995
99
IAS

In
operation
off steel
I a singlepoint
i l
i t turning
t
i
ti
t l with
ith a

Using
the
equation
VTn = c, calculate
U i
th Taylor
T l
ti
l l t the
th

In a single point turning operation with a cemented

cemented carbide tool,, Taylor's


y
tool life exponent
p
is

percentage
p
g increase in tool life when the cutting
g

carbide and steel combination having a Taylor

0.25. If the cutting speed is halved, the tool life will

speed is reduced by 50% (n = 05 and c = 400)

exponent of 0.25, if the cutting speed is halved, then

increase by

(a) 300%

(b)

400%

(c) 100%

(d)

50%

( ) Two times
(a)

(b)

Four times

(c) Eight times

(d)

Sixteen times

the
h tooll life
lif will
ill become
b
(a) Half
(b) Two times
(c) Eight times

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

178

Page 21 of 205

(d) Sixteen times


179

Rev.1

180

IES 2013
IES2013

S 1997
99
IAS

S 2006conventional
2006
i
l
IES

A carbide tool(having n = 0.25)


0 25) with a mild steel

In
I the
th Taylor's
T l ' tool
t l life
lif equation,
ti
VTn = C,
C the
th value
l

An
The
A HSS tool
t l is
i used
d for
f turning
t
i operation.
ti
Th tool
t l life
lif is
i

workpiece was found to give life of 1 hour 21

of n = 0.5.
5 The tool has a life of 180 minutes at a

1 hr. when turning


g is carried at 330 m/min.
/
The tool life

minutes while cutting at 60 m/min. The value of C

cutting speed of 18 m/min. If the tool life is reduced

will be reduced to 2.0 min if the cutting speed is

in Taylors tool life equation would be equal to:

to 45 minutes, then the cutting speed will be

doubled. Find the suitable speed in RPM for turning 300

( ) 200
(a)

( ) 9 m/min
(a)

(b)

18 m/min

mm diameter
di
t so that
th t tool
t l life
lif is
i 30 min.
i

(b) 180

(c) 36 m/min

(d)

72 m/min

(c) 150
(d) 100

181

GATE2009LinkedAnswerQuestions(1)

182

IFS2013

GATE2009LinkedAnswerQuestions(2)

Inamachiningexperiment,toollifewasfoundtovary
withthecuttingspeedinthefollowingmanner:
Cuttingspeed(m/min)
Toollife(minutes)
60
81
90
36
Theexponent(n)andconstant(k)oftheTaylor's
p
( )
( )
y
toollifeequationare
(a)n=0.5andk=540
(a)n
0.5andk 540
(b)n=1andk=4860
(b)n
1andk 4860
(c)n=1andk=0.74
(d)n0.5andk=1.15

183

Inamachiningexperiment,toollifewasfoundtovary
withthecuttingspeedinthefollowingmanner:
Cuttingspeed(m/min)
Toollife(minutes)
60
81
90
36
Whatisthepercentageincreaseintoollifewhen
p
g
thecuttingspeedishalved?
(a)50%
(b)200%
(c)300%
(d)400%

In a metal cutting experiment, the tool life was


found to vary with the cutting speed in the
ffollowing
ll i manner :
Cuttingspeed,V(inm/min) Toollife,T(inmin)
100
130

120
50

Derive Taylor's
y
tool life equation
q
for this operation
p
and estimate the tool life at a speed of 2.5 m/s. Also
estimate the cutting speed for a tool life of 80 min.

184

185

Example
p

GATE 2013
GATE2013

G
20 0
GATE2010
For
F tool
t l A,
A Taylors
T l tool
t l life
lif exponentt (n)
( ) is
i 0.45 and
d

Two cutting tools are being compared for a

constant ((K)) is 9
90. Similarly
y for tool B,, n = 0.33 and K

machining operation. The tool life equations are:

= 60. The cutting speed (in m/min) above which tool

Carbide tool: VT 1.6 = 3000

A will have a higher tool life than tool B is

HSS tool: VT 0.6 = 200

( ) 26.7
(a)

Wh
Where
V is
i the
h cutting
i speed
d in
i m/min
/ i and
d T is
i the
h

(b) 42.5

( ) 80.7
(c)

(d) 142.9

186

Thefollowingdatawasobtainedfromthetoollife
cuttingtest:
CuttingSpeed,m/min:49.74
d
49 4 49
49.23
23 48
48.67
6 4
45.76
6 42
42.58
8
Toollife,min
2.94 3.90 4.77 9.87 28.27

tool life in min. The carbide tool will p


provide higher
g

DeterminetheconstantsoftheTaylortoollifeequation
VTn =C

tool life if the cutting speed in m/min exceeds


For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

(a) 15.0
187

(b) 39.4

(c) 49.3

(d) 60.0

Page 22 of 205

188

Rev.1

189

GATE2003
components while working at 50 rpm with a tool
feed of 0.25
0 25 mm/rev and depth of cut of 1 mm.
mm A
similar batch of 10 tools of the same specification
p
could produce 122 components while working at 80

What
change
is
Wh t is
i approximate
i t percentage
t
h
i the
th life,
lif t,
t
of a tool with zero rake angle
g used in orthogonal
g
cutting when its clearance angle, , is changed from
10o to 7o?

rpm with a feed of 0.25 mm/rev and 1 mm depth of

(
(Hint:
Flank
l k wear rate is proportionall to cot ))

cut How many components can be produced with


cut.

(a) 30 % increase

(b) 30%,
30% decrease

one cutting
g tool at 60 rpm?
p

(c) 70% increase


c ease

(d) 70% dec


decrease
ease

(a) 29

(b) 31

(c) 37

(d) 42

190

IES 2010
IES2010

191

(b) Depth of cut


(c) Coolant
(d) Cutting speed

193

S 1994,2007
99 200
IES

Considerthefollowingelements:
C
id th f ll i l
t

without any
y constraints,, what is the right
g sequence
q
to adjust the cutting parameters?
2.

Feed

3.

Depth of cut

Select the correct answer using the code given below:


( ) 1 2 3
(a)

(b)

2 3 1

(c) 3 2 1

(d)

1 3 2

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

196

1
1.

Noseradius

2
2.

Cuttingspeed

33.

Depthofcut
p

4.

Feed

ThecorrectsequenceoftheseelementsinDECREASING
orderoftheirinfluenceontoollifeis
(a) 2,4,3,1

(b)

4,2,3,1

( ) 2,4,1,3
(c)

(d)

4,2,I,3
I

194

S 2008
IES

For
F increasing
i
i the
th material
t i l removall rate
t in
i turning,
t
i

192

S 1997
99
IES

What is the correct sequence of the following


parameters
t
i
in
order
d
off their
th i maximum
i
t
to
minimum influence on tool life?
1. Feed
d rate
2. Depth of cut
3. Cutting speed
Select the correct answer using the codes given
below
(a) 1,
1 2,
2 3
(b) 3,
3 2,
2 1 (c) 2,
2 3,
3 1 (d) 3,
3 1,
1 2

((a)) Feed

Speed

ii.ee Cuttingspeedhasthegreatereffectfollowedbyfeed
anddepthofcutrespectively.

ISRO2012

Tool life is affected mainly with

1.

E t d d M difi d T l
ti
ExtendedorModifiedTaylorsequation

G
999
GATE1999

A batch of 10 cutting tools could produce 500

S 1995
99
IAS

Whatarethereasonsforreductionoftoollifeina
machiningoperation?
1 Temperatureriseofcuttingedge
1.
2. Chippingoftooledgeduetomechanicalimpact
3. Gradualwearsattoolpoint
4. Increaseinfeedofcutatconstantcuttingforce
4
g
Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodegiven
below:
(a) 1,2and3
(b) 2,3and4
( ) 1,3and4
(c)
d
(d) 1,2and4
d
Page 23 of 205

195

197

Assertion (A): An increase in depth of cut shortens


the tool life.
Reason(R): Increases in depth of cut gives rise to
relatively small increase in tool temperature.
( ) Both
(a)
B th A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true
t
and
d R is
i the
th
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Rev.1

198

T l Lif C
ToolLifeCurve

S 999 S 20 0 C
i
l
ESE1999;IAS2010Conventional

IFS2009

The
Th following
f ll i equation
ti for
f tool
t l life
lif was obtained
bt i d for
f HSS
tool. A 60 min tool life was obtained using
g the following
g

With the help of Taylors tool life equation,

cutting condition VT0.13f0.6d0.3= C. v = 40 m/min, f = 0.25

determine the shape of the curve between velocity

mm, d = 2.0 mm. Calculate the effect on tool life if

of cutting and life of the tool. Assume an HSS tool

speed,
d feed
f d and
d depth
d th off cutt are together
t th increased
i
d by
b

and steel as work material.


material

25%
5 and also if theyy are increased individuallyy byy 25%;
5 ;

[
[10Marks]
]

where f = feed, d = depth of cut, v = speed.


1.HSS

2.Carbide

3.Ceramic

199

S 20 0 C
i
l
IES2010Conventional
y Drawtoollifecurvesforcastalloy,Highspeedsteeland
ceramictools.
[2 Marks]

Ans.

1.Highspeedsteel

2.castalloyand3.ceramictools.
202

Cuttingspeedusedfordifferent
toolmaterials
l
l

200

S 2003
IAS

IES2010
The above figure shows a typical
relationship between tool life and
cutting
g speed
p
for different
materials. Match the graphs for
HSS, Carbide and Ceramic tool
materials
i l and
d select
l
the
h correct
answer using the code given
below the lists:
Code: HSS Carbide Ceramic
(a) 1
2
3
(b) 3
2
1
(c) 1
3
2
(d) 3
1
2

ThetoollifecurvesfortwotoolsAandBareshownin
thefigureandtheyfollowthetoollifeequationVTn =C.
Considerthefollowingstatements:
g
1.
2.
3.
4.

Valueofnforboththetoolsissame.
ValueofCforboththetoolsissame.
ValueofCfortoolAwillbegreaterthanthatforthetoolB.
ValueofCfortoolBwillbegreaterthanthatforthetoolA.
a ue o C o too
be g eate t a t at o t e too .

Whichofthesestatementsis/arecorrect?
(a) 1and3
(b) 1and4
(c) 2only
(d) 4only
203

EffectofRakeangleontoollife

204

EffectofClearanceangleontoollife
If clearance angle increased it reduces flank wear but
weaken the cutting edge, so best compromise is 80 for
HSS and 50 for carbide tool.

HSS (min) 30 m/min < Cast alloy < Carbide

Effect of work piece on tool life


Effectofworkpieceontoollife

< Cemented carbide 150 m/min < Cermets

y With hard microconstituents in the matrix gives poor

< Ceramics or sintered oxide (max) 600 m/min

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

201

tooll life.
lif
y With larger grain size tool life is better.

205

Page 24 of 205

206

Rev.1

207

IES 2013Con.Answer

IES 2013Conventional
IES
2013 Conventional

ForIESOnly

You are asked to turn ductile cast iron with various


microstructure and hardness as shown in the
following table.
H d
Hardness(HB)
(HB) Ferrite
F it
P lit
Pearlite
1.Annealed
186
97
3
2.AsCast
265
20%
80%
3.Annealed
170
100

4.AsCast
207
60
40

ToollifeTests
y Conventionaltest:Usingempiricalformula
y Acceleratedtest:Estimatethetoollifequickly
A l t dt t E ti t th t llif i kl

Extrapolatingofsteadywearrate
Highspeedtestwilltakelesstime
Variablespeedtest
Multipassturning
Taperturning
p
g

Draw a figure
D
fi
showing
h i
variation
i i
off tooll life
lif with
ih
cutting speed and the effect of workpiece hardness
and
d microstructure.
i
208

IES 2014
IES

209

ChipEquivalent

In accelerated tool life tests, the three main types of


quick and less costly tool life testing are
(a) Extrapolation on the basis of steady wear;
conventional measurement of flank and crater wear;
comparative performance against tool chipping
(b) Measurement of abrasive wear; multi pass turning;
conventional
ti
l measurementt off diffusion
diff i wear
(c) Extrapolating on the basis of steady wear, multipass
turning; taper turning
(d) comparative
p
performance against
p
g
tool chipping;
pp g
taper turning; measurement of abrasive wear

ChipEquivalent(q) =

Refer:B.LJuneja+Nitin Seth

The SCEA alters the length of the engaged cutting

Engaged
E
d cutting
tti edge
d llength
th
Plan area of cut

edge
affecting
d without
ih
ff i the
h area off cut. As
A a result,
l the
h
chip equivalent changed.
changed When the SCEA is increased,

y It is used for controlling the tool temperature.

the chip equivalent is increased, without significantly


changing the cutting forces.
Increase in nose radius also increases the value of the

chip equivalent and improve tool life.

211

212

213

Economics of metal cutting


Economicsofmetalcutting

IES1996
Chip equivalent is increased by
(a) An increases in sidecutting edge angle of tool
(b) An increase in nose radius and side cutting
edge angle of tool
(c) Increasing the plant area of cut
(d) Increasing the depth of cut.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

214

Page 25 of 205

215

Rev.1

216

Formula
Vo Ton = C
O ti
Optimum
tool
t l life
lif for
f minimum
i i
costt

C 1 n
To = Tc + t
if Tc , Ct & Cm given
C
m n

C 1 n
= t
if Ct & Cm given

Cm n
Optimum tool life for Maximum Productivity
(minimum production time)
1 n
To = Tc

Toolingcost(Ct)=toolregrindcost
) toolregrindcost
+tooldepreciationperservice/replacement
Machiningcost(Cm)=labour cost+overheadcostper
min
217

G
20
GATE2014

Determine the optimum cutting speed for an


operation on a Lathe machine using the following
information:
Tool change time: 3 min
T l regrinds
Tool
i d time:
ti
3 min
i
Machine running cost Rs.0.50 per min
Depreciation of tool regrinds Rs. 5.0
The constants in the tool life equation are 60 and
0.2

218

219

S 200 C
i
l
ESE2001Conventional

If the
th Taylors
T l tool
t l life
lif exponentt n is
i 0.2, and
d the
th
tool changing
g g time is 1.55 min,, then the tool life ((in
min) for maximum production rate is .

In a certain machining operation with a cutting


speed of 50 m/min, tool life of 45 minutes was
observed.
b
d When
Wh the
th cutting
tti speed
d was increased
i
d
to 100 m/min, the tool life decreased to 10 min.
Estimate the cutting speed for maximum
productivityy if tool change
p
g time is 2 minutes.

220

G
200
GATE2005

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

S 2009 C
i
l
IES2009Conventional

Units:Tc min(Toolchangingtime)
Ct Rs./servicingorreplacement(Tooling
/
i i l
(
li
cost)
Cm Rs/min(Machiningcost)
V m/min(Cuttingspeed)
/
(
g p
)

Determine the optimum speed for achieving


maximum production rate in a machining
operation. The data is as follows :
Machining time/job = 6 min.
min
Tool life = 90 min.
Ta lor'ss equation constants C = 100,
Taylor
00 n = 0.5
0
Job handling time = 4 min./job
Tooll changing
h
i time
i
= 9 min.
i
[10Marks]

221

S 2007Contd
200
C d
IAS

223

IAS 2011Main

g
g economics with
A diagram
related to machining
various cost components is given above. Match List I
(Cost Element) with List II (Appropriate Curve) and
select the correct answer using the code given below
the Lists:
ListI
ListII
(CostElement)
(AppropriateCurve)
A. Machiningcost
1.
Curvel
2.
Curve2
B. Toolcost
C. Toolgrindingcost
3.
Curve3
D Non
D.
Nonproductivecost
productivecost 4.
4
Curve4
Curve
4
5.
Curve5
Page 26 of 205
224

222

Contd
Contd.
From previous slide

Code:A
(a) 3
(c) 3

B
2
1

C
4
4

D
5
2

(b)
(d)

A
4
4

B
1
2
Rev.1

C
3
3

D
2
5
225

MinimumCostVsProductionRate

IES2011
The optimum cutting speed is one which should
have:
1. High
Hi h metal
t l removall rate
t
2. High cutting tool life
3. Balance the metal removal rate and cutting
tool life
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
( ) 3 only
(d)

Vmax.production >Vmax.profit >Vmin. cost

226

S 1998
998
IES

S 2000
IES

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Inturning,theratiooftheoptimumcuttingspeed
forminimumcostandoptimumcuttingspeedfor
maximumrateofproductionisalways
(a) Equalto1
(b) Intherangeof0.6to1
I th
f 6t
(c) Intherangeof0.1to0.6
(d) Greaterthan1

230

S 2004
200
IES

232

228

S 1997
99
IAS

Optimum cutting speed for minimum cost (Vc min


i )
and optimum cutting speed for maximum
production rate (Vr max ) have which one of the
following relationships?
(a) Vc min = Vr max
(b) Vc min > Vr max
(c) Vc min < Vr max
(d) V2c min = Vr max

229

The magnitude of the cutting speed for maximum


profit rate must be
(a) In between the speeds for minimum cost and
maximum production rate
(b) Higher
Hi h than
th the
th speed
d for
f maximum
i
production
d ti rate
t
(c) Below the speed for minimum cost
(d) Equal to the speed for minimum cost

Consider the following approaches normally


applied for the economic analysis of machining:
1 Maximum production rate
1.
2. Maximum profit criterion
3. Minimum cost criterion
The correct sequence
q
in ascending
g order of optimum
p
cutting speed obtained by these approaches is
(a) 1, 2, 3
(b) 1, 3, 2
(c) 3, 2, 1
(d) 3, 1, 2

227

S 2002
IAS

The variable cost and production rate of a


machining process against cutting speed are shown
in the given figure. For efficient machining, the
range of best cutting speed would be between
(a) 1 and 3
(b) 1 and 5
(c) 2 and 4
((d)) 3 and 5

S 1999
999
IES

g statements:
Consider the following
1. As the cutting speed increases, the cost of production
initially reduces, then after an optimum cutting speed it
increases
2. As the cutting speed increases the cost of production
also
l increases
i
and
d after
f a critical
i i l value
l it
i reduces
d
3. Higher feed rate for the same cutting speed reduces cost
of production
4. Higher feed rate for the same cutting speed increases the
cost of production
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 3
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 4
(d) Page
3 only
27 of 205
233

231

S 2002
IES
Ineconomicsofmachining,whichoneofthe
followingcostsremainsconstant?
(a) Machiningcostperpiece
(b) Toolchangingcostperpiece
(c) Toolhandlingcostperpiece
((d)) Toolcostperpiece
p p

Rev.1

234

IES 2010
IES2010

S 2007
200
IAS
Assertion (A): The optimum cutting speed for the
minimum cost of machining may not maximize the
profit.
Reason (R): The profit also depends on rate of
production.
production
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correctt explanation
l
ti off A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

With increasing cutting velocity, the total


time for machining a component
( ) Decreases
(a)
D
((b)) Increases
(c) Remains unaffected
(d) First
Fi decreases
d
and
d then
h increases
i

235

236

MachinabilityDefinition
Machinability can be tentatively defined as ability
ability of
being machined and more reasonably as ease of
machining.
machining.
Such ease of machining or machining characters
of any toolwork pair is to be judged by:
y Tool

wear or tool life


y Magnitude of the cutting forces
y Surface finish
y Magnitude of cutting temperature
y Chip forms.

237

ForIESOnly

FreeCuttingsteels
y Addition
carbon
Additi off lead
l d in
i low
l
b resulphurised
l h i d steels
t l and
d

also in aluminium, copper and their alloys help reduce


th i s. The
their
Th dispersed
di
d lead
l d particles
ti l actt as discontinuity
di
ti it
and solid lubricants and thus improve machinability by
reducing
d i
f i ti
friction,
cutting
tti
f
forces
and
d temperature,
t
t
t l
tool
wear and BUE formation.
y It contains less than 0.35% lead by weight .
y A free cutting
g steel contains
C0.07%, Si0.03%, Mn0.9%, P0.04%, S0.22%, Pb0.15%

IES 2012
IES

MachinabilityIndex
OrMachinabilityRating
O M hi bilit R ti
The machinability index KM is defined by
KM = V60/V60R
Wh
Where
V60 is
i the
th cutting
tti
speed
d for
f the
th target
t
t material
t i l
that ensures tool life of 60 min, V60R is the same for the
reference
f
material.
t i l
If KM > 1, the machinability of the target material is
better that this of the reference material, and vice versa

238

The usual method of defining machinability of a


material is by an index based on
(a) Hardness of work material
(b) Production rate of machined parts
(c) Surface finish of machined surfaces
((d)) Tool life

239

240

ForIESOnly

S 1996
996
IAS

MachinabilityofSteel

Assertion(A):Themachinabilityofamaterialcan
bemeasuredasanabsolutequantity.
Reason(R):Machinabilityindexindicatesthecase
withwhichamaterialcanbemachined
( ) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe
(a)
B thA dR i di id ll t dRi th
correctexplanationofA
(b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the
correctexplanationofA
(c) AistruebutRisfalse
(d) AisfalsebutRistrue
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

241

ForIESOnly

MachinabilityofSteelcontd

y Mainly sulfur and lead improve machinability of

y Leaded steel: Lead is insoluble and takes the form of

steel.
y Resulfurized
R
lf i d steel:
t l Sulfur
S lf is
i added
dd d to
t steel
t l only
l if
there is sufficient manganese in it. Sulfur forms
manganese sulfide
lf d which
h h exists as an isolated
l d phase
h
and act as internal lubrication and chip breaker.
y If insufficient manganese is there a low melting iron
sulfide will formed around the austenite grain
boundary. Such steel is very weak and brittle.
y Tellurium and selenium is similar to sulfur.
sulfur

dispersed fine particle and act as solid lubricants. At


high speed lead melts and acting as a liquid lubricants.
As lead is toxin and pollutant, lead free steel is produced
using Bismuth and Tin.
y Rephosphorized steel: Phosphorus strengthens the
ferrite causing increased hardness,
ferrite,
hardness result in better chip
formation and surface finish.
y CalciumDeoxidized
C l i
D
idi d steel:
t l Oxide
O id flakes
fl k off calcium
l i
silicates are formed. Reduce friction, tool temp, crater
wear specially
i ll att high
hi h speed.
d

Page 28 of 205

242

Rev.1

243

ForIESOnly

MachinabilityofSteelcontd
y Stainless Steel: Difficult to machine due to abrasion.
abrasion
y Aluminum and Silicon in steel: Reduce machinability

due to aluminum oxide and silicates formation,


formation which
are hard and abrasive.
y Carbon
C b
and
d manganese in
i
steel:
t l
R d
Reduce
machinability due to more carbide.
y Nickel, Chromium, molybdenum, and vanadium in
steel: Reduce machinability due to improved property.
y Effect of boron is negligible. Oxygen improve
y
Nitrogen
g
and Hydrogen
y g
reduce
machinability.
machinability.

ForIESOnly

IES 2011 C
ti
l
IES2011Conventional

RoleofmicrostructureonMachinability

g elements on the
y Discuss the effects of the following
machinability of steels:
(i) Aluminium and silicon
(ii) Sulphur and Selenium
(iii) Lead
L d and
d Tin
Ti
(iv) Carbon and Manganese
(v) Molybdenum and Vanadium

ForIESOnly

[5 Marks]

Coarsemicrostructureleadstolesservalueofs.
Therefore,
Th
f
s canbedesirablyreducedby
b d i bl d db
y Properheattreatmentlikeannealingofsteels
y Controlledadditionofmaterialslikesulphur (S),lead
((Pb),Tellerium
)
etcleadingtofreecuttingofsoftductile
g
g
metalsandalloys.
y Brittlematerialsarerelativelymoremachinable.

244

245

246

ForIESOnly

S 1992
992
IES
Toollifeisgenerallybetterwhen
(a) Grainsizeofthemetalislarge
(b) Grainsizeofthemetalissmall
G i i fth t li
ll
(c) Hardconstituentsarepresentinthemicrostructure
ofthetoolmaterial
((d)) Noneoftheabove

Eff t off tool


t l rake
k angle(s)
l ( ) on
Effects
machinability
y AsRakeangleincreasesmachinabilityincreases.
A R k
l i

hi bili i
y Buttoomuchincreaseinrakeweakensthecuttingedge.
Buttoomuchincreaseinrakeweakensthecuttingedge

247

248

ForIESOnly

EffectsofCuttingEdgeangle(s)on
machinability

S 2000
IAS
Considerthefollowingstatements:
Thetoollifeisincreasedby
1. Builtupedgeformation
B ilt d f
ti
2. Increasingcuttingvelocity
3. Increasingbackrakeangleuptocertainvalue
Whichofthesestatementsarecorrect?
(a) 1and3
(b) 1and2
( ) 2and3
(c)
d
(d) 1,2and3
d

249

ForIESOnly

Effectsofclearanceangleonmachinability

ForIESOnly

EffectsofNoseRadiusonmachinability
Proper
tool
improves
machinability
P
t l nose radiusing
di i
i
hi bilit to
t
some extent through
y increase in tool life by increasing mechanical strength
and reducing temperature at the tool tip
y reduction of surface roughness, hmax

y The variation in the cutting edge angles does not affect

cutting force or specific energy requirement for cutting.


y Increase in SCEA and reduction in ECEA improves

surface
f
fi i h sizeably
finish
i bl in
i continuous
ti
chip
hi formation
f
ti
hence Machinability.
y

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Inadequate clearance angle reduces tool life and surface


finish by tool work rubbing, and again too large
clearance reduces the tool strength and tool life hence
machinability.
250

Page 29 of 205

251

hmax

f2
=
8R
Rev.1

252

S 1992
992
IES

S 2007,2009
200 2009
IES

ISRO2007

Considerthefollowing:

Easeofmachiningisprimarilyjudgedby
E
f
hi i i i
il j d db
(a) Lifeofcuttingtoolbetweensharpening

1.

Toollife

Machinability depends on

(b) Rigidityofworkpiece
g y
p

2.

Cuttingforces

(a) Microstructure, physical and mechanical

(c) Microstructureoftoolmaterial

3.

Surfacefinish

properties and composition of workpiece material.

(d) Shapeanddimensionsofwork

253

Whichoftheaboveis/arethemachinability

( ) Cutting forces
(b)

criterion/criteria?

(c) Type of chip

(a) 1,2and3

(b)

1and3only

(c) 2and3only

(d)

2only

S 2003
IES

formation during
g machining
g are
(a) Sulphur, lead and phosphorous
(b) Sulphur, lead and cobalt
(c) Aluminium, lead and copper
(d) Aluminium, titanium and copper

following

Considerthefollowingcriteriainevaluating
machinability:
1 Surfacefinish 2.
1.
2
Typeofchips
3. Toollife
4.
Powerconsumption
InmodernhighspeedCNCmachiningwithcoated
carbidetools,thecorrectsequenceofthesecriteria
inDECREASINGorderoftheirimportanceis
((a)) 1,2,4,3
4 3
((b)) 2,1,4,3
4 3
(c) 1,2,3,4
(d) 2,1,3,4

257

S 1996
996
IES
the

255

S 1998
998
IES

The
Th elements
l
t which,
hi h added
dd d to
t steel,
t l help
h l in
i chip
hi

256

of

254

S 2009
IES

) The machinability
y of steels improves
p
Assertion ((A):
by adding sulphur to obtain so called 'Free
Machining Steels.
Reason (R): Sulphur in steel forms manganese
sulphide inclusion which helps to produce thin
ribbon like continuous chip.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

Which

(d) Tool life

258

S 1996
996
IES
indicate

better

S 1995
99
IES

Small
S ll amounts
t off which
hi h one off the
th following
f ll i

Inlowcarbonsteels,presenceofsmallquantities
I l b t l
f
ll
titi

machinability?

elements/pairs
/p
of elements is added to steel to

sulphur
p
improves
p

1.

Smaller shear angle

increase its machinability?

(a) Weldability

(b)

Formability

2.

Higher cutting forces

(a) Nickel

(b)

Sulphur and phosphorus

(c) Machinability

(d)

Hardenability

3.

L
Longer
tooll life
lif

(c) Silicon

(d)

Manganese and copper

4 Better surface finish.


4.
finish
(a) 1 and 3

(b)

2 and 4

(c) 1 and 2 For-2015


(d) (IES,
3 andGATE
4
& PSUs)

259

Page 30 of 205

260

Rev.1

261

ForIESOnly

ForIESOnly

S 1992
992
IES

MachinabilityofTitanium
y Titanium
is
Tit i
i very reactive
ti and
d the
th chips
hi tend
t d to
t weld
ld to
t

S 2013Conventional
20 3 C
i
l
IES

Machiningoftitaniumisdifficultdueto
M hi i ftit i
i diffi ltd t

the tool tip


p leading
g to p
premature tool failure due to edge
g

(a) Highthermalconductivityoftitanium

chipping.

(b) Chemicalreactionbetweentoolandwork

y Titanium and its alloys have poor thermal conductivity,

causing high
h h temperature rise and
d BUE.

Why
titanium
have
poor machinability?
Wh does
d
tit i
h
hi bilit ?

(c) Lowtoolchipcontactarea
(d) Noneoftheabove

y Almost all tool materials tend to react chemically with

titanium.
262

263

264

IES 2002
IES

S f
h
SurfaceRoughness

IES1995
Consider
C
id the
th following
f ll i work
k materials:
t i l
1. Titanium
2.
Mild steel
3. Stainless steel
4.
Grey cast iron.
The correct sequence of these materials in terms of
increasing order of difficulty in machining is
(a) 4,
4 2,
2 3,
3 1
(b) 4,
4 2,
2 1,
1 3
(c) 2, 4, 3, 1
(d) 2, 4, 1, 3

y Ideal
( Zero
nose radius)
Id l Surface
S f
Z
di )

f
tan SCEA + cot ECEA
h
f
and (Ra) =
=
4 4 ( tan SCEA + cot ECEA )

Peak to valley roughness (h) =

The value of surface roughness 'h'


h obtained during
the turning operating at a feed 'f' with a round nose
tool having radius 'r'
r is given as

y Practical
P ti l Surface
S f
( with
ith nose radius
di = R)

h=

f2
8R

Ra =

and

f2
18 3R

Change in feed (f) is more important than a change in nose radius


(R) and depth of cut has no effect on surface roughness.
265

266

IAS 1996
IAS

IES 1999
IES

Given that
S = feed in mm/rev. and
R = nose radius
di in
i mm,
the maximum height of surface roughness Hmax
produced by a singlepoint turning tool is given by
((a)) S2/2R
(b) S2/4R
(c) S2/4R
(d) S2/8R
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

267

268

GATE 1997
GATE

In
operation,
the
I turning
t
i
ti
th feed
f d could
ld be
b doubled
d bl d to
t

Acuttingtoolhasaradiusof1.8mm.Thefeedrate
A tti t lh di f 8
Th f d t

increase the metal removal rate. To keep


p the same

foratheoreticalsurfaceroughnessofis5mis
g
5

level of surface finish, the nose radius of the tool

(a) 0.268mm/rev

should be

(b) 0.187mm/rev

( ) Halved
(a)
l d

(b)

Kept unchanged
h
d

(c) 0.036mm/rev

(c) doubled

(d)

Made four times

(d) 0.0187mm/rev

Page 31 of 205

269

Rev.1

270

GATE 2007(PI)
2007 (PI)
GATE

GATE 2005
GATE

A tool with Side Cutting Edge angle of 30o and


End Cutting Edge angle of

10o

is used for fine

turning with a feed of 1 mm/rev. Neglecting nose


radius of the tool, the maximum (peak to valley)
height of surface roughness produced will be
(a) 0.16 mm

(b) 0.26 mm

(c) 0.32 mm

(d) 0.48 mm

Two tools P and Q have signatures 55566830


5 6 6 8 30
0 and 55778150 (both ASA) respectively.
They are used to turn components under the same
machining conditions. If hp and hQ denote the peak
tovalley
to
valley heights of surfaces produced by the tools P
and Q, the ratio hp/hQ will be

tan 8o + cot15o
tan 8o + cot 30o
tan15o + cot7o
(c )
tan 30o + cot7o
(a)

271

IES 2006
IES

IES 1993,ISRO2008
1993 ISRO 2008
IES

tan15o + cot 8o
tan 30o + cot 8o
tan7o + cot15o
(d )
tan7o + cot 30o
(b)

requirement
q
of surface finish would p
put a limit on
which of the following?
(a) The maximum feed
(b) The maximum depth of cut
( ) The
(c)
Th maximum
i
speed
d

is
(a) Depth of cut

(b)

Cutting speed

(c) Feed

(d)

Tool rake angle

273

GATE 2010 (PI)


GATE2010(PI)

A spindle speed of 300 rpm and a feed of 0.3


03
mm/revolution are chosen for longitudinal turning
operation on an engine lathe. In finishing pass,
roughness on the work surface can be reduced by
(a) reducing the spindle speed
(b) increasing the spindle speed
(c) reducing the feed of tool
((d)) increasing
g the feed of tool

During turning of a low carbon steel bar with TiN coated


carbide insert, one need to improve surface finish
without
h
sacrificing
f
materiall removall rate. To achieve
h
improved surface finish, one should
(a) decrease nose radius of the cutting tool and increase
depth of cut
(b) Increase nose radius of the cutting tool
(c) Increase feed and decrease nose radius of the cutting
tool

(d) The maximum number of passes


274

Cutting fluid
Cuttingfluid

y The cutting fluid acts primarily as a coolant and

secondly as a lubricant, reducing the friction effects at


the toolchip interface and the workblank regions.
y Cast Iron: Machined dry or compressed air,
air Soluble oil
for high speed machining and grinding
y Brass:
B
M hi d dry
Machined
d or straight
t i ht mineral
i
l oil
il with
ith or
without EPA.
y Aluminium:
l
Machined
h d dry
d or kerosene
k
oill mixed
d with
h
mineral oil or soluble oil
y Stainless steel and Heat resistant alloy: High
performance soluble oil or neat oil with high
concentration with chlorinated EP additive.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

turning
g the most important
p
factor to be controlled

272

GATE 2014 (PI)


GATE2014(PI)

In
off optimal
conditions,
the
I the
th selection
l ti
ti l cutting
tti
diti
th

For
finish
F achieving
hi i a specific
ifi surface
f
fi i h in
i single
i l point
i t

277

275

IAS 2009 Main


IAS2009Main

276

IES 2001
IES

y Whatareextremepressurelubricants?

[3 marks]
g
pressures and rubbing
p
g action are
Where high
encountered, hydrodynamic lubrication cannot be
maintained; so Extreme Pressure (EP) additives must be
added
dd d to the
h lubricant.
l bi
EP lubrication
l b i i is
i provided
id d by
b a
number of chemical components such as boron,
phosphorus sulfur,
phosphorus,
sulfur chlorine,
chlorine or combination of these.
these
The compounds are activated by the higher temperature
resulting from extreme pressure.
pressure As the temperature
rises, EP molecules become reactive and release
derivatives such as iron chloride or iron sulfide and
forms a solid protective coating.
Page 32 of 205

(d) Increase depth of cut and increase feed

278

Dry and compressed air is used as cutting fluid for


machining
(a) Steel
(b) Aluminium
(c) Cast iron (d) Brass

Rev.1

279

Workbook
Ch4:EconomicsofMachiningOperation

Workbook
Ch3:CuttingTools,ToolLifeandCuttingFluid

IES 2012
IES
Themostimportantfunctionofthecuttingfluidisto
(a)Providelubrication
(b)C lth t l d
(b)Coolthetoolandworkpiece
k i
(c)Washawaythechips
(d)Improvesurfacefinish

Q. No
Q

Option
p

Q. No
Q

Option
p

Q. No
Q

Option
p

Q. No

Option

Q. No

Option

12

23

13

24

14

25

15

26

2
3

B
A

7
8

A
C

16

27

17

28

18

29

19

30

20

31

10

21

32

11

22 B

280

33

B
C

C
281

282

283

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 33 of 205

Rev.1

Terminology

Terminology
y Nominal size: Size of a part specified in the drawing.

It
I is
i used
d for
f generall identification
id ifi i purpose.
y Basic size: Size of a part to which all limits of

variation (i.e. tolerances) are applied. Basic dimension


is theoretical dimension.
dimension

Limit Tolerance&Fits
Limit,Tolerance&Fits

y Actual size: Actual measured dimension of the part.

The difference between the basic size and the actual


size should not exceed a certain limit, otherwise it will
interfere with the interchangeability of the mating
parts.

BySKMondal

TerminologyContd....

Terminology
Contd
Terminology
Contd....

y Limits of sizes: There are two extreme permissible

sizes for a dimension of the part.


part The largest
permissible size for a dimension is called upper or high
or maximum limit, whereas the smallest size is known
as lower or minimum limit.
y Tolerance
The difference between the upper limit and lower
limit.
It is the maximum permissible variation in a
dimension.
The tolerance may be unilateral or bilateral.

Terminology
Terminology
Contd....

Unilateral Limits occurs when both maximum limit and


minimum limit are either above or below the basic size.
size
e.g. 25 +0.18

For Unilateral Limits,, a case mayy occur when one of the


limits coincides with the basic size,
+0 20 ,25
e.g.25
+0.20
0

+0 10
+0.10

Basic Size = 25.00 mm


Upper Limit = 25.18 mm
Lower Limit = 25.10 mm
Tolerance = 0.08 mm

0.10

BilateralLimits occurwhenthemaximumlimitisabove
andtheminimumlimitisbelowthebasicsize.

e.g. 25 -0.10

-0.20

Basic
B
i Size
Si
= 25
25.00
00 mm
Upper Limit = 24.90 mm
Lower Limit = 24.80 mm
Tolerance = 0.10 mm

e.g. 25 0.04
Basic Size = 25.00 mm
Upper Limit = 25.04 mm
Lower Limit = 24.96 mm
Tolerance = 0.08 mm

Terminology
Contd
Terminology
Contd....

ForPSU

y Zero line: A straight line corresponding to the basic

ISRO2010

Tolerancesarespecified
( ) Toobtaindesiredfits
(a)
b
d
df
(b) becauseitisnotpossibletomanufactureasize
exactly
((c)) toobtainhigheraccuracy
g
y
(d) tohaveproperallowances

size. The deviations are measured from this line.

Expressing a dimension as 25.30.05 mm is the case of

y Deviation:
D i i
I the
Is
h algebraic
l b i difference
diff
b
between
a size
i

(a) Unilateral tolerance

(actual, max. etc.) and the corresponding basic size.

(b) Bilateral tolerance

y Actual deviation: Is the algebraic difference between

(c) Limiting dimensions

an actual size and the corresponding basic size.

(d) All off the


h above
b

y Upper deviation: Is the algebraic difference between

th maximum
the
i
size
i and
d the
th basic
b i size.
i
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 34 of 205

Rev.1

Terminology
Contd
Terminology
Contd....

GATE 2010,ISRO2012
2010 ISRO 2012
GATE

GATE 1992
GATE

g
y Lower deviation: Is the algebraic
difference between
0.009

the minimum size and the basic size.


y Mean deviation: Is the arithmetical mean of upper

and
d lower
l
d
deviations.
y Fundamental deviation: This is the deviation,
deviation either

A shaft has a dimension,350.025


Th respective
The
ti values
l
off fundamental
f d
t l deviation
d i ti and
d
tolerance are

(a) 0.025, 0.008


(c) 0.009, 0.008

(b) 0.025,0.016
(d) 0.009,0.016

the upper or the lower deviation, which is nearest one


to zero line for either a hole or shaft.
10

11

GATE 2004
2004
GATE

IES 2005
IES

In an interchangeable assembly, shafts of size


+0.020
25.000
mm mate with holes of size 25.0000.000 mm.
The maximum possible clearance in the assembly
will be
( ) 10 microns
(a)
i
(b) 20 microns
(c) 30 microns
(d) 60 microns
+0.040
0.0100

12

GATE 2000
GATE

p
y the designer
g
The tolerance specified
by
for the
diameter of a shaft is 20.00 0.025 mm. The shafts
produced by three different machines A, B and C
have mean diameters of 1999 mm, 2000 mm and
20.01 mm respectively, with same standard
d i ti
deviation.
Wh t will
What
ill be
b the
th percentage
t
rejection
j ti
f
for
the shafts produced by machines A, B and C?
( ) Same
(a)
S
f the
for
th machines
hi
A Band
A,
B d C since
i
th standard
the
t d d
deviation is same for the three machines
(b) Least
L t for
f machine
hi A
(c) Least for machine B
(d) Least for machine C

13

A slot is to be milled centrally on a block with a


dimension of 40 0.05 mm. A milling cutter of 20
mm width is located with reference to the side of
the block within 0.02 mm. The maximum offset in
mm between the centre lines of the slot and the
block is
(a) 0.070
0 070
(b) 0.070
0 070
(c) 0.020
(d) 0.045

14

Clearance Fits

Fit

15

GATE 2007
GATE
0 .0 5 0

Hole

Fits:(assemblyconditionbetweenHole&Shaft)
H l Afeatureengulfing
Hole
Af t
lfi acomponent

Max C

Min C

Shaft Afeaturebeingengulfed
g g
bya
y
component

Tolerancezonesnevermeet

Shaft

Max. C = UL of hole - LL of shaft


Max
Min. C = LL of hole - UL of shaft

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

TwoshaftsAandBhavetheirdiametersspecifiedas
100 0.1mmand0.1 0.0001mmrespectively.
Whichofthefollowingstatementsis/aretrue?
(a) ToleranceinthedimensionisgreaterinshaftA
(b) Therelativeerrorinthedimensionisgreaterinshaft
A
(c) ToleranceinthedimensionisgreaterinshaftB
(d) Therelativeerrorinthedimensionissameforshaft
AandshaftB

16

Theclearancefitsmaybeslidefit,easyslidingfit,running
Page 35 of 205
17
fit,slackrunningfitandlooserunningfit.

A hole is specified as 4 0 0 . 0 0 0
mm. The mating
shaft has a clearance fit with minimum clearance of
0.01 mm. The tolerance on the shaft is 0.04 mm. The
maximum clearance in mm between the hole and
the shaft is
(a) 0.04
(b) 0.05
(c) 0.10
(d) 0.11
Rev.1

18

Transition Fits

Interference Fits

Hole

Hole
M C
Max

Max I

Tolerancezonesalways
overlap

Shaft

Shaft

IES2011

Tolerancezonesnevermeet
butcrosseseachother

Interference
fit
f
f joints are provided
d d for:
f
(a) Assembling bush bearing in housing

Min I

Max I

(b) Mounting
ou t g heavy
ea y duty gea
gearss o
on sshafts
a ts
(c) Mounting pulley on shafts
Max. C = UL of hole - LL of shaft
Max. I = LL of hole - UL of shaft

(d) Assembly of flywheels on shafts

Max. I = LL of hole - UL of shaft


Min. I = UL of hole - LL of shaft

Thetransitionfitsmaybetightfitandpushfit,wringing
Thetransitionfitsmaybetightfitandpushfit
wringing
fit(Gear,pulleyonshaft),pressfit.
19

IES 2013
IES2013

Theinterferencefitsmaybeshrinkfit,heavydrivefitand
h
f
f
b h kf h
d
f
d
lightdrivefit.
20

IES 2014

GATE 2005
GATE

Which of the following is a joint formed by

In
interference
fit,
I order
d to
t have
h
i t f
fit it is
i essential
ti l that
th t

interference fits?

the lower limit of the shaft should be

(a) Joint of cycle axle and its bearing

(a) Greater than the upper limit of the hole

(b) Joint between I.C. Engine piston and cylinder

(b) Lesser than the upper limit of the hole

(c) Joint between a pulley and shaft transmitting power

(c) Greater than the lower limit of the hole

(d) Joint
J i off lathe
l h spindle
i dl and
d its
i bearing
b i

(d) Lesser than the lower limit of the hole

22

GATE2011
A hole is of dimension 9

+0.015
0 015
+0

In an interchangeable assembly, shafts of size


+0.010

corresponding
p
g shaft is of dimension
The resulting assembly has
(a) loose running fit
(b) close running fit
( ) transition
(c)
t
iti fit
(d) interference fit

9 +0.001

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

mm.

mm mate with holes of size

25++0.03
0 02
0.02

Page 36 of 205

24

IAS 2011 Main


IAS2011Main

25+0.04
0.01

mm.

The maximum interference (in microns) in the assembly


is
( ) 40
(a)
(b) 30
( ) 20
(c)
(d) 10

25

StatementI: In interference fit, the outer diameter


y
will be more than the inner
of the inner cylinder
diameter of the hollow outer cylinder
StatementII: These fits are recommended for two
parts frequently dismantled and assembled.
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are
individually true and Statement (II) is the correct
explanation of Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are
individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct
explanation
l
i off Statement
S
(I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

23

GATE2012SameQinGATE2012(PI)

mm. The

21

26

An interference assembly, of nominal diameter 20 mm,


is
i off a unilateral
il
l holes
h l and
d a shafts.
h f The
Th manufacturing
f
i
tolerances for the holes are twice that for the shaft.
P
Permitted
i d interference
i
f
values
l
are 0.03 to 0.09 mm.
Determine the sizes, with limits, for the two mating
parts.
[ M k ]
[10Marks]

Hint: Use unilateral hole basis system.


system

Rev.1

27

IES 2007
IES

IES 2006
IES

ISRO2011

Which
fit?
Whi h off the
th following
f ll i is
i an interference
i t f

Ashaftandholepairisdesignatedas50H7d8.

(a) Push fit

Thisassemblyconstitutes

(b) Running
g fit

(a)Interferencefit

(c) Sliding fit

(b)Transitionfit

(d) Shrink fit

(c)Clearancefit
(d)Noneoftheabove
28

29

IES 2009
IES

IES 2008
IES

Consider the following joints:


1. Railway carriage wheel and axle
2. IC engine
i cylinder
li d and
d liner
li
Which of the above joints is/are the result(s) of
interference fit?
((a)) 1 onlyy
(b) 2 only
(c) Neither 1 nor 2
(d) Both 1 and 2

Allowance

34

Consider the following fits:


1. I.C. engine cylinder and piston
2. Ball
B ll bearing
b i outer
t race and
d housing
h
i
3. Ball bearing inner race and shaft
Which of the above fits are based on the interference
y
system?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

32

33

GATE 2001
2001
GATE

y It is Minimum clearance or maximum interference. It is

the intentional difference between the basic


dimensions of the mating parts. The allowance may be
positive or negative.
negative

IES 2004
IES

Consider the following statements:


1. The amount of interference needed to create a tight
joint varies with diameter of the shaft.
shaft
2. An interference fit creates no stress state in the
shaft.
h ft
3. The stress state in the hub is similar to a thick
walled cylinder with internal pressure.
Which of the statements g
given above are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1 and 3 only

31

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

30

GATE 1998
GATE

Allowance
in
to
All
i limits
li it and
d fits
fit refers
f
t

In
and
I the
th specification
ifi ti off dimensions
di
i
d fits,
fit

(a) Maximum clearance between shaft and hole

(a) Allowance is equal to bilateral tolerance

(b) Minimum clearance between shaft and hole

(b) Allowance is equal


q
to unilateral tolerance

(c) Difference between maximum and minimum size of

(c) Allowance is independent of tolerance

hole

(d) Allowance is equal to the difference between

(d) Difference between maximum and minimum size of

maximum and minimum dimension specified by the

shaft

tolerance.
tolerance
Page 37 of 205

35

Rev.1

36

IES 2012
IES

IES 2012Conventional
2012 C
ti
l
IES

S O 20 0
ISRO2010

Clearance
in
between
Cl
i a fit is
i the
th difference
diff
b t

Explain
the
between
tolerance
and
l
h difference
d ff
b
l
d

(a) Maximum hole size and minimum shaft size

allowance.
allowance

+0.02
Dimension of the hole is 50+0.02
mm
0.00 mm and shaft is 50 +0.00 mm.

The minimum clearance is


(a) 0.02 mm
(c) -0.02
0 02 mm

(b) Minimum hole size and maximum shaft size

(b) 0.00 mm
(d) 0.01
0 01 mm

(c) Maximum hole size and maximum shaft size


(d) Minimum hole size and minimum shaft size

37

5.BasisofFits HoleBasis

Hole Basis Fits

Legends:
Hole
Shaft
Tolerance

C - Clearance
T - Transition
I - Interference

38

ForIESOnly

BasisofFits ShaftBasis

H l basis
b i system: When
Wh
Hole
the hole is kept as a
constant
member
(i.e.
t t
b
(i
when the lower deviation of
th
the
h l
hole
i zero)) and
is
d
different fits are obtained
b varying
by
i
th shaft
the
h ft size
i
then the limit system is said
t be
to
b on a hole
h l basis.
b i
For hole basis system, H
stands for dimensions of
holes
whose
lower
deviation is zero.

Shaft Basis Fits

Legends:
Hole
Shaft
Tolerance

C - Clearance
T - Transition
I - Interference

Sh f basis
b i system: When
Wh
Shaft
the shaft is kept as a
constant
member
(i.e.
t t
b
(i
when the upper deviation
off the
th shaft
h ft is
i zero)) and
d
different fits are obtained
b varying
by
i
th hole
the
h l size
i
then the limit system is said
t be
to
b on a shaft
h ft basis.
b i
For shaft basis system, h
stands for dimensions of
shafts
whose
upper
deviation is zero.

40

deviations and lower deviations respectively are

( ) Zero, Zero
(c)

( ) None of the above


(d)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

y Holes can be finished by tools like reamers, drills,

broaches, and their sizes are not adjustable. The shaft


sizes
i
can be
b easily
il obtained
b i d by
b externall machining.
hi i
y Iff shaft
h f basis
b
system is used
d considerable
d bl no off reamers

and other precision tools are required for producing


different classes of holes for one class of shaft for
obtaining

different fits which

increases cost of

production.
d i
42

IES 2005
IES

Basic shaft and basic hole are those whose upper

(b) ve, +ve

Why Hole Basis Systems are Preferred?


WhyHoleBasisSystemsarePreferred?

41

ISRO2008

(a) +ve, ve

39

43

IFS 2013
IFS

Assertion (A): Hole basis system is generally


preferred to shaft basis system in tolerance design
for getting the required fits.
Reason (R): Hole has to be given a larger tolerance
band than the mating shaft.
shaft
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correctt explanation
l
ti off A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Page 38 of 205

44

Explain,
the
E l i with
ith the
th help
h l off sketches,
k t h
th concepts
t off
hole basis and shaft basis in terms of assembly
y fit
specifications. Which of the two is preferred and
why?
[
[8Marks]
k ]

Rev.1

45

Limits and Fits


LimitsandFits

ToleranceZone

y Limits and fits comprises 18 grades of fundamental

It is defined graphically
b th
by
the magnitude
it d off th
the
Tolerance Zone tolerance and by its
position in relation to the
zero line.

55
20

Basic Size

46

DiameterSteps
p
Above
(mm)

3
6
10
18
30
50
80
120
180
250
315
400
500

ValueoftheTolerance

IT01

IT0

IT1

IT3
ar2

IT4
ar3

IT5
ar4 = 7i

IT7

IT8

IT9

0.3 + 0.008D 0.5 + 0.012D 0.8 + 0.02D


=a

Upto andincluding
(mm)

3
3
6
10
10
18
30
50
80
120
120
180
250
250
315
400

tolerances for both shaft and hole,


hole designated as IT01,
IT01
IT0 and IT1 to IT16. These are called standard
tolerances (IS919) But ISO 286 specify 20 grades upto
tolerances.
IT18
y There are 25 (IS 919) and 28 (ISO 286) types of
fundamental deviations.
Hole: A,
A B,
B C,
C CD,
CD D,
D E,
E EF,
EF F,
F FG,
FG G,
G H,
H J,
J JS,
JS K,
K M,
M N,
N P,
P
R, S, T, U, V, X, Y, Z, ZA, ZB, ZC.
Shaft : a,
a b,
b c,
c cd,
cd d,
d e,
e ef,
ef f,
f fg,
fg g,
g h,
h j,j js,
js k,
k m,
m n,
n p,
p r,
r s,
s t,
t
u, v, x, y, z, za, zb, zc.
y A unilateral hole basis system is recommended but if
necessary a unilateral or bilateral shaft basis system may
47
also be used

10(1.6)(ITn -IT6)

= 16i
IT11

10(1.6)(ITn -IT6)

= 100i
IT15

10(1.6)(ITn -IT6)
49

= 640i

10(1.6)(ITn -IT6)

= 25i
IT12

10(1.6)
(
)(ITn -IT6)

= 160i

10(1.6)(ITn -IT6)

= 40i
IT13

10(1.6)(ITn -IT6)

= 250i

IT2
ar
r = 101/5
IT6

IT6)
10(1.6)
10(1
6)(ITn -IT6)
= 10i

IT10

10(1.6)(ITn -IT6)

= 64i
IT14

T l
Tolerance
on a shaft
h ft or a hole
h l can be
b calculated
l l t d by
b using
i
table provided.
T = K i

Where, T isthetolerance(inm)

Standard Tolerance unit or Fundamental tolerance unit


i = 0.45 3 D + 0.001D

in m

D = D1D2 (D1 and D2 are the nominal sizes marking


the beginning and the end of a range of
sizes in mm)
sizes,
[ForIT6toIT16]
K = is a constant

d
f l
GradesofTolerance
y It is
i an indication
i di ti off the
th level
l l off accuracy.
y IT01 to IT4

For production of gauges,


gauges plug gauges,
gauges
measuring instruments

y IT5 to IT 7 For fits in precision engineering applications


y IT8 to IT11 For General Engineering

10(1 6)((ITn -IT6))


10(1.6)

= 400i

IT16

y IT12 to IT14 For Sheet metal working or press working


y IT15
IT to
t IT16
IT 6 For
F processes like
lik casting,
ti
generall cutting
tti

10(1.6)(ITn -IT6)

= 1000i

ToleranceDesignation(IS)

50

work

51

FundamentalDeviations

Fundamental Deviation
is chosen to locate the tolerance zone w.r.t. the zero line

C l l ti f U
dL
D i ti
CalculationforUpperandLowerDeviation
y ForShaft

Holes are designated by capital letter:


Letters A to G - oversized holes
Letters P to ZC - undersized holes

ei =es IT
es =ei
ei +IT
y ForHole
EI=ES IT
ES=EI+IT
S

Shafts are designated


g
byy small letter:
Letters m to zc - oversized shafts
Letters a to g - undersized shafts
H is used for holes and h is used for shafts
whose fundamental deviation is zero

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

52

es =upperdeviationofshaft
ei =lowerdeviationofshaft
ES
ES=upperdeviationofhole
d i ti fh l
Page 39 of 205
EI=lowerdeviationofhole

53

Rev.1

54

GATE 2014
GATE2014

y For hole, H stands for a dimension whose lower

de
at o refers
e e s to tthee bas
e. Thee hole
o e H for
o which
c
deviation
basicc ssize.
the lower deviation is zero is called a basic hole.
y Similarly,
y, for shafts,, h stands for a dimension whose
upper deviation refers to the basic size. The shaft h for
which the upper deviation is zero is called a basic
shaft.
y A fit is designated by its basic size followed by symbols
representing the limits of each of its two components,
the hole being quoted first.
y For example, 100 H6/g5 means basic size is 100 mm
and the tolerance grade for the hole is 6 and for the
shaft
h ft is
i 5.

Forthegivenassembly:25H7/g8,matchGroupAwith
GroupB
Basicsize

HoleToleranceZone
ShaftToleranceZone

FundamentalDeviation

IT#

55

IES 2008
IES

56

Find the limit sizes, tolerances and allowances for a


100 mm diameter shaft and hole pair designated by
F8h10. Also specify the type of fit that the above pair
belongs to.
Given: 100 mm diameter lies in the diameter step
range of 80120 mm. The fundamental deviation for
shaft designation f
f is 5.5
5 5 D0.41
The values of standard tolerances for grades of IT 8
and
d IT 10 are 25ii and
d 64i
6 i respectively.
ti l
Also, indicate the limits and tolerance on a diagram.
[15Marks]

58

GATE 2009
GATE
pp
What are the upper
and lower limits of the shaft
represented by 60 f8?
Use the following data:
Diameter 60 lies in the diameter step of 5080 mm.
Fundamental tolerance unit,
i, in m= 0.45 D1/3 + 0.001D, where D is the
representative size in mm;
T l
Tolerance
value
l for
f lT8 = 25i.
i
Fundamental deviation for 'f shaft = 5.5D0.41
( ) Lower limit
(a)
l
= 59.924 mm, Upper Limit = 59.970 mm
(b) Lower limit = 59.954 mm, Upper Limit = 60.000 mm
( ) Lower limit = 59.970 mm, Upper Limit = 60.016 mm
(c)
For-2015
(IES,
GATE
& Limit
PSUs)= 60.046 mm 61
(d) Lower limit
= 60.000
mm,
Upper

GroupB

P.H

I.ShaftType

Q IT8
Q.IT8

II HoleType
II.HoleType

R.IT7

III.HoleToleranceGrade

S.g

IV.ShaftToleranceGrade

( )
(a)
(c)

P
I
II

Q
III
III

R
IV
IV

S
II
I

( )
(b)
(d)

P
I
II

Q
IV
IV

Following data are given for calculating limits of


dimensions and tolerances for a hole: Tolerance unit i (in
m) = 0.45 D + 0.001D. The unit of D is mm. Diameter
step is 1830 mm. If the fundamental deviation for H
hole is zero and IT8 = 25 i,
i the maximum and minimum
limits of dimension for a 25 mm H8 hole (in mm) are
(b) 25.017, 24.984
(d) 25.000, 24.967

Page 40 of 205

57

60

GATE 2000
GATE

GATE 2008(PI)
2008 (PI)
GATE

(c) 25.033, 25.000

S
II
I

In the tolerance specification 25 D 6, the letter D


represents
(a) Grade of tolerance
(b) Upper deviation
(c) Lower deviation
((d)) Type
yp of fit

59

(a) 24.984, 24.967

R
III
III

IES 2002
IES

S 2006 C
i
l
IES2006Conventional

Consider the following statements:


A nomenclature 50 H8/p8 denotes that
1. Hole
H l diameter
di
t is
i 50 mm.
2. It is a shaft base system.
3. 8 indicates fundamental deviation.
Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect?
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1 and
d 2 only
l
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 3 only

GroupA

62

A fit is specified as 25H8/e8. The tolerance value for


a nominal diameter of 25 mm in IT8 is 33 microns
and fundamental deviation for the shaft is 40
microns. The maximum clearance of the fit in
microns is
(a) 7
(b) 7
(c) 73
(d) 106
Rev.1

63

GATE 2003
GATE

R
RecommendedSelectionofFits
d d S l ti
f Fit

GATE2010(PI)

The dimensional limits on a shaft of 25h7 are


(a) 25.000, 25.021 mm
(b) 25.000, 24.979 mm
(c) 25.000, 25.007 mm
(d) 25.000, 24.993 mm

A small bore is designated as 25H7. The lower


(minimum) and upper (maximum) limits of the bore
are 25.000 mm and 25.021 mm, respectively. When the
bore is designated as 25H8, then the upper (maximum)
limit is 25.033
25 033 mm.
mm When the bore is designated as
25H6, then the upper (maximum) limit of the bore (in
mm) is
(a) 25.001 (b) 25.005 (c) 25.009 (d) 25.013
64

65

66

ForIESOnly

GATE 1996,IES2012
1996 IES 2012
GATE

IES 2000
IES

The fit on a hole


shaft system is specified as H7
holeshaft
H7
s6.The type of fit is
(a) Clearance fit
(b) Running fit (sliding fit)
(c) Push fit (transition fit)
((d)) Force fit ((interference fit))

SelectiveAssembly

Which one of the following tolerances set on inner


diameter and outer diameter respectively of headed
jig bush for press fit is correct?
(a) G7 h 6
(b) F7 n6
( ) H 7h
(c)
h6
(d) F7j6
F j6

y All the parts (hole & shaft) produced are measured

and graded into a range of dimensions within the


tolerance groups.
y Reduces the cost of production
y No.of group =

67

Process capability
T l
Tolerance
desired
d i d

68

69

ForIESOnly

Interchangeability
y Interchangeability, a maintainability design factor, is

quite closely related to standardization and is realized


through standardization.
y If the variation of items are within certain limits, all

p
parts
of equivalent
q
size will be equally
q
y fit for operating
p
g in
machines and mechanisms and the mating parts will
give the required
g
q
fitting.
g
y This facilitates to select at random from a large number

off parts
t for
f an assembly
bl and
d results
lt in
i a considerable
id bl
saving in the cost of production, reduce assembly time,
replacement
l
t and
d repair
i becomes
b
very easy.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

70

ISRO2008

IAS2010main

Interchangeability can be achieved by

What is the difference between hole basis system and

(a) Standardization

shaft basis system ? Why is hole basis system the more


extensive
t i in
i use ?

(b) Better process planning

What are the differences between interchangeability

(c) Simplification

and selective assembly ?

(d) Better
B
product
d
planning
l
i

Page 41 of 205

[12Marks]

71

Rev.1

72

GATE 2003
2003
GATE

ToleranceSink

GATE 1997
GATE
Three blocks B1 , B2 and B3 are
to be inserted in a channel of
width S maintaining a
minimum
i i
gap off width
idth T =
0.125 mm, as shown in Figure.
For P = 18.
18 75 0.08;
0 08;
Q = 25.00 0.12;
R = 28.125
28 125 0.1
0 1 and
S = 72.35 + X, (where all
dimensions are in mm),
mm) the
tolerance X is

y A design
engineer keeps
one section off the
d
k
h part blank
bl k

(without tolerance) so that production engineer can


dump all the tolerances on that section which becomes
most inaccurate dimension of the part.
y Position of sink can be changing the reference point.
y Tolerance
T l
f the
for
th sink
i k is
i the
th cumulative
l ti sum off all
ll the
th

tolerances and onlyy like minded tolerances can be added


i.e. either equally bilateral or equally unilateral.

(a)+0 38
(a)+0.38

73

(b) Runout

(c) Perpendicularity

(d) Flatness

Diameter of a hole after plating needs to be controlled

Cylindrical pins of 25++0.020


0.010 mm diameter are

0 050
b t
between
30++0.050
the plating
l ti thickness
thi k
varies
i
+0.010 mm. If th

electroplated
l t
l t d in
i a shop.
h
Thickness
Thi k
off the
th

between 10 - 15 microns, diameter of the hole before


plating should be

plating is 30 2.0 micron


micron. Neglecting gage

(a) 30

+0.070
+0.030

( ) 30
(c)

+0.080
0 080
+0.030

mm
mm

+0.065
+0.020

mm

tolerances, the size of the GO gage in mm


to inspect the plated components is

+00.070
070
+0.040

mm

(a) 25.042 (b) 25.052 (c) 25.074 (d) 25.084

(b) 30
(d) 30

77

Limit Gauges
LimitGauges
the size of the low limit of the hole while the NOT GO plug
gauge corresponds to the high limit of the hole.
y Snap, Gap or Ring gauge: used for gauging the shaft and
male components. The Go snap gauge is of a size
corresponding
di to the
h high
hi h (maximum)
(
i
) limit
li i off the
h shaft,
h f
while the NOT GO gauge corresponds to the low
(minimum limit).
limit)

Fig.Pluggauge
Fig.Ringandsnapgauges
For-2015 (IES, GATE
& PSUs)
79

75

GATE 2013
GATE2013

76

y Plug gauge: used to check the holes. The GO plug gauge is

(d)0
(d)
0.05
05

GATE 2007(PI)
2007 (PI)
GATE

The g
geometric tolerance that does NOT need a datum

(a) Concentricity

(c)+0 05
(c)+0.05

74

GATE 2007(PI)
GATE
2007(PI)
for its specification is

(b) 0.38
(b)
0 38

Allocation of manufacturing tolerances


Allocationofmanufacturingtolerances

ISRO2008

y
g
g tolerance zone lies
y Unilateral system:
gauge

Plug gauges are used to


( ) Measure the
(a)
h diameter
d
off the
h workpieces
k
(b) Measure the diameter of the holes in the
workpieces
((c)) Check the diameter of the holes in the
workpieces
(d) Check the length of holes in the workpieces

Page 42 of 205

78

80

entirely within the work tolerance zone.


y work tolerance zone becomes smaller by the sum of the
gauge tolerance.

Rev.1

81

Bilateral system:
y
in this

Example
l
Size of the hole to be checked 25 00.02
02 mm
Here, Higher
g
limit of hole = 25.02 mm
Lower limit of hole = 24.98 mm
W k tolerance
Work
l
= 0.04
0 04 mm
Gauge

Gauge tolerance = 10% of work tolerance = 0.004 mm


+0.004
Dimension of 'GO'
GO Plug gauge = 24.98
24 98
mm
0.000
+0.000
+
0 000
Dimension of 'NOT GO' Plug gauge = 25.02
mm
0.004
82

system, the GO and NO GO


ggauge
g tolerance zones are
bisected by the high and
low limits of the work
tolerance zone.

y Wearallowance:GOgaugeswhichconstantlyrub

T ki example
Taking
l as above:
b

Dimension

Dimension of 'GO'
GO Plug gauge = 24.98
24 98

+0.002

mm
0.002
+0.002
+
0 002
Dimension of 'NOT GO' Plug gauge = 25.02
mm
0.002

againstthesurfaceofthepartsintheinspectionare
subjectedtowearandloosetheirinitialsize.
y Thesizeofgopluggaugeisreducedwhilethatofgo
Th i f l
i d d hil h f
snapgaugeincreases.
y Toincreaseservicelifeofgaugeswearallowanceis
addedtothegogaugeinthedirectionoppositeto
wear.Wearallowanceisusuallytakenas5%ofthe
worktolerance.
y Wearallowanceisappliedtoanominaldiameter
g g
pp
beforegaugetoleranceisapplied.

83

84

Takingexampleofabove:

Wear
W
Allowance
All
= 5% off work
k ttolerance
l
= 0.002
0 002 mm
Nominal size of GO p
plugg ggauge
g = 24.98 + 0.002 mm
+0.004
Dimension of 'GO' Plug
g gauge
g g = 24.982
mm
0.000
+0.000
+
0.000
Dimension of 'NOT GO' Plug gauge = 25.02
mm
0.004

GATE 2014
GATE

GATE 2004
GATE

A GO
NOGO plug gauge is to be designed for
GONOGO
measuring a hole of nominal diameter 25 mm with a
hole tolerance of 0.015 mm. Considering 10% of
work tolerance to be the gauge tolerance and no
wear condition, the dimension (in mm) of the GO
plug gauge as per the unilateral tolerance system is

(a ) 24.985
(c) 24.985
24 985

+0.003
0 003
0.003

+0.03
0 03
0.03

(b) 25.015

+00.000
000
0.006

(d ) 24
24.985
985

85

+0.003
000
00.000

GO and NO
GO plug gages are to be designed for a
NOGO
0.05
hole 200.01 mm. Gage tolerances can be taken as 10%
of the hole tolerance.
tolerance Following ISO system of gage
design, sizes of GO and NOGO gage will be
respectively
(a) 20.010 mm and 20.050 mm
(b) 20.014 mm and 20.046 mm
((c)) 20.006 mm and 20.054
54 mm
(d) 20.014 mm and 20.054 mm

86

87

ForIESOnly

GATE 1995
GATE
Checking the diameter of a hole using GO
NO GO
GONOGO
gauges is an, example of inspection by
..(variables/attributes)
The above statement is
( ) Variables
(a)
V i bl
(b) Attributes
(c) Cant say
(d) Insufficient data

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

TaylorssPrinciple
Principle
Taylor

GATE 2006,VS2012
2006 VS 2012
GATE

88

A ring gauge is used to measure


(a) Outside diameter but not roundness
(b) Roundness
R
d
b t nott outside
but
t id diameter
di
t
(c) Both outside diameter and roundness
(d) Only external threads

This
be
Thi principle
i i l states
t t that
th t the
th GO gauge should
h ld always
l
b
so designed
g
that it will cover the maximum metal
condition (MMC) of as many dimensions as possible in
the same limit gauges, whereas a NOT GO gauges to
cover the
th minimum
i i
metal
t l condition
diti
off one dimension
di
i
only.
y

Page 43 of 205

89

Rev.1

90

ForIESOnly

ForIESOnly

Preferred Number
PreferredNumber

Preferred Number ..Contd.


Contd
PreferredNumber..

y A designed product needs standardization.

y These are named as Renard series.

y Motor
power, machine
tool
M t speed,
d engine
i
hi
t l speed
d and
d

y Many
other
M
th derived
d i d series
i are formed
f
d by
b multiplying
lti l i or

feed, all follows a definite pattern or series.


y This
h also
l helps
h l in interchangeability
h
b l off products.
d
y It has been observed that if the sizes are put in the form
of geometric progression, then wide ranges are covered
with a definite sequence.
y These numbers are called preferred numbers having
common ratios as,,

dividing the basic series by 10, 100 etc.


y Typicall values
l
off the
h common ratio for
f four
f
b
basic
G.P.
series are given below.

10 1.58,

10

10 1.26,

20

10 1.12 and 40 10  1.06

y Depending on the common ratio,


ratio four basic series are

formed; these are R5 , R10 , R20 and R40

(
R10 : 1.26 :1.0,1.25,1.6,... (
R 20 : 1.12 :1.0,1.12,1.4,... (
R5 : 1.58 :1.0,1.6, 2.5,...

10, 5 100, 5 1000,....

)
1000,....)

10

10, 10 100, 10 1000,....

20

10, 20 100, 20

R 40 : 1.06 :1.0,1.06,1.12,...

40

10, 40 100, 40 1000,....

91

MeasurementofLines&Surfaces

BySKMondal

92

93

Vernier Caliper

Li
Linearmeasurements
t
Some of the instruments used for the linear
measurements are:
y Rules
y Vernier
y Micrometer
y Height
g g
gauge
g
y Bore gauge
y Dial indicator
y Slip gauges or gauge blocks

y A vernier scale is an auxiliary scale that slides along the main

scale.
scale
y The vernier scale is that a certain number n of divisions on

the vernier scale is equal in length to a different number


(usually one less) of mainscale divisions.
nV = (n 1)S
1)S
where n = number of divisions on the vernier scale
V = The
h length
l
h off one division
di i i on the
h vernier
i scale
l
and S = Length of the smallest mainscale division
y Least count is applied to the smallest value that can be read
directly by use of a vernier scale.
y Least count = S V = 1 S
n

94

S O 20 0
ISRO2010

96

Metric Micrometer
MetricMicrometer

ISRO2008

The vernier reading should not be taken at its face

Vernier Caliper

95

y A micrometer allows a measurement of the size of a

value before an actual check has been taken for

The least count of a metric vernier caliper

body. It is one of the most accurate mechanical devices

(a) Zero error

having 25 divisions on vernier scale, matching

in common use.

(b) Its calibration

with 24 divisions of main scale (1 main scale

y It consists a main scale


l and
d a thimble
h bl

divisions = 0.5
0 5 mm) is

Method of Measurement

(c) Flatness of measuring jaws


(d) Temperature equalization

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

97

((a)) 0.0055 mm

((b)) 0.01 mm

StepI:
p Find the whole number of mm in the barrel

(c) 0.02 mm

(d) 0.005mm

StepI: Find the reading of barrel and multiply by 0.01

Page 44 of 205

98

StepIII: Add the value in StepI and Rev.1


StepII

99

B
G
d for
f measuring
i
b
diff
y Bore
Gauge:
used
bores
off different

,
ISRO2009,2011

sizes ranging from smalltolarge sizes.


y Provided with various extension arms that can be

In a simple micrometer with screw pitch 0.5

added for different sizes.

mm and divisions on thimble 50, the reading


corresponding to 5 divisions on barrel and 12
divisions on thimble is

Micrometer

((a)) 2.620 mm

((b)) 2.512
5 mm

(c) 2.120 mm

(d) 5.012 mm

100

y Dial indicator: Converts a linear

p
into a radial
displacement
movement to measure over a
g of movement for the
small range
plunger.
y The typical least count that can be
obtained with suitable gearing
dial indicators is 0.01 mm to 0.001
mm.
y It is possible to use the dial
indicator as a comparator by
mounting it on a stand at any
suitable height.

101

GATE 2008
2008
GATE

Applicationsofdialindicatorinclude:

y offsettinglathetailstocks
y aligningaviceonamillingmachine
li i i illi
hi
y checkingdimensions

GATE 2008contdfromS2
2008
td f
S2
GATE
If Rp= RQ>0, which one of the
following would be consistent with the
observation?
(A) The drill spindle rotational axis is
coincident with the drill spindle taper
hole axis
(B) The drill spindle rotational axis
intersects the drill spindle taper hole
axis at point P
(C) The drill spindle rotational axis is
parallel to the drill spindle taper hole
axis
(D) The drill spindle rotational axis
intersects the drill spindle taper hole
axis at point Q
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

104

105

GATE 2014(PI)S1
2014(PI)
S1
GATE

GATE 2014(PI)S2
2014(PI)
S2
GATE

The alignment test


Spindle square with
base plate
plate is applied
to the radial drilling
machine.
A
dial
indicator is fixed to
the cylindrical spindle
and the spindle is
rotated to make the
indicator touch the
base plate at different
points
106

S1
S1

A displacement sensor (a dial indicator) measures the


lateral displacement of a mandrel mounted on the taper
hole inside a drill spindle. The mandrel axis is an
extension of the drill spindle taper hole axis and the
protruding portion of the mandrel surface is perfectly
cylindrical. Measurements are taken with the sensor
placed at two positions P and Q as shown in the figure.
The readings are recorded as Rx = maximum deflection
minus minimum deflection, corresponding to sensor
position at X, over one rotation.

y centering workpices tomachinetoolspindles

Principleofadialindicator
103

102

Page 45 of 205

This test inspects whether the


(a) spindle vertical feed axis is perpendicular to the base
plate
(b) axis of symmetry of the cylindrical spindle is
perpendicular
di l to
t the
th base
b
plate
l t
(c) axis of symmetry, the rotational axis and the vertical
feed axis of the spindle are all coincident
((d)) spindle
p
rotational axis is p
perpendicular
p
to the base
plate

107

Rev.1

108

Sli G
SlipGaugesorGaugeblocks
G
bl k
y These are small blocks of alloy steel.
steel
y Used in the manufacturing shops as length standards.
y Not
N t

t
to
b
be
used
d for
f
regular
l
and
d continuous
ti
measurement.
y Rectangular blocks with thickness representing the
dimension of the block. The crosssection of the block
is usually 32 mm x 9 mm.
y Are hardened and finished to size. The measuring
g
surfaces of the gauge blocks are finished to a very high
g
of finish, flatness and accuracy.
y
degree

y Come in sets with different number of pieces in a given

p a Slip Ga
ge pile to 41
125 mm
To make up
Gauge
41.125

q
set to suit the requirements
of measurements.
y A typical set consisting of 88 pieces for metric units is
shown in.
in
y To build any given dimension, it is necessary to
identify a set of blocks, which are to be put together.
y Number of blocks used should always
y be the smallest.
y Generally the top and bottom Slip Gauges in the pile
are 2 mm wear gauges.
gauges This is so that they will be the
only ones that will wear down, and it is much cheaper
to replace two gauges than a whole set.

p Gauge p
e iss set up with
t tthe
e use o
pe
yAS
Slip
pile
of ssimple

109

y Decide what height you want to set up, in this

case 41.125mm.
41 125mm
y Take away
y the thickness of the two wear g
gauges,
g ,

and then use the gauges in the set to remove


each place of decimal in turn, starting with the
lowest.
lowest

110

111

A Metric slip gauge set (88 Pieces)


AMetricslipgaugeset(88Pieces)

p a Slip Ga
ge pile to 41
125 mm
To make up
Gauge
41.125
41.125
-4.000
______
37.125
-1.005
_______
36.120
-1.020
_______
35.100
-1.100
_______
34 000
34.000
-4.000
_______
30.000
-30.000
_______
0.000

pg g
Slipgaugessizeor
range,mm
1 005
1.005
1.001to1.009
1 010to1 490
1.010to1.490
0.500 to9.500
10to100

112

,
Increment,mm

0.001
0 010
0.010
0.500
10 000
10.000

Numberof
Pieces
1
9
49
19
10

113

114

Comparators

ISRO2010
A master gauge is
(a) A new gauge
(b) An international reference standard
( ) A standard
(c)
t d d gauge for
f checking
h ki
accuracy off
gauges used on shop floors
(d) A gauge used by experienced technicians

ISRO2008

y Comparator is another form of linear measuring

Standards to be used for reference purposes in


laboratories and workshops are termed as
(a) Primary standards
( ) Secondary standards
(b)
(c) Tertiary standards
(d) Working standards

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

maths.

115

Page 46 of 205

116

method, which is quick and more convenient for


checking large number of identical dimensions.
y During the measurement, a comparator is able to give
the deviation of the dimension from the set dimension.
y Cannot measure absolute dimension but can only
compare two dimensions.
dimensions
y Highly reliable.
y To
T magnify
if the
h deviation,
d i i
a number
b off principles
i i l are
used such as mechanical, optical, pneumatic and
electrical.
l
i l
Rev.1

117

GATE 2007(PI)
2007 (PI)
GATE

FeelerGauge

Which one of the following instruments is a


comparator ?
(a) Tool Makers Microscope
(b) GO/NO GO gauge
(c) Optical Interferometer
(d) Dial
Di l Gauge
G

Fig. Principleofacomparator

118

119

Mechanical Comparators
MechanicalComparators

Li it G
LimitGauges

PSU
Afeelergaugeisusedtocheckthe
(a)Pitchofthescrew
(b)Surfaceroughness

Gauge

ForMeasuring

SnapGauge

ExternalDimensions

PlugGauge

InternalDimensions

T
TaperPlugGauge
Pl G

T
Taperhole
h l

g
g
RingGauge

ExternalDiameter

(c)Thicknessofclearance

GapGauge

GapsandGrooves

(d)Fl
(d)Flatnessofasurface
f f

RadiusGauge

Gaugingradius

ThreadpitchGauge

ExternalThread

121

120

y The Mikrokator principle

greatly
magnifies
any
deviation in size so that
even
small
deviations
produce large deflections of
the pointer over the scale.

122

Si
h i lC
SigmaMechanicalComparator

123

MechanicalComparators

The
Mechanical
uses a partially
Th Sigma
Si
M h i l Comparator
C
t
ti ll

y The EdenRolt Reed system uses a

wrapped
pp band wrapped
pp about a driving
g drum to turn a

pointer attached to the end of two

pointer needle. The assembly provides a frictionless

reeds One reed is pushed by a


reeds.

movement with a resistant pressure provided by the

plunger, while the other is fixed. As

springs.
i

one reed moves relative to the other,


the
h pointer that
h they
h are commonly
l
attached to will deflect.
deflect
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

SigmaMechanicalComparator
124

Page 47 of 205

125

Rev.1

126

O ti l C
OpticalComparators
t

P
PneumaticComparators
ti C
t

y These devices use a plunger to rotate a mirror.


mirror A light

beam is reflected off that mirror, and simply by the


virtue of distance, the small rotation of the mirror can
be converted to a significant translation with little
friction.

PneumaticComparators

y Flow
Fl type:
t
y The float height is essentially proportional to the air

that escapes from the gauge head


y Master gauges are used to find calibration points on

the scales
y The
Th

i
input

pressure

i
is

regulated
l d

to

allow
ll

magnification
ag cat o adjust
adjustment
e t
127

A
AngularMeasurement
l M
t

128

129

B lP t t
BevelProtractor

This
the
and
Thi involves
i
l
th measurementt off angles
l off tapers
t
d

y Is
I partt off the
th machinist's
hi i t' combination
bi ti square.

similar surfaces. The most common angular


g
measuring
g

y The flat base of the protractor helps in setting it firmly

tools are:

on the workpiece and then by rotating the rule, it is

y Bevel protractor

possible to measure the angle. It will typically have a

y Sine bar

d
discrimination
off one degree.
d

ABevelProtractor
130

131

132

Sine Bar
SineBar

y When a reference for a nonsquare angle is required, a sine bar

ISRO2011

can be
b used.
d
y Basically a sine bar is a bar of known length. When gauge blocks

A sine bar is specified by

are placed under one end, the sine bar will tilt to a specific

(a) Its total length

angle.
g

(b) The size of the rollers

y Knowing the height differential of the two rollers in alignment

with the workpiece ,the


the angle can be calculated using the sine

(c) The centre distance between the two rollers

formula.

(d) The
Th distance
di
b
between
rollers
ll and
d upper surface
f

y A sine bar is specified by the distance between the centre of the

two rollers, i.e. 100 mm, 200 mm, & 300 mm. the various part of
sine bar are hardened before grinding & lapping.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

133

H
s i n48 of=205
Page
L

134

Rev.1

135

d
Disadvantages

Th d M
ThreadMeasurements
t

y 1. Sine
bars
cannott be
conveniently
Si
b
b used
d for
f
i tl for
f

Threadsarenormallyspecifiedbythemajordiameter.
y Threadsarenormallyspecifiedbythemajordiameter

GATE2012(PI)
A sine bar has a length of 250 mm. Each roller has
a diameter
di
t
off 20 mm. During
D i
t
taper
angle
l
measurement of a component,
p
, the height
g from the

(c) 23.6

engineering,themostcommonthreadencounteredis
engineering
themostcommonthreadencounteredis
themetricVthreadshowninFig.

sometimes introduce
d
considerable
d bl errors.

The calculated taper angle (in degrees) is


(b) 22.8

adjustment problems.

y Thoughtherearealargevarietyofthreadsusedin

y 2. Misalignment of workpiece with sine bar may

surface plate to the centre of a roller is 100 mm.

(a) 21.1

measuring
g angles
g
more than 60o because of slip
pg
gauge
g

(d) 68.9

136

137

138

Three-Wire Method

y Theparametersthatarenormallymeasuredare:
y Majordiameter
M j di
t

y Three wires of equal diameter placed in thread, two

y Micrometer

on one side
id and
d one on other
th side
id

y Pitchdiameter
y Screwthreadmicrometer

y Standard micrometer used to measure distance over

y Wiremethod

wires (M)

y Pitch

y Different sizes and pitches of threads require

y Screwpitchgauge
y Pitchmeasuringmachine

different sizes of wires

y Threadform
y Opticalprojector

139

The Three-Wire Method of Measuring Threads

140

y Distance W over the outer edge

( )
GATE 2011(PI)

W = D p + d 1 + cosec cot
2 2
2

For ISO metric thread, = 60 and D p = D 0.6496 p

The best wire size (in mm) for measuring


effective
ff ti
di
diameter
t
off a metric
t i
th d
thread
(included angle is 60o) of 20 mm diameter and
2.5 mm pitch
it h using
i two
t
wire
i method
th d is
i
(a) 1.443
(b) 0.723
((c)) 2.886
(d) 2.086

W = D + 3d 11.5156
5156 p

y Best wire size

sec
2
2
For ISO metric thread, = 60
d = 0.5774 p
d=

D p = pitch
it h di
diameter
t or Eff
Effective
ti di
diameter
t
For-2015
(IES,
GATE
& PSUs)
p = pitch
of thread
, and
= thread
angle

142

Page 49 of 205

141

143

Rev.1

144

GATE 2013
GATE2013

( )
GATE 2011(PI)

A metric
t i thread
th d off pitch
it h 2 mm and
d thread
th d angle
l 60
6
inspected
p
for its p
pitch diameter using
g 33wire
method. The diameter of the best size wire in mm is
(a) 0.866

(b) 1.000

(c) 1.154

(d) 2.000

To measure the effective diameter of an external


metric thread (included angle is 60o) of 3.5
3 5 mm
pitch, a cylindrical standard of 30.5 mm diameter
aand
d ttwo
o wires
es o
of 2 mm d
diameter
a ete eac
each aaree used.
The micrometer readings over the standard and
over the wires are 16.532 mm and 15.398 mm,
respectively. The effective diameter (in mm) of the
thread is
(a) 33.366
(b) 30.397
(c) 29.366
(d) 26.397

145

S f
Surfaces

146

y Surfacegeometrycanbequantifiedafewdifferent

y No
is
N surface
f
i perfectly
f tl smooth,
th but
b t the
th better
b tt the
th

generally the surface finish is indicated.


indicated It is specified
either as arithmetic average value or the root mean
square value.
value
y Roughness width: is the distance parallel to the
nominal
i l part surface
f
within
i hi which
hi h the
h peaks
k and
d
valleys, which constitutes the predominant pattern of
the
h roughness.
h
y Roughness width cutoff: is the maximum width of
the surface that is included in the calculation of the
roughness height.

and the better is performs.


texture

can

be

difficult

to

analyse

quantitatively.
l

y Realsurfacesarerarelysoflat,orsmooth,butmost

y Two surfaces may be entirely different,


different yet still provide

y
commonlyacombinationofthetwo.

the same CLA (Ra) value.


148

147

y Roughness height: is the parameter with which

ways.

surface q
quality,
y, the longer
g a p
product g
generallyy lasts,,

y Surface

Measurement of Surfaces
MeasurementofSurfaces

149

150

y Waviness: refers to those surface irregularities that have

p
g than that of roughness
g
greater spacing
width.
ag
y Determined by the height of the waviness and its
width.
y The greater the width, the smoother is the surface and
thus is more desirable.
desirable
y Lay direction: is the direction of the predominant
surface
f
pattern
tt
produced
d d on the
th workpiece
k i
b the
by
th tool
t l
marks.
y Flaw:
l
are surface
f
irregularities
l
that
h are present which
h h are
random and therefore will not be considered.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

151

Page 50 of 205

152

Rev.1

153

Lay
Di
Diagram

S b l
Symbol

LayContd..

D
i i
Description

Di
Diagram

S b l
Symbol

y Layy parallel
p
Parallel lay:
to
the Surface. Surface is
produced
p
byy
shaping,
p g,
planning etc.

y Layy
Multidirectional lay:
multidirectional. Surface is
produced byy g
p
grinding,
g,
lapping, super finishing.
Circular lay:
Approximately
circular
relative to the center.
center
Surface is produced by
facing.
facing
Radiallay:Approximately
radialrelativetothecenter
ofthenominalsurface. 155

Perpendicular lay: Lay


perpendicular
to
the
Surface Surface is produced
Surface.
by shaping and planning
Crossedlay:Layangularin
bothdirections.
Surface is produced by
knurling, honing.
154

RepresentationofSurfaceRoughness
i
f
f
h

157

IES 2012
IES2012

D
i i
Description

Roughness
Ra (m)
50

RoughnessGrade
Number

RoughnessSymbol

N12

255
12.5

N11
N10

63
6.3

N9

3.2

N8

1.6

N7

0.8

N6

0.4

N5

0.2

N4

0.1

N3

0.05

N
N2

0.025

N1

Which grade
broaching?
(a) N12 (b)
(c) N4 (d)

symbol represents surface rough of


N8
N1

158

159

l i
fS f
h
EvaluationofSurfaceRoughness

y Waviness width the distance between peaks or

What
Wh t is
i meantt by
b interchangeable
i t h
bl manufacture?
f t ?

160

156

IFS2011

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

[2marks]

IES 1992
IES

y Waviness height the distance from a peak to a valley

valleys
y Roughness
R
h
width
idth cutoff
t ff a value
l greater
t than
th the
th
maximum roughness width that is the largest
separation
ti
off surface
f
i
irregularities
l iti included
i l d d in
i the
th
measurements. Typical values are (0.003, 0.010,
0.030, 0.100, 0.300))
y Lay the direction the roughness pattern should
f ll
follow
y Stylus travel is perpendicular to the lay specified.

In connection with surface texture define


(a) waviness
(b) flaws,
fl
and
d
(c) lay.
List three defects found on surfaces.

1. Centre line average (CLA) or arithmetic mean

Laser light has unique advantages for inspection.


inspection

deviation denoted as Ra.

g
What are theyy ? Define the terms 'roughness

2. Root mean square


q
value ((Rg) : rms value

height', 'waviness width' and 'lay' in connection

3. Maximum peak to valley roughness (hmax)

with surface irregularities.

4. The average of the five highest peak and five deepst

[
[10marks]
k ]

Page 51 of 205

161

valleys in the sample.


5. The
Th average or leveling
l li depth
d h off the
h profile.
fil
Rev.1

162

i i
f
i
DeterminationofMeanLine

i i
f
i
DeterminationofMeanLine

y MSystem:
After
MS t
Aft

plotting
the
l tti
th characteristic
h
t i ti off any
surface a horizontal line is drawn by joining two points.
Thi line
This
li is
i shifts
hift up and
d down
d
i such
in
h a way that
th t 50%
%
area is above the line and 50% area is below the line

Arithmetical Average:

y ESystem:
(Envelop
System)
off 25 mm
ES t
(E
l
S t ) A sphere
h

diameter is rolled over the surface and the locus of its


centre
t is
i being
b i traced
t
d outt called
ll d envelope.
l
Thi envelope
This
l
is shifted in downward direction till the area above the
li is
line
i equall to
t the
th area below
b l
th line.
the
li
Thi is
This
i called
ll d
mean envelope and the system of datum is called E
system.
t

y Measured for a specified area and the figures are added

together and the total is then divided by the number of


measurements taken to obtain the mean or
arithmetical average (AA).
y It is also sometimes called the centre line average or
CLA value. This in equation form is given by
L

1
1
Ra = y ( x) dx
L0
N
163

RRMS =

1
N

165

IES 2006
IES

ISRO2011

The
in
are related
Th M and
d Esystem
E
t
i metrology
t l
l t d to
t

CLAvalueandRMSvaluesareusedformeasurement

measurement of:

of

2
i

164

y Theotherparameterthatisusedsometimesistheroot

meansquarevalueofthedeviationinplaceofthe
arithmeticaverage,Thisinexpressionformis

(a)Metalhardness

(a) Screw threads

(b)

Flatness

(c) Angularity

(d)

Surface finish

(b)Sharpnessoftooledge
(c)Surfacedimensions
(d)Surfaceroughness
Fig.Surfaceroughnessparameters

166

167

IES 2007
IES

IES 2008
IES

IES2010

What
Wh t is
i the
th dominant
d
i
t direction
di ti off the
th tool
t l marks
k or

What
is
off the
Wh t term
t
i used
d to
t designate
d i
t the
th direction
di ti
th

scratches in a surface texture having


g a directional

predominant
p

quality, called?

machining operation?

surface

pattern
p

produced
p

(a) Primary texture (b)

Secondary texture

(a) Roughness

(b)

Lay

(c) Lay

Flaw

(c) Waviness

(d)

Cut off

(d)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

168

169

Page 52 of 205

by
y

170

Match List I with List II and select the correct answer


using the code given below the lists:
List I
List II
(Symbols for direction of lay)
(Surface texture)

(a)
(c)

A
4
4

B
2
1

C
1
2

D
3
3

(b)
(d)

A
B
3
2
3 Rev.1
1

C
1
2

D
4
4 171

IES 2008
2008
IES

ISRO2010
Surface
roughness
on a drawing
is represented
f
h
d
d by
b

IAS 2013Main
For a machined surface, show macro and micro

(a) Triangles

irregularities. What are their causes?

(b) C
Circles
c es

What are the various measures of surface finish?

(c) Squares

E l i any three
Explain
th
off them.
th

(d) Rectangles

172

Methods of measuring Surface Roughness


MethodsofmeasuringSurfaceRoughness
q
g
There are a number of useful techniques
for measuring
surface roughness:

173

Ob
ObservationMethods
ti M th d

St l E i
StylusEquipment
t

y Human
perception
H
ti is
i highly
hi hl relative.
l ti
y To give the human tester a reference for what they are

y Observation and touch the human finger is very

perceptive to surface
f
roughness
h

touching, commercial sets of standards are available.


y Comparison

y stylus based equipment very common

should

be

made

against

matched

identical processes.

y Interferometry
y uses light
g wave interference p
patterns

(discussed later)

174

y uses a stylus that tracks small changes in surface


height, and a skid that follows large changes in surface
height.
y The relative motion between the skid and the stylus is
measured with a magnetic circuit and induction coils.
coils
y One example of this is the Brown & Sharpe Surfcom
unit.
it

y One
O method
h d off note is
i the
h finger
fi
nail
il assessment off

roughness
oug ess aand
d touc
touch method.
et od.
175

176

177

P fil
Profilometer
t
y Measuring instrument used to measure a surface's

profile in order to quantify its roughness.


profile,
roughness
y Vertical resolution is usually
y in the nanometre level,,

though lateral resolution is usually poorer.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

178

Page 53 of 205

179

Rev.1

180

GATE 1997
1997
GATE

C t t
Contactprofilometers
fil
t
y Adiamondstylusismovedverticallyincontactwitha

sampleandthenmovedlaterallyacrossthesamplefor
aspecifieddistanceandspecifiedcontactforce.
y Aprofilometer canmeasuresmallsurfacevariationsin
verticalstylusdisplacementasafunctionofposition.
verticalstylusdisplacementasafunctionofposition
y Theradiusofdiamondstylusrangesfrom20
nanometresto25m.
t t

181

AdvantagesofopticalProfilometers
d
f
i l
fil
y Because
the
nott touch
B
th noncontact
t t profilometer
fil
t does
d
t
h

the surface the scan speeds


p
are dictated byy the light
g
reflected from the surface and the speed of the
acquisition electronics.
y Opticall profilometers
fl
d not touch
do
h the
h surface
f
and
d

therefore cannot be damaged by surface wear or


careless operators.

N
NoncontactProfilometers
t t P fil
t

List I
List II
(A) Surface profilometer
1.
Calibration
(B) Light Section Microscope 2.
2 Form tester
(C) Microkater
3.
Film thickness
measurement
(D) Interferometer 4.
Centre line average
5
5.
Comparator
6.
Surface lay measurement
C d A B
Codes:A
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 4
1
2
3
(b) 4
3
5
1
(c) 4
2
1
3
(d) 3
1
2
4

y An optical profilometer is a noncontact method for

providing
idi
much
h off the
th same information
i f
ti
as a stylus
t l
based profilometer.
p
y There are many different techniques which are

currently being employed, such as laser triangulation


(
(triangulation
sensor),
) confocal microscopy and digital
holography.
holography

182

183

O ti l Fl t
OpticalFlats
g
y Op
Opticalgrade
clear fused q
quartz or g
glass structures
lapped and polished to be extremely flat on one or
both sides.
y Used with a monochromatic light to determine the
flatness of other optical surfaces by interference.
y When a flat surface of another optic is placed on the
optical flat, interference fringes are seen due to
interference in the tiny gap between the two surfaces.
y The spacing between the fringes is smaller where the
gap is changing more rapidly, indicating a departure
from flatness in one of the two surfaces, in a similar
way to
t the
th contour
t
li
lines
on a map.

184

185

186

y When the fringes are perfectly straight and same fringe

width for dark and bright band we conclude that the


surface is perfectly flat.
y For convex surface the fringes curve around the point of
contact.
y For concave surface the fringes curve away from the
point of contact.
contact
The distance of air gap between two successive fringes is given by =
n
Distance of air gap of interference fringe of n order is =
2
th

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

187

Page 54 of 205

188

Rev.1

189

ForIESOnly

ForIESOnly

ForIESOnly

IES 2012Conventional
2012 C
ti
l
IES

IAS 2012Main
2012 M i
IAS
Explainhowflatnessofasurfaceismeasuredwithanoptical
l i h fl
f f i
d i h i l

Write
about
optical
Two
fringe
patterns
W i in
i short
h
b
i l flat.
fl
T
f i

flat.

pp
for two completely
p
y different surfaces using
g
are supplied
[12marks]

optical flat, name the types of surfaces, and draw if


required

Fig. Fringe patterns for two completely different types


190

191

Optical flat as a comparator


Opticalflatasacomparator

h =

of surfaces.

GATE 2003
GATE

n l
2

Two slip gauges of 10 mm width measuring 1.000


1 000 mm
and 1.002 mm are kept side by side in contact with each
other lengthwise. An optical flat is kept resting on the
slip gauges as shown in the figure. Monochromatic light
of wavelength 0.0058928 mm is used in the inspection.
The total number of straight fringes that can be observed
on both slip gauges is

Where l = separation of edges


n = number of fringes / cm
h = The difference of height between gauges
= wevlength of monochomatic light

(a)2
(c)8

193

192

(b)6
(d)13

194

195

T l
Talysurf
f

Clinometer

y It is based upon measuring the generated noise due to

y An optical device for measuring elevation angles above

dry friction of a metallic blade which travels over the


surface under consideration.
y If the frictional force is made small enough to excite
the blade,
blade and not the entire system,
system then the noise
will be proportional to surface roughness, and
independent of the measured specimen size and
material.
y The
Th specimen
i
surface
f
roughness
h
was measured
d by
b a
widely used commercial instrument (Talysurf 10), and
th prototype
the
t t
t
transducer.
d

horizontal.
y Compass clinometers are fundamentally just magnetic
compasses held with their plane vertical so that a
plummet or its equivalent can point to the elevation of
the sight line.
y The
Th clinometer
li
t can read
d easily
il and
d accurately
t l angles
l off
elevation that would be very difficult to measure in any
other
th simple
i l and
d inexpensive
i
i way.
y A fairly common use of a clinometer is to measure the
height of trees.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

196

MiscellaneousofMetrology

Page 55 of 205
BySKMondal
197

Rev.1

198

Autocollimator

Clinometer
l

y An optical instrument for noncontact measurement of

small
ll angles
l or small
ll angular
l tilts
il off a reflecting
fl i surface.
f
y Used to align components and measure deflections in
optical or mechanical systems.
y An autocollimator works by
yp
projecting
j
g an image
g onto a
target mirror, and measuring the deflection of the
g against
g
a scale,, either visuallyy or byy
returned image
means of an electronic detector.
y A visual autocollimator can measure angles as small as
0.5 arcsecond, while an electronic autocollimator can be
up to 100 times more accurate.
accurate
199

y Visual autocollimators are used for lining up laser rod

ends and checking the face parallelism of optical


windows and wedges.
y Electronic
El
i and
d digital
di i l autocollimators
lli
are used
d as

angle measurement standards, for monitoring angular


movement over long
l
periods
i d off time
i
and
d for
f checking
h ki
angular position repeatability in mechanical systems.
y Servo autocollimators are specialized compact forms

of electronic autocollimators that are used in high


speed servo feedback loops for stable platform
applications.
applications

200

201

GATE 1998
1998
GATE

Autocollimator
ll

( )
GATE 2009(PI)

Auto collimator is used to check


(a) Roughness
(b) Flatness
Fl t
(c) Angle
(d) Automobile balance.

An autocollimator is used to
(a) measure small angular displacements on flat
surface
( ) compare known and unknown dimensions
(b)
(c) measure the flatness error
(d) measure roundness error between centers

202

203

OpticalSquare

GATE 2014

p
q
y
y An Optical
square
consists of a small cylindrical
metal box,,

The flatness of a machine bed can be


measured using

(a) Vernier calipers

( ) Auto collimator
(b)
(c) Height gauge

(d) Tool maker


makerss microscope

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

204

205

about 5 cm in diameter and 12.5 cm deep, in which two


mirrors are placed at an angle of 45o to each other and at
right
i ht angles
l to
t the
th plane
l
off the
th instrument.
i t
t
One mirror(horizon glass) is half silvered and other(index
glass) is wholly silvered.
silvered
The optical square belongs to a reflecting instruments which
measure angles by reflection.
reflection Angle between the first
incident ray and the last reflected ray is 90o
Used to find out the foot of the p
perpendicular
p
from a g
given
point to a line.
Used to set out right
g angles
g at a g
given p
point on a line in the
field.
Page 56byoftwo
205prisms.
206
Two mirrors may be replaced

AnOpticalSquare

Rev.1

207

S O 20 0
ISRO2010

LaserScanningMicrometer

Optical square is
(a) Engineer's square having stock and blade set at 90o
(b) A constant
t t deviation
d i ti
prism
i
h i
having
th angle
the
l off
deviation between the incident ray and reflected ray,
equall to
t 90o
(c) A constant deviation prism having the angle of
deviation between the incident ray and reflected ray,
equal to 45o
(d) Used to produce interference fringes

y The LSM features a high scanning rate which allows

inspection of small workpiece even if they are fragile,


at a high temperature,
temperature in motion or vibrating.
vibrating
y Applications :
y Measurement of outer dia. And roundness of
cylinder,
y Measurement of thickness of film and sheets,
y Measurement of spacing if IC chips,
y Measurement of forms,
y Measurement
M
t off gap between
b t
rollers.
ll

208

IES 1998
IES
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the
codes
below
the
d given
i
b l
h lists:
li
ListI
ListII
((Measuring
g Device))
((Parameter Measured))
A. Diffraction grating
1.
Small angular deviations on long
flat surfaces
B
B.
Optical flat
2
2.
Online measurement of moving
parts
C. Auto collimators
3.
Measurement of gear pitch
D
D.
L
Laser
scan micrometer4.
i
t
S f
Surface
t t
texture
using
i interferometer
i t f
t
5.
Measurement of very small
displacements
Code: A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 5
4
2
1
(b)
3
5
1
2
(c) 3
5
4
1
(d)
5
4
1
2

209

McLeodgauge
d

GATE2014
Which one of the following instruments is widely
used to check and calibrate geometric features of
machine tools during their assembly?
(a) Ultrasonic probe
(b) Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)
(c) Laser interferometer
(d) Vernier calipers

211

principle of Boyle's law.


y Works on the principle,
principle "Compression
Compression of known
volume of low pressure gas to higher pressure and
g resulting
g volume & p
pressure,, one can
measuring
calculate initial pressure using Boyle's Law equation."
y Pressure of g
gases containing
g vapours
p
cannot normallyy
measured with a McLeod gauge, for the reason that
compression will cause condensation .
y A pressure from 0.01 micron to 50 mm Hg can be
measured. Generally McLeod gauge is used for
calibration purpose.

y Acronym for Linear Variable Differential Transformer,


Transformer

surfacebytracingtheboundaryofthearea.

Page 57 of 205

213

LVDT

y Adeviceusedformeasuringtheareaofanyplane

214

y Used to measure vacuum by application of the

212

Planimeter
l

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

210

215

a common type of electromechanical transducer that


can convert the rectilinear motion of an object to
which it is coupled mechanically into a corresponding
electrical signal.
signal
y LVDT linear position sensors are readily available that
can measure movements
t as small
ll as a few
f millionths
illi th off
an inch up to several inches, but are also capable of
measuring
i positions
iti
up to
t 20 inches
i h (0.5
(
m).
)
y A rotary variable differential transformer (RVDT)
is a type of electrical transformer used for measuring
Rev.1
216
angular displacement.

GATE 1992
GATE

LVDT

ToolMakersMicroscope
l
k

y
q
y
Match the instruments with the p
physical
quantities they
measure:
Instrument
Measurement
(A) Pilottube
(1)
R.P.M. of a shaft
g
(2)
Displacement
p
(B) McLeod Gauge
(C) Planimeter
(3)
Flow velocity
(4)
4
Vacuum
(D) LVDT
(5)
Surface finish
((6)) Area
Codes:A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
((a)) 4
1
2
3
((b)) 3
4
6
2
(c) 4
2
1
3
(d) 3
1
2
4
217

218

Match the following


Feature to be inspected
Instrument
P Pitch and Angle errors of screw thread 1.
1 Auto Collimator
Q Flatness error of a surface plate 2. Optical Interferometer
R Alignment
Ali
error off a machine
hi slide
lid way 3. Dividing
Di idi Head
H d
and Dial Gauge
S Profile
P fil off a cam
4. Spirit
S i i Level
L l
5. Sine bar
6. Tool maker's Microscope
(a) P6 Q2 R4 S6
(b) P55 Q2 R1 S6
(c) P6 Q4 R1 S3
(d) P1 Q4 R4 S2
220

List I
(Measuring instruments)
(A) Talysurf
T l
f
1.
(B) Telescopic gauge
2.
(C) Transfer callipers
3.
(D) Autocollimator
4.
Codes:A B
C
D
( ) 4
(a)
1
2
3
(b)
(c) 4
2
1
3
(d)

List II
(Application)
T l t
Tslots
Flatness
Internal diameter
Roughness
A
B
C
D
4
3
1
2
3
1
2
4

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

223

219

Telescopic Gauges
TelescopicGauges

GATE 2004
GATE

GATE 1995
GATE

An essential part of engineering inspection,


inspection
measurement and calibration in metrology labs.
Hence is used to the following:
y Examination of form tools, plate and template
gauges, punches
h and
d dies,
di
annular
l grooved
d and
d
threaded hobs etc.
y Measurement of glass graticules and other surface
marked parts.
y Elements of external thread forms of screw plug
gauges,
g
g taps,
p worms and similar components.
p
y Shallow bores and recesses.

y Used to measure a bore's size, by transferring the

internal
i
l dimension
di
i to a remote measuring
i tool.
l
y They are a direct equivalent of inside callipers and

require the operator to develop the correct feel to


obtain repeatable results.

221

Coordinate Measuring Machine


CoordinateMeasuringMachine
(
)
(CMM)

Advantages,

y Aninstrumentthatlocatespointcoordinatesonthree

dimensionalstructuresmainlyusedforqualitycontrol
applications.
y Thehighlysensitivemachinemeasurespartsdownto
Th hi hl
ii
hi

d

thefractionofaninch.
y Specifically,aCMMcontainsmanyhighlysensitiveair
bearingsonwhichthemeasuringarmfloats.

Page 58 of 205

222

224

y canautomateinspectionprocess
y lesspronetocarelesserrors
p
y allowsdirectfeedbackintocomputersystem

Disadvantages,
Disadvantages
y Costly
y fixturing
fi
i iscritical
i ii l
y requiresaverygoodtolerancemodel

Rev.1

225

GATE 2008 (PI)


GATE2008(PI)

GATE 2010
GATE
A taper hole is inspected using a CMM, with a probe
of 2 mm diameter. At a height, Z = 10 mm from the
bottom, 5 points are touched and a diameter of
circle (not compensated for probe size) is obtained
as 20 mm. Similarly, a 40 mm diameter is obtained
at a height Z = 40 mm. the smaller diameter (in mm)
of hole at Z = 0 is
(a) 13.334
(b) 15.334
(c) 15.442
(d) 15.542
226

GATE 2014
GATE2014
The diameter of a recessed ring was measured by using two
spherical balls of diameter d2 = 60 mm and d1 = 40 mm as
shown in the figure.
The distance
H2 = 35.55
mm
and
H1 = 20.55
mm.
The
diameter (D,
(D
in mm) of the
ring
g g
gauge
g is
.

H1

H2

d1 Diameter

H
A

An experimental setup is planned to determine the taper of


workpiece as shown in the figure. If the two precision rollers
have radii 8 mm and 5 mm and the total thickness of slip
gauges inserted
i
d between
b
the
h rollers
ll
i 15.54 mm, the
is
h taper
angle is
( ) 6 degree
(a)
d
(b) 10 degree
(c) 11 degree
(d) 12 degree
g

227

228

WorkbookCh13:Metrology
gy

ISRO2007

Q.No

Option

Q.No

Option

Which
Whi h off the
h following
f ll i errors are inevitable
i
i bl in
i the
h

10

measuring
g system
y
and it would be vain full

11

exercise to avoid them

12

13

(a) Systematic errors

14

(b) Random
R d
errors

15

(c) Calibration errors

16

(d) Environmental errors

17

Recessed Ring
D
d2 Diameter

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

229

232

230

Page 59 of 205

231

Rev.1

Terminology

Four Important forming techniques are:


FourImportantformingtechniquesare:
y Rolling: The process of plastically deforming metal by
passing
rolls.
i it
i between
b
ll

y
y

y Forging: The workpiece is compressed between two

MetalForming

opposing dies so that the die shapes are imparted to the


work.
work

y Extrusion: The work material is forced to flow


through a die opening taking its shape

y
y

Semifinished product
Ingot: is the first solid form of steel.
Bloom: is the product of first breakdown of ingot has square
cross section 6 x 6 in.
in or larger
Billet: is hot rolled from a bloom and is square, 1.5 in. on a
side or larger.
larger
Slab: is the hot rolled ingot or bloom rectangular cross
section 10 in.
in or more wide and 1.5
1 5 in.
in or more thick.
thick

y Drawing:
D
i
The diameter of a wire or bar is reduced by

B SKM d l
BySKMondal

pulling it through a die opening (bar drawing) or a series


of die openings (wire drawing)
2

i l
Terminology

PlasticDeformation

y Plate
Pl t is
i the
th product
d t with
ith thickness
thi k
> 5 mm

Billet

slab

y These
processes involve
amountt off plastic
Th
i
l large
l
l ti

deformation.

y Duetoslip,grainfragmentation,movementof
D t li i f
t ti
t f

y Sheet is the product with thickness < 5 mm and width >

Bloom

BulkDeformationProcesses

y Deformationbeyondelasticlimits.

Mill product

Ingot

y The crosssection of workpiece changes without

atomsandlatticedistortion.

g
volume change.
y The ratio crosssection area/volume is small.

600 mm

y For most operations, hot or warm working

y Strip is the product with a thickness < 5 mm and width

conditions are preferred although some operations


are carried out at room temperature.

< 600 mm

Sh
SheetFormingProcesses
F
i P

StrainHardeningg

section of
y In sheet metal working operations, the cross
crosssection
workpiece does not changethe material is only
subjected to shape changes.

y Sheet metalworking operations are performed on thin

(less than 5 mm) sheets,


sheets strips or coils of metal by means
of a set of tools called punch and die on machine tools
called stamping presses.
presses
y They are always performed as cold working operations.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

GATE1995

y When metal is formed in cold state, there is no

A test specimen is stressed slightly beyond the

recrystalization of grains and thus recovery from

y The ratio crosssection area/volume is very high.

yield point and then unloaded. Its yield strength

grain
i distortion
di t ti
or fragmentation
f
t ti
d
does
nott take
t k

(a) Decreases

p
place.

( ) Increases
(b)

y As grain deformation proceeds, greater resistance

(c) Remains same

to this action results in increased hardness and

(d) Become equal to UTS

strength i.e.
i e strain hardening.
hardening
Page 60 of 205

Rev.1

IES2013
Statement (I): At higher strain rate and lower
temperature structural steel tends to become brittle.
Statement (II): At higher strain rate and lower
temperature the yield strength of structural steel tends
to increase.
increase
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually
true and
d Statement
S
(II) is
i the
h correct explanation
l
i
off
Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually
true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of
Statement (I)
((c)) Statement ((I)) is true but Statement ((II)) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

Recrystallisation Temperature(Rxtemp.)
The minimum temperature at which the completed
y The
recrystallisation of a cold worked metal occurs within a
specified period of approximately one hour
hour..
y Rx temp. decreases strength and increases ductility.

whereas working
g below are coldworking
gp
process.
y It involves replacement of coldworked structure by a

new set of strainfree,


strainfree approximately equiaxed grains to
replace all the deformed crystals.
Contd.

y Rx temp. varies between 1/3 to melting paint.


y For Pure metal Rx temp. = 0.3 x Melting temp.
y For Alloy Rx temp. = 0.5 x Melting temp. (Kelvin).
y Rx temp. off lead
l d and
d Tin is below
b l room temp.
y Rx temp.
p of Cadmium and Zinc is room temp.
p
y Rx temp. of Iron is 450oC and for steels around 1000C
y Finer is the initial grain size; lower will be the Rx temp

11

G i
th
Graingrowth

M ll bilit
Malleability

y Graingrowthfollowscompletecrystallizationifthematerials

y Malleability
M ll bilit is
i the
th property
t off a material
t i l whereby
h b it can

leftatelevatedtemperatures.

12

be shaped
p when cold byy hammering
g or rolling.
g

y Graingrowthdoesnotneedtobeprecededbyrecoveryand
hd
d b
d db
d

y A malleable material is capable of undergoing plastic

y Incontrarytorecoveryandrecrystallization,drivingforce

forthisprocessisreductioningrainboundaryenergy.

has already received. The higher the cold work, the lower
would be the Rx temp.
temp

(
(Kelvin).
)

y If working above Rx temp., hotworking process

10

recrystallization;itmayoccurinallpolycrystallinematerials.

y Rx temp.
temp depends on the amount of cold work a material

deformation without fracture.

ColdWorking

y A malleable material should be plastic but it is not

y Inpracticalapplications,graingrowthisnotdesirable.

particlesareeffectiveinretardinggraingrowth.

Workingbelowrecrystalization temp.
temp

essential to be so strong.
strong

y Incorporationofimpurityatomsandinsolublesecondphase

y Lead,
ead, so
softt stee
steel,, wrought
oug t iron,
o , coppe
copper aand
d aaluminium
u
u aaree

y Graingrowthisverystronglydependentontemperature.

some materials in order of diminishing malleability.

13

Ad t
f C ld W ki
AdvantagesofColdWorking

14

15

Di d t
f C ld W ki
DisadvantagesofColdWorking
Equipmentofhigherforcesandpowerrequired

1. Better
tolerances
B tt accuracy, closer
l
t l

1.
1

2 Better surface finish


2.

2. Surfacesofstartingworkpiecemustbefreeofscaleand

dirt

3. Strain hardening
g increases strength
g and hardness

3. Ductilityandstrainhardeninglimittheamountofforming
l d
h d
l
h
ff

4. Grain flow during deformation can cause desirable

directional properties in product

thatcanbedone
4. Insomeoperations,metalmustbeannealedtoallow

furtherdeformation

5. No heating of work required (less total energy)

5 Somemetalsaresimplynotductileenoughtobecold
5.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

16

worked.

Page 61 of 205

17

Rev.1

18

HotWorking

W ki b
Workingaboverecrystalization
li i temp.

AdvantagesofHotWorking

DisadvantagesofHotWorking

1.
1 The porosity of the metal is largely eliminated.
eliminated
2. The grain structure of the metal is refined.
3. The impurities like slag are squeezed into fibers and
distributed throughout the metal.
4. The mechanical properties such as toughness,
percentage
p
g elongation,
g
percentage
p
g reduction in area, and
resistance to shock and vibration are improved due to
g
the refinement of grains.

1.
1 It requires expensive tools.
tools
2. It produces poor surface finish, due to the rapid
oxidation
id ti and
d scale
l formation
f
ti on the
th metal
t l surface.
f
3. Due to the poor surface finish, close tolerance
cannot be maintained.

19

Micro Structural Changes in a Hot


MicroStructuralChangesinaHot
WorkingProcess(Rolling)
Working Process (Rolling)

20

Annealing
Annealing relieves the stresses from cold working three
g recovery,
y recrystallization
y
and g
grain g
growth.
stages:
During recovery, physical properties of the coldworked
g in
material are restored without anyy observable change
microstructure.

21

W
F
i
WarmForming
y Deformation
intermediate
D f
ti produced
d d att temperatures
t
t
i t
di t to
t

hot and cold forming


g is known as warm forming.
g
y Compared to cold forming, it reduces loads, increase

material ductility.
y Compared to hot forming, it produce less scaling and

decarburization better dimensional precision and


decarburization,
smoother surfaces.
22

I th
lF
i
IsothermalForming
interior, and the variations in strength can result in non
uniform deformation and cracking of the surface.
y For temp.sensitive
temp sensitive materials deformation is performed

under isothermal conditions.


y The dies or tooling must be heated to the workpiece

t
temperature,
t
sacrificing
ifi i die
di life
lif for
f product
d t quality.
lit
y Close tolerances,, low residual stresses and uniform metal

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

25

Assertion (A): Lead,


Lead Zinc and Tin are always hot
worked.
R
Reason
(R) : If they
th are worked
k d in
i cold
ld state
t t
they cannot retain their mechanical properties.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT
p
of A
the correct explanation
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Page 62 of 205

24

G
2003
GATE2003

IES2011

y During hot forming,


forming cooler surfaces surround a hotter

flow.

23

26

Cold working of steel is defined as working


(a) At its recrystallisation temperature
(b) Above
Ab
it recrystallisation
its
t lli ti temperature
t
t
(c) Below its recrystallisation temperature
(d) At two thirds of the melting temperature of the
metal

Rev.1

27

ISRO 2010
ISRO2010

G
2002 S O 20 2
GATE2002,ISRO2012

S 2006
IES

Materials after cold working are subjected to

Hot rolling of mild steel is carried out


(a) At recrystallisation temperature
(b) Between
B t
100C
C to
t 150C
C
(c) Below recrystallisation temperature
(d) Above recrystallisation temperature

following process to relieve stresses


(a) Hot working

Which one of the following is the process to refine


the grains of metal after it has been distorted by
hammering or cold working?
(a) Annealing
(b) Softening
( ) Recrystallizing
(c)
R
t lli i
(d) Normalizing
N
li i

(b) Tempering
(c) Normalizing
(d) Annealing
28

S 2004
200
IES

29

S 2009
IES

Consider the following statements:


In comparison to hot working, in cold working,
1. Higher
Hi h forces
f
are required
i d
2. No heating is required
3. Less ductility is required
4. Better surface finish is obtained
Which of the statements given above are correct?
( ) 1, 2 and
(a)
d 3 (b) 1, 2 and
d4
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 2, 3 and 4

S 2008
IES

34

Consider the following statements:


1. Metal forming decreases harmful effects of
impurities and improves mechanical strength.
strength
2. Metal working process is a plastic deformation
process.
3. Very intricate shapes can be produced by forging
process as compared to casting process.
Which of the statements g
given above are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1 and 3 only

32

S 2004
200
IES

Cold forging results in improved quality due to


which of the following?
1 Better mechanical properties of the process.
1.
process
2. Unbroken grain flow.
3. Smoother finishes.
4. High
4
g p
pressure.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1,
1 2 and 3 (b) 1,
1 2 and 4
(c) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 3 and 4
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

S 2008
IES

Consider the following characteristics:


1. Porosity in the metal is largely eliminated.
2. Strength
St
th is
i decreased.
d
d
3. Close tolerances cannot be maintained.
Which of the above characteristics of hot working is/are
correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 1 and 3

31

30

S 2003
IES

Assertion (A): Cold working of metals results in


increase of strength and hardness
Reason (R): Cold working reduces the total number
of dislocations per unit volume of the material
( ) Both
(a)
B th A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true
t
and
d R is
i the
th
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Page 63 of 205

33

35

Cold working produces the following effects:


1. Stresses are set up in the metal
2. Grain
G i structure
t t
gets
t distorted
di t t d
3. Strength and hardness of the metal are decreased
4. Surface finish is reduced
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1and 2
(b) 1, 2 and 3
( ) 3 and
(c)
d4
(d) 1 and
d4

Rev.1

36

S 2000
IES
Assertion (A): To obtain large deformations by cold
working intermediate annealing is not required.
Reason (R): Cold working is performed below the
recrystallisation temperature of the work material.
( ) Both
(a)
B th A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true
t
and
d R is
i the
th
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

In the metal forming process, the stresses


encountered
t d are
(a) Greater than yield strength but less than
ultimate
l
strength
h
(b) Less than yield strength of the material
(c) Greater than the ultimate strength of the
material
(d) Less than the elastic limit

37

S 1996
996
IES

S 1997
99
IES

ISRO2009

38

S 2006
IES

40

S 1996
996
IAS

S 2004
200
IAS
Assertion(A):Hotworkingdoesnotproducestrain
hardening.
Reason(R):Hotworkingisdoneabovethere
Reason(R):Hotworkingisdoneabovethere
crystallizationtemperature.
( ) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe
(a)
B thA dR i di id ll t dRi th
correctexplanationofA
(b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the
correctexplanationofA
(c) AistruebutRisfalse
(d) AisfalsebutRistrue

43

Specify the sequence correctly


(a) Grain growth, recrystallisation, stress relief
(b) Stress
St
relief,
li f grain
i growth,
th recrystallisation
t lli ti
(c) Stress relief, recrystallisation, grain growth
(d) Grain growth, stress relief, recrystallisation

41

For mild steel, the hot forging temperature range is


(a) 4000C to 6000C
(b) 7000C to
t 9000C
0
(c) 1000 C to 12000C
(d) 13000Cto 15000C

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

39

S 1992
992
IES

Assertion (A): In case of hot working of metals, the


temperature at which the process is finally stopped
should not be above the recrystallisation
y
temperature.
p
Reason (R): If the process is stopped above the
recrystallisation
y
temperature,
p
, g
grain g
growth will take
place again and spoil the attained structure.
((a)) Both A and R are individuallyy true and R is the correct
explanation of A
((b)) Both A and R are individuallyy true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

Considerthefollowingstatements:
Whenametaloralloyiscoldworked
1. Itisworkedbelowroomtemperature.
Iti
k db l
t
t
2. Itisworkedbelowrecrystallisation temperature.
3. Itshardnessandstrengthincrease.
4. Itshardnessincreasesbutstrengthdoesnot
increase.
Ofthesecorrectstatementsare
(a) 1and4
(b) 1and3
(c) 2and3
(d) 2and4

Inmetalssubjectedtocoldworking,strain
hardeningeffectisdueto
(a) Slipmechanism
(b) Twiningmechanism
(c) Dislocationmechanism
((d)) Fracturemechanism

Page 64 of 205

42

S 2002
IAS2002

44

Assertion (A): There is good grain refinement in hot


working.
Reason (R): In hot working physical properties are
generally improved.
( ) Both
(a)
B th A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true
t
and
d R is
i the
th
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Rev.1

45

S 2008
IES2008

Rolling
y Definition:
The
D fi iti
Th process off plastically
l ti ll deforming
d f
i metal
t l

Which
Whi h one off the
th following
f ll i is
i correct?
t?
Malleability is the property by which a metal or
alloy can be plastically deformed by applying
(a) Tensile stress

(b)

Bending stress

(c) Shear stress

(d)

Compressive stress

byy p
passing
g it between rolls.

Rolling

y Most widely used, high production and close tolerance.


y Friction between the rolls and the metal surface

produces high compressive stress.


y Hotworking
H
ki (unless
( l
mentioned
i
d cold
ld rolling.)
lli )

B SKM d l
BySKMondal
46

y Metal will undergo biaxial compression.


compression

47

48

50

51

GATE 2013
GATE2013
In
process, the
off the
I a rolling
lli
th state
t t off stress
t
th
material undergoing
g
g deformation is
(a) pure compression
(b) pure shear
(c) compression and shear
(d) tension and shear

49

ChangeingrainsstructureinHot rolling
ChangeingrainsstructureinHotrolling

HotRolling
y Done above the recrystallization temp.
temp
y Results fine g
grained structure.
y Surface quality and final dimensions are less accurate.
y Breakdown of ingots into blooms and billets is done by

h
hotrolling.
lli
Thi is
This
i followed
f ll
d by
b further
f h hotrolling
h
lli
i
into
plate,, sheet,, rod,, bar,, p
p
pipe,
p , rail.
y Hot rolling is terminated when the temp. falls to about

(50 to 100C) above the recrystallization temp.


For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

52

Hot rolling is an effective way to reduce grain size in


metals for improved strength and ductility.
ductility
Page 65 of 205

53

S 2001
200
IAS
Consider the following characteristics of rolling
process:
1 Shows work hardening effect
1.
2. Surface finish is not good
3. Heavy reduction in areas can be obtained
Which of these characteristics are associated with hot
rolling?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Rev.1

54

ColdRolling

RingRolling

ISRO2006

y Done
below
D
b l the
th recrystallization
t lli ti temp..
t
y Products are sheet,
sheet strip,
strip foil etc.
etc with good surface

finish and increased mechanical strength with close

produce strongest components?

product dimensions.

(a) Hot rolling

y Performed on fourhigh or clustertype rolling mills.

(Due to high force and power)

y Ring
ring
Ri rolls
ll are used
d for
f tube
t b rolling,
lli
i rolling.
lli

Which of the following processes would

y As the rolls squeeze and rotate,


rotate the wall thickness is

reduced and the diameter of the ring increases.


y Shaped rolls can be used to produce a wide variety of

( ) Extrusion
(b)

crosssection profiles.

(c) Cold rolling

y Ring
Ri rolls
ll are made
d off spheroidized
h idi d graphite
hi bainitic
b i i i and
d

pearlitic
pea
t c matrix
at o
or aalloy
oy cast stee
steel base.

(d) Forging
55

56

Sheetrolling

ISRO2009

y In
we are only
to
the
I sheet
h t rolling
lli
l attempting
tt
ti
t reduce
d
th

Ring rolling is used


(a) To decrease the thickness and increase
diameter
(b) To increase the thickness of a ring
(c) For producing a seamless tube
(d) For producing large cylinder

58

57

cross section thickness of a material.

59

RollForming

60

RollBending
y A continuous form of threepoint bending is roll

b di
bending,
where
h
plates,
l t sheets,
h t and
d rolled
ll d shapes
h
can
be bent to a desired curvature on forming
g rolls.
y Upper roll being adjustable to control the degree of

curvature.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

61

Page 66 of 205

62

Rev.1

63

S 2006
IES

Packrolling

Shaperolling

y Pack
involves
hot
multiple
P k rolling
lli
i
l
h t rolling
lli
lti l sheets
h t off

Which
bending
Whi h one off the
th following
f ll i is
i a continuous
ti
b di
process in which opposing
p
pp
g rolls are used to p
produce

material at once,, such as aluminium foil.

long sections of formed shapes from coil or strip

y Improved productivity

stock?

y Aluminum sheets (aluminum foil)


y Matte,
Matte satin side foil
foiltofoil
to foil contact
y Shiny, bright side foiltoroll contact due to high contact
stresses with polished rolls

( ) Stretch
(a)
h forming
f

(b)

Roll
ll forming
f

(c) Roll bending

(d)

Spinning

y A thin surface oxide film prevents their welding


64

65

Threadrolling

66

Threadrollingcontd.

y Used
threads
U d to
t produce
d
th d in
i substantial
b t ti l quantities.
titi

y Major
greater
M j diameter
di
t is
i always
l
t than
th the
th diameter
di
t off the
th

y This is a cold
coldforming
forming process in which the threads are

formed by rolling a thread blank between hardened dies


that cause the metal to flow radially into the desired
shape.
h

blank.
y Blank diameter is little larger (0.002 inch) than the pitch

diameter of the thread.


y Restricted to ductile materials.

y No metal is removed,
removed greater strength,
strength smoother,
smoother harder,
harder

and more wearresistant surface than cut threads.


67

68

S 1992,GATE1992(PI)
992 G
992( )
IES

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

70

69

S 1993,GATE1989(PI)
993 G
989( )
IES

Threadrollingisrestrictedto
Th d lli i t i t dt

The
Th blank
bl k diameter
di
t used
d in
i thread
th d rolling
lli will
ill be
b

(a) Ferrousmaterials

(a) Equal to minor diameter of the thread

(b) Ductilematerials

(b) Equal
q
to p
pitch diameter of the thread

(c) Hardmaterials

(c) A little large than the minor diameter of the thread

(d) Noneoftheabove

(d) A little larger than the pitch diameter of the thread

Page 67 of 205

71

Rev.1

72

S 2013Conventional
20 3 C
i
l
IES

Manufactureofgearsbyrolling

Writetwoadvantagesofthreadrollingandexplain
W it t d
t
fth d lli d
l i

y The
external
Th straight
t i ht and
d helical
h li l teeth
t th off disc
di or rod
d type
t
t
l

withfiguretwodiecylindricalmachine.
g
y

steel g
gears of small to medium diameter and module are
[5Marks]

generated by cold rolling.


y High accuracy and surface integrity.
y Employed for high productivity and high quality. (costly

machine)
y Larger
a ge ssizee gea
gearss aaree formed
o ed by hot
ot rolling
o g aand
d tthen
e
73

R ll i i
Rollpiercing

finished by machining.

74

Fig.Gearrollingbetweenthreegearrolltools

75

i a variation
i ti off rolling
lli called
ll d roll
ll piercing.
i i
y It is
y The billet or round stock is rolled between two rolls,

both
rotating
direction
b h off them
h
i iin the
h same di
i with
i h their
h i
axes at an angle of 4.5 to 6.5 degree.
y These
Th
rolls
ll have
h
a centrall cylindrical
li d i l portion
i with
i h the
h
sides tapering slightly. There are two small side rolls,
which help in guiding the metal.
metal
y Because of the angle at which the roll meets the metal,
it gets
t in
i addition
dditi
t a rotary
to
t
motion,
ti
an additional
dditi
l
axial advance, which brings the metal into the rolls.
y This
Thi crossrolling
lli action
ti makes
k the
th metal
t l friable
f i bl att the
th
centre which is then easily pierced and given a
cylindrical shape by the centralpiercing
central piercing mandrel.
mandrel
76

77

S 2007
200
IAS
g
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using
the code given below the Lists:
List I
List II
(
(Type
of Rolling Mill))
(
(Characteristic)
)
A. Two high nonreversing mills 1. Middle roll rotates by friction
B
B.
Th
Three
hi h mills
high
ill
2. By
B small
ll working
ki
roll,
ll power
for rolling is reduced
C Four high mills
C.
3 Rolls of equal size are
3.
rotated only in one direction
D. Cluster mills
4. Diameter of working
g roll is
very small
Code:A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
( ) 3
(a)
4
2
1
(b)
2
1
3
4
(c) 2
4 For-2015
3
1
(d) &3 PSUs)
1
2
4 79
(IES,
GATE

S 2003
IAS

78

S 2000
IAS

In
off rolls
mill,
I one setting
tti
ll in
i a 3high
hi h rolling
lli
ill one

Rollingverythinstripsofmildsteelrequires
R lli
thi t i f ild t l
i

g
gets

(a) Largediameterrolls

(a) One reduction in thickness

(b) Smalldiameterrolls

(b) Two reductions in thickness

(c) Highspeedrolling

(c) Three reductions in thickness

(d) Rollingwithoutalubricant

(d) Two or three reductions in thickness depending


upon the setting
Page 68 of 205

80

Rev.1

81

b
Camber

Planetarymill
g rolls surrounded byy a large
g
y Consist of a p
pair of heavyy backing
number of planetary rolls.

y Each planetary roll gives an almost constant reduction to the

slab as it sweeps out a circular path between the backing rolls


and the slab.
y As each p
pair of p
planetaryy rolls ceases to have contact with the
work piece, another pair of rolls makes contact and repeat
that reduction.
y The overall reduction is the summation of a series of small
reductions by each pair of rolls. Therefore, the planetary mill
can reduce a slab directlyy to strip in one pass through
g the
mill.
ll
y The operation requires feed rolls to introduce the slab into
the mill,
mill and a pair of planishing rolls on the exit to improve
the surface finish.

y Camber can be used to correct the roll deflection (at only

82

S 1993
993
IES

83

In
thickness
off the
I order
d to
t gett uniform
if
thi k
th plate
l t by
b

y Hot
metals
without
H t rolling
lli off ferrous
f
t l is
i done
d
ith t a lubricant.
l bi
t

rolling
gp
process,, one p
provides

y Hot rolling of non


nonferrous
ferrous metals a wide variety of

compounded oils, emulsions and fatty acids are used.


y Cold rolling lubricants are watersoluble oils, low

(b) Offset on the rolls


(c) Hardening of the rolls

viscosity lubricants, such as mineral oils, emulsions,

(d) Antifriction bearings

paraffin and fatty acids.


acids

85

84

S 2004
200
IAS

LubricationforRolling

(a) Camber on the rolls

one value of the roll force).

Assertion (A): Rolling requires high friction which


increases forces and power consumption.
Reason (R): To prevent damage to the surface of the
rolled products, lubricants should be used.
( ) Both
(a)
B th A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true
t
and
d R is
i the
th
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

86

87

DefectsinRolling
Defects

Whatis

Cause

Surface
Defects

Scale,
Scale
rust Inclusions and
rust,
impurities in the
scratches,
pits cracks
pits,
materials

Wavyy edges
g

Strip
p
is
thinner along
g than
its edges
at its centre.

Due
to
roll
bending edges
elongates
g
more
and buckle.

Ed breaks
Edge
b k

Nonuniform
N
if
deformation

Alli
Alligatoring
i

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

88

GeometryofRollingProcess

( )
GATE 2009(PI)
Anisotropy in rolled components is caused by
(a) changes in dimensions
(b) scale formation
(c) closure of defects
(d) grain
i orientation
i
i

Page 69 of 205

89

Rev.1

90

Draft

S 20 2
i
IAS2012Main

Angle of bite:

draft taken in rolling.


y Total reduction or draft
rolling

What
off (1)
Wh t is
i the
th significance
i ifi
( ) angle
l off nip,
i and
d (2)
( )

Angle
A l off nip:
i

h=h0 - hf =2(R- Rcos ) =D(1- cos )

angle
g of bite during
g rolling
g operation?
p
How are they
y

y Usually, the reduction in blooming mills is about 100

[10marks]

related to roll friction?

g mills, about 550 to 60 mm.


mm and in slabbing

91

G
200
GATE2007

92

93

G
998
GATE1998

GATE 2012SameQinGATE 2012(PI)

The
off a metallic
an
Th thickness
thi k
t lli sheet
h t is
i reduced
d
d from
f

In a single pass rolling process using 410 mm

A strip
150 mm x 4.5 mm is
t i with
ith a crosssection
ti
i

initial value of 16 mm to a final value of 10 mm in

diameter steel rollers,


rollers a strip of width 140 mm and

being
g rolled with 20% reduction of area using
g 45
450

one single pass rolling with a pair of cylindrical

thickness 8 mm undergoes 10% reduction of

mm diameter rolls. The angle subtended by the

rollers each of diameter of 400 mm. The bite angle

thickness. The angle of bite in radians is

deformation zone at the roll centre is (in radian)

i degree
in
d
will
ill be
b

(a) 0.006

(b) 0.031

( ) 0.01 (b)
(a)

0.02

(c) 0.062
0 062

(d) 0.600
0 600

(c) 0.03
0 03 (d)

0 06
0.06

(a) 5.936
5 936

(b)

7 936
7.936

(c) 8.936

(d)

9.936
94

95

Roll strip contact length


Rollstripcontactlength

G
200
GATE2004

ForUnaidedentry

y Rollstripcontactlength

In
process, sheet
is
I a rolling
lli
h t off 25 mm thickness
thi k
i

L=R

rolled to 20 mm thickness. Roll is of diameter 600


mm and it rotates at 100 rpm. The roll strip contact

[ mustbeinradian]

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

96

tan

length will be

97

( ) 5 mm
(a)

(b)

39 mm

(c) 78 mm

(d)

120 mm

Page 70 of 205

98

Rev.1

99

MaximumDraftPossible

GATE 2014
GATE2014

GATE2011
The
off
h maximum possible
bl draft
d f in cold
ld rolling
ll

( h )max

sheet increases with the

= R

(a) increase in coefficient of friction


(b) decrease in coefficient of friction
(c) decrease in roll radius
(d) increase in roll velocity

100

101

G
2006
GATE2006
A 4 mm thick
thi k sheet
h t is
i rolled
ll d with
ith 300 mm diameter
di
t

ho h f min = 2 R

rolls to reduce thickness without any


y change
g in its
width. The friction coefficient at the workroll
interface is 0.1. The minimum possible thickness of
th sheet
the
h t that
th t can be
b produced
d
d in
i a single
i l pass is
i

103

(a) 1.0
1 0 mm

(b)

1 5 mm
1.5

(c) 2.5 mm

(d)

3.7 mm

104

105

GATE 2011(PI)
GATE
2011 (PI)

Numberofpassneeded

hrequired
hmax

S 2001
200
IES

The thickness of a plate is reduced from 30 mm to 10

A strip
a thickness
off 30 mm to
t i is
i to
t be
b rolled
ll d from
f
thi k
t

mm by successive cold rolling passes using identical

155 mm using
g a twohigh
g mill having
g rolls of

rolls of diameter 600 mm. Assume that there is no

diameter 300 mm. The coefficient of friction for

change
h
i width.
in
id h If the
h coefficient
ffi i
off friction
f i i

unaided bite should nearly be

between the rolls and the work piece is 0.1, the


minimum number of passes required is
(a) 3

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

102

MinimumPossibleThickness (h f min )

S 1999
999
IES
Assertion (A): In a two high rolling mill there is a
limit to the possible reduction in thickness in one
pass.
Reason (R): The reduction possible in the second
pass is less than that in the first pass.
pass
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correctt explanation
l
ti off A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

n=

In a rolling process, the maximum possible draft,


defined as the difference between the initial and
the final thickness of the metal sheet, mainly
depends on which pair of the following parameters?
P:Strain
Q:Strengthoftheworkmaterial
R:Rolldiameter
S:Rollvelocity
T:Coefficientoffrictionbetweenrollandwork
((a)Q,S
) Q,
((b)R,T
) ,
(c)S,T
(d)P,R

106

(b) 4

(c) 6

( ) 0.35
(a)

(b)

0.5

(c) 0.25
0 25

(d)

0 07
0.07

(d) 7

Page 71 of 205

107

Rev.1

108

NeutralPointandNeutralPlane

G
20 ( )
GATE2014(PI)
A 80 mm thick steel plate with 400 mm width is
rolled to 40 mm thickness in 4 passes with equal
reduction in each pass, by using rolls of 800 mm
diameter. Assuming the planestrain deformation,
what is the minimum coefficient of friction
required for unaided rolling to be possible?
(a) 0.111
0 111 (b) 0.158
0 158 (c) 0.223
0 223 (d) 0.316
0 316

The point where roll velocity equals


work velocity is known as the noslip V0 =inputvelocity
p
point or the neutral p
point.
Vf =finaloroutputvelocity

Backward slip =
Forward slip =
109

IES 2014
IES

In the process of metal rolling operation, along the arc


of contact in the roll gap there is a point called the
neutral point, because
(a) On one side of this point,
point the work material is in tension
and on the other side, the work material is in compression
(b) On one side of this point,
point the work material has velocity
greater than that of the roll and on the other side, it has
velocityy lesser than that of the roll
(c) On one side of this point, the work material has rough
surface finish and on the other side, the work material has
very fine finish
(d) At this point there is no increase in material width, but
on either side of neutral point, the material width increases

Vr Vo
100%
Vr

V f Vr
Vr

100%

R=rollradius
ho =backheight
b kh i h
hf =outputorfinal
thickness
hi k
=angleofbite
NN=neutralpointorno
slippoint
TotheleftoftheNeutralPoint:
Velocityofthestrip<Velocityoftheroll
y
p
y
TotherightoftheNeutralPoint:
110
Velocityofthestrip>Velocityoftheroll

While rolling a strip the peripheral velocity of


the roll is .A..than the entry velocity of the
strip and is B ..the exit velocity of the
strip.
strip
((a)) less than/greater
/g
less
(b) Greater than/less than
111

S 2002
IES

GATE2008(PI)
In
process, thickness
off a strip
I a rolling
lli
thi k
t i is
i reduced
d
d

In
a strip
two
rolls,
off
I rolling
lli
t i between
b t
t
ll the
th position
iti

from 4 mm to 3 mm using
g 3300 mm diameter rolls

the neutral p
point in the arc of contact does not

rotating at 100 rpm. The velocity of the strip in

depend on

(m/s) at the neutral point is

(a) Amount of reduction

(b)

Diameter of the rolls

(c) Coefficient of friction

(d)

Material of the rolls

( ) 1.57
(a)

(b) 3.14

( ) 47.10
(c)

(d) 94.20

112

113

114

Continuity Equation
ContinuityEquation

S l
dQ
i
SelectedQuestions

GATE2014

y Generally rolling increases the

The
Th effect
ff t off friction
f i ti on the
th rolling
lli mill
ill is
i
(a) always bad since it retards exit of reduced metal
(b) always
y g
good since it drags
g metal into the g
gap
p between
the rolls

A mild
has
ld steell plate
l
h to be
b rolled
ll d in one pass such
h

work width from an initial value


of bo to a final one of bf and this
i called
is
ll d spreading.
di
y The inlet and outlet volume
rates off material
i l flow
fl
must be
b
the same, that is,

that the final plate thickness is 2/3rd of the initial


thickness, with the entrance speed of 10 m/min
and roll diameter of 500 mm. If the plate widens
b 2%
by
% during
d
rolling,
ll
the
h exit velocity
l
( m/min))
(in

hobovo = hf bfvf

(c) advantageous before the neutral point

is

where
h
vo and
d vf are the
th entering
t i
and exiting velocities of the
work.
work

(d) disadvantageous after the neutral point


For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

( )
GATE1990(PI)

115

Page 72 of 205

116

Rev.1

117

Force,TorqueandPower
El
i F
El
i C ffi i
ElongationFactororElongationCoefficient

A
L
E= 1 = o
Lo A1

for single
g pass
p

L
A
En = n = o
Lo An

for n pass

( )
GATE1992(PI)
Iff the
factor
during
rolling
off an
h elongation
l
f
d
ll
ingot is 1.22. The minimum number of passes
needed to produce a section 250 mm x 250 mm
from an ingot of 750 mm x 750 mm are
(a) 8

(b) 9

( ) 10
(c)

(d) 17

118

Will
be
discussed
in class

119

120

Projected length ( Lp ) = R sin = Rh , mm


Projected Area ( Ap ) = Lp b , mm 2

G
2008
GATE2008

RollSeparating Force ( F ) = o Lp b , N
[ o in N / mm 2 i.e. MPa ]

Arm length ( a in mm ) = 0.5 L p for hot rolling


= 0.45
0 45 Lp for
f cold
ld rolling
lli
a
, Nm
1000
Total power for two roller ( P ) = 2T , inW
Torque per roller (T ) = F

S 2000,GATE2010(PI)
2000 G
20 0( )
IES

In a single pass rolling operation, a 20 mm thick


plate with plate width of 100 mm, is reduced to 18
mm. The roller radius is 250 mm and rotational
speed is 10 rpm. The average flow stress for the plate
material is 300 MPa. The power required for the
rolling operation in kW is closest to
(a) 15.2
15 2
(b) 18.2
(c) 30.4
(d) 45.6
45

121

decreased by
y
(a) Reducing the roll diameter
(b) Increasing the roll diameter
(c) Providing backup rolls
(d) Increasing the friction between the rolls and the
metal

122

S 2007
200
IAS

123

AssumptionsinRolling

Consider the following statements:


Roll forces in rolling can be reduced by
1. Reducing
R d i friction
f i ti
2. Using large diameter rolls to increase the contact
area.
33. Taking
g smaller reductions p
per p
pass to reduce the
contact area.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
( ) 1 and
(c)
d 3 only
l
(d) 1, 2 and
d3
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

In
process, roll
force
can be
I the
th rolling
lli
ll separating
ti
f
b

124

1.
1 Rolls are straight, rigid cylinders.
cylinders
2. Strip is wide compared with its thickness, so that no

widening of strip occurs (plane strain conditions).


conditions)
3. The arc of contact is circular with a radius greater than

[F IESC
[ForIESConventionalOnly]
i
lO l ]

Page 73 of 205

125

the radius
th
di off the
th roll.
ll
4. The material is rigid perfectly plastic (constant yield
strength).
55. The coefficient of friction is constant over the tool
work interface.
Rev.1

126

StressEquilibriumofanElementinRolling

S 2001
200
IES
g assumptions
p
Which of the following
are correct for
cold rolling?
1. The material is plastic.
p
2. The arc of contact is circular with a radius greater than
the radius of the roll.
3. Coefficient of friction is constant over the arc of
g
the arc of
contact and acts in one direction throughout
contact.
g the codes g
given below:
Select the correct answer using
Codes:
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3
127

Due to cold rolling, 0' increases as h decreases,

( p / )

II =

2R
( ) d
h f + R 2

2 R d
l ( p / ) =
ln

h f + R 2

2 R
h f + R 2 d = I II (say)

2d

h/R

h
= ln
R

R
.tan 1
hf

R
. + ln C

hf

R
.tan 1
hf

R
.

hf

Now att entry


N
t ,
=
Hence H = H0 with replaced by in above equation
At exit = 0
Therefor p = '0

R
.tan 1
.

hf
hf

h0
1
1
H0 ln

2
hf

132

If bac
back tension
te s o b iss tthere
e e at Entry,
t y,
p = ( o b )

ho
H 2H
= e ( 0 n)
hf

h
H H
. e ( 0 )
h0

If front tension f is there at Exit,


Exit

R
.

hf
h f Hn
hf
.tan
.
n =
R 2
R

and h n = h f + 2R
(1 74cos
Page
of
205
n)
From H = 2

129

h
p = C '0 e H
R

where
h
H =2

2
d
/ R + 2

or Hn =

133

h
ln p / '0 = ln 2
R

131

or

h
p = '0 .eH
hf
At the neutral po int above equations

d ( x h )
= 2 pR ( )
d
2
p x =
0 = 0'
3
d
h ( p 0' ) = 2 pR ( )

d ' p
0 h ' 1 = 2 pR ( )
d
0

d
d p p
0' h
( 0' h ) = 2 pRR ( )
' + ' 1
d 0 0
d

hn
h
H H
. e ( 0 n ) = n . e Hn
h0
hf

In the exit zone

second order terms,


terms sin and cos = 1,
1 we get

hf
+ 2
R

130

h
H H
. e ( 0 )
h0

will give
same results
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

2Rd
=
h

2R
d
2
f + R

= 2

h
In the entry zone, p = C. '0 o e Ho
R
R Ho
and C =
.e
e
ho
p = '0

d h
= 2 \
d R

Integrating both side


'
0

2Rd
=
2
f + R

or

h = h f + 2 R (1 cos ) h f + R 2
=

128

Now h / R =

d
( p / 0' ) 2R
d
=
( )
p / 0'
h

'
0

+ 2 x R d cos = 0

I=

th 0' h nearly
thus
l a constant
t t andd itsderivative
it d i ti zero.

d ( p / 0' )

Considering the thickness of the element perpendicular to


the
h plane
l
off paper to be
b unity,
i
W get equilibrium
We
ilib i
equation in -xdirection
as,
x h + ( x +d x ) (h + dh) - 2pR d sin

For sliding friction, x = p Simplifying and neglecting

p = ( o f )

R
.tan
tan 1
hf

134

h
. e H
hf

Rev.1

135

IAS 2012 M i
IAS2012Main

S 1998
998
IAS

IFS 2010

Whatis"frictionhill"?

Calculate the neutral plane to roll 250 mm wide


annealed copper strip from 2.5 mm to 2.0 mm
thi k
thickness
with
ith 350 mm diameter
di
t steel
t l rolls.
ll Take
T k
= 0.055 and o =180 MPa.
[10marks]

136

137

Workbook:Rolling Ch14
Q.No

Option

1
2
3

C
B
D

6
7

A
B

8
9

D
C

10
11

C
B

12

Forging
y Forging process is a metal working process by which

metals or alloys are plastically deformed to the desired


shapes by a compressive force applied with the help of a
pair of dies.
dies
y Because of the manipulative ability of the forging
process, it
i is
i possible
ibl to closely
l l controll the
h grain
i flow
fl
i
in
the specific direction, such that the best mechanical
properties
i
can be
b obtained
b i d based
b d on the
h specific
ifi
application.

Forging
BySKMondal
139

142

141

140

IES2013

ClosedDieforging

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Match List I (products) with List II (processes)


and select the correct answer using the codes given
below the lists:
List I
List II
A M.S.
A.
M S angles
l and
d channels
h
l
1.
W ldi
Welding
B. Carburetors
2.
Forging
C. Roof trusses
3.
Casting
D. Gear wheels
4.
Rolling
Codes: A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
( ) 1
(a)
2
3
4(b)
(b) 4
3
2
1
(c) 1
2
4
3(d) 4
3
1
2138

Statement (I): The dies used in the forging process are


p
made in pair.
Statement (II): The material is pressed between two
surfaces and the compression force applied, gives it a
shape.
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually
true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of
Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually
t
true
b t Statement
but
St t
t (II) is
i nott the
th correctt explanation
l
ti off
Statement (I)
( ) Statement (I)
(c)
( ) is true but
b Statement (II)
( ) is false
f l
Page
75
of
205
143
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

O
d Cl d di f i
OpenandCloseddieforging
y Depending upon complexity of the part forging is

carried out as open die forging and closed die forging.


y In open die forging, the metal is compressed by repeated

blows by a mechanical
manipulated manually.

hammer and

shape is

y In closed die forging,


forging the desired configuration is

obtained by squeezing the workpiece between two


shaped and closed dies.
dies

Rev.1

144

Ad t
fF i
AdvantagesofForging

Di d t
fF i
DisadvantagesofForging

S 1996
996
IES

y Discrete shape of product can be produced.


produced

y Costly

Which
is
off
Whi h one off the
th following
f ll i
i an advantage
d
t

y Mechanical properties and reliability of the materials

y Poor dimensional accuracy and surface finish.

forging?
g g

increases due to improve in crystal structure.

y Forging operations are limited to simple shapes and has

y In forging favorable grain orientation of metal is

obtained that strengthen the component but forging


distorts the previously created uni
unidirectional
directional fibre.
fibre

limitations for parts having undercuts,


undercuts reentrant
surfaces, etc

(a) Good surface finish


(b) Low tooling cost
(c) Close tolerance

y Forging reduces the grain size of the metal, which

(d) Improved physical property.

increases strength and toughness.


y Fatigue and creep strength increases.
increases
145

146

IES 2005
IES

IES 2013
IES2013

IES 2012
IES

Consider the following statements:

Intheforgingprocess:

1. Forging reduces the grain size of the metal, which

1.Themetalstructureisrefined

results in a decrease in strength and toughness.

2.Originalunidirectionalfibers aredistorted.
3.Poorreliability,asflawsarealwaysthereduetointense

2. Forged
d components can be
b provided
d d with
h thin
h

sections, without reducing the strength.

working

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

4 Partareshapedbyplasticdeformationofmaterial
4.Partareshapedbyplasticdeformationofmaterial
(a)1,2and3

(b)1,3and4

(c)1,2and4

(d)2,3and4

148

(a) Only 1

(b)

Only 2

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d)

Neither 1 nor 2

ISRO 2013
ISRO2013

149

F
bilit
Forgeability

Which of the following processes induce more


stress in the metal?
( ) Hot rolling
(a)

y The forgeability of a metal can be defined as its

capability to undergo deformation by forging without


cracking.
low force has good forgeability.

(c) Swaging

y Upsetting test and Hot


Hottwist
twist test are used to determine

forgeability.

(d) Turning

y Forgeability increases with temperature.


For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

151

Page 76 of 205

Statement (I): It is difficult to maintain close


tolerance
in
l
i normall forging
f
i operation.
i
Statement (II): Forging is workable for simple
shapes
h
and
d has
h
li i i
limitation
f
for
parts having
h i
undercuts.
( ) Both
(a)
B h Statement
S
(I) and
d Statement
S
(II) are
individually true and Statement (II) is the correct
explanation of Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are
individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct
explanation of Statement (I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true 150

IES 2012
IES

y Metal which can be formed easily without cracking, with

(b) Forging

147

152

Which of the following statements is correct for


forging?
(a) Forgeability is property of forging tool,
tool by which
forging can be done easily.
(b) Forgeability
F
bilit decreases
d
with
ith temperature
t
t
upto
t lower
l
critical temperature.
(c) Certain mechanical properties of the material are
influenced by forging.
(d) Pure metals have good malleability, therefore, poor
g gp
properties.
p
forging
Rev.1

153

D ft
Draft

Fl h
Flash

S 2006
IES

y The draft provided on the sides for withdrawal of the

forging.
y Adequate draft should be providedat least 3o for

aluminum and 5 to 7o for steel.


y Internal surfaces require more draft than external

surfaces. During cooling,


surfaces
cooling forging tends to shrink towards
its centre and as a result, the external surfaces are likely
to be separated,
separated whereas the internal surfaces tend to
cling to the die more strongly.

Assertion (A): Forging dies are provided with taper


or draft angles on vertical surfaces.
Reason (R): It facilitates complete filling of die
cavity and favourable grain flow.
( ) Both
(a)
B th A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true
t
and
d R is
i the
th
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

154

Fl h
Flash

The excess metal added to the stock to ensure complete


filling of the die cavity in the finishing impression is
called Flash.

155

156

IES 2014
IES

Contd

y A flash acts as a cushion for impact blows from the


finishing impression and also helps to restrict the
outward flow of metal, thus helping in filling of thin ribs
and bosses in the upper die.
y The amount of flash depends on the forging size and

may vary from 10 to 50 per cent.


y The forging load can be decreased by increasing the

flash thickness.
thickness

S 2002
IAS

In hot die forging, thin layer of material all around


the forging is
(a) Gutter space,
space which fills up hot gases
(b) Flash, the width of it is an indicator of the pressure
d l
developed
d in
i the
th cavity
it
(c) Coining, which indicates the quality of the forging
(d) Cavity, which is filled with hot impurities in the
material

157

G tt
Gutter

158

G tt
Gutter

y In addition to the flash, provision should be made in the

die for additional space so that any excess metal can flow
and help in the complete closing of the die. This is called
gutter.

Considerthefollowingstatementsrelatedto
forging:
1 Flashisexcessmaterialaddedtostockwhichflows
1.
aroundpartingline.
2. Flashhelpsinfillingofthinribsandbossesinupper
Fl hh l i filli fthi ib db
i

die.
3. Amountofflashdependsuponforgingforce.
Whichoftheabovestatementsarecorrect?
(a) 1,2and3 (b) 1and2
(c) 1and3
(d) 2and3
159

S 1993,GATE1994(PI)
993 G
99 ( )
IES

Contd.

y Without
excessively
With t a gutter,
tt a flash
fl h may become
b
i l thick,
thi k

not allowing
g the dies to close completely.
p
y

Which
Whi h

one

off

the
th

following
f ll i

manufacturing
f t i

processes requires
p
q
the p
provision of gutters?
g

y Gutter depth and width should be sufficient to

accommodate the extra, material.

(a) Closed die forging


(b) Centrifugal casting
(c) Investment casting
(d) Impact extrusion

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

160

Page 77 of 205

161

Rev.1

162

Sequentialstepsinvolvedincloseddieforging

S 1997
99
IES
) In drop
p forging
g g besides the p
Assertion ((A):
provision
for flash, provision is also to be made in the forging
die for additional space called gutter.
Reason (R): The gutter helps to restrict the outward
flow of metal thereby helping to fill thin ribs and
bases in the upper die.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

( )
GATE1989(PI)
Atthelasthammerstroketheexcessmaterialfrom

F ll i
Fulleringor
swaging
Edgingorrolling

R d i
ti d ki itl
Reducingcrosssectionandmakingitlonger.

Bending

Requiredforthosepartswhichhaveabent
shape

thefinishingcavityofaforgingdieispushed
into..

163

164

E
l
Example

Preformshape.Gathersthematerialas
Preformshape Gathersthematerialas
requiredinthefinalforging.

Drawingorcogging Likefulleringbutc/sofonlyoneend is
reduced
Flattening
Flattenthestocksothatitfitsproperlyinto
thefinishingimpression.
Blocking
g
Semifinishingimpression,Impartstothe
g p
, p
forgingitsgeneralbutnotexactorfinalshape.
Finishing
g
Finalimpression,FlashlandandGutter
p
,
provided tothedie.
Trimmingorcutoff Removalofflashpresent aroundforging 165

S 1998
998
IES

S 2001
200
IES

Which
processes is
Whi h one off the
th following
f ll i
i mostt

Intheforgingoperation,fulleringisdoneto
I th f
i
ti
f ll i i d
t

commonly
y used for the forging
g g of bolt heads of

(a) Drawoutthematerial

hexagonal shape?

(b) Bendthematerial

(a) Closed die drop forging

(c) Upsetthematerial

(b) Open die upset forging

(d) Extrudingthematerial

( ) Close
(c)
Cl
di press forging
die
f i
(d) Open die progressive forging
166

S 2003
IES
and in the p
process making
g it longer
g is termed as
(b)

Punching

(c) Upsetting (d)

Extruding

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

168

S 2005
200
IES

IES2011

A forging
f
i method
th d for
f reducing
d i the
th diameter
di
t off a bar
b

(a) Fullering

167

169

Which of the following processes belong to forging


operation ?
1. Fullering
F ll i
2. Swaging
3. Welding
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
( ) 1 and
(c)
d 3 only
l
(b) 1, 2 and 3 only
Page 78 of 205

170

The
the
or flash
a
Th process off removing
i
th burrs
b
fl h from
f
forged
g component
p
in drop
p forging
g g is called:
(a) Swaging

(b)

(c) Trimming (d)

Perforating
Fettling

Rev.1

171

S 2002
IES

S 2003
IES

Consider the following steps involved in hammer


forging a connecting rod from bar stock:
1 Blocking 2.
1.
2
Trimming
3. Finishing 4.
Fullering
5. Edging
Which of the following is the correct sequence of
operations?
(a) 1, 4, 3, 2 and 5
(b) 4, 5, 1, 3 and 2
(c) 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1
(d) 5, 1, 4, 2 and
d3

Consider the following steps in forging a connecting


rod from the bar stock:
1 Blocking 2.
1.
2
Trimming
3. Finishing 4.
Edging
Select the correct sequence of these operations using the
codes given below:
Codes:
(a) 11234
234
(b) 22341
341
(c) 3412
(d) 4132

172

IES 2012 C
ti
l
IES2012Conventional

S 2001
200
IAS
Match List I (Forging operations) with List II (Descriptions)
and
the
d select
l
h correct answer using the
h codes
d given below
b l
the Lists:
List I
List II
A. Flattening
1.
Thickness is reduced continuously at
different sections along length
B
B.
D
Drawing
i
2.
M l is
Metal
i displaced
di l d away from
f
centre,
reducing thickness in middle and
increasing length
C. Fullering
3.
Rod is pulled through a die
D. Wire drawing 4.
Pressure a workpiece between two flat
dies
Codes:A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
((a)) 3
2
1
4
((b))
4
1
2
3
(c) 3
1
2
4
(d)
4
2
1
3

173

174

D
F i
DropForging

In forging define the terms


(i) Edging
(ii) Fullering
F ll i
and (iii) Flash

y The
forging
halves.
The
Th drop
d
f i die
di consists
i t off two
t
h l
Th lower
l

half of the die is fixed to the anvil of the machine,, while


the upper half is fixed to the ram. The heated stock is
kept in the lower die while the ram delivers four to five
bl
blows
on the
th metal,
t l in
i quick
i k succession
i so that
th t the
th metal
t l
spreads
p
and completely
p
y fills the die cavity.
y When the two
die halves close, the complete cavity is formed.
y Drop forging is used to produce small components.
175

S 1994,ISRO2010
99 S O 20 0
IES

178

y Metal is squeezed gradually by a hydraulic or mechanical

p
p
g closing
g of
press and component
is p
produced in a single
die, hence the dimensional accuracy is much better than
p forging.
g g
drop

Drop forging is used to produce


(a) Small components
(b) Large
L
components
t
(c) Identical Components in large numbers
(d) Mediumsize components

Page 79 of 205

177

PressForging

S 2000
IAS

In drop forging, forging is done by dropping


(a) The work piece at high velocity
(b) The
Th hammer
h
att high
hi h velocity.
l it
(c) The die with hammer at high velocity
(d) a weight on hammer to produce the requisite
p
impact.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

176

179

Rev.1

180

IES 2011
IES2011

AdvantagesofPressForgingoverDropForging
y Press
forging
forging
P
f i is
i faster
f t than
th drop
d
f i
y Alignment of the two die halves can be more easily

maintained than with hammering.


y Structural quality of the product is superior to drop

forging.
y With
Wi h ejectors
j
i the
in
h top and
d bottom
b
di it
dies,
i is
i possible
ibl to

handle
a d e reduced
educed d
diee d
drafts.
a ts.
181

Consider the following statements :


1.
1 Any metal will require some time to undergo
complete plastic deformation particularly if
deforming metal has to fill cavities and corners of
small radii.
2. For
F larger
l
work
k piece
i
off metals
t l that
th t can retain
t i
toughness at forging temperature it is preferable to
u forge
use
f
press rather
th than
th forge
f
h
hammer.
(a) 1 and 2 are correct and 2 is the reason for 1
(b) 1 and 2 are correct and 1 is the reason for 2
((c)) 1 and 2 are correct but unrelated
(d) 1 only correct

IFS2011
What advantages does press forging have over drop
forging ? Why are pure metals more easily cold worked
th alloys
than
ll
?
[5 marks]
[5marks]

182

183

M hi F i
MachineForging

U tF i
UpsetForging

R ll F i
RollForging

y Unlike
or press forging
where
the
U lik the
th drop
d
f i
h
th material
t i l is
i

y Increasing
I
i the
th diameter
di
t off a material
t i l by
b compressing
i its
it

y When
the
Wh the
th rolls
ll are in
i the
th open position,
iti
th heated
h t d stock
t k

drawn out,, in machine forging,


g g, the material is onlyy upset
p
to get the desired shape.

length.
g

is advanced up
p to a stop.
p As the rolls rotate,, theyy g
grip
p and

y Employs split dies that contain multiple positions or

roll down the stock. The stock is transferred to a second


set of grooves. The rolls turn again and so on until the

cavities.

piece
i
i finished.
is
fi i h d

184

185

R ll F i
RollForging
Contd.
y A rapid process.
process

186

S ith F i
SmithForging

k
ll
SkewRolling

y Blacksmith uses this forging method

y Skew rolling produces

metal ball

y Quality of the product depends on the skill of the

operator.

y Round

stock is fed
continuouslyy to two
specially
designed
pp
g rolls.
opposing

y Not used in industry.


industry

y Metal is forged by each

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

187

off the
h grooves in
i the
h rolls
ll
and emerges from the
end
d as a metall ball.
b ll
Page 80 of 205

188

Rev.1

189

ForIESOnly

IES 2008

S 2005
200
IES
yp of Forging)
g g) with List II (Operation)
( p
)
Match List I ((Type
and select the correct answer using the code given
below the Lists:
List I
List II
A. Drop Forging 1. Metal is gripped in the dies and
pressure is
i applied
li d on the
h heated
h
d end
d
B. Press Forging 2. Squeezing action
C Upset
C.
U
F i
Forging
3. Metal
M l is
i placed
l d between
b
rollers
ll
and
d
pushed
D Roll Forging 4.
D.
4 Repeated hammer blows
blo s
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
( ) 4
(a)
1
2
3
(b) 3
2
1
4
(c) 4
2
1
3
(d) 3
1
2
4190

Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using
the code given below the lists:
ListI (Forging Technique)
ListII (Process)

A.SmithForging

1. Materialisonlyupsettogetthe
desiredshape
B.DropForging
p
g g
2.Carriedoutmanuallyopendies
y p
C.PressForging
3. Done in closed impression dies by
hammers in blows
D.MachineForging 4. Done in closed impression dies by
continuous squeezing force
Code: A
(a) 2
(c) 2

B
3
1

C
4
4

D
1
3

(b)
(d)

A
4
4

B
3
1

C
2
2

D
1
3 191

High Velocity Forming (HVF)


HighVelocityForming(HVF)
y The process deforms metals by using very high velocities,

provided
id d on the
h movements off rams and
d dies.
di
y As K.E
K E V2, high energy is delivered to the metal with

relatively small weights (ram and die).


y Cost and size of machine low.
y Ram strokes short (due to high acceleration)
y Productivity high, overall production cost low
y Used for Alloy steel, titanium, Al, Mg, to fabricate one

piece complex components of smaller size like valve,


valve
rocket component.
192

IES2013

S
(I) In
I high
hi h velocity
l i forming
f
i
hi h
Statement
(I):
process, high
energy can be transferred to metal with relatively small
weight.
i ht
Statement (II): The kinetic energy is the function of
mass and velocity.
((a)) Both Statement ((I)) and Statement ((II)) are individuallyy
true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of
()
Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually
true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of
Statement (I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true
193

IFS2011

IAS2011Main

Writefouradvantagesofhighvelocityformingprocess.
[
[2marks]
k ]

Compare Smith forging, drop forging, press


forging and upset forging. Mention three points
for each.
[ Marks]
[10
M k ]

194

195

ForIESOnly

Flashless forging
y The work material is completely surrounded by the die

cavity during compression and no flash is formed.


formed
y Most important requirement in flashless forging is that
the work
ork volume
olume must equal the space in the die cavity
ca it to
a very close tolerance.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

196

L b i ti f F i
LubricationforForging

S 2008
IES
The balls of the ball bearings are manufactured
from steel rods. The operations involved are:
1 Ground
1.
2. Hot forged on hammers
3. Heat treated
4. Polished
4
What is the correct sequence of the above
operations from start?
(a) 3241
(b) 3214
( ) 2314
(c)
(d) 2341
Page 81 of 205

197

y Lubricants
friction,
wear, deforming
forces
L bi
t influence:
i fl
f i ti
d f
i
f

and flow of material in diecavities,, nonsticking,


g,
thermal barrier.
y For hot forging: graphite, MoS2 and sometimes molten

glass.
l
y For cold forging: mineral oil and soaps.
soaps
y In hot
ot forging,
o g g, tthee lubricant
ub ca t iss app
applied
ed to tthee d
dies,
es, but in

cold forging, it is applied to the workpiece.


Rev.1

198

F i D f t
ForgingDefects

F i D f t
ForgingDefects

Contd.

y Scale Pits: Irregular depressions on the surface due to

y Unfilled
Die
U fill d Sections:
S ti
Di cavity
it is
i nott

improper cleaning of the stock.


y Die Shift: Due to Misalignment of the two die halves or
making the two halves of the forging to be of improper
shape.
shape
y Flakes: Internal ruptures caused by the improper
cooling.
li
y Improper Grain Flow: This is caused by the improper
design of the die, which makes the flow of metal not
flowing the final intended directions.

completely
p
y filled,, due to improper
p p
design of die
y Cold Shut or fold: A small crack at

the
h corners off the
h forging.
f
Cause:
improper design of the die

199

S 1998
998
IAS
The forging defect due to hindrance to smooth flow
of metal in the component called 'Lap' occurs
because
(a) The corner radius provided is too large
(b) The
Th corner radius
di provided
id d is
i too
t small
ll
(c) Draft is not provided
(d) The shrinkage allowance is inadequate

F i D f t
ForgingDefects

Contd.

y Forging
Laps:
These
are folds
F
i
L
Th
f ld off metal
t l squeezed
d

together
g
during
g forging.
g g Theyy have irregular
g
contours
and occur at right angles to the direction of metal flow.
y Hot tears and thermal cracking: These are surface

cracks
k occurring due
d to nonuniform
f
cooling
l
f
from
the
h
forging stage or during heat treatment.
treatment

200

IES2011
Assertion (A) : Hot tears occur during forging
because of inclusions in the blank material
Reason (R) : Bonding between the inclusions
and the parent material is through physical
g
and chemical bonding.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
p
of A
correct explanation
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT
p
of A
the correct explanation
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

202

201

( )
GATE2008(PI)

Matchthefollowing

Group1
P. Wrinkling
Q.Centreburst
R.Barrelling
g
S.Coldshut

Group2
1.Upsetting
2.Deepdrawing
33.Extrusion
4.Closeddieforging

(a)P 2,Q 3,R 4,S1


(c)P 2,Q
(c)P
2 Q 3,R
3 R 1,S4
1 S 4

(b)P 3,Q 4,R 1,S2


(d)P 2,Q
(d)P
2 Q 4,R
4 R 3,S1
3 S 1

203

204

IES2013
Barrelling

IES 2007
Sometimes the parting plane between two forging
dies is not a horizontal plane, give the main reason
for this design aspect, why is parting plane
provided in closed die forging?
provided,
[
[2marks]
]

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

205

Inhomogeneousdeformationwithbarreling oftheworkpiece

Page 82 of 205

206

Consider the following statements pertaining to the


opendie forging of a cylindrical specimen between
two flat dies:
1. Lubricated specimens show more surface movement
than
h unlubricated
l bi
d ones.
2. Lubricated specimens show less surface movement
than unlubricated ones.
33. Lubricated specimens
p
show more barrelling
g than un
lubricated ones.
4. Lubricated specimens shows less barrelling than un
un
lubricated ones.
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 (b) 1 and 4 (c) 2 and 3 Rev.1(d) 2 and 4207

ForIESOnly

Di M t i l Sh ld h
DieMaterialsShouldhave

G
20 0 ( )
GATE2010(PI)

,
g
y
y Goodhardness,toughnessandductilityatlowand

Hot
solid
forging,
H t die
di steel,
t l used
d for
f large
l
lid dies
di in
i drop
d
f i

elevatedtemperatures

should necessarilyy have

y Adequatefatigueresistance

(a) high strength and high copper content

y Sufficienthardenability
y Lowthermalconductivity

(b) high hardness and low hardenability

y Amenabilitytoweldrepair

(c) high toughness and low thermal conductivity

y Goodmachinability

(d) high hardness and high thermal conductivity

Material:CrMoValloyedsteelandCrNiMoalloyed
steel.

208

209

210

ForIESOnly

IES2013
Statement (I): In power forging energy is provided by
compressed air or oil pressure or gravity.
Statement (II): The capacity of the hammer is given by
the total weight,
weight which the falling pans weigh.
weigh
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually
t
true
and
d Statement
St t
t (II) is
i the
th correctt explanation
l
ti
off
Statement (I)
(b) Both
h Statement (I)
( ) and
d Statement (II)
( ) are individually
d d ll
true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of
Statement (I)
()
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true
211

G
20
GATE2014
engineering
g
g strain ((E ) in a uniaxial tension test is
(a)E =ln(1+T )

(b)E =ln(1 T )

(c) T =ln(1+E )

(d)T =ln(1 E )

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

214

True stress ( T ) = (1 + )
L
True strain ( T ) = ln(1 + ) = ln
Lo

Ao
= ln
A

212

GATE1992,ISRO2012,VS2013

The
true
strain
Th relationship
l ti
hi between
b t
t
t i (
( T ) and
d

S
&
S i
TrueStress&TrueStrain

Thetruestrainforalowcarbonsteelbarwhichis
doubledinlengthbyforgingis
(a) 0.307
(b) 0.5
(c) 0.693
(d) 1.0

Page 83 of 205

215

do
= 2 ln d

213

G
200
GATE2007
In open
die forging, a disc of diameter 200 mm and
opendie
height 60 mm is compressed without any barreling
effect. The final diameter of the disc is 400 mm. The
true strain is
(a) 1.986
1 986
(b) 1.686
1 686
(c) 1.386
(d) 0.602

Rev.1

216

StrainHardening&FlowStress
y In the p
plastic region,
g , the material behaviour is expressed
p

by the flow curve:

= K

Where K is strength coefficient and n is strainhardening


(or workhardening) exponent and at UTS, = n

Strain rate effects


Strainrateeffects

A
AverageFlowStress
Fl
S

y Average
(mean)
stress
is
A
(
) flow
fl
t
i nott on the
th basis
b i off

instantaneous flow stress, but on an average value over


th stress
the
t
strain
t i curve from
f
th beginning
the
b i i off strain
t i to
t
the final (maximum) value that occurs during
d f
deformation.
ti

A erage flow
Average
flo stress ( o ) =

K nf

y Strainrateeffect(hotWorking)

o = C m

1 dh v
Platen Velocity
= =
h dt h Instantaneous height

1+ n

Here f is the maximum strain value during deformation.


217

218

219

ForIESOnly

GATE 2006
GATE2006

G
20 2 SameQGATE2012(PI)
GATE2012

g of a material is 400
4
The ultimate tensile strength
MPa and the elongation up to maximum load is
35%. If the material obeys
35
y p
power law of hardening,
g,
then the true stresstrue strain relation (stress in
plastic deformation range
g is:
MPa)) in the p
(a) = 540 0.30 (b) = 775 0.30
0 35 (d) = 775 0.35
0 35
( ) = 540 0.35
(c)

Asolidcylinderofdiameter100mmandheight50mm
A lid li d fdi
t
dh i ht

isforgedbetweentwofrictionlessflatdiestoaheightof
g
g
25mm.Thepercentagechangeindiameteris
(a)0

(b)2.07

(c)20.7

(d)41.4

220

221

ForIESOnly

Assumption

IESConventionalOnly

ForIESOnly

IES 2012
IES

y Forging force is maximum at the end of the forging.


y Coefficient of friction is constant between workpiece and

dies (platens).
(platens)
y Thickness of the workpiece is small compared with other

dimensions, and the variation of stress field along y


direction is negligible.
y Length is much more than width, problem is plain strain

type.

222

ForIESOnly

R t
l B F i
RectangularBarForging

Assumptions adopted in the analysis of open die forging


are
1 Forging force attains maximum value at the middle of
1.
the operation.
2. Coefficient
C ffi i t off friction
f i ti is
i constant
t t between
b t
work
k piece
i
and die
2. Stress in the vertical (Ydirection) is zero.
((a)) 1 and 2
((b)) 1 and 3
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

y The entire workpiece is in the plastic state during the

process.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

223

Page 84 of 205

224

Rev.1

225

ForIESOnly

ForIESOnly

IES 2007Conventional
2007 C
ti
l
IES

S 2005Conventional
200 C
i
l
IES
A strip
24 mm x 24
t i off lead
l d with
ith initial
i iti l dimensions
di
i
mm x 150
5 mm is forged
g between two flat dies to a
final size of 6 mm x 96 mm x 150 mm. If the
coefficient of friction is 0.25, determine the
maximum
i
f i force.
forging
f
Th average yield
The
i ld stress
t
off
lead in tension is 7 N/mm2

ForIESOnly

IES 2006
2006 Conventional
C
ti
l
IES

A cylinder of height 60 mm and diameter 100 mm is


forged at room temperature between two flat dies. Find
the die load at the end of compression to a height 30
mm, using slab method of analysis. The yield strength of
the work material is given as 120 N/mm2 and
the
coefficient of friction is 0.05. Assume that volume is
constant after deformation. There is no sticking. Also
find mean die pressure.
[20Marks]

A certain disc of lead of radius 150 mm and thickness 50


mm is reduced to a thickness of 25 mm by open die
forging. If the co
coefficient
efficient of friction between the job and
die is 0.25, determine the maximum forging force. The
average shear yield stress of lead can be taken as 4
N/mm2.
[10 Marks]

[10]
226

227

228

ForIESOnly

P ti P bl
1
PracticeProblem1

GATE2014(PI)

GATE1987
Inforgingoperationthestickingfrictioncondition
occursnearthe(Centre/ends)

p
g g, a circular disc is g
y
In an open
die forging,
gradually
compressed between two flat platens. The
exponential decay of normal stress on the flat face
of the disc, from the center of the disc towards its
periphery, indicates that
(a) there is no sticking friction anywhere on the flat face
of the disc
(b) sticking friction and sliding friction coexist on the
flat face of the disc
(c) the flat face of the disc is frictionless
(d) there is only sticking friction on the flat face of the
disc

229

y A strip of metal with initial dimensions 24 mm x 24 mm

x 150 mm is forged between two flat dies to a final size of


6 mm x 96 mm x 150 mm. If the coefficient of friction is
0.05, determine the maximum forging force. Take the
average yield strength in tension is 7 N/mm2

[Ans. 178.24 kN]

230

ForIESOnly

231

ForIESOnly

ForIESOnly

P ti P bl
2
PracticeProblem2

P ti P bl
3
PracticeProblem3

P ti P bl
4
PracticeProblem4

y A circular disc of 200 mm in diameter and 100 mm in

y A cylindrical specimen 150 mm in diameter and 100 mm

y A circular disc of 200 mm in diameter and 70 mm in

height is compressed between two flat dies to a height of

in height is upsetted by open die forging to a height of 50

height is forged to 40 mm in height. Coefficient of

50 mm. Coefficient of friction is 0.1 and average yield

mm. Coefficient of friction is 0.2 and flow curve

friction is 0.05. The flow curve equation of the material

strength in compression is 230 MPa. Determine the


maximum die pressure.
pressure

f = 1030

MPa . Calculate the maximum

f = 200(0.01 + ) 0.41 MPa


MP

. Determine maximum

forging load, mean die pressure and maximum pressure.

[Ans. 46.26 MN]

[ Ans. 9.771 MN, 178 MPa, 221 MPa]

the equation
232

is given by

forging force.

[Hint. First calculate true strain and put the value in

[Ans. 405 MPa]


For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

equation is

0.17

f = 1030

0.17

=y

Page 85 of 205

[Hint. First calculate true strain and put the value in


the equation

233

f = 200(0.01 + ) 0.41 = y

]
Rev.1

234

ForIESOnly

Practice Problem 5
{GATE2010
(PI)}
PracticeProblem
5{GATE
2010(PI)}

ForIESOnly

ForIESOnly
Contd.

IFS 2012
IFS2012

PracticeProblem5{GATE2010(PI)}

During open die forging process using two flat and parallel dies,

Discuss Tresca and Von Mises yield criterion for metal

a solid
lid circular
i l steel
t l disc
di off initial
i iti l radius
di (R IN ) 200 mm andd initial
i iti l
height (H IN ) 50 mm attains a height (H FN ) of 30 mm and radius of R FN .

iii.In the region 0 r R SS ,sticking condition prevails


The value of R SS (in mm), where sticking condition changes to sliding

Along the die-disc interfaces.

friction, is
(a) 241.76

R
IN

i. the coefficient of friction ( ) is: = 0.35 1 + e RFN

ii iin the
ii.
h region
i R ss r RFN ,sliding
lidi friction
f i i prevails,
il and
d

(b) 254.55

(c) 265.45

forming operations. Also derive tensile and shear yield


stress relationships for their approaches. Which of these
criterion is more realistic? Why ?

(d) 278.20

[ M k ]
[10Marks]

2
( RFN r )
H FN

p = 3Ke
K
and
d = p,
where p and are the normal and shear stresses, respectively;
K is the shear yield strength of steel and r is the radial distance
of any point

235
(contd ........)

Option

Q. No

Option

2
3

A
A

7
8

C
C

237

Extrusion&Drawing

WorkbookCh15:Forging
Q. No

236

E t i
Extrusion
q
g toothpaste
p
y The extrusion p
process is like squeezing
out of
a tube.

B SKM d l
BySKMondal
238

y Steels, stainless steels, and nickelbased alloys are


y Metal
through
M t l is
i compressed
d and
d forced
f
d to
t flow
fl
th
h a

difficult
diffi l to extrude.
d (high
(hi h yield
i ld strengths,
h welding
ldi with
ih

suitablyy shaped
p die to form a p
product with reduced but

wall).
a ). Use p
phosphatebased
osp ate based a
and
d molten
o te
glass
g
ass

constant cross section.

lubricants .

y Metal will undergo triaxial compression.


y Hot extrusion is commonly employed.
y Lead,
L d copper, aluminum,
l i
magnesium,
i
and
d alloys
ll
off these
h

metals
eta s aaree co
commonly
o y eextruded.
t uded.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

241

240

239

Page 86 of 205

242

S 2007
200
IES
g is the correct
Which one of the following
statement?
((a)) Extrusion is used for the manufacture of seamless
tubes.
((b)) Extrusion is used for reducing
g the diameter of round
bars and tubes by rotating dies which open and close
rapidly on the work?
(c) Extrusion is used to improve fatigue resistance of the
metal by setting up compressive stresses on its surface
(d) Extrusion comprises pressing the metal inside a
chamber to force it out by high pressure through an
orifice which is shaped to provide the desired from of the
finished part.
Rev.1
243

E t i R ti
ExtrusionRatio

Ad t
fE t i
AdvantagesofExtrusion

IES 2012
IES

y Ratio
R ti off the
th crosssectional
ti
l area off the
th billet
bill t to
t the
th cross

y Any
An crosssectional
cross sectional shape can be extruded
e truded from the

nonferrous metals.

sectional area of the product.


p

y Many shapes (than rolling)

y about 40: 1 for hot extrusion of steel

y No draft

y 400: 1 for aluminium

y Huge
H
reduction
d i in
i cross section.
i

Extrusion process can effectively reduce the cost of


product through
(a) Material saving
(b) process time saving
(c) Saving in tooling cost
((d)) saving
g in administrative cost

y Conversion from one product to another requires only a

single die change


y Good dimensional precision.
244

S 2009
IES
Which one of the following statements is correct?
(a) In extrusion process, thicker walls can be obtained
by increasing the forming pressure
(b) Extrusion is an ideal process for obtaining rods from
metal
t l having
h i poor density
d it
(c) As compared to roll forming, extruding speed is high
(d) Impact extrusion is quite similar to Hooker's process
g the flow of metal being
g in the same direction
including

245

Li it ti
fE t i
LimitationofExtrusion

A li ti
Application

y Cross
section
mustt be
for
C
ti
b uniform
if
f the
th entire
ti length
l
th off

y Working
off poorly
metals
W ki
l plastic
l ti and
d non ferrous
f
t l and
d

the product.
p

alloys.
y
y Manufacture

of

sections

and

of

complex

y Medium and small batch production.


y Manufacture
M
f
off parts off high
hi h dimensional
di
i
l accuracy.

248

249

G
99
GATE1994

Metal extrusion process is generally used for


producing
(a) Uniform solid sections
(b) Uniform hollow sections
(c) Uniform solid and hollow sections
((d)) Varying
y g solid and hollow sections.

Extrusion

The process of hot extrusion is used to produce


(a) Curtain rods made of aluminium
(b) Steel
St l pipes/or
i / domestic
d
ti water
t supply
l
(c) Stainless steel tubes used in furniture
(d) Large shape pipes used in city water mains

Hot

Direct

Cold

Indirect

Forward

Hydrostatic

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

pipes

configuration.

247

S 1994
99
IES

246

250

Page 87 of 205

251

Backward

C ld
Cold
Extrusion
Forging
g g

Rev.1

Impact
Extrusion

252

IAS 2012main
2012
i
IAS

S 1999
999
IES
Which one of the following is the correct
temperature range for hot extrusion of aluminium?
(a) 300340
300 340C
C (b) 350400
350 400C
C
(c) 430480C (d) 550650C

H tE t i P
HotExtrusionProcess

Classify
with
Cl if the
th process off extrusion
t i
ith the
th help
h l off
sketches.

y The
range for
is
Th temperature
t
t
f hot
h t extrusion
t i off aluminum
l i
i

43 4
430480C
y Used to produce curtain rods made of aluminum.
y Design of die is a problem.
y Either direct or indirect method used.

253

254

255

Di t E t i
DirectExtrusion

S 2009
IES

S 1993
993
IES

y A solid ram drives the entire billet to and through a

What is the major problem in hot extrusion?


(a) Design of punch
(b) Design of die
( ) Wear
(c)
W and
d tear
t
off die
di
(d) Wear
W off punch
h

stationary die and must provide additional power to


overcome the frictional resistance between the surface of the
moving billet and the confining chamber.

256

Assertion (A): Direct extrusion requires larger force


than indirect extrusion.
Reason (R): In indirect extrusion of cold steel,
steel zinc
phosphate coating is used.
( ) Both
(a)
B th A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true
t
and
d R is
i the
th
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

257

S 2000
IES

I di t E t i
IndirectExtrusion

g statements:
Consider the following
In forward extrusion process
1. The ram and the extruded p
product travel in the same
direction.
2. The ram and the extruded p
product travel in the opposite
pp
direction.
3. The speed of travel of the extruded product is same as that
off the
h ram.
4. The speed of travel of the extruded product is greater than
that of the ram.
ram
Which of these Statements are correct?
( ) 1 and
(a)
d3
(b) 2 and
d3
(c) 1 and 4 For-2015
(d) (IES,
2 andGATE
4
& PSUs)
259

y A hollow ram drives the die back through a stationary,

258

I di t E t i
IndirectExtrusion
Contd

confined billet.

y Required
is
(25
R
i d force
f
i lower
l
( to
t 30%
% less)
l )
y Low process waste.
waste

y Since no relative motion, friction between the billet and

th chamber
the
h b is
i eliminated.
li i t d
Page 88 of 205

260

Rev.1

261

IES 2012
IES

S 2007
200
IES

Which of the following are correct for an indirect hot


extrusion process?
1 Billet remains stationary
1.
2. There is no friction force between billet and container
walls.
ll
3. The force required on the punch is more in
comparison to direct extrusion.
4. Extrusion p
4
parts have to be p
provided a support.
pp
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4
(b) 1, 2 and 3 only
(c) 1,
1 2 and 4 only
(d) 2,
2 3 and 4 only

S 2004
200
IAS

Assertion (A): Greater force on the plunger is required


in case of direct extrusion than indirect one.
Reason (R): In case of direct extrusion, the direction of
the force applied on the plunger and the direction of
the movement of the extruded metal are the same.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct
explanation
p
of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation
p
of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

262

263

C ld E t i
ColdExtrusion

B k
d ld t i
Backwardcoldextrusion

y Used
U d with
ith lowstrength
l
t
th metals
t l such
h as lead,
l d tin,
ti zinc,
i

y The
the
Th metal
t l is
i extruded
t d d through
th
h the
th gap between
b t
th

and aluminum to p
produce collapsible
p
tubes for

264

I
tE t i
ImpactExtrusion

punch and die opposite


p
pp
to the p
punch movement.

toothpaste, medications, and other creams; small "cans"

y For softer materials such as aluminium and its alloys.

for shielding electronic components and larger cans for

y Used for making collapsible tubes, cans for liquids and

f d and
food
d beverages.
b

Assertion (A): Indirect extrusion operation can be


performed either by moving ram or by moving the
container.
Reason (R): Advantage in indirect extrusion is less
quantity of scrap compared to direct extrusion.
extrusion
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correctt explanation
l
ti off A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

similar articles.

y Now
Nowadays
a days also been used for forming mild steel parts.
parts
y The
h extruded
d d parts are stripped
d by
b the
h use off a stripper
265

S 2008,GATE1989(PI)
2008 G
989( )
IES
manufacture of collapsible
p
toothpaste
p
tubes?
(b)

Direct extrusion

(c) Deep drawing

(d)

Piercing

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

268

The extrusion process (s) used for the production of


toothpaste tube is/are
1 Tube extrusion
1.
2. Forward extrusion
3. Impact extrusion
Select the correct answer using
g the codes g
given below:
Codes:
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 3 only
Page 89 of 205

plate, because they tend to stick to the punch.

267

IES 2014
IES

S 2003
IES

Which
Whi h one off the
th following
f ll i methods
th d is
i used
d for
f the
th

(a) Impact extrusion

266

269

A toothpaste tube can be produced by


(a) Solid forward extrusion
(b) Solid
S lid backward
b k
d extrusion
t i
(c) Hollow backward extrusion
(d) Hollow forward extrusion

Rev.1

270

H k M th d
HookerMethod

IAS2010Main
How

are

metal

toothpaste

tubes

H k M th d
HookerMethod
/p
y The ram/punch
has a shoulder and acts as a mandrel.
y A flat blank of specified diameter and thickness is placed in a

made

commercially ? Draw the tools configuration with


y

the help of a neat sketch.


[30Marks]

y
y
y
271

H d t ti E t i
HydrostaticExtrusion

272

H d t ti E t i
HydrostaticExtrusion
Contd.

y Temperature is limited since the fluid acts as a heat sink

y High
Highpressure
pressure fluid applies the force to the workpiece

through a die.
is forward extrusion, but the fluid pressure

surrounding the billet prevents upsetting.


y Billetchamber
Bill
h b

fi i
friction

i
is

eliminated,
li i
d

and
d

the
h

pressurized
p
essu ed fluid
u d acts as a lubricant
ub ca t bet
between
ee tthee b
billet
et
and the die.

274

275

S 2000
IAS

pp
Application
y Claddingofmetals
y Makingwiresforlessductilematerials

277

Page 90 of 205

and the common fluids (light hydrocarbons and oils)


burn or decomposes at moderately low temperatures.
y The metal deformation is performed in a high
compression environment.
environment
Crack formation is
suppressed, leading to a phenomenon known as
pressure induced ductility.
pressureinduced
ductility
y Relatively brittle materials like cast iron, stainless steel,
molybdenum,
l bd
t
tungsten
t
and
d various
i
i t
intermetallic
t lli
compounds can be plastically deformed without
f t
fracture,
and
d materials
t i l with
ith limited
li it d ductility
d tilit become
b
highly plastic.
276

S 2006
IES

Assertion (A): Brittle materials such as grey cast


iron cannot be extruded by hydrostatic extrusion.
Reason(R): In hydrostatic extrusion,
extrusion billet is
uniformly compressed from all sides by the liquid.
( ) Both
(a)
B th A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true
t
and
d R is
i the
th
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

y Extrusionofnuclearreactorfuelrod

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

273

H d t ti E t i
HydrostaticExtrusion
Contd.

y Another
off cold
A th type
t
ld extrusion
t i process.

y It

suitable die and is forced through the opening of the die with
the punch
when the punch starts downward movement. Pressure is
exerted
d by
b the
h shoulder
h ld off the
h punch,
h the
h metall being
b i forced
f
d
to flow through the restricted annular space between the
punch and the opening in the bottom of the die.
die
In place of a flat solid blank, a hollow slug can also be used.
If the tube sticks to the punch on its upward stroke,
stroke a
stripper will strip it from the punch.
Small copper tubes and cartridge cases are extruded by this
method.

278

What does hydrostatic pressure in extrusion process


improve?
(a) Ductility
(b) Compressive strength
(c) Brittleness
(d) Tensile strength

Rev.1

279

( )
GATE1990(PI)
Semi brittle materials can be extruded by
(a) Impact extrusion
(b) Closed cavity extrusion
(c) Hydrostatic extrusion
(d) Backward
B k
d extrusion
i

280

S 2001
200
IES

L b i ti f E t i
LubricationforExtrusion

g statements are the salient


Which of the following
features of hydrostatic extrusion?
1. It is suitable for soft and ductile material.
2. It is suitable for highstrength superalloys.
p
3.The billet is inserted into the extrusion chamber and pressure
is applied by a ram to extrude the billet through the die.
4. The billet is inserted into the extrusion chamber where it is
surrounded
d d by
b a suitable
i bl liquid.
li id The
Th billet
bill is
i extruded
d d
through the die by applying pressure to the liquid.
Select the correct answer
ans er using the codes given
gi en below:
belo
Codes:
( ) 1 and
(a)
d3
(b) 1 and
d4
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 2 and 4
281

y For hot extrusion glass is an excellent lubricant with

steels, stainless steels and high temperature metals and


alloys.
y For cold extrusion, lubrication is critical, especially with
steels because of the possibility of sticking (seizure)
steels,
between the workpiece and the tooling if the lubrication
breaks down.
down Most effective lubricant is a phosphate
conversion coating on the workpiece.

282

ForIESOnly

IES 2014

IES2009Conventional

ProcessvariablesinExtrusion

Explain
below.
E l i the
th processes off extrusion
t i given
i
b l
Indicate one typical product made through each of these
processes:
(i) Direct Extrusion
(ii) Indirect Extrusion
(iii) Hydrostatic Extrusion

1. Experimental studies of flow


2 Temperature and Metallurgy: Variations in temperature
2.
during extrusion seem to influence flow behaviour in
number of ways. As indicated, flow patterns may be
changed considerably by rendering the temperature
distribution in the container. It is known that the extrusion
pressure may be lowered if either the temperature of the
billet or the velocity of the stem is increased, and that there
are certain limitations,
limitations because the material starts melting
or cracking if it is leaves the die with too high temperature.

(i ) Impact
(iv)
I
t Extrusion
E t i

StatementI: For high extrusion pressure, the initial


p
g
of billet should be high.
temperature
StatementII: As the speed of hot extrusion is
y lead to melting
g of alloy
y
increased, it may
constituents
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are
individually true and Statement (II) is the correct
explanation of Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are
individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct
explanation
l
i off Statement
S
(I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

283

285

ForIESOnly

Extrusion Defects
ExtrusionDefects
y Surface crack due to high temperature, high speed,

high friction etc.


etc
y Bamboo defects at low temperature due to sticking of
metals
l in
i die
di land.
l d
y Pipe defects or tail pipe or fishtailing, during
extrusion surface oxides and impurities are driven
towards the centre of the billet, like funnel called pipe.
y Centre Burst or Chevron defect are attributed to a
y
tensile stress at the centreline in the
state of hydrostatic
deformation zone in the die. Tendency increases with
g die angle
g and amount of impurities.
p
Tendencyy
increasing
decrease with increasing extrusion ratio and friction.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

286

IAS 2012main
2012
i
IAS

20 0
JWM2010
p
p
Assertion ((A)) : Extrusion speed
depends
on work
material.
Reason (R) : High extrusion speed causes cracks in
the material.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A
(b) Both
B h A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true but
b R is
i not the
h
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
((d)) A is false but R is true
Page 91 of 205

287

Enumeratetheconditionsunderwhichcentralburst
E
t th
diti
d hi h t lb t
mayoccur.Wheredoesa'pipe'occur?
y
pp

Rev.1

288

GATE2014

With respect to metal working, match Group A with Group B


GroupA
GroupB
P:Defectinextrusion
I:alligatoring
Q:Defectinrolling
II:scab
R:Productofskew
d
f k
f h l
III:fishtail
rolling
S:Productofrolling
IV:seamlesstube
throughclustermill
V:thinsheetwithtighttolerance
VI:semifinishedballsofballbearing
g
(a)
(c)

P
II
III

Q
III
I

R
VI
IV

S
V
VI

(b)
(d)

P
III
I

Q
I
II

R
VI
V

S
V
VI
289

Wi D
i
WireDrawing

Wi D
i
WireDrawing
Contd.

y A cold
process to
from
rods
ld working
ki
t obtain
bt i wires
i
f
d off

bigger
gg diameters through
g a die.
y Same process as bar drawing except that it involves

smallerdiameter material.
y At the start of wire drawing, the end of the rod or wire to

be drawn is pointed (by swaging etc.)


etc ) so that it freely
enters the die orifice and sticks out behind the die.
290

Wi D
i
WireDrawing
Contd.

291

S 2007
200
IES

y Wire
Wi getting
tti continuously
ti
l wound
d on the
th reel.
l
y For fine wire,
wire the material may be passed through a

number of dies, receiving successive reductions in

Which metal forming process


manufacture of long steel wire?
(a) Deep drawing
(b) Forging
(c) Drawing
(d) Extrusion

S 2009
IES
is

used

for

Which one of the following stress is involved in the


wire drawing process?
(a) Compressive
(b) Tensile
(c) Shear
(d) Hydrostatic stress

diameter, before being coiled.


y The wire is subjected to tension only. But when it is in

contact with dies then a combination of tensile,


tensile
compressive and shear stresses will be there in that
portion only.

292

293

S 2005
200
IES
Which of the following types of stresses is/are
involved in the wiredrawing operation?
(a) Tensile only
(b) Compressive only
(c) A combination of tensile and compressive stresses
((d)) A combination of tensile, compressive
p
and shear
stresses

CleaningandLubricationinwireDrawing

GATE1987

g
y
p
g
y Cleaningisdonetoremovescaleandrustbyacidpickling.

Forwiredrawingoperation,theworkmaterial
shouldessentiallybe
(a)Ductile

(b)Tough

( )
(c)Hard

( )
(d)Malleable

294

y Lubrication boxes precede the individual dies to help reduce

friction drag and prevent wear of the dies.


dies
y Sulling: The wire is coated with a thin coat of ferrous

hydroxide which when combined with lime acts as filler for


the lubricant.
lubricant
y Phosphating: A thin film of Mn, Fe or Zn phosphate is

applied on the wire.


y Electrolytic coating: For very thin wires,
wires electrolytic coating

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

295

Page 92 of 205

296

of copper is used to reduce friction.

Rev.1

297

IES 2010
IES2010

S 2000
IES

) Pickling
g and washing
g of rolled rods
Assertion ((A):
is carried out before wire drawing.
Reason (R): They lubricate the surface to reduce
friction while drawing wires.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A
(b) Both
B h A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true but
b R is
i NOT the
h
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
((d)) A is false but R is true

S 1995
99
IAS

Which one of the following lubricants is most


suitable for drawing mild steel wires?
(a) Sodium stearate
(b) Water
(c) Limewater
(d) Kerosene

298

The following operations are performed while


preparing the billets for extrusion process:
1 Alkaline cleaning
1.
2. Phosphate coating
3. Pickling
4. Lubricating
4
g with reactive soap.
p
The correct sequence of these operations is
(a) 3,
3 1,
1 4,
4 2
(b) 1,
1 3,
3 2,
2 4
(c) 1, 3. 4, 2
(d) 3, 1, 2, 4

299

300

ForIESOnly

IES 2014

S 1996
996
IES
In wire drawing process, the bright shining surface
on the wire is obtained if one
(a) does not use a lubricant
(b) uses solid powdery lubricant.
(c) uses thick paste lubricant
((d)) uses thin film lubricant

BundleDrawingg
In this process, many wires (as much as several
thousand) are drawn simultaneously as a bundle. To
preventt sticking,
ti ki
th wires
the
i
are separated
t d from
f
each
h
other byy a suitable material. The crosssection of the
wires is somewhat polygonal.

StatementI: In drawing process, crosssection of


round wire is reduced by pulling it through a die
StatementII: Bundle drawing produces wires that
are polygonal in crosssection rather than round
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are
i di id ll true
individually
t
and
d Statement
St t
t (II) is
i the
th correctt
explanation of Statement (I)
(b) Both
h Statement (I)
( ) and
d Statement (II)
( ) are
individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct
explanation
l
off Statement (I)
()
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

301

Wi D
i Di
WireDrawingDie

303

R d dT b D
i
RodandTubeDrawing
y Rod drawing is similar to wire drawing except for the fact

y Die
i materials:
i l tooll steels
l or tungsten carbides
bd
or
For-2015
(IES,
GATE
& PSUs)
polycrystalline
diamond
(for
fine wire)
304

that the dies are bigger because of the rod size being
larger than the wire.
y The tubes are also first pointed and then entered
through the die where the point is gripped in a similar
way as the bar drawing and pulled through in the form
desired along a straight line.
line
y When the final size is obtained, the tube may be
annealed
l d and
d straightened.
t i ht
d
y The practice of drawing tubes without the help of an
internal mandrel is called tube sinking.
Page 93 of 205

305

Back

Rev.1

306

R d dT b D
i
RodandTubeDrawing
Contd

S
i
k
di
Swagingorkneading

;
( ),
( )
IES1993;GATE1994(PI),2014(PI)

y The
its
Th hammering
h
i off a rod
d or tube
t b to
t reduce
d
it diameter
di
t

A moving mandrel is used in

TubeSinking

FixedPlugDrawing

where the die itself acts as the hammer.

(a) Wire drawing

(b) Tube drawing

(c) Metal Cutting

(d) Forging

y Repeated blows are delivered from various angles,

causing the metal to flow inward and assume the shape


off the
h die.
d
y It is cold working.
working The term swaging is also applied to

processes where material is forced into a confining die to


FloatingplugDrawing

MovingMandrel

307

308

S
i
k
di Contd
Swagingorkneading

S 1993
993
IES

310

311

S 1999
999
IES

p
Match List I (C
(Components
of a table fan)) with List II
(Manufacturing processes) and select the correct
answer using the codes given below the Lists:
List I
List II
A. Base with stand
1.
Stamping
p g and
pressing
g
B. Blade
2.
Wire drawing
C. Armature coil wire
3.
Turning
D Armature shaft
D.
4
4.
Casting
Codes:A B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 4
3
2
1
(b) 2
1
4
3
(c) 2
3
4
1
(d) 4
1
2
3312

S 1996
996
IES

Match ListI with ListII and select the correct


answer using the codes given below the Lists:
ListI
ListII
A. Drawing
1.
Soap solution
B Rolling
B.
2
2.
Camber
C. Wire drawing
3.
Pilots
D Sheet metal operations using 4.
D.
4
Crater
progressive dies
5.
Ironing
C d A B
Code:A
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 2
5
1
4
(b) 4
1
5
3
(c) 5
2
3
4
(d) 5
2
1
3
313

S 1994
99
IES

Match List I with List II and select the correct answer


List I (Metal/forming process) List II (Associated force)

A. Wire drawing
A
B. Extrusion
C. Blanking
D. Bending
g
Codes:A B
C
(a) 4
2
1
(c) 2
3
1

11.
2.
3.
4.
4
D
3
4

(b)
(d)

Shear force
Tensile force
Compressive force
Spring
p g back force
A
B
C
D
2
1
3
4
4
3
2
1

Page 94 of 205

309

S 2000
IES

Tandem drawing of wires and tubes is necessary


because
(a) It is not possible to reduce at one stage
(b) Annealing is needed between stages
(c) Accuracy in dimensions is not possible otherwise
((d)) Surface finish improves
p
after everyy drawing
g stage
g

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

reduce its diameter.

314

MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswer
usingthecodesgivenbelowtheLists:
ListI(Metalfarmingprocess)ListII(Asimilarprocess)

A.
B
B.
C.
D.

Blanking
Coining
C
i i
Extrusion
Cupdrawing

Codes:A
( ) 2
(a)
(c) 3

B
3
2

C
4
1

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
D
1
5

(b)
(d)

Wiredrawing
Pi i
Piercing
Embossing
Rolling
Bending
A
B
C
2
3
1
2 Rev.1
3
1

D
4
5315

S 1993,ISRO2010
993 S O 20 0
IES

S 2002
IES

Match List I with List II and select the correct


answer using the codes given below the lists:
property)
p y) List II ((Related to))
List I ((Mechanical p
A. Malleability
1.
Wire drawing
B Hardness
B.
2
2.
Impact loads
C. Resilience
3.
Cold rolling
D Isotropy
D.
4
4.
Indentation
5.
Direction
C d A B
Codes:A
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 4
2
1
3
(b) 3
4
2
5
(c) 5
4
2
3
(d) 3
2
1
5

S 2001
200
IAS

Match List I with List II and select the correct


answer:
List I (Parts)

List II (Manufacturing processes)

A. Seamless tubes
1. Roll forming
B Accurate
B.
A
and
d smooth
h tubes
b
2.
Sh peening
Shot
i
C. Surfaces having higher
3.
Forging
hardness and fatigue strength4.
Cold forming
Codes:
A
B
C
A
B
C
(a) 1
4
2
(b) 2
3
1
( ) 1
(c)
3
2
(d) 2
4
1

316

IES 2011
IES2011

S 2002
IAS
) In wiredrawing
g process,
p
, the rod
Assertion ((A):
crosssection is reduced gradually by drawing it
several times in successively reduced diameter dies.
Reason (R): Since each drawing reduces ductility of
the wire, so after final drawing the wire is
normalized.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
319

MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswerusing
thecodegivenbelowthelists:

ListI

ListII

Seamless long steel tubes are manufactured by rolling,


drawing and

322

SeamlesstubeManufacturingg
1.Rolling

A.Connectingrods

1.Welding

2Extrusion

B.Pressurevessels

2.Extrusion

3.TubeDrawing

C Machinetoolbeds
C.Machinetoolbeds

3 Forming
3.Forming

4.Spinning
S i i

D.Collapsibletubes
p

4.Casting
g

Codes
C
d
A
( ) 2
(a)
(c)
2

B
1
4

C
4
1

D
3
3

(b)
(d)

A
3
3

B
1
4

C
4
1

D
2
2320

IAS 1994
IAS1994

( )
GATE1991(PI)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

317

Match List I (Products) with List II (Suitable


processes) and select the correct answer using the
codes given below the Lists:
List I
List II
A Connecting
A.
C
ti rods
d
1.
W ldi
Welding
B. Pressure vessels
2.
Extrusion
C. Machine tool beds
3.
Forging
D. Collapsible tubes
4.
Casting
Codes:A B
C
D
A
B
C
D
( ) 3
(a)
1
4
2
(b) 4
1
3
2
(c) 3
2
4
1
(d) 4
2
3
1 318

g methods can be used for


Which of the following
manufacturing 2 metre long seamless metallic
tubes?
1. Drawing
2. Extrusion
3 Rolling
3.
4 Spinning
4.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below
Codes:
((a)) 1 and 3
((b)) 2 and 3
(c) 1, 3 and 4
(d) 2, 3 and 4
Page 95 of 205

323

IES2012Conventional
Howaretheseamlesstubesproduced?

Rev.1

324

ExtrusionLoad
y Approximate

method (Uniform
friction) work formula

A
P = Ao o ln o

Af

d
d2
= 2 o o ln o
4

df

deformation,

no

y Approximate

method (Uniform
friction) work formula

d o2
o ln ( R )
=
4

y For real conditions

A
P = KAo ln o
A
f

F
i d i Wi
T b d
i
ForcerequiredinWireorTubedrawing

ExtrusionStress
E =

A
P
= o ln o

A0
Af

deformation,

d
= 2 o ln o

df

no

= o ln ( R )

y For real conditions

d
d o2
=

K ln o
2

d
4

E =

K = extrusion constant.

A
P
= K ln o
A
A0
f

d
= 2 K ln o

df

y Approximate

method (Uniform
friction) work formula

A
P = Af o ln o
A
f
Drawing
g Stress

d =

deformation,

d
d 2f
=
2

o ln o

d
4

A
P
= o ln o
A
Af
f

d
= 2 o ln o

df

no

K = extrusion constant.
325

326

G
2003
GATE2003

327

G
2006
GATE2006

GATE 2009(PI)

A brass
billet
its
b
bill t is
i to
t be
b extruded
t d d from
f
it initial
i iti l

Using
U i direct
di t extrusion
t
i process, a round
d billet
bill t off 100

In
diameter
I a wire
i drawing
d
i operation,
ti
di
t off a steel
t l wire
i

diameter of 100 mm to a final diameter of 550 mm.

mm length
g
and 550 mm diameter is extruded.

is reduced from 10 mm to 8 mm. The mean flow

The working temperature of

700C and the

Considering an ideal deformation process (no

stress of the material is 400 MPa. The ideal force

extrusion constant is 250 MPa. The force required

friction and no redundant work), extrusion ratio 4,

required

f extrusion
for
t
i is
i

and
d average flow
fl
stress
t
off material
t i l 300 MPa,
MP the
th

redundant
d d t work)
k) is
i
(a) 4.48
4 48 kN

(b)

8 97 kN
8.97

(c) 20.11 kN

(d)

31.41 kN

(a) 5.44
5 44 MN

(b)

2 72 MN
2.72

pressure ((in MPa)) on the ram will be


p

(c) 1.36 MN

(d)

0.36 MN

(a) 416

(b) 624

(c) 700

(d) 832

328

GATE 2008
(PI) Linked S2
GATE
2008(PI)LinkedS
2

A 10 mm diameter annealed steel wire is drawn

A 10 mm diameter annealed steel wire is drawn

through a die at a speed of 0.5 m/s to reduce the

through a die at a speed of 0.5 m/s to reduce the

diameter by 20%. The yield stress of the material is

diameter by 20%. The yield stress of the material is

800 MPa.
MPa

800 MPa.
MPa

g
g friction and strain hardening,
g, the stress
Neglecting

power required
q
for the drawing
gp
process ((in kW))
The p

required for drawing (in MPa) is

is

(a) 178.5 (b) 357.0

(a) 8.97

(d) 2575.0

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

331

drawing

(ignoring

friction

329

GATE 2008
(PI) Linked S1
GATE
2008(PI)LinkedS
1

(c) 1287.5

for

and

330

G
200 G
200 ( )
GATE2001,GATE2007(PI)
For
F rigid
i id perfectlyplastic
f tl l ti work
k material,
t i l negligible
li ibl
interface friction and no redundant work,, the
theoretically maximum possible reduction in the
wire drawing operation is

(b) 14.0

(c) 17.95

(d) 28.0

Page 96 of 205

332

( ) 0.36
(a)

(b)

0.63

(c) 1.00
1 00

(d)

2 72
2.72

Rev.1

333

IES 2014
IES

Wire Drawing
WireDrawing

G
996
GATE1996

In wire
drawing
operation, the maximum
wiredrawing
reduction per pass for perfectly plastic material in
ideal condition is
(a) 68 %
(b) 63 %
( ) 58
(c)
8%
(d) 50%
%

A wire of 0.1 mm diameter is drawn from a rod of 15


mm diameter. Dies giving reductions of 20%, 40%
and 80% are available. For minimum error in the
final size, the number of stages and reduction at
each stage respectively would be
(a) 3 stages and 80% reduction for all three stages
(b) 4 stages
t
and
d 80%
8 % reduction
d ti
f first
for
fi t three
th
stages
t
followed by a finishing stage of 20% reduction
(c) 5 stages and reduction of 80%, 80%.40%, 40%, 20%
in a sequence
(d) none of the above

334

MaximumReductionperpass
o =

o (1 + B )
B

2B

2B

Without back stress, b

o =

o (1 + B )
B

2B
rf
1
ro
337

GATE 2011(PI)CommonDataS2
GATE
2011 (PI) Common Data S2
In a multipass drawing operation, a round bar of 10 mm
diameter and 100 mm length is reduced in crosssection
by drawing it successively through a series of seven dies
of decreasing exit diameter. During each of these
drawing operations, the reduction in crosssectional area
is 35%. The yield strength of the material is 200 MPa.
Ignore strain hardening.
Neglectingfrictionandredundantwork,theforce(in
) q
g
g
,
kN)requiredfordrawingthebarthroughthefirstdie,is
(a)15.71
(b)10.21
(c)6 77
(c)6.77
(d)4 39
(d)4.39
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

340

f
336

GATE 2011(PI)CommonDataS1
GATE
2011 (PI) Common Data S1

A 12.5
12 5 mm diameter rod is to be reduced to 10 mm
diameter by drawing in a single pass at a speed of 100
/
Assuming
g a semi die angle
g of 5o and coefficient
m/min.
of friction between the die and steel rod as 0.15,
calculate:
(i) The power required in drawing
((ii)) Maximum p
possible reduction in diameter of the rod
(iii) If the rod is subjected to a back pressure of 50
2 , what would be the draw stress and maximum
/
N/mm
possible reduction ?
2.
400 N/mm
/
Take stress of the work material as 4
[15Marks]

r r
1 f + f . b
ro ro

2B
2B
rf rf
1 + . b
ro ro

335

IES 2011Conventional

With back stress, b

d =

o (1 + B )

In a multipass drawing operation, a round bar of 10 mm


diameter and 100 mm length is reduced in crosssection
by drawing it successively through a series of seven dies
of decreasing exit diameter. During each of these
drawing operations, the reduction in crosssectional area
is 35%. The yield strength of the material is 200 MPa.
Ignore strain hardening.
The total true strain applied and the final length (in
), respectively,
p
y, are
mm),
(a) 2.45 and 8 17
(b) 2.45 and 345
(c) 3.02
3 02 and 2043
(d) 3.02
3 02 and 3330

338

G
20
GATE
2014
A metal
t l rod
d off initial
i iti l length
l
th

339

S 1997
99
IAS

is
i subjected
bj t d to
t a

drawing
g p
process. The length
g
of the rod at any
y
instant is given by the expression, L(t) = Lo(1 + t2)
where t is the time in minutes. The true strain rate

Extrusion force DOES NOT depend upon the


(a) Extrusion ratio
(b) Type
T
off extrusion
t i process
(c) Material of the die
(d) Working temperature

att the
th end
d off one minute
i t is
i ..

Page 97 of 205

341

Rev.1

342

Wire Drawing Analysis (Home Work)


WireDrawingAnalysis(HomeWork)

S 2012
20 2
IES
Write the process variables in wire drawing.
Ans.
1. Reduction
R d ti in
i cross sectional
ti
l area
2. Die angle
3. Friction

( x + d x ) ( r + dr )

d x 2 o 2 ( o x )
+
+
cot = 0
dr
r
r
Let cot = B

or B x (1 + B ) o = ( rC )

Thefore, two principal stresses are x and Px


Both Tresca
Tresca'ss and Von-Mises
Von Mises criteria will give
x + Px = o

344

IFS 2013
IFS2013

or x =

Integrating both side

r
1
ro

Drawing stress ( d ) =

2B

r 2 B
+ . b
ro

o (1 + B )

Hint: Drawing Stress

r r
1 f + f . b
ro ro

2B

346

2B

347

at r = ro

Extrusion Analysis (Home Work)


ExtrusionAnalysis(HomeWork)
For a round bar both wire drawing and extrusion will give
same equation except B.C

B x (1 + B ) o = ( rC
C)
B.C s at r = rf , x = 0

xo =

o (1 + B )
B

2B

Extrusion ratio, R =

(at exit stress is zero)

(1 + B ) o 2 B
C =
rf
or x =

r
1 o
rf

2B

1 r
B For-2015
rf GATE
(IES,

& PSUs)

xo =

o (1 + B )

349

o (1 + B )
B

345

An aluminium rod, 6.25 mm diameter, is drawn into


a wire
5.60
Neglecting
friction
i
6 mm diameter.
di
N l i
f i i
between the rod and the dies, determine the
d
drawing
i
stress and
d the
h reduction
d i
i area when
in
h
the
h
yield stress for aluminium is 35 N/mm2. Also
calculate
l l
the
h tangential
i l stress at the
h exit.
i [8Marks]
[8 M k ]

B b (1 + B ) o 2 B
C =
ro

o (1 + B )

and x = Px = ( o x )

2B

B.C s at r = ro , x = b

d x 2
= B x (1 + B ) o
dr
r
d x
2
or
= dr
B x (1 + B ) o r
1
ln B x (1 + B ) o = 2 ln ( rC )
B
{Cis integration cont.}

dx

x r 2 + x cos 2 r

cos

dx

+ Px sin 2 r
=0
cos

Dividing by r 2 dr and taking dx/dr = cot we get


d x 2
2
+ ( x + Px ) + x cot = 0
d
dr
r
r
Vertical component
p
of Px Px due to small half die
angles and that of x can be neglected.

Th equilibrium
The
ilib i equation
ti iin x-direction
di ti will
ill bbe
2

or x 2rdr + d x r 2 + 2r x dx + Px 2rdx tan = 0

2B

h
= o
h
f

A
P
= o ln o
A
Af
f

x = Px = ( o x )
at Exit = P = ( o d ) = 0

348

If effect of container friction is considered


p f = ram pressure required by container friction

Ao ro
=
Af rf

r
= 2 o ln o

rf
For Tangential Stress i.e. Shear Stress

d =

i = uniform interface shear stress between


2

billet and container wall

for round bar

p f . r0 2 = 2 r0 i L or p f =

for flat stock

2 i L
ro

Total Extrusion Pressure(Pt ) = xo + p f


and Extrusion Load = pt . r0 2

1 R 2 B
Page 98 of 205

350

Rev.1

351

WorkbookCh17:Extrusion
Q. No

Option

Q. No

Option

2
3

C
D

9
10

B
A

11

12

6
7

C
B

13

WorkbookCh16:Drawing
Q. No

Option

2
3
4

C
C
B

5
6

C
D

SheetMetalOperation
p

BySKMondal
352

353

354

Piercing(Punching)andBlanking

Pi i (P hi ) d Bl ki
Piercing(Punching)andBlanking

SheetMetal
y Product has light weight and

versatile shape as

compared to forging/casting
y Most commonly used

low carbon steel sheet (cost,

g formability)
y
strength,

y In blanking, the piece being punched out becomes

the workpiece and any major burrs or undesirable


features should be left on the remaining strip.

y Aluminium and titanium for aircraft and aerospace


y Sheet metal has become a significant material for,
for

y In piercing (Punching), the punchout is the scrap

automotive bodies and frames,

and the remaining strip is the workpiece.


workpiece

office furniture

y Piercing
Pi i and
d blanking
bl ki are shearing
h i operations.
ti

frames for home appliances

y Both
ot do
donee o
on so
somee form
o o
of mechanical
ec a ca p
press.
ess.
355

356

357

Clearance(VIMP)
(
)
y Die opening must be larger than punch and known as

clearance.
y Punching

Punch = size of hole


Die = punch size +2 clearance
y

Remember: In punching punch is correct size.


size

y Blanking

Die = size of product


Punch = Die size 22 clearance
y

Remember: In blanking die size will be correct.

Punching

y Note: In punching clearance is provided on Die

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

358

In Blanking clearance
on punch
Page 99 is
of provided
205

359

Blanking
Rev.1

360

ClearanceContd.
y The

clearance

is

determined

with

following

equation

E
l
Example

Clearancein%
y If the allowance for the material is a = 0.075 given then

C = 0.0032
0 0032t

C = 0.075 x thickness of the sheet

y Where is the shear strength of the material in


2(MPa)
N/
N/mm
(MP )

Determine the die and punch sizes for blanking a circular


disc of 20mm diameter from a sheet whose thickness is 1.5
mm.
Shear strength of sheet material = 294 MPa

y If clearance is 1% given then


Also determine the die and punch sizes for punching a
circular hole of 20mm diameter from a sheet whose
thickness is 1.5
1 5 mm.
mm

C = 0.01 x thickness of the sheet

y Total
T l clearance
l
b
between
punch
h and
d die
di size
i will
ill be
b

ttwice
ce tthese
ese C
C i.e.
.e. 2C
C
361

G
2003
GATE2003
A metal
t l disc
di off 20 mm diameter
di
t is
i to
t be
b punched
h d
from a sheet of 2 mm thickness. The p
punch and the
die clearance is 3%. The required punch diameter is
(a) 19.88 mm (b)

19.94 mm

(c) 20.06 mm (d)

20.12 mm

362

363

P hi F
d Bl ki F
PunchingForceandBlankingForce

CapacityofPressforPunchingandBlanking

Fm ax = Lt
dt
3

364

E
l
Example
Estimate
to
E ti t the
th blanking
bl ki force
f
t cutt a blank
bl k 25 mm wide
id
and 330 mm long
g from a 1.55 mm thick metal strip,
p, if the
ultimate shear strength of the material is 450 N/mm2.
Also determine the work done if the percentage
penetration
t ti is
i 25 percentt off material
t i l thickness.
thi k

367

Fmax C

[WhereCisaconstantandequalto1.1to1.75depending
upontheprofile]

Thepunchingforceforholeswhicharesmallerthanthestock
thicknessmaybeestimatedasfollows:

Fmax =

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

P
Presscapacitywillbe=

it illb

d
t

365

GATE2014

IAS2011Main

A rectangular hole of size 100 mm 50 mm is to be


made
d on a 5 mm thick
thi k sheet
h t off steel
t l having
h i
ultimate tensile strength and shear strength of 500
MP and
MPa
d 300 MPa,
MP respectively.
ti l The
Th hole
h l is
i made
d
by punching process. Neglecting the effect of
clearance the punching force (in kN) is
clearance,
(a) 300
(b) 450
(c) 600
(d) 750
Page 100 of 205

366

368

For punching a 10 mm circular hole, and cutting a


rectangular
t
l blank
bl k off 50 x 200 mm from
f
a sheet
h t off 1
mm thickness (mild steel, shear stress = 240
2),
N/
N/mm
) Calculate,
C l l t in
i each
h case :
(i) Size of punch
(ii) Size of die
((iii)) Force required.
q
[[10Marks]]

Rev.1

369

Mi i
Di
t
f Pi i
MinimumDiameterofPiercing

IES 2014
IES

S 1999
999
IES
A hole
h l is
i to
t be
b punched
h d in
i a 15 mm thick
thi k plate
l t
having
g ultimate shear strength
g of 33Nmm2. If the

s d.t
dt
Piercingpressure,=Strengthofpunch,
Pi
i

St
th f
h c 4 d2

allowable crushing stress in the punch is 6 Nmm2,


the diameter of the smallest hole which can be
punched
h d is
i equall to
t
(a) 15 mm

(b)

30 mm

(c) 60 mm

(d)

120 mm

370

A hole of diameter 35 mm is to be punched in a


sheet metal of thickness t and ultimate shear
strength 400 MPa, using punching force of 44 kN.
The maximum value of t is
(a) 0.5
0 5 mm
(b) 10 mm
(c) 1 mm
((d)) 2 mm

371

IES 2013
IES2013

S O 2008 20
ISRO2008,2011

372

EnergyandPowerforPunchingandBlanking

With a punch
which
crushing
h for
f
hi h the
th maximum
i
hi

A hole of diameter d is to be punched in a plate of

stress is 4 times the maximum shearing


g stress of the

thickness t. For the plate material, the maximum

plate, the biggest hole that can be punched in the

crushing stress is 4 times the maximum allowable

plate would be of diameter equal to


1
( ) Thi
(a)
Thickness
k
off plate
l t
4
1
(b) Thickness of plate
2
(c) Plate thickness
(d) 2 Plate thickness

shearing stress. For punching the biggest hole, the

Ideal Energy (E in J) = maximum force x punch travel = Fmax ( p t )


(Unit:Fmax in kN and t in mm othrwise use Fmax in N and t in m)
Where p is percentage penetration required for rupture

EN
60
[Where N = actual number of stroke per minute]
Ideal power in press ( P inW ) =

ratio of diameter of hole to plate thickness should

Actual Energy ( E in J ) = Fmax ( p t ) C

be equal to:

Where C is a constant and equal to 1.1 to 1.75 depending upon the profile

(a)

1
4

(c) 1

EN
60
Wh E iis actuall energy and
WhereE
d iis efficiency
ffi i
off the
h press

Actual power in press ( P inW ) =

(b) 2
(d) 2

373

374

Sh
P h
ShearonPunch

375

ForcerequiredwithshearonPunch
d
h h
h

y To
shearing
shear
is
off
T reduce
d
h i force,
f
h
i ground
d on the
th face
f

F=

the die or punch.


p
y It distribute the cutting
g action over a p
period of time.

Fmax pt
S

Wherep=penetrationofpunchasafraction
S=shearonthepunchordie,mm

y Shear only reduces the maximum force to be applied but

total work done remains same.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

376

Page 101 of 205

377

Rev.1

378

E
l
Example

Example
y A hole, 100 mm diameter, is to be punched in steel plate

5.6
6 mm thick.
thi k The
Th ultimate
lti t shear
h
stress
t
i 550 N/
is
N/mm2 .
With normal clearance on the tools,, cutting
g is complete
p
at 40 per cent penetration of the punch. Give suitable
shear angle for the punch to bring the work within the
capacity
it off a 30T
T press.

G
20 0 S
i k d
GATE2010StatementLinked1

A washer with a 12.7 mm internal hole and an outside


diameter of 25.4 mm is to be made from 1.5 mm thick
strip.
p The ultimate shearing
g strength
g of the material of
the washer is 280 N/mm2.
((a)) Find the total cutting
g force if both p
punches act at
the same time and no shear is applied to either punch
or the die.
(b) What will be the cutting force if the punches are
staggered, so that only one punch acts at a time.
(c) Taking 60% penetration and shear on punch of 1
mm, what will be the cutting
g force if both p
punches act
together.

379

380

Fi Bl ki
FineBlanking

G
20 0 S
i k d2
GATE2010StatementLinked2
Q
Statement for Linked Answer Questions:
In a shear cutting operation, a sheet of 5mm thickness
is cut along a length of 200 mm. The cutting blade is 400
mm long and zeroshear
zero shear (S = 0) is provided on the edge.
edge
The ultimate shear strength of the sheet is 100 MPa and
penetration to thickness ratio is 0.2. Neglect friction.

Statement for Linked Answer Questions:


In a shear cutting operation, a sheet of 5 mm thickness
is cut along a length of 200 mm. The cutting blade is 400
mm long and zeroshear (S = 0) is provided on the edge.
The ultimate shear strength
g of the sheet is 100 MPa and
penetration to thickness ratio is 0.2. Neglect friction.
400

Assuming force vs displacement curve to be rectangular,


the work done (in J) is
(a) 100 (b) 200 (c)
250 (d) 300
381

y Slitting moving rollers trace out complex paths during

Fine Blanking dies are designed that have small


clearances and pressure pads that hold the material
while it is sheared. The final result is blanks that have
extremely close tolerances.

cutting (like a can opener).


y Perforating: Multiple holes which are very small and

close together
g
are cut in flat work material.

400

y Notching: Metal pieces are cut from the edge of a sheet,

strip or blank.
S

A shear of 20 mm (S = 20 mm) is now provided on the


blade. Assuming force vs displacement curve to be
trapezoidal, the maximum force (in kN) exerted is
382
(a) 5
(b) 10
(c)
20
(d) 40

383

y Trimming Cutting unwanted excess material from the

periphery of a previously formed component.


component

384

y Lancing A hole is partially cut and then one side is bent

down to form a sort of tab or louver.


louver No metal removal,
removal no

y Shaving
g Accurate dimensions of the p
part are obtained byy

scrap.

removing a thin strip of metal along the edges.

y Sq
Squeezing
g Metal is caused to flow to all p
portions of a die

cavity under the action of compressive forces.


For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

385

Page 102 of 205

386

Rev.1

387

y Steel
St l Rules
R l soft
ft materials
t i l are cutt with
ith a steel
t l strip
ti

shaped
p so that the edge
g is the p
pattern to be cut.
y Nibbling a single punch is moved up and down rapidly,

Di ki
Dinking

El ti
i b k
Elasticrecoveryorspringback

strength materials, such as


y Used to blank shapes from low
lowstrength

y Total
= elastic
+ plastic
T t l deformation
d f
ti
l ti deformation
d f
ti
l ti

rubber, fiber, or cloth.


y The shank of a die is either struck with a hammer or mallet or
the entire die is driven downward by some form of
mechanical press.
p

each time cutting off a small amount of material. This

deformation.

y At the end of a metal working operation, when the

allows
ll
a simple
l die
d to cut complex
l slots.
l

pressure is released, there is an elastic recovery and the


total deformation will get reduced a little.
little This
phenomenon is called as "spring back".
388

El ti
i b k Contd..
Elasticrecoveryorspringback
y More important in cold working.
working

y It depends on the yield strength. Higher the yield

strength, greater spring back.

389

390

S 2003
IAS

S 0 2013
20 3
ISR0

The 'spring
spring back
back' effect in press working is
(a) Elastic recovery of the sheet metal after removal of
the load
(b) Regaining the original shape of the sheet metal
(c) Release of stored energy in the sheet metal
((d)) Partial recoveryy of the sheet metal

Spring
S i back
b k in
i metal
t l forming
f
i depends
d
d on
(a) Modulus of Elasticity
(b) Load Applied
pp
(c) Strain Rate
(d) None of these

y To compensate this,
this the cold deformation be carried

beyond the desired limit by an amount equal to the


spring back.
391

P hi P
PunchingPress

PunchandDiematerial
y

Commonlyused toolsteel

Forhighproduction carbides

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

392

394

Page 103 of 205

393

B lt
l t
Bolsterplate

395

Rev.1

396

B lt
l t
Bolsterplate
Contd....

P h l t
Punchplate

y When
Wh many dies
di are to
t run in
i the
th same press att different
diff
t

times,, the wear occurring


g on the p
press bed is high.
g The
bolster plate is incorporated to take this wear.

St i
Stripper

y Used
U d to
t locate
l t and
d hold
h ld the
th

punch in p
p
position.
y This is a useful way of

y Relatively cheap and easy to replace.

mounting,

y Attached to the press bed and the die shoe is then

small
ll punches.
h

especially

for

attached to it.
it

397

St i
Stripper
Contd....
pp removes the stock from the p
y The stripper
punch after a
piercing or blanking operation.

398

K k t
Knockout

Pit
Pitman

y Knockout is a mechanism, usually connected to and

y It is
i a connecting
ti rod
d which
hi h is
i used
d to
t transmit
t
it motion
ti

operated by the press ram, for freeing a work piece from


a die.

Ps = KLt

399

from the main drive shaft to the p


press slide.

Where Ps =strippingforce,kN
L i t f t
L=perimeterofcut,mm

t=stockthickness,mm
K=strippingconstant,
K
strippingconstant
=0.0103forlow carbonsteelsthinnerthan1.5mmwith
thecutattheedgeornearaprecedingcut
=0.0145forsamematerialsbutforothercuts
=0.0207forlow
7
carbonsteelsabove1.5mmthickness
5
=0.0241forhardermaterials
400

D
l i
Dowelpin

401

402

GATE2011
The shear strength of a sheet metal is 300 MPa.
MPa The
blanking force required to produce a blank of 100
mm diameter from a 1.5
1 5 mm thick sheet is close to
(a) 45 kN
(b) 70 kN
(c) 141
4 kN
(d) 3500 kN

( )
GATE 2009(PI)
A disk of 200 mm diameter is blanked from a strip
of an aluminum alloy of thickness 3.2 mm. The
material shear strength to fracture is 150 MPa. The
blanking force (in kN) is
((a)) 291
9

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

403

Page 104 of 205

404

((b)) 3301

((c)) 3311

((d)) 3321

Rev.1

405

GATE 2013 (PI)


GATE2013(PI)

S O 2009
ISRO2009

Circular blanks of 10 mm diameter are punched


from an aluminium sheet of 2 mm thickness. The
shear strength of aluminium is 80 Mpa. The

G
200
GATE2007

The force required to punch a 25 mm hole in a


mild
ild steel
t l plate
l t 10 mm thick,
thi k when
h ultimate
lti t shear
h

minimum
i i
punching
hi force
f
required
i d in
i kN is
i

stress of the plate is 500 N/mm2 will be nearly

(a) 2.57
2 57

(a) 78 kN (b) 393 kN (c) 98 kN (d) 158 kN

(b) 3.29

The force requirement in a blanking operation of


low carbon steel sheet is 5.0 kN. The thickness of
the sheet is t
t and diameter of the blanked part is
d. For the same work material, if the diameter of
the blanked part is increased to 1.5 d and thickness
is reduced to 0.4 t, the new blanking force in kN is
(a) 3.0
3 0 (b) 4.5
45
(c) 5.0 (d) 8.0

(c) 5.03
(d) 6.33
406

G
200
GATE2004
10 mm diameter holes are to be punched in a steel
sheet of 3 mm thickness. Shear strength of the
material is 400 N / mm2 and penetration is 40%.
Shear provided on the punch is 2 mm. The blanking
force during the operation will be
(a) 22.6 kN
(b) 37.7 kN
( ) 61.6
(c)
6 6 kN
(d) 94.3 kN

407

G
2002
GATE2002

Calculate the punch size in mm, for a circular


blanking operation for which details are given
below.
Size of the blank
25 mm
Thickness of the sheet
2 mm
Radial clearance between
bet een punch and die 0.06
0 06 mm
Die allowance
0.05 mm
( ) 24.83
(a)
(b) 24.89
(c) 25.01
(d) 25.17

412

A blank of 50 mm diameter is to be sheared from a


sheet of 2.5 mm thickness. The required radial
clearance between the die and the punch is 6% of
sheet thickness. The punch and die diameters (in mm)
for this blanking operation, respectively, are
(a) 50.00
50 00 and 50.30
50 30

(b) 50.00
50 00 and 50.15
50 15

(c) 49.70 and 50.00

(d) 49.85 and 50.00

410

G
200
GATE2001

In a blanking operation, the clearance is provided


on
(a) The die
(b) Both the die and the punch equally
(c) The punch
((d)) Brittle the p
punch nor the die

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

( )
GATE2008(PI)

GATE 2012

409

408

G
996
GATE1996

The cutting force in punching and blanking


operations mainly depends on
(a) The modulus of elasticity of metal
(b) The shear strength of metal
(c) The bulk modulus of metal
((d)) The yyield strength
g of metal

Page 105 of 205

411

413

A 50 mm diameter disc is to be punched out from a


carbon steel sheet 1.0 mm thick. The diameter of
the punch should be
(a) 49.925 mm (b) 50.00 mm
( ) 50.075 mm (d) none off the
(c)
th above
b

Rev.1

414

S 1994
99
IES

S 2002
IES

In sheet metal blanking, shear is provided on


punches and dies so that
(a) Press load is reduced
(b) Good cut edge is obtained.
(c) Warping of sheet is minimized
((d)) Cut blanks are straight.
g

415

S 2006
IES

Consider the following statements related to


piercing and blanking:
1 Shear on the punch reduces the maximum cutting
1.
force
2. Shear
Sh
i
increases
th capacity
the
it off the
th press needed
d d
3. Shear increases the life of the punch
4. The total energy needed to make the cut remains
provision of shear
unaltered due to p
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1 and 4
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 3 and 4
416

S 2004
200
IES

In which one of the following is a flywheel generally


employed?
(a) Lathe
(b) Electric motor
(c) Punching machine
(d) Gearbox

A blank of 30 mm diameter is to be produced out of


10 mm thick sheet on a simple die. If 6% clearance is
recommended, then the nominal diameters of die
and punch are respectively
(a) 30.6
30 6 mm and 29.4
29 4 mm
(b) 30.6 mm and 30 mm
(c) 30 mm and 29.4 mm
((d)) 330 mm and 28.8 mm

421

417

For 50% penetration of work material, a punch with


single shear equal to thickness will
(a) Reduce the punch load to half the value
(b) Increase the punch load by half the value
(c) Maintain the same punch load
((d)) Reduce the p
punch load to q
quarter load

419

GATE 2007(PI)
2007 (PI)
GATE

S 2000
IAS

In blanking operation the clearance provided is


(a) 50% on punch and 50% on die
(b) On
O die
di
(c) On punch
(d) On die or punch depending upon designers choice

S 1997
99
IES

Which one of the following statements is correct?


If the size of a flywheel in a punching machine is
increased
(a) Then the fluctuation of speed and fluctuation of
energy will
ill both
b th decrease
d
(b) Then the fluctuation of speed will decrease and the
fluctuation of energy will increase
((c)) Then the fluctuation of speed
p
will increase and the
fluctuation of energy will decrease
(d) Then the fluctuation of speed and fluctuation of
energy both will increase

418

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

S 1995
99
IAS

S 1994
99
IAS

Circular blanks of 35 mm diameter are punched


from a steel sheet of 2 mm thickness. If the
clearance per side between the punch and die is
to be kept as 40 microns, the sizes of punch and
di should
die
h ld respectively
i l be
b

(a) 35+0.00 and 35+0.040 (b) 350.040 and 350.080


(c) 350.080 and 35+0.00 (d) 35+0.040 and 350.080

Page 106 of 205

420

422

In a blanking operation to produce steel washer, the


maximum punch load used in 2 x 105 N. The plate
thickness is 4 mm and percentage penetration is 25.
The work done during this shearing operation is
(a) 200J
(b) 400J
(c) 600 J
(d) 800 J

Rev.1

423

S 2002
IAS

S 2007
200
IAS

In deciding the clearance between punch and die in


press work in shearing, the following rule is helpful:
(a) Punch size controls hole size die size controls blank
size
(b) Punch
P
h size
i controls
t l both
b th hole
h l size
i and
d blank
bl k size
i
(c) Die size controls both hole size and blank size
(d) Die size controls hole size, punch size controls blank
size

For punching operation the clearance is provided


on which one of the following?
(a) The punch
(b) The die
(c) 50% on the punch and 50% on the die
((d)) 1/3rd
3 on the p
punch and 2/3rd
3 on the die

424

S 2002
IES

S 1995
99
IAS
Assertion (A): A flywheel is attached to a punching
press so as to reduce its speed fluctuations.
Reason(R): The flywheel stores energy when its
speed increase.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A
(b) Both
B th A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true
t
b t R is
but
i nott the
th
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

425

426

S 2003
IAS

Which one is not a method of reducing cutting


forces to prevent the overloading of press?
(a) Providing shear on die
(b) Providing shear on punch
(c) Increasing die clearance
((d)) Stepping
pp g p
punches

S 2000
IES

Match List I (Presspart) with List II (Function) and select the


correct answer using
below
the
i the
h codes
d given
i
b l
h lists:
li
ListI
ListII
((Presspart)
p )
((Function))
(A) Punch plate
1.
Assisting withdrawal of the punch
(B) Stripper
2.
Advancing the workpiece through correct
di t
distance
(C) Stopper
3.
Ejection of the workpiece from die cavity
((D)) Knockout
4.
4
Holding
g the small p
punch in the p
proper
p
position
Codes: A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 4
3
2
1
(b)
2
1
4
3
(c) 4
1
2
3
(d)
2
3
4
1

427

Best position of crank for blanking operation in a


mechanical press is
(a) Top dead centre
(b) 20 degrees below top dead centre
(c) 20 degrees before bottom dead centre
((d)) Bottom dead centre

428

429

D
i
Drawing

S 1999
999
IES
Assertion (A): In sheet metal blanking operation,
clearance must be given to the die.
Reason (R): The blank should be of required
dimensions.
( ) Both
(a)
B th A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true
t
and
d R is
i the
th
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

430

y Drawing
D
i is
i a plastic
l ti deformation
d f
ti process in
i which
hi h a flat
fl t

sheet or p
plate is formed into a threedimensional p
part
with a depth more than several times the thickness of
the metal.
y As a punch
h descends
d
d into a mating die,
d
the
h metall

Drawing
Page 107 of 205

assumes the desired configuration.


configuration

431

Rev.1

432

Blank Size
BlankSize

D
i
Drawing
y Hot
is
H t drawing
d
i
i used
d for
f thickwalled
thi k
ll d parts
t off simple
i l

geometries,, thinning
g
g takes p
place.

D = d 2 + 4dh

Whend>20r

D = d 2 + 4dh 0.5r when15r d 20r

y Cold drawing uses relatively thin metal, changes the

thickness very little or not at all, and produces parts in a

D=

( d 2r )

+ 4d ( h r ) + 2 r ( d 00.7
7r )

when d < 10r

wide
d variety off shapes.
h

433

434

S 1994
99
IES

G
2003
GATE2003

For
F obtaining
bt i i a cup off diameter
di
t 25 mm and
d height
h i ht 15

A shell
h ll off 100 mm diameter
di
t and
d 100 mm height
h i ht with
ith

mm by
y drawing,
g, the size of the round blank should

the corner radius of 0.4


4 mm is to be p
produced by
y

be approximately

cup drawing. The required blank diameter is

(a) 42 mm

(b)

44 mm

(a) 118 mm

(b)

161 mm

(c) 46 mm

(d)

48 mm

(c) 224 mm

(d)

312 mm

435

ISRO2011
The initial blank diameter required to form
a cylindrical
li d i l cup off outside
id diameter
di
'd and
d
total height
g 'h' having
g a corner radius 'r' is
obtained using the formula

(a ) Do = d 2 + 4dh 0.5
0 5r
(b) Do = d + 2h + 2r
(c) Do = d 2 + 2h 2 + 2r

436

437

438

S 2013Main
20 3
i
IAS

y Drawing Force

P = dt C
d

A cup, off 50 mm diameter


di
t and
d 100 mm height,
h i ht is
i to
t be
b
drawn from low carbon steel sheet. Neglecting
g
g the

y Blank Holding Force

influence of thickness and corner radii:

Blank holding force required depends on the


wrinkling tendency of the cup. The maximum
li it is
limit
i generally
ll to
t be
b onethird
thi d off the
th drawing
d
i
force.
y Draw Clearance
Punch diameter = Die opening diameter 2.5
25t
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

(d ) Do = d 2 + 4dh 0.5r

439

(i) Calculate the blank diameter


(ii) Decide whether it can be drawn in a single draw, if
maximum reduction permitted is 40%.
40%
[ 0 a s]
[10marks]
Page 108 of 205

440

Rev.1

441

D
d
i
Deepdrawing

S 20 3
IFS2013
A symmetrical
with
t i l cup off circular
i
l cross section
ti
ith
diameter 4
40 mm and height
g 60 mm with a corner
radius of 2 mm is to be obtained in C20 steel of 0.6
mm thickness. Calculate the blank size for the
d
drawn
cup. Will it be
b possible
ibl to
t draw
d
th cup in
the
i

S 2008
IES

g when cup height


g is more than half the diameter is
y Drawing
termed deep drawing.
y Easy with ductile materials.
y Due to the radial flow of material,
material the side walls increase in

thickness as the height is increased.

A cylindrical vessel with flat bottom can be deep


drawn by
(a) Shallow drawing
(b) Single action deep drawing
(c) Double action deep drawing
((d)) Triple
p action deep
p drawing
g

y A cylindrical vessel with flat bottom can be deep drawn by

single
g step?
p

double action deep drawing.

[10Marks]

y Deep drawing is a combination of drawing and stretching.


stretching

442

D
D
bilit
DeepDrawability

p
g
StressesonDeepDrawing

y There is a limiting drawing ratio (LDR), after which the

punch will pierce a hole in the blank instead of drawing.

y In wall of the cup:

y This ratio depends upon material, amount of friction

uniaxial

present etc.
present,
etc

S 1997
99
IES

Fi draw:Reduction
First
d
R d i = 50 %
Second draw:Reduction = 30 %

446

447

S 1998
998
IES

A cup off 10 cm height


h i ht and
d 5 cm diameter
di
t is
i to
t be
b
made from a sheet metal of 2 mm thickness. The
number of deductions necessary will be
(a) One
(b) Two
( ) Three
(c)
Th
(d) Four
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Reduction = 1 100% = 50%


D

Thumb rule:

Third draw:Reduction = 25 %
Fourth draw:Reduction = 16 %
Fifth draw:Reduction = 13 %

y Limiting
t g d
drawing
a
g ratio
at o ((LDR)) iss 1.6
.6 to 2.3
.3
445

y Theaveragereductionindeepdrawing
d
= 0.5
D

diameter of the cup


p drawn . i.e. D/d.
/

Biaxial
Bi
i l tension
t i and
d
compression

444

LimitingDrawingRatio(LDR)

y The
blank
to
Th ratio
ti off the
th maximum
i
bl k diameter
di
t
t the
th

y In flange of blank:

simple
tension

443

448

Assertion (A): The first draw in deep drawing operation


can have up to 60% reduction, the second draw up to
40% reduction and,, the third draw of about 330% only.
4
y
Reason (R): Due to strain hardening, the subsequent
draws in a deep
p drawing
g operation
p
have reduced
percentages.
((a)) Both A and R are individuallyy true and R is the correct
explanation of A
((b)) Both A and R are individuallyy true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Page 109 of 205
449

IFS 2009
y What is deep drawing process for sheet metal

forming? Explain the function of a blank holder.


What is drawing ratio and how is the drawing ratio
increased ?
[[10 marks]]

Rev.1

450

ForIESOnly

Di D i
DieDesign

ForIESOnly

P
i dies
di
Progressive
Perform two or more operations simultaneously in a single
stroke of a punch press,
press so that a complete component is
obtained for each stroke.

y Progressivedies
P
i di

ForIESOnly

Progressivepiercingandblankingdiefor
makingasimplewasher.
making a simple washer.

Compound dies
All the necessary operations are carried out at a single
station, in a single
g stroke of the ram. To do more than one set
of operations, a compound die consists of the necessary sets
of punches and dies.

y Compounddies
C
ddi
y Combinationdies
C
bi ti di

Combination dies
A combination die is same as that of a compound die with
the main difference that here noncutting operations such as
bending and forming are also included as part of the
operation.
operation
451

Back
453

452

ForIESOnly

ForIESOnly

IFS 2013
IFS2013

M th d f
ki
i l
h i
d i i
d
Methodformakingasimplewasherinacompoundpiercingand
blankingdie.Partisblanked(a)andsubsequentlypierced
(b)Theblankingpunchcontainsthedieforpiercing.
(b) The blanking punch contains the die for piercing

y Differentiate
Diff
ti t

among

the
th

simple,
i l

L b i ti
Lubrication
compound
d

and
d

progressive
p
g
dies.

y Indrawingoperation,properlubricationisessentialfor
d
l b
lf

1. Toimprovedielife.
T i
di lif
[6 Marks]

2 Toreducedrawingforces.
2.
Toreducedrawingforces
3 Toreducetemperature.
3.
Toreducetemperature
4 Toimprovesurfacefinish.
4.
Toimprovesurfacefinish

Back
454

S 2007
200
IAS
In drawing operation, proper lubrication
essential for which of the following reasons?
1 To improve die life
1.
2. To reduce drawing forces
3. To reduce temperature
4. To improve
4
p
surface finish
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1,
1 3 and 4 only
(c) 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

is

457

455

456

D f t i D
i
i kl
DefectsinDrawing
wrinkle

D f t i D
i
F t
DefectsinDrawing
Fracture

y An insufficient blank holder pressure causes wrinkles to

y Further, too much of a blank holder pressure and friction

develop on the flange, which may also extend to the wall


of the cup.

may cause a thinning of the walls and a fracture at the


flange, bottom, and the corners (if any).

Page 110 of 205 WallWrinkle


FlangeWrinkle

458

Rev.1

459

D f t i D
i
i
DefectsinDrawingearing

D f t i D
i
i t ik
DefectsinDrawing
missstrike

D f t i D
i
O
l
DefectsinDrawing
Orangepeel

y While drawing a rolled stock, ears or lobes tend to occur

y Due to the misplacement of the stock, unsymmetrical

y A surface roughening (defect) encountered in forming

because of the anisotropy induced by the rolling


operation.

flanges may result. This defect is known as miss strike.

products from metal stock that has a coarse grain size.


y It is due to uneven flow or to the appearance of the

overly large grains usually the result of annealing at too


high a temperature.
temperature

460

Stretcher strains (like Luders Lines)


Stretcherstrains(likeLuders
ast c de
o at o due to inhomogeneous
o oge eous
y Caused by p
plastic
deformation

461

G
2008
GATE2008

Surfacescratches
y Dieorpunchnothavingasmoothsurface,insufficient

yielding.
y These lines can crisscross the surface of the workpiece and

lubrication

may be visibly objectionable.


objectionable
y Low carbon steel and aluminium shows more stretcher

strains.

463

S 1997
99
IAS

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

466

In the deep drawing of cups, blanks show a tendency to


wrinkle up around the periphery (flange).
The most likely cause and remedy of the phenomenon are,
respectively,
(A) Buckling due to circumferential compression; Increase
blank holder pressure
(B) High blank holder pressure and high friction; Reduce
blank holder pressure and apply lubricant
(C) High temperature causing increase in circumferential
length: Apply coolant to blank
(D) Buckling due to circumferential compression; decrease
blank holder pressure

464

G
999
GATE1999

Which one of the following factor promotes the


tendency for wrinking in the process of drawing?
(a) Increase in the ratio of thickness to blank diameter
of work material
(b) Decrease
D
i the
in
th ratio
ti thickness
thi k
t blank
to
bl k diameter
di
t off
work material
(c) Decrease in the holding force on the blank
((d)) Use of solid lubricants

462

G
2006
GATE2006

Identify the stress state in the FLANCE portion of a


PARTIALLYDRAWN CYLINDRICAL CUP when deep
drawing without a blank holder
(a) Tensile in all three directions
(b) No
N stress
t
i the
in
th flange
fl
att all,
ll because
b
th
there
i no
is
blankholder
(c) Tensile stress in one direction and compressive in
the one other direction
(d) Compressive in two directions and tensile in the
third direction
Page 111 of 205

465

467

Match the items in columns I and II.


Column I
Column II
P Wrinkling
P.
1
1.
Yield point elongation
Q. Orange peel
2.
Anisotropy
R Stretcher
R.
S
h strains
i
3.
L
Large
grain
i size
i
S. Earing
4.
Insufficient blank holding
force
5.
Fine grain size
6.
Excessive blank holding force
(a) P 6, Q 33, R 1, S 2 (b) P 4, Q 55, R 6, S 1
(c) P 2, Q 5, R 3, S 4 (d) P 4, Q 3, R 1, S 2
Rev.1
468

S 1999
999
IES

Spinning

S 1994
99
IAS

Consider the following statements: Earring in a


drawn cup can be due to nonuniform
1 Speed of the press
1.
2. Clearance between tools
3. Material properties
4. Blank holding
4
g
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1,
1 2 and 3 (b) 2,
2 3 and 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 2 and 4
469

Consider the following factors


1. Clearance between the punch and the die is too
small.
small
2. The finish at the corners of the punch is poor.
3. The finish at the corners of the die is poor.
4. The p
4
punch and die alignment
g
is not p
proper.
p
The factors responsible for the vertical lines parallel to
the axis noticed on the outside of a drawn cylindrical cup
would include.
(a) 2,
2 3 and 4 (b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 4
(d) 1, 3 and 4
470

471

S i i
Spinning

S i i
Spinning
y Spinning is a coldforming operation in which a

rotating disk of sheet metal is shaped over a male


form, or mandrel.
y Localized
L li d pressure is
i applied
li d through
th
h a simple
i l

roundended wooden or metal tool or small roller,,


which traverses the entire surface of the part

1.
1 A mandrel (or die for internal pieces) is placed on a
rotating axis (like a turning center).
2 A blank or tube is held to the face of the mandrel.
2.
mandrel
3. A roller is pushed against the material near the
center
t off rotation,
t ti
and
d slowly
l l moved
d outwards,
t
d pushing
hi
the blank against the mandrel.
4. The part conforms to the shape of the mandrel (with
some springback).
5. The process is stopped, and the part is removed and
trimmed.

472

473

474

G
992
GATE1992

tc = tb sin

S 1994
99
IES

Thethicknessoftheblankneededtoproduce,by
Th thi k
fth bl k
d dt
d
b

The
off the
Th mode
d off deformation
d f
ti
th metal
t l during
d i

p
powerspinningamissileconeofthickness1.5mm
p
g
5

spinning
p
g is

andhalfconeangle30,is

(a) Bending

(a) 3.0mm

(b)

2.5mm

(b) Stretching

(c) 2.0mm

(d)

1.5mm

(c) Rolling and stretching


(d) Bending and stretching.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

475

Page 112 of 205

476

Rev.1

477

ForIESOnly

ForIESOnly

HERF

IFS2011

y High Energy
Energ Rate Forming,
Forming also known
kno n as HERF or explosive
e plosi e

Comparemetalspinningwithpresswork.

forming can be utilised to form a wide variety of metals, from

[
[2marks]
k ]

HighEnergyRateForming(HERF)

aluminum to high strength alloys.


y Applied a large amount of energy in a very sort time interval.
y HERF makes it possible to form large work pieces and

difficulttoform metals with lessexpensive equipment and


tooling required.
y No springback
478

479

ForIESOnly

Underwater
explosions.

480

ForIESOnly

ForIESOnly

Underwater explosions
Underwaterexplosions

Underwater Explosions
UnderwaterExplosions

y A shock
(normally
h k wave in
i the
th fluid
fl id medium
di
(
ll water
t ) is
i
Electromagnetic
(th f
(theuseof
rapidlyformed
g
)
magneticfields).

HERF

generated byy detonating


g
g an explosive
p
charge.
g

Underwaterspark
discharge(electro
hydraulic)
hydraulic).

y TNT and dynamite for higher energy and gun powder for

lower energy is used.


y Used for parts of thick materials.
Internal
combustionof
gaseous
mixtures.

y Employed
E l d

Pneumatic
mechanical
means

i
in

A
Aerospace,

aircraft
i
f

i d
industries
i

and
d

automobile
auto
ob e related
e ated co
components.
po e ts.
481

482

ForIESOnly

483

ForIESOnly

ForIESOnly

El t h d li F
i
ElectrohydraulicForming

ElectromagneticorMagneticPulseForming

y An operation using electric discharge in the form of

y Based on the principle that the electromagnetic field of

sparks to generate a shock wave in a fluid is called


electrohydrulic
l
h d l forming.
f

an induced current always opposes the electromagnetic


field of the inducing current.

y A capacitor bank is charged through the charging circuit,


circuit

y A large
l
capacitor
it bank
b k is
i discharged,
di h
d producing
d i a currentt

subsequently, a switch is closed, resulting in a spark


within
i hi the
h electrode
l
d gap to discharge
di h
the
h capacitors.
i

surge through a coiled conductor.


y If the coil has been p
placed within a conductive cylinder,
y

y Energy level and peak pressure is lower than underwater

explosions but easier and safer.


y Used for bulging operations in small parts.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

484

Page 113 of 205

485

around a cylinder, or adjacent the flat sheet of metal, the


g induces a secondaryy current in the workpiece,
p
discharge
causing it to be repelled from the coil and conformed to
Rev.1
486
a die or mating workpiece.

ForIESOnly

ForIESOnly

IES2011

ElectromagneticorMagneticPulseForming
y The
Th process is
i very rapid
id and
d is
i used
d primarily
i
il to
t expand
d

High
process used
h energy rate forming
f
d for
f

or contract tubing,
g, or to p
permanentlyy assemble

forming components from thin metal sheets or

component parts.

deform thin tubes is:

y This process is most effective for relatively thin materials

(
(0.25
to 1.25 mm thick).
h k)

(a) Petroforming
(b) Magnetic pulse forming
(c) Explosive forming
(d) electrohydraulic
electro hydraulic forming

487

488

489

IES 2010
IES2010

20 0
JWM2010
( ) : In magnetic
g
p
g method,,
Assertion (A)
pulseforming
magnetic field produced by eddy currents is used to
p
create force between coil and workpiece.
Reason (R) : It is necessary for the workpiece
material to have magnetic properties.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the
correctt explanation
l
ti off A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
490

S 2007
200
IES

g energy
gy rate forming
g
Assertion ((A)) : In the high
method, the explosive forming has proved to be an
g energy
g at high
g rate and
excellent method of utilizing
utilizes both the high explosives and low explosives.
Reason ((R):
) The g
gas p
pressure and rate of detonation
can be controlled for both types of explosives.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct
explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
491

S 2009
IES

S 2005
200
IES

Which
Whi h

one off

the
following
th
f ll i

metal
t l

forming
f
i

processes is not a high


p
g energy
gy rate forming
gp
process?
(a) Electromechanical forming
(b) Rollforming
(c) Explosive forming
(d) Electrohydraulic forming

492

IES2013Conventional

Which
is
Whi h one off the
th following
f ll i
i a high
hi h energy rate
t

Magnetic
M
ti forming
f
i is
i an example
l of:
f

forming
gp
process?

(a) Cold forming

(b)

Hot forming

(a) Roll forming

(c) High
g energy
gy rate forming
g

(d)

Roll forming
g

y Name at least four methods by which high energy

release rates are obtained.


y Why might less springback be observed in HERF?

(b) Electrohydraulic forming

[5marks]

(c) Rotary forging


(d) Forward extrusion
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

493

Page 114 of 205

494

Rev.1

495

St t h F
i
StretchForming

St t h F
i
StretchForming
Contd......

g sheet metal p
y Produce large
parts in low or limited
quantities.
y A sheet of metal is g
gripped
pp byy two or more sets of jjaws
that stretch it and wrap it around a single form block.
y Because most of the deformation is induced by
y the
tensile stretching, the forces on the form block are far
less than those normally encountered in bending or
forming.
y There is very little springback, and the workpiece
conforms very closely to the shape of the tool.
y Because the forces are so low, the form blocks can often
be made of wood, lowmeltingpoint metal, or even
plastic.
496

St t h F
i
StretchForming
Contd......

St t h F
i
StretchForming
Contd......

y Popular
P
l in
i the
th aircraft
i
ft industry
i d t and
d is
i frequently
f
tl used
d to
t

form aluminum and stainless steel


y Lowcarbon steel can be stretch formed to produce large

panels for the automotive and truck industry.

497

498

I i
Ironing

G
2000
GATE2000
A 1.5 mm thick sheet is subject to unequal biaxial
stretching and the true strains in the directions of
stretching are 0.05 and 0.09. The final thickness of
the sheet in mm is
(a) 1.414
1 414
(b) 1.304
1 304
(c) 1.362
(d) 289

y The
cylinder
Th process off thinning
thi i the
th walls
ll off a drawn
d
li d by
b

passing
p
g it between a p
punch and die whose separation
p
is
less than the original wall thickness.
y The walls are thinned and lengthened, while the

thickness
h k
off the
h base
b
remains unchanged.
h
d
y Examples of ironed products include brass cartridge

cases and the thinwalled beverage can.


499

500

501

ForIESOnly

I i
Ironing
Contd....

I i F
IroningForce

E b i
Embossing

y Neglecting the friction and shape of the die, the ironing

y It is
the
i a very shallow
h ll drawing
d
i operation
ti where
h
th depth
d th off

force can be estimated using the following equation.

the draw is limited to one to three times the thickness of


the metal, and the material thickness remains largely

t
F = dt tt av ln o
tt
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

502

Page 115 of 205

unchanged.

503

Rev.1

504

C i i
Coining

di
Bending

y Coining
C i i is
i essentially
ti ll a coldforging
ld f i operation
ti exceptt for
f

y Coining is used for making coins, medals and similar

articles.
l

y The strain on the outermost fibers of the bend is

Bendallowance,
Bendallowance

Lb =(R+kt)

the fact that the flow of the metal occurs onlyy at the top
p
layers and not the entire volume.

di
Bending
=

where
R=bendradius
k=constant(stretchfactor)
For R > 2t
k = 0.5
05

For R < 2t

1
2R
+1
t

k = 0.33

t=thicknessofmaterial
=bendangle(inradian)
505

506

507

ForIESOnly

BendingForce
Bending
Force
Kl ut t 2
F=

IES 1998
IES1998

G
200
GATE2005

The bending force required for Vbending,


V bending U
U

bending and Edge bending will be in the ratio

Where l =Bend length = width of the stock, mm


ut = Ultimate tensile strength, MPa (N/mm 2 )

of

t = blank
bl k thickness,
thi k
mm
w = width of die-opening, mm

(a) 1 : 2 : 0.5

(b) 2: 1 : 0.5

( ) 1: 2 : 1
(c)

( ) 1: 1 : 1
(d)

A 2 mm thick metal sheet is to be bent at an angle of


one radian with a bend radius of 100 mm. If the
stretch factor is 0.5, the bend allowance is
(a) 99 mm
(b) 100 mm
( ) 101 mm
(c)
(d) 102 mm
2mm

K = die
die-opening
opening factor , (can be used followin table)
Condition

V-Bending

U-Bending

Edge-Bending

W < 16t

1 33
1.33

2 67
2.67

0 67
0.67

W > = 16t

1.20

2.40

0.6

1 radian

ForUorchannelbendingforcerequiredisdoublethanV bending
ForUorchannelbendingforcerequiredisdoublethanV
ForedgebendingitwillbeaboutonehalfthatforV bending
508

509

510

ForIESOnly

S
ki
Spanking
y During
the
D i bending,
b di
th area off the
th sheet
h t under
d the
th punch
h

has a tendencyy to flow and form a bulge


g on the outer
surface.
y The lower die should be provided with mating surfaces,

so that
h when
h the
h punch
h and
d die
d are completely
l l closed
l d on
the blank,
blank any bulging developed earlier will be
completely presses or spanked out.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

511

Page 116 of 205

512

Rev.1

513

G
200
GATE2007
g metal
Match the correct combination for following
working processes.
Associated state of stress
Processes
P. Blanking
1.
Tension
Q Stretch Forming 2.
Q.
2
Compression
R. Coining
3.
Shear
S Deep Drawing
S.
4
4.
Tension and Compression
5.
Tension and Shear
C d P Q
Codes:P
R
S
P
Q
R
S
(a) 2
1
3
4
(b) 3
4
1
5
(c) 5
4
3
1
(d) 3
1
2
4

G
200
GATE2004

GATE2012SameQinGATE2012(PI)
Match the following metal forming processes with their
associated stresses in the workpiece.
Metalformingprocess
lf
i
1.Coining
2.WireDrawing
3 Blanking
3.Blanking
4.DeepDrawing
D D
i
(a) 1S, 2P, 3Q, 4R
(c) 1P, 2Q, 3S, 4R

Typeofstress
f
P.Tensile
Q.Shear
R Tensileand
R.Tensileand
compressive
S C
S.Compressive
i
(b) 1S, 2P, 3R, 4Q
(d) 1P, 2R, 3Q, 4S

514

515

S 1999
999
IAS

S 1997
99
IAS

(
) with List II ((Production of p
Match List I (Process)
parts))
and select the correct answer using the codes given
below the lists:
ListI
ListII
A. Rolling
1.
Discrete parts
B. Forging
2.
Rod and Wire
C. Extrusion 3.
Wide variety of shapes with thin
walls
ll
D. Drawing
4.
Flat plates and sheets
5.
Solid
l d and
d hollow
h ll parts
Codes:A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
( ) 2
(a)
5
3
4
( ) 1
(b)
2
5
4
(c) 4
1
3
2
(d) 4
1
5
2517

Match List
II
ListII (metal forming process) with List
ListII
(Associated feature) and select the correct answer
using the codes given below the Lists:
Listl
List II
A Blanking
A.
Bl ki
1.
Sh
Shear
angle
l
B. Flow forming
2.
Coiled stock
C. Roll forming
3.
Mandrel
D. Embossing
4.
Closed matching dies
Codes:A B
C
D
A
B
C
D
( ) 1
(a)
3
4
2
(b) 3
1
4
2
(c) 1
3
2
4
(d) 3
1
2
4518

WorkbookCh18:SheetMetalForming
Q. No

Option

Q. No

Match the following


Product
Process
P Moulded
P.
M ld d luggage
l
1.
I j ti moulding
Injection
ldi
Q. Packaging containers for liquid 2.
Hot rolling
R. Long structural shapes 3.
Impact extrusion
S. Collapsible tubes
4.
Transfer moulding
5.
Blow moulding
6
6.
C i i
Coining
(a) P1 Q4 R6 S3
(b) P4 Q5 R2 S3
(c) P1 Q5 R3 S2
(d) P5 Q1 R2 S2
516

IES 2010
IES2010
g statements:
Consider the following
The material properties which principally
determine how well a metal may be drawn are
1. Ratio of yield stress to ultimate stress.
2.Rate of increase of yield stress relative to
progressive
p
g
amounts of cold work.
3. Rate of work hardening.
Whi h off the
Which
th above
b
statements
t t
t is/are
i /
correct?
t?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
519

gy
PowderMetallurgy

Option

1
2

C
B

10
11

C
C

12

13

14

15

16

controlled atmosphere to bond the contacting

8
9

A
A

17

surfaces of the particles and establish the desired

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

y Powder metallurgy is the name given to the

PowderMetallurgy
gy

process by which fine powdered materials are


bl d d
blended,

pressed
d

i t
into

d i d
desired

shape
h

((compacted),
p
) and then heated ((sintered)) in a

properties.
520

Page 117 of 205


BySKMondal
521

Rev.1

522

ManufacturingofPowder
g

S 2003
IAS

Atomizationusingagasstream

S 2007
200
IAS

Assertion (A): Atomization method for production of


metal powders consists of mechanical disintegration of
molten stream into fine particles.
p
Reason (R): Atomization method is an excellent means
of making
gp
powders from high
g temperature
p
metals.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct
explanation
p
of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation
p
of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

Molten metal is
forced through a
small orifice and
is disintegrated by
a
jet
of
compressed air,
inert g
gas or water
jet,. It is used for
low melting point
materials, brass,
bronze, Zn, Tn,
Al Pb etc.
Al,
etc
523

) Mechanical disintegration
g
Assertion ((A):
of a
molten metal stream into fine particles by means of
a jet of compressed air is known as atomization.
Reason (R): In atomization process inertgas or
water cannot be used as a substitute for compressed
air.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

524

525

Manufacturing of Powder
ManufacturingofPowder

S 1999
999
IES
Assertion (A): In atomization process of manufacture of
metal powder, the molten metal is forced through a
small orifice and broken up
p by
y a stream of compressed
p
air.
Reason ((R):
) The metallic p
powder obtained by
y
atomization process is quite resistant to oxidation.
((a)) Both A and R are individuallyy true and R is the correct
explanation of A
((b)) Both A and R are individuallyy true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
526

Reduction

( )
GATE2011(PI)

y Metal oxides are turned to pure metal powder when

exposed
d to
t below
b l
melting
lti
point
i t gases results
lt in
i a
product of cake of sponge
p
p g metal.
y The irregular spongelike particles are soft, readily

Which of

the following powder production

methods produces spongy and porous particles?


(a) Atomization

compressible, and give compacts of good presinter

( ) Reduction of metal oxides


(b)

((green)
green ) strength

(c) Electrolytic deposition

y Used for iron, Cu, tungsten,


g
molybdenum,
y
Ni and

Cobalt.

(d) Pulverization

527

528

OnlyforIES

Manufacturing of Powder
ManufacturingofPowder

Manufacturing of Powder
ManufacturingofPowder
Comminution

Grinding

y Granular material, which may be coarsely atomized

This metallic powder is nothing but the unburnt tiny


chips formed during the process of grinding.
grinding

powder, is fed in a stream of gas under pressure through


a venturi and is cooled and thereby embrittled by the
adiabatic expansion of the gas before impinging on a
target on which
hi h the
h granules
l shatters
h

IES 2013 C
ti
l
IES2013Conventional
Explain the terms comminution and reduction used in
powder metallurgy.
metallurgy
[
[2marks]
]

y Process is used for p


production of veryy fine p
powders such

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

529

as are required for injection moulding . Brittle materials


such as intermetallic
inter metallic compounds,
compounds ferroalloys
ferro alloys ferro
ferro
Pageare
118produces
of 205
chromium, ferrosilicon
530

Rev.1

531

ManufacturingofPowder
g

IES 2012
IES

Electrolytic Deposition

M
f t i
fP d
ManufacturingofPowder

In electrolysis
(a) For making copper powder, copper plate is made
cathode in electrolyte tank
(b) For making aluminum powder, aluminum plate is
made
d anode
d
(c) High amperage produces powdery deposit of cathode
metal on anode
((d)) Atomization p
process is more suitable for low melting
g
point metals

y Used
copper, silver
U d for
f iron,
i
il
y Process is similar to electroplating.
y For making copper powder, copper plates are placed as

anode in the tank of electrolyte, whereas the aluminium


plates are placed in the electrolyte to act as cathode.
Wh DC currentt is
When
i passed,
d the
th copper gets
t deposited
d
it d
on cathode. The cathode plated are taken out and
powder is scrapped off. The powder is washed, dried and
pulverized to the desired grain size.
y The cost of manufacturing is high.
532

Granulations as metals are cooled they are stirred rapidly


Machining coarse powders such as magnesium
Milling crushers and rollers to break down metals. Used for
brittle materials.
materials
Shooting drops of molten metal are dropped in water, used
for low melting point materials.
Condensation Metals are boiled to produce metal vapours
and then condensed to obtain metal powders. Used for Zn,
Mg, Cd.

533

G
20 ( )
GATE2014(PI)

IES 2010
IES2010

S 2000
IAS

Which one of the following methods is NOT used


for producing metal powders?
(a) Atomization
(b) Compaction
(c) Machining and grinding
((d)) Electrolysis
y

Consider the following processes:


1. Mechanical pulverization
2. Atomization
At i ti
3. Chemical reduction
4. Sintering
Which of these processes are used for powder
preparation in powder metallurgy?
(a) 2,
2 3 and 4 (b) 1,
1 2 and 3
(c) 1, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 2 and 4

535

534

Metallic powders can be produced by


(a) Atomization
(b) Pulverization
(c) Electro
Electrodeposition
deposition process
(d) All of the above

536

537

ConventionalQuestions
Characteristics of metal powder:
y Fineness: refers to particle size of powder, can be
determined either by pouring the powder through a sieve or
by microscopic testing. A standard sieves with mesh size
varies between (100) and (325) are used to determine
particle size and particle size distribution of powder in a
certain range.
range
y Particle size distribution: refers to amount of each particle
size
i in
i the
th powder
d andd have
h
a greatt effect
ff t in
i determining
d t
i i
flowability, apparent density and final porosity of product.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

538

Discuss the terms fineness and particle size


distribution in powder metallurgy. [IES2010, 2 Marks]
Ans.
Fineness: Is the diameter of spherical shaped particle and
mean diameter of non
nonspherical
spherical shaped particle.
particle
Particle size distribution: Geometric standard deviation
(a measure for the bredth or width of a distribution), is the
ratio of particle size diameters taken at 84.1 and 50% of the
cumulative
l i undersized
d i d weight
i h plot,
l respectively
i l and
d mean
mass diameter define the particle size distribution.
Page 119 of 205

539

Rev.1

540

Bl di
Blending

S 1999
999
IES

g or mixing
g operations
p
y Blending
can be done either dryy or wet.

The correct sequence of the given processes in


manufacturing by powder metallurgy is
(a) Blending,
Blending compacting,
compacting sintering and sizing
(b) Blending, compacting, sizing and sintering
(c) Compacting, sizing, blending and sintering
((d)) Compacting,
p
g blending,
g sizing
g and sintering
g

y Lubricants such as graphite or stearic acid improve the flow

characteristics and compressibility at the expense of reduced


st e gt .
strength.
y Binders

produce

the

reverse

effect

of

lubricants.

Thermoplastics or a watersoluble methylcellulose binder is


used.
y Most lubricants or binders are not wanted in the final

product and are removed ( volatilized or burned off)


541

IES 2013 C
ti
l
IES2013Conventional

542

Compacting

Compacting

Why lubricants are used to mix the metal powders?

543

y Powder is pressed into a green compact

[
[2marks]
k ]

y 40 to
t 1650
6 MPa
MP pressure (Depends
(D
d on materials,
t i l

product complexity)
p
p
y)
y Still very porous, ~70% density
y May be done cold or warm (higher density)

544

Sintering

545

S 2002
IES

( )
GATE2010(PI)

y Controlledatmosphere:nooxygen

In powder metallurgy, sintering of a component

y Heatto0.75
Heatto0 75*Tmelt
Tmelt

(a) Improves strength and reduces hardness

y Particlesbindtogether,diffusion,recrystalization

andgraingrowthtakesplace.

(b) Reduces brittleness and improves strength

y Partshrinksinsize

546

The rate of production of a powder metallurgy part


depends on
(a) Flow rate of powder
(b) Green strength of compact
(c) Apparent density of compact
((d)) Compressibility
p
y of p
powder

(c) Improves hardness and reduces toughness

y Densityincreases,upto95%

(d) Reduces
R d
porosity
i and
d increases
i
bi l
brittleness

y Strengthincreases,Brittlenessreduces,Porosity

decreases Toughnessincreases
decreases.Toughnessincreases.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

547

Page 120 of 205

548

Rev.1

549

C ld I t ti Pressing(CIP)
P
i (CIP)
ColdIsostatic

IES 2007Conventional

y The
Th powder
d is
i contained
t i d in
i a flexible
fl ibl mould
ld made
d off

y Metal powders are compacted by many methods,

but sintering is required to achieve which


property?
t ? What
Wh t is
i hot
h t isostatic
i
t ti pressing?
i ?

ColdIsostatic Pressing

rubber or some other elastomer material


y The flexible mould is then pressurized by means of

highpressure water or oil. (same pressure in all

[
[2Marks]
]

d
directions)
)
y No lubricant is needed
y High
g aand
du
uniform
o de
density
s ty ca
can be ac
achieved
e ed

550

551

552

Hot Isostatic Pressing(HIP)


HotIsostatic
Pressing (HIP)

S 1997
99
IAS

y Is carried out at high temperature and pressure using a

) C
Assertion ((A):
Close dimensional tolerances are
NOT possible with isostatic pressing of metal
powder in powder metallurgy technique.
Reason (R): In the process of isostatic pressing, the
pressure is equal in all directions which permits
uniform density of the metal powder.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

gas such as argon.


y The
Th flexible
fl ibl mould
ld is
i made
d off sheet
h t metal.
t l (Due
(D to
t high
hi h

temperature)
p
y Compaction

and

sintering

are

completed

simultaneously.
y Used
U d in
i the
th production
d ti off billets
bill t off superalloys,
ll
hi h
high

speed
p
steels, titanium, ceramics, etc, where the integrity
g y
of the materials is a prime consideration

553

554

555

ForIESOnly

Metal Injection Moulding


MetalInjectionMoulding

Spray Deposition
SprayDeposition

IES 2011Conventional

g
y Fine metal p
powders are blended with an organic
binder such

generation process.
y Spray deposition is a shape
shapegeneration

as a polymer or a waxbased binder.

y Basic components of a spray deposition process

y Whatisisostatic pressingofmetalpowders?
y Whatareitsadvantage?

[2Marks]

y The powderpolymer
powder polymer mixture is then injected into split dies,
dies

(a) Atomiser
(b) Spray chamber with inert atmosphere
(c) Mould for producing preforms.

preheated to remove the binder and, finally, sintered.


y Volumetric shrinkage during sintering is very high.

y After
Af the
h metall is
i atomised,
i d it
i is
i deposited
d
i d into
i
a cooler
l

preformed mould.

mechanical properties same as wrought product


556

y Complex shapes that are impossible with conventional

compaction.
y Good
G d dimensional
di
i
l accuracy.

y Achieve density above 99%, fine grain structure,


For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

ForIESOnly

Page 121 of 205

557

y High
g p
production rate.
y Good mechanical properties.

Rev.1

558

ForIESOnly

ForIESOnly

Roll Compaction
RollCompaction

E l i C
ExplosiveCompaction
ti

y Powders are compacted by passing between two rolls

g Energy
gy Rate Forming
g ((HERF)) or Explosive
p
g
y High
Forming

rotating in opposite direction.

of the metal powders at rather higher velocities 3500 m/s


p
of compaction
p
during
g the
than that of the usual speed
ordinary die compacting.

y The powders are put in a container and are forced by a

ram between two rotating rolls, and is compacted into a


continuous strip at speeds of up to 0.5
0 5 m/s.
m/s

y Higher
Hi h green densities
d iti

y Sheet metal for electrical and electronic components


p
and

y Higher
g e ssintered
te ed st
strength
e gt

for coins can be made by this process.

y More uniform density distribution

y The rolling processes can be carried out at room or at

elevated temperature.
559

560

561

ForIESOnly

ISRO 2013
ISRO2013

LiquidPhaseSintering
y During sintering a liquid phase,
phase from the lower MP

component, may exist


y Alloying
All i may take
t k place
l
att the
th particleparticle
ti l
ti l interface
i t f
y Molten component may surround the particle that has
not melted
y High
g compact
p densityy can be q
quicklyy attained
y Important variables:
y Nature of alloy,
alloy molten component/particle wetting,
wetting
capillary action of the liquid

Following
powder
F ll i is
i a process used
d to
t form
f
d metal
t l to
t
shape
p
(a) Sintering
(b) Explosive Compacting
(c) Isostatic Molding
(d) All of these

562

P d ti
f
t
Productionofmagnets

Ad t
Advantages
y Goodtolerancesandsurfacefinish

y AlNiFeisusedforpermanentmagnets

y Highlycomplexshapesmadequickly

y Sinteringisdoneinawirecoiltoalignthemagnetic
Si t i i d
i i ilt li th
ti

y Canproduceporouspartsandhardtomanufacture
C d
t dh dt
f t

polesofthematerial
y H2 isusedtorapidlycoolthepart(tomaintainmagnetic
alignment)
y Totalshrinkageisapproximately37%(foraccurateparts
anextrasinteringstepmaybeaddedbeforemagnetic
g p
y
g
alignment)
y Thesinteringtemperatureis600
Thesinteringtemperatureis600CinH
CinH2

materials(e.g.cementedoxides)
y Poresinthemetalcanbefilledwithother
materials/metals
y Surfacescanhavehighwearresistance
y Porositycanbecontrolled
y Lowwaste
y Automationiseasy
A t
ti i

565

y For high tolerance parts, a sintering part is put back into

a die and repressed. In general this makes the part more


accurate with a better surface finish.
y A part has many voids that can be impregnated. One
method is to use an oil bath.
bath Another method uses
vacuum first, then impregnation.
y A partt surface
f
can be
b infiltrated
i filt t d with
ith a low
l melting
lti point
i t
metal to increase density, strength, hardness, ductility
and
d impact
i
t resistance.
i t
y Plating, heat treating and machining operations can also
be used.

563

50:50Fe Alalloysisusedformagneticparts
y 50:50FeAlalloysisusedformagneticparts

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

F t
f PM
d t
FeaturesofPMproducts

Page 122 of 205

564

Ad t
Advantages
Contd.
y Physicalpropertiescanbecontrolled
y Variationfromparttopartislow
p
p
y Hardtomachinemetalscanbeusedeasily
y Nomoltenmetals
y Noneedformany/anyfinishingoperations
y Permitshighvolumeproductionofcomplexshapes
y Allowsnontraditionalalloycombinations
y
566

y Goodcontroloffinaldensity

Rev.1

567

Di d t
Disadvantages

S 2007
200
IES

( )
GATE 2009(PI)
Which of the following process is used to
manufacture products with controlled porosity?
(a) Casting
( ) welding
(b)

y Metalpowdersdeterioratequicklywhenstored

What are the advantages of powder metallurgy?


1. Extreme purity product
2. Low
L labour
l b
costt
3. Low equipment cost.
Select the correct answer using the code given below
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1 and 3 only

improperly
y Fixedandsetupcostsarehigh
y Partsizeislimitedbythepress,andcompressionofthe

powderused.
d d
y Sharpcornersandvaryingthicknesscanbehardto
produce
y Nonmoldablefeaturesareimpossibletoproduce.
p
p

(c) formation
(d) Powder metallurgy
568

IES 2012
IES

569

S 2006
IES

) Parts made byy powder


p
gy do not
Statement ((I):
metallurgy
have as good physical properties as parts casted.
) Particle shape
p in p
powder metallurgy
gy
Statement ((II):
influences the flow characteristic of the powder.
((a)) Both Statement ((I)) and Statement ((II)) are
individually true and Statement (II) is the correct
explanation of Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are
individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct
explanation of Statement (I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

S 2004
200
IES

Which of the following are the limitations of


powder metallurgy?
1 High tooling and equipment costs.
1.
costs
2. Wastage of material.
3. It cannot be automated.
4. Expensive
4
p
metallic p
powders.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) Only 1 and 2
(b) Only 3 and 4
(c) Only 1 and 4
(d) Only 1, 2 and 4

571

Applications

IES 2010
IES2010
Consider the following parts:
1. Grinding wheel
2. Brake lining
3 Self
3.
Selflubricating
lubricating bearings
Which of these parts are made by powder
metallurgy
ll
technique?
h i
?
((a)) 1,, 2 and 3
((b)) 2 onlyy
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1 and 2 only

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

574

Consider the following factors:


1. Size and shape that can be produced economically
2. Porosity
P
it off the
th parts
t produced
d d
3. Available press capacity
4. High density
Which of the above are limitations of powder
metallurgy?
(a) 1,
1 3 and 4 (b) 2 and 3
(c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 2

572

y Oilimpregnated bearings made from either iron or

copper alloys for home appliance and automotive


applications
y P/M filters can be made with pores of almost any size.
y Pressure or flow regulators.
regulators
y Small gears, cams etc.
y Products
P d
where
h
the
h combined
bi d properties
i off two or more
metals (or both metals and nonmetals) are desired.
y Cementedcarbidesareproducedbythecold
compactionoftungstencarbidepowderinabinder,such
ascobalt(5to12%),followedbyliquidphasesintering.

570

Page 123 of 205

573

S 1998
998
IAS

575

Throwaway tungsten
manufactured by
(a) Forging
(c) Powder metallurgy

carbide
(b)
(d)

tip

tools

are

Brazing
Extrusion

Rev.1

576

S 2009
IES
Which
Whi h off the
th following
f ll i cutting
tti tool
t l bits
bit are made
d by
b

The binding material used in cemented carbide


cutting
tti tools
t l is
i
(a) graphite
(b) tungsten
((c)) nickel
(d) cobalt

powder metallurgy
p
gy p
process?
(a) Carbon steel tool bits

(b)

Stellite tool bits

(c) Ceramic tool bits

(d)

HSS tool bits

S 2003
IAS

( )
GATE 2011(PI)

577

S 1997
99
IES

Which of the following are produced by powder


metallurgy process?
1 Cemented carbide dies
1.
2. Porous bearings
3. Small magnets
4. Parts with intricate shapes
4
p
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
Codes:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 2 and 4
(c) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 3 and 4

578

579

P
Si t i
Pre
Sintering

S 2001
200
IES

Which of the following components can be


manufactured by powder metallurgy methods?
1 Carbide tool tips
1.
2
2.
Bearings
3. Filters
4.
Brake linings
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
((a)) 1, 3 and 4 ((b)) 2 and 3
(c) 1, 2 and 4 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Carbide
tipped cutting tools are manufactured by
Carbidetipped
powder metal technology process and have a
composition of
(a) ZirconiumTungsten (35% 65%)
(b) Tungsten
T
t carbideCobalt
bid C b lt (90%
( % 10%)
%)
(c) Aluminium oxide Silica (70% 30%)
(d) NickelChromium Tungsten (30% 15% 55%)

580

S 2003
IAS
In parts produced by powder metallurgy process,
presintering is done to
(a) Increase the toughness of the component
(b) Increase the density of the component
(c) Facilitate bonding of nonmetallic particles
((d)) Facilitate machining
g of the p
part

y If a partt made
it will
d by
b PM needs
d some machining,
hi i
ill be
b

rather veryy difficult if the material is veryy hard and


strong. These machining operations are made easier by
the presintering operation which is done before
sintering
i t i operation.
ti

581

582

R
i
Repressing

I filt ti
Infiltration

y Repressing
is
the
R
i
i performed
f
d to
t increase
i
th density
d it and
d

y Component
meltingtemperature
C
t is
i dipped
di
d into
i t a low
l
lti t
t

alloyy liquid
q

improve
p
the mechanical p
properties.
p
y Further improvement is achieved by resintering.

y The liquid would flow into the voids simply by capillary

action, thereby decreasing the porosity and improving


the
h strength
h off the
h component.
y The process is used quite extensively with ferrous parts

using copper as an infiltrate but to avoid erosion, an alloy


For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

583

Page 124 of 205

584

of copper containing iron and manganese


Rev.1is often used.
585

I
ti
Impregnation

Oil i
dP
B
B i
OilimpregnatedPorousBronzeBearings

GATE2011

y Impregnation is similar to infiltration

The
h operation in which
h h oill is permeated
d into the
h

y PM component is kept in an oil bath. The oil penetrates

pores of a powder metallurgy product is known

into the voids by capillary forces and remains there.


there
y The oil is used for lubrication of the component when
necessary. During
D i the
th actual
t l service
i conditions,
diti
th oil
the
il is
i
released slowly to provide the necessary lubrication.
y The components can absorb between 12% and 30% oil by
volume.
y It is being used on P/M selflubricating bearing
p
since the late 1920's.
9
components

as
(a) mixing
(b) sintering
(c) impregnation
(d) Infiltration

586

S 1996
996
IAS

587

In powder metallurgy, the operation carried out to


improve the bearing property of a bush is called
(a) infiltration (b) impregnation
(c) plating
(d) heat treatment

589

S 2007
200
IAS

592

The process of impregnation in powder metallurgy


technique is best described by which of the following?
(a) After sintering operation of powder metallurgy,
metallurgy rapid
cooling is performed to avoid thermal stresses.
(b) Low
L
melting
lti point
i t metal
t l is
i filled
fill d in
i the
th pores off a
sintered powder metallurgy product
(c) Liquid oil or grease is filled in the pores of a sintered
powder metallurgy product
(d) During sintering operation of powder metallurgy,
p heating
g is p
performed to avoid sudden p
produce of
rapid
high internal pressure due to volatilization of lubricant

590

S 2004
200
IAS

Consider the following basic steps involved in the


production of porous bearings:
1 Sintering
1.
2. Mixing
3. Repressing
4. Impregnation
4
p g
5. Colddiecompaction
Which one of the following is the correct sequence of the
above steps?
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

IES 2014
IES

S 1998
998
IES

Which one of the following processes is performed


in powder metallurgy to promote selflubricating
properties in sintered parts?
(a) Infiltration (b) Impregnation
( ) Plating
(c)
Pl ti
(d) Graphitization
G hiti ti

588

The following are the constituent steps in the


process of powder metallurgy:
1 Powder conditioning
1.
2. Sintering
3. Production of metallic powder
4. Pressing
4
g or compacting
p
g into the desired shape
p
Indentify the correct order in which they have to be
performed and select the correct answer using the codes
given below:
(a) 1234
1234
(b) 3142
3142
(c) 2413
(d) Page
4321
125 of 205
593

591

S 2001
200
IES
Match
List
(Components)
with
List
II
ListII
ListII
(Manufacturing Processes) and select the correct
answer using the codes given below the lists:
List I
List II
A Car
A.
C body
b d (metal)
( t l) 1.
M hi i
Machining
B. Clutch lining
2.
Casting
C. Gears
3.
Sheet metal pressing
D. Engine block
4.
Powder metallurgy
Codes:A B
C
D
A
B
C
D
( ) 3
(a)
4
2
1
(b) 4
3
1
2
(c) 4
3
2
1
(d) 3 Rev.1
4
1
2594

GATE 2008 (PI)


GATE2008(PI)

ConventionalQuestions

Matchthefollowing
Group 1
P Mulling
P.Mulling
Q.Impregnation
R.Flashtrimming
l h
S.Curing
g

Group2
1 Powdermetallurgy
1.Powdermetallurgy
2.Injection moulding
3.ProcessingofFRPcomposites
f
4.Sandcasting
g

( )
(a)P
4,Q
4,
Q 3,
3,R 2,S
,
1
(c)P 2,Q 1,R 4,S 3

ConventionalQuestions

y Explain
are blended.
E l i why
h metal
t l powders
d
bl d d Describe
D
ib

what happens
pp
during
g sintering.
g [[IES2010,, 2 Marks]]

Enumerate the steps involved in powder


powder metallurgy
metallurgy
process. Discuss these steps. Name the materials used
in powder
powder metallurgy
metallurgy.. What are the limitations of
powder metallurgy?
[IES2005, 10 Marks]

( )
(b)P
2,Q
, Q 4,
4,R 3,
3,S 1
(d)P 4,Q 1,R 2,S 3
595

596

598

599

597

WorkbookCh12:PowderMetallurgy
gy
Q. No
1

Option
D

Q. No
5

Option
C

2
3

B
C

6
7

B
D

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 126 of 205

Rev.1

Introduction

y Cementedcarbides,

y Success in metal cutting depends on selection of the

CuttingToolMaterials

BySKMondal

proper cutting tool (material and geometry) for a given


work material.
y A wide range
g of cutting
g tool materials is available with
a variety of properties, performance capabilities, and
cost.
y These include:
y High carbon Steels and low/medium alloy steels,
steels
y Highspeed steels,
y Cast cobalt
b l alloys,
ll

y Castcarbides,
Castcarbides
y Coatedcarbides,
y Coatedhighspeedsteels,
dh h
d
l
y Ceramics,
y Cermets,
y Whiskerreinforcedceramics,
Whiskerreinforcedceramics
y Sialons,
y Sinteredpolycrystallinecubicboronnitride(CBN),
d l
ll
b b
d (
)
y Sinteredpolycrystallinediamond,andsinglecrystal

naturaldiamond.

2
Contd

Carbon Steels
CarbonSteels
y Limited tool life. Therefore, not suited to mass

production.
production
y Can be formed into complex shapes for small production

runs
y Low cost
y Suited
S i d to hand
h d tools,
l and
d wood
d working
ki
y Carbon content about 0.9 to 1.35% with a hardness

FIGURE:Improvementsincuttingtoolmaterialshavereduced
machiningtime.

ABOUT 62
6 C Rockwell
R k ll
y Maximum cutting speeds about 8 m/min. dry and used
upto 250oC
y The hot hardness value is low. This is the major factor in
tooll life.
lif
4

S 1997
99
IAS

Highspeedsteel

Assertion (A): Cutting tools made of high carbon


steel have shorter tool life.
Reason(R): During machining,
machining the tip of the cutting
tool is heated to 600/700C which cause the tool tip
to lose its hardness.
hardness
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correctt explanation
l
ti off A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Fig.Productivityraisedbycuttingtoolmaterials

y These
steels
metals
Th
t l are used
d for
f cutting
tti
t l att a much
h

higher cutting speed than ordinary carbon tool steels.


y The high speed steels have the valuable property of
retaining their hardness even when heated to red heat.
y Most of the high speed steels contain tungsten as the
y g element, but other elements like cobalt,
chief alloying
chromium, vanadium, etc. may be present in some
p p
proportion.

Page 127 of 205

Rev.1

9
Contd

IES 2013
IES2013

y WithtimetheeffectivenessandefficiencyofHSS

(too s) a d t e app cat o a ge e e g adua y


(tools)andtheirapplicationrangeweregradually
enhancedbyimprovingitspropertiesandsurface
conditionthrough
y Refinementofmicrostructure
y AdditionoflargeamountofcobaltandVanadiumto
g
increasehothardnessandwearresistance
respectively
y Manufacturebypowdermetallurgicalprocess
y Surfacecoatingwithheatandwearresistive
g
materialslikeTiC ,TiN ,etcbyChemicalVapour
Deposition(CVD)orPhysicalVapourDeposition
(PVD)

Vanadium in high speed steels:


((a)) Has a tendencyy to p
promote decarburization
(b) Form very hard carbides and thereby increases the
wear resistance of the tool
(c) Helps in achieving high hot hardness
(d) Has
H a tendency
d
to promote retention
i off Austenite
A
i

10

1841Highspeedsteel
chromium and 1 per cent vanadium.
y It is considered to be one of the best of all purpose tool
steels.
y It is widely used for drills, lathe, planer and shaper
g cutters, reamers, broaches, threading
g
tools, milling
dies, punches, etc.

Thebladeofapowersawismadeof
Th bl d f

i d f
(a) Boronsteel
(b) Highspeedsteel
(c) Stainlesssteel
(d) Malleablecastiron

16

12

IES2007

Thecorrectsequenceofelementsof1841HSS
Th
t
f l
t f 8
HSS
toolis
( ) W,Cr,V
(a)
(b) Mo,Cr,V
(c) Cr,Ni,C
(d) Cu,Zn,Sn
Cu Zn Sn

13

IES1993

Whichofthefollowingprocessescanbeusedfor
productionthin,hard,heatresistantcoatingatTiN,
onHSS?
1. Physicalvapour deposition.
Sinteringunderreducingatmosphere.
te g u de educ g at osp e e.
2.. S
3. Chemicalvapour depositionwithposttreatment
4. Plasmaspraying.
Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodesgivenbelow:
Codes:
(a) 1and3
(b) 2and3
(c) 2and4
(d) 1and4

11

IES2003

y This
4 per centt
Thi steel
t l contains
t i 18
8 per centt tungsten,
t
t

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

IAS1997

Cuttingtoolmaterial1841HSShaswhichoneof
C tti t l t i l 8
HSSh hi h
f
thefollowingcompositions?
( ) 18%W,4%Cr,1%V
(a)
( ) 18%Cr,4%W,1%V
(b)
(c) 18%W,4%Ni,1%V
(d) 18%Cr,4%Ni,1%V

14

15

Molybdenumhighspeedsteel

Superhighspeedsteel

y This
6 per centt
Thi steel
t l contains
t i 6 per centt tungsten,
t
t

y This
called
Thi steel
t l is
i also
l
ll d cobalt
b lt high
hi h speed
d steel
t l

molybdenum, 4 per cent chromium and 2 per cent


vanadium.
di
y It has excellent toughness and cutting ability.
y The molybdenum high speed steels are better and
p than other types
yp of steels.
cheaper
y It is particularly used for drilling and tapping
operations.

because cobalt is added from 2 to 15 per cent, in order


t increase
to
i
th cutting
the
tti
efficiency
ffi i
especially
i ll att high
hi h
temperatures.
y This steel contains 20 per cent tungsten, 4 per cent
chromium, 2 per cent vanadium and 12 per cent cobalt.

Page 128 of 205

17

Rev.1

18

IES1995

IES2000

Thecompositionsofsomeofthealloysteelsareas
under:
1 18W4Cr1V
1.
2. 12Mo1W4Cr1V
3. 6Mo6W4Cr1V
6M 6W C V
4. 18W8Cr1V
Thecompositionsofcommonlyusedhighspeedsteels
wouldinclude
(a) 1and2
(b) 2and3
(c) 1and4
(d) 1and3

Percentageofvariousalloyingelementspresent
P
t
f i
ll i l
t
t
indifferentsteelmaterialsaregivenbelow:
1. 18%W;4%Cr;1%V;5%Co;0.7%C
2. 8%Mo;4%Cr;2%V;6%W;0.7%C
3. 27%Cr;3%Ni;5%Mo;0.25%C
4 18%Cr;8%Ni;0.15%C
4.
18%Cr;8%Ni;0 15%C
Whichoftheserelatetothatofhighspeedsteel?
( ) 1and3
(a)
d
(b) 1and2
d
(c) 2and3
(d) 2and4

19

IAS2001

Assertion(A):ThecharacteristicfeatureofHigh
speedSteelisitsredhardness.
Reason(R):ChromiumandcobaltinHighSpeed
promotemartensite formationwhenthetooliscold
worked.
(a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthecorrect
explanationofA
(b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the
correctexplanationofA
( ) AistruebutRisfalse
(c)
Ai
b Ri f l
(d) AisfalsebutRistrue

22

Castcobaltalloys/Stellite
y Cast
cobalt
are cobaltrich,
carbon
C
b l alloys
ll
b l i h chromiumtungsten
h
i
b

y
y
y

cast alloys having properties and applications in the


intermediate range
g between highspeed
g p
steel and cemented
carbides.
Although comparable in roomtemperature hardness to high
speed
d steell tools,
l cast cobalt
b l alloy
ll tools
l retain
i their
h i hardness
h d
to
a much higher temperature. Consequently, they can be used at
higher
g
cutting
g speeds
p
((25%
5 higher)
g ) than HSS tools.
Cutting speed of up to 80100 fpm can be used on mild steels.
Cast cobalt alloys
y are hard as cast and cannot be softened or
heat treated.
Cast cobalt alloys contain a primary phase of Corich solid
solution strengthened by
b Cr and W and dispersion hardened by
b
complex hard, refractory carbides of W and Cr.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

25
Contd

ThemainalloyingelementsinhighspeedSteelin
Th i ll i l
t i hi h
dSt li
orderofincreasingproportionare
( ) Vanadium,chromium,tungsten
(a)
(b) Tungsten,titanium,vanadium
g
(c) Chromium,titanium,vanadium
(d) Tungsten,chromium,titanium
Tungsten chromium titanium

20

IAS1994

Assertion(A):Forhighspeedturningofmagnesium
Assertion(A):Forhigh speedturningofmagnesium
alloys,thecoolantorcuttingfluidpreferrediswater
misciblemineralfattyoil.
Reason(R):Asarule,waterbasedoilsarerecommended
forhighspeedoperationsinwhichhightemperaturesare
generatedduetohighfrictionalheat Waterbeingagood
generatedduetohighfrictionalheat.Waterbeingagood
coolant,theheatdissipationisefficient.
((a)) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthecorrect
y
explanationofA
(b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot thecorrect
explanationofA
l
i fA
(c) AistruebutRisfalse
(d) AisfalsebutRistrue

IES1992

21

IAS 2013Main
CompareHSSandceramictoolswithregardtotheir
applicationinhighspeedmachining.

23

y Other elements added include V, B, Ni, and Ta.


y Tools of cast cobalt alloys are generally cast to shape and

finished
f
h d to size by
b grinding.
d
y They are available only in simple shapes, such as single

point
i t tools
t l and
d saw blades,
bl d
b
because
off limitations
li it ti
i the
in
th
casting process and expense involved in the final shaping
(grinding). The high cost of fabrication is due primarily to
the high hardness of the material in the ascast condition.
y Materials machinable with this tool material include plain
p
carbon steels, alloy steels, nonferrous alloys, and cast iron.
y Cast cobalt alloys are currently being phased out for
cuttingtool applications because of increasing costs,
shortages of strategic raw materials (Co, W, and Cr), and
the development of other,
other superior tool materials at lower
cost.
Page 129 of 205
26

24

IES2011
Stellite is a nonferrous
non ferrous cast alloy composed of:
(a) Cobalt, chromium and tungsten
(b) Tungsten, vanadium and chromium
((c)) Molybdenum,
y
tungsten
g
and chromium
(d)Tungsten, molybdenum, chromium and vanadium

Rev.1

27

CementedCarbide

IAS 2013Main

y Cemented carbide tool materials based on TiC have

y Carbides,
which
alloys,
are also
called,
C bid
hi h are nonferrous
f
ll
l
ll d

Whatarethedesirablepropertieswhileselectingatool
materialformetalcuttingapplications?

y
y

sintered (or cemented) carbides because they are


manufactured by powder metallurgy techniques.
techniques
Most carbide tools in use today are either straight
g
carbide ((WC)) or multicarbides of WTi or W
tungsten
TiTa, depending on the work material to be machined.
Cobalt is the binder.
These tool materials are much harder, are chemically more
stable, have better hot hardness, high stiffness, and lower
fi i
friction,
and
d operate at higher
hi h cutting
i speeds
d than
h do
d HSS.
HSS
They are more brittle and more expensive and use strategic
metals
t l (W,
(W Ta,
T Co)
C ) more extensively.
t i l
29
Contd

28

30
Contd

IES1995

y Speeds up to 300 fpm are common on mild steels

Thestraightgradesofcementedcarbidecutting
toolmaterialscontain
(a) Tungstencarbideonly
(b) Tungstencarbideandtitaniumcarbide
(c) Tungstencarbideandcobalt
(d) Tungstencarbideandcobaltcarbide
T
t bid d b lt bid

y Hot hardness properties are very good


y Coolants
C l t and
d lubricants
l bi
t can be
b used
d to
t increase
i
t l
tool

life, but are not required.


y Special alloys are needed to cut steel

31
Contd

S 1994
99
IAS
Assertion (A): Cemented carbide tool tips are
produced by powder metallurgy.
Reason (R): Carbides cannot be melted and cast.
cast
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correctt explanation
l
ti off A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
((c)) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

bee
e oped, p
a y for
o
auto industry
dust y
been de
developed,
primarily
applications using predominantly Ni and Mo as a
binder. These are used for higherspeed (> 1000
ft/min) finish machining of steels and some malleable
cast irons.
y Cemented carbide tools are available in insert form in
many different shapes; squares, triangles, diamonds,
and
d rounds.
d
y Compressive strength is high compared to tensile
strength,
t
th therefore
th f
th bits
the
bit are often
ft brazed
b
d to
t steel
t l
shanks, or used as inserts in holders.
y These
Th
i
inserts
t may often
ft have
h
negative
ti rake
k angles.
l

34

32

Tablebelowshowsdetailgroupingofcementedcarbidetools

ThestandardsdevelopedbyISOforgroupingofcarbidetools
andtheirapplicationrangesaregiveninTablebelow.
ISO Code

Colour Code

ISO
Application
group

Application

For machining long chip forming


common materials like plain carbon
and low alloy steels

For machining long or short chip


forming ferrous materials like
Stainless steel

33

For machining short chipping,


ferrous and non- ferrous material
and
d non metals
t l like
lik Cast
C t IIron,
Brass
Page
130etc.
of 205

35

Material

Process

P01

Steel Steel castings


Steel,

Precision and finish machining,


machining high speed

P10

Steel, Steel castings

P20

Steel, steel castings,


malleable cast iron

Turning, threading, and milling high speed,


small chips
Turning, milling, medium speed with small chip
section

P30

Steel, steel castings,


malleable cast iron

Turning, milling, medium speed with small chip


section

P40

Steel and steel casting


with sand inclusions

Turning planning
Turning,
planning, low cutting speed
speed, large chip
section

P50

Steel and steel castings Operations requiring high toughness turning,


of medium or low tensile planning, shaping at low cutting speeds
strength

Rev.1

36

K01
K10

K20
K30
K40
M10
M20

M30

M40

Hard grey C.l., chilled casting,


Turning, precision turning and boring, milling,
Al. alloys with high silicon
scraping
Grey
C.l.
hardness
> 220 HB
HB.
Turning,
milling,
boring,
reaming,
broaching,
G
C
l h
d
T i
illi
b i
i
b
hi
Malleable C.l., Al. alloys
scraping
containing Si
Grey C.l.
C l hardness up to 220
Turning milling
Turning,
milling, broaching,
broaching requiring high
HB
toughness
Soft grey C.l. Low tensile
Turning, reaming under favourable conditions
strength steel
Soft non-ferrous metals
Turning milling etc.
Steel, steel castings,
Turning, milling, medium cutting speed and medium
manganese steel, grey C.l.
chip section
Steel casting,
casting austentic steel,
steel Turning,
Turning milling
milling, medium cutting speed and medium
manganese steel,
chip section
spherodized C.l., Malleable
C.l.
Steel, austenitic steel,
Turning, milling, planning, medium cutting speed,
spherodized C.l. heat
medium or large chip section
resisting alloys
f turning, specially in automatic
Free cutting steel, low tensile
Turning, profile
strength steel, brass and light
machines.
alloy
37

IES1999

Ceramics

MatchListI(ISOclassificationofcarbidetools)withList
M hLi I(ISO l ifi i f bid
l ) i hLi
II(Applications)andselectthecorrectanswerusingthe
codesgivenbelowtheLists:
g
ListI
ListII
A. P10
1.
Nonferrous,roughingcut
g g
B. P50
2.
Nonferrous,finishingcut
C. K10
3.
Ferrousmaterial,roughingcut
D. K50
4.
Ferrousmaterial,finishingcut
Code: A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
( ) 4
(a)
3
1
2
( )
(b)
3
4
2
1
(c) 4
3
2
1
(d)
3
4
1
2

y Ceramics
C
i are essentially
i ll alumina
l i ( Al2O3 ) based
b d high
hi h

ceramic
i turning.
i
y The main problems of ceramic tools are their low
strength, poor thermal characteristics, and the
tendency to chipping.
y They are not suitable for intermittent cutting or for low
g speeds.
p
cutting
y Very high hot hardness properties
y Often used as inserts in special holders.
holders

Comparisonofimportantpropertiesofceramicandtungstencarbidetools 40

y
y
y

technique this material is very tough but prone to builtup


edge formation in machining steels
Developing SIALON deriving beneficial effects of Al2O3
and
d Si3N4
S
Adding carbide like TiC (5 ~ 15%) in Al2O3 powder to
i
impart
t toughness
t
h
and
d thermal
th
l conductivity
d ti it
Reinforcing oxide or nitride ceramics by SiC whiskers, which
enhanced strength,
strength toughness and life of the tool and thus
productivity spectacularly.
Toughening Al2O3 ceramic by adding suitable metal like
silver which also impart thermal conductivity and self
gp
property;
p y this novel and inexpensive
p
tool is still
lubricating
in experimental stage.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

43
Contd

39
Contd

38

y It is possible to get mirror finish on cast iron using

y Introducing nitride ceramic (Si3N4) with proper sintering

refractory materials introduced specifically for high


speed machining of difficult to machine materials and
cast iron.
y These can withstand very high temperatures,
temperatures are
chemically more stable, and have higher wear
resistance than the other cutting tool materials.
materials
y In view of their ability to withstand high temperatures,
they can be used for machining at very high speeds of
the order of 10 m/s.
y Theycanbeoperatedatfromtwotothreetimesthe
cuttingspeedsoftungstencarbide.

y Through last few years remarkable improvements in

strength and toughness and hence overall performance


of ceramic tools could have been possible by several
means which include;
y Sinterability,
microstructure,
strength
and
toughness of Al2O3 ceramics were improved to
some extent by adding TiO2 and MgO,
y Transformation
T
f
i
toughening
h i
b adding
by
ddi
appropriate
i
amount of partially or fully stabilised zirconia in
Al O powder,
Al2O3
d
y Isostatic and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) these are
very effective but expensive route.

41
Contd

y Cutting fluid, if applied should in flooding with

copious quantity of fluid,


fluid to thoroughly wet the entire
machining zone, since ceramics have very poor
thermal shock resistance.
resistance Else,
Else it can be machined
with no coolant.
y Ceramic
C
i tools
l are used
d for
f machining
hi i
work
k pieces,
i
which have high hardness, such as hard castings, case
h d
hardened
d and
d hardened
h d
d steel.
l
y Typical products can be machined are brake discs,
brake drums, cylinder liners and flywheels.
Page 131 of 205

44

42
Contd

HighPerformanceceramics(HPC)

SiliconNitride
(i)Plain
(ii)SIALON
(iii)Whiskertoughened

Aluminatoughned by
(i)Zirconia
(ii)SiC whiskers
(iii)Metal(Sil eretc)
(iii)Metal(Silveretc)
Rev.1

45

IES 2013
IES2013

IES 2010
IES2010
Constituents of ceramics are oxides of
different materials, which are
( ) Cold
(a)
C ld mixed
i d to
t make
k ceramic
i pallets
ll t
((b)) Ground,, sintered and p
palleted to make readyy
ceramics
(c) Ground,
Ground washed with acid,
acid heated and cooled
(d) Ground, sintered, palleted and after calcining
cooled in oxygen

Sialon ceramicisusedas:
((a)Cutting
)
g tool material
(b)Creep resistant
(c)Furnacelinens
(d)Highstrength

46

IES1997

Considerthefollowingcuttingtoolmaterialsusedfor
C
id h f ll i
i
l
i l
df
metalcuttingoperationat
highspeed:
1. Tungstencarbide
2 Cementedtitaniumcarbide
2.
3. Highspeedsteel
4. Ceramic
C
i
Thecorrectsequenceinincreasingorderoftherangeof
cuttingspeedsforoptimumuseofthesematerialsis
(a) 3,1,4,2
(b) 1,3,2,4
(c) 3,1,2,4
3124
(d) 1,3,4,2
1342
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

52

48

IES2007

Amachinistdesirestoturnaroundsteelstockof
outsidediameter100mmat1000rpm.The
materialhastensilestrengthof75kg/mm2.The
depthofcutchosenis3mmatafeedrateof0.3
mm/rev.Whichoneofthefollowingtool
h h
f h f ll
l
materialswillbesuitableformachiningthe
componentunderthespecifiedcutting
d
h
f d
conditions?
(a) Sinteredcarbides
(b) Ceramic
((c)) HSS
((d)) Diamond

49

IAS2000

MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswer
usingthecodesgivenbelowthelists:
ListI(Cuttingtools)
(
g
)
ListII(Majorconstituent)
( j
)
A. Stellite
l.
Tungsten
B. H.S.S.
2.
Cobalt
C. Ceramic
3.
Alumina
D. DCON
4.
Columbium
5.
Ti i
Titanium
Codes:A B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 5
1
3
4
(b)
2
1
4
3
(c) 2
1
3
4
(d) 2
5
3
4

47

IES1996

Assertion(A):Ceramictoolsareusedonlyforlight,
A
i (A) C
i
l
d l f li h
smoothandcontinuouscutsathighspeeds.
Reason(R):Ceramicshaveahighwearresistanceand
hightemperatureresistance.
(a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe
correctexplanationofA
(b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the
correctexplanationofA
((c)) AistruebutRisfalse
(d) AisfalsebutRistrue

IAS1996

Whichoneofthefollowingisnotaceramic?
(a) Alumina
(b) Porcelain
(c) Whisker
(d) Pyrosil

50

51

IAS2003

CoatedCarbideTools

Atroomtemperature,whichoneofthefollowing
isthecorrectsequenceofincreasinghardnessof
thetoolmaterials?
(a) CastalloyHSSCeramicCarbide
y
(b) HHCastalloyCeramicCarbide
(c) HSSCastalloyCarbideCeramic
(d) CastalloyHSSCarbideCeramic

y Coated
the
d tools
l are becoming
b
h norm in the
h metalworking
l
k

Page 132 of 205

53

industry because coating , can consistently improve, tool


lif 200 or 300%
life
% or more.
y In cutting tools, material requirements at the surface of the
tooll need
d to be
b abrasion
b i
resistant,
i
h d and
hard,
d chemically
h i ll
inert to prevent the tool and the work material from
interacting chemically with each other during cutting.
cutting
y A thin, chemically stable, hard refractory coating of TiC,
TiN or Al2O3 accomplishes this objective.
TiN,
objective
y The bulk of the tool is a tough, shockresistant carbide that
can withstand
ith t d hightemperature
hi h t
t
plastic
l ti deformation
d f
ti
and
d
resist breakage.
Rev.1
54

Contd

y The coatings must be fine grained, & free of binders

and porosity.
porosity
y Naturally, the coatings must be metallurgically bonded
to the
h substrate.
b
y Interface coatings are graded to match the properties
of the coating and the substrate.
y The coatings
g must be thick enough
g to p
prolong
g tool life
but thin enough to prevent brittleness.
y Coatings should have a low coefficient of friction so
that the chips do not adhere to the rake face.
y Multiple coatings are used,
used with each layer imparting
its own characteristic to the tool.
55
Contd

IAS1999

y The

most
successful
combinations
are
TiN/TiC/TiCN/TiN and TiN/TiC/ Al2O3 .
y Chemical vapour
p
deposition
p
((CVD)) is the technique
q
used to coat carbides.

56
Contd

TiNCoatedHighSpeedSteel
provide as dramatic improvements in cutting speeds as
do coated carbides, with increases of 10 to 20% being
typical.
y In addition to hobs, gearshaper cutters, and drills,
g coated by TiN now includes reamers, taps,
HSS tooling
chasers, spadedrill blades, broaches, bandsaw and
circular saw blades, insert tooling, form tools, end
mills, and an assortment of other milling cutters.

Cermets
y These sintered hard inserts are made by combining cer from

y
y
y
y
y

ceramics
metall (binder)
i like
lik TiC,
TiC TiN or TiCN and
d met

from
f
(bi d )
like Ni, NiCo, Fe etc.
H d more chemically
Harder,
h i ll stable
t bl and
d hence
h
more wear resistant
i t t
More brittle and less thermal shock resistant
Wt% off binder
bi d metal
t l varies
i from
f
10 to
t 20%.
%
Cutting edge sharpness is retained unlike in coated carbide
inserts
Can machine steels at higher cutting velocity than that used for
tungsten carbide,
carbide even coated carbides in case of light cuts.
cuts
Modern cermets with rounded cutting edges are suitable for
finishing and semi
semifinishing
finishing of steels at higher speeds, stainless
steels but are not suitable for jerky interrupted machining and
GATEmaterials.
& PSUs)
61
machining ofFor-2015
aluminium(IES,
and similar

best process for coating HSS,


HSS primarily because it is a
relatively low temperature process that does not
exceed the tempering point of HSS.
HSS
y Therefore, no subsequent heat treatment of the
cutting
i tooll is
i required.
i d
y The advantage of TiNcoated HSS tooling is reduced
tool wear.
y Less tool wear results in less stock removal during
g tool
regrinding, thus allowing individual tools to be
g
more times.
reground

59
Contd

58

y Physical vapour deposition (PVD) has proved to be the

y Coated highspeed steel (HSS)


(
) does not routinely

Thecoatingmaterialsforcoatedcarbidetools,
includes
(a) TiC,TiN andNaCN
(b) TiC andTiN
(c) TiN andNaCN
(d) TiC andNaCN

57

IES 2010
IES2010
The cutting tool material required to
sustain high temperature is
(a) High carbon steel alloys
(b) Composite of lead and steel
(c) Cermet
(d) Alloy of steel, zinc and tungsten

Page 133 of 205

62

60

IES2000
Cermetsare
(a) Metalsforhightemperatureusewithceramiclike
g
p
properties
(b) Ceramicswithmetallicstrengthandluster
(c) Coatedtoolmaterials
(d) Metalceramiccomposites
M t l
i
it

Rev.1

63

Diamonds

S 2003
IES
The correct sequence of cutting tools in the
ascending order of their wear resistance is
(a) HSSCast
HSS Cast nonferrous
non ferrous alloy (Stellite)Carbide
(Stellite) Carbide
Nitride
(b) Cast
C t nonferrous
f
alloy
ll
(St llit ) HSS C bid
(Stellite)HSSCarbide
Nitride
(c) HSSCast nonferrous alloy (Stellite)Nitride
Carbide
(d) Cast nonferrous alloy (Stellite)CarbideNitride
HSS
64

( )
GATE 2009(PI)

y Diamond is the hardest of all the cutting tool materials.


y Diamond
Di
d has
h the
h following
f ll i properties:
i
y extreme hardness,

Diamond cutting tools are not recommended for

y low
l thermal
h
l expansion,

machining of ferrous metals due to

y high heat conductivity, and


y a very low coefficient of friction.

y This is used when good surface finish and dimensional accuracy

are desired.
d i d

( ) high thermal conductivity of work material


(b)

y The workmaterials on which diamonds are successfully employed

are the nonferrous


non ferrous one,
one such as copper,
copper brass,
brass zinc,
zinc aluminium
and magnesium alloys.
y On ferrous materials,
materials diamonds are not suitable because of the
diffusion of carbon atoms from diamond to the workpiece
65
Contd
material.

y Diamondtoolsofferdramaticperformance

g tools,, milling
g cutters,, reamers,, g
g wheels,, honing
g
boring
grinding
tools, lapping powder and for grinding wheel dressing.
y Due to their brittle nature, the diamond tools have poor
resistance to shock and so, should be loaded lightly.
y Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tools consist of a thin layer (0.5
to 1.5 mm) of'fine grain size diamond particles sintered
together and metallurgically bonded to a cemented carbide
substrate.
substrate
y The main advantages of sintered polycrystalline tools over
natural single
singlecrystal
crystal tools are better quality,
quality greater toughness,
toughness
and improved wear resistance, resulting from the random
orientation of the diamond g
grains and the lack of large
g cleavage
g
planes.

improvementsovercarbides.Toollifeisoftengreatly
improvementsovercarbides Toollifeisoftengreatly
improved,asiscontroloverpartsize,finish,and
surfaceintegrity.
surfaceintegrity
y Positiveraketoolingisrecommendedforthevast
majorityofdiamondtoolingapplications.
majorityofdiamondtoolingapplications
y IfBUEisaproblem,increasingcuttingspeedandthe
useofmorepositiverakeanglesmayeliminateit.
f
ii k
l
li i
i
y Oxidationofdiamondstartsatabout450oCand
thereafteritcanevencrack.Forthisreasonthe
diamondtooliskeptfloodedbythecoolantduring
cutting,andlightfeedsareused.

67
Contd

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

70

(d) chemical affinity of tool material with iron


66

Assertion(A):Nonferrousmaterialsarebest
A
i (A) N
f

i l b
machinedwithdiamondtools.
Reason(R):Diamondtoolsaresuitableforhighspeed
machining.
(a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe
correctexplanationofA
(b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the
correctexplanationofA
((c)) AistruebutRisfalse
(d) AisfalsebutRistrue

68

S 1999
999
IES

Assertion(A):Diamondtoolscanbeusedathigh
A
i (A) Di
d
l
b
d hi h
speeds.
Reason(R):Diamondtoolshaveverylowcoefficient
offriction.
(a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe
correctexplanationofA
(b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the
correctexplanationofA
((c)) AistruebutRisfalse
(d) AisfalsebutRistrue

(c) poor tool toughness

IES1995

y Diamond tools have the applications in single point turning and

IES2001

(a) high tool hardness

Considerthefollowingstatements:
Forprecisionmachiningofnonferrousalloys,diamond
ispreferredbecauseithas
1. Lowcoefficientofthermalexpansion
2. Highwearresistance
33. Highcompressionstrength
g
p
g
4. Lowfracturetoughness
Whichofthesestatementsarecorrect?
(a) 1and2
(b) 1and4
(c) 2and3
(d) 3and4
Page 134 of 205

71

69

IES1992
Whichofthefollowinggiventhecorrectorderof
increasinghothardnessofcuttingtoolmaterial?
(a) Diamond,Carbide,HSS
(b) Carbide,Diamond,HSS
(c) HSS,carbide,Diamond
(d) HSS,Diamond,Carbide
HSS Di
d C bid

Rev.1

72

S 1999
999
IAS
Assertion(A):Duringcutting,thediamondtoolis
keptfloodedwithcoolant.
Reason(R):Theoxidationofdiamondstartsat
about4500C
( ) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe
(a)
B thA dR i di id ll t dRi th
correctexplanationofA
(b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the
correctexplanationofA
(c) AistruebutRisfalse
(d) AisfalsebutRistrue

Cubicboronnitride/Borazon
y Next to diamond, cubic boron nitride is the hardest

material presently available.


y It is made by bonding a 0.5 1 mm layer of
polycrystalline
p
y y
cubic boron nitride to cobalt based
carbide substrate at very high temperature and
pressure.
y It remains inert and retains high hardness and fracture
oug ess aat eelevated
e a ed machining
ac
g speeds.
toughness
y It shows excellent performance in grinding any
material of high hardness and strength.
strength

steels,hardchillcastiron,andnickel andcobalt
basedsuperalloys.
y CBNcanbeusedefficientlyandeconomicallyto
y
y
machinethesedifficulttomachinematerialsathigher
g
speeds(fivefold)andwithahigherremovalrate
(fivefold)thancementedcarbide,andwithsuperior
accuracy,finish,andsurfaceintegrity.

IES2002

Considerthefollowingtoolmaterials:
1. Carbide
2.
Cermet
3. Ceramic
4.
Borazon.
Correctsequenceofthesetoolmaterialsinincreasing
orderoftheirabilitytoretaintheirhothardnessis
( ) 1,2,3,4
(a)
(b) 1,2,4,3
(c) 2,1,3,4
(d) 2,1,4,3

Whichoneofthefollowingisthehardestcutting
toolmaterialnextonlytodiamond?
(a) Cementedcarbides
(b) Ceramics
(c) Silicon
(d) Cubicboronnitride
C bi b
it id

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

77

IES1994

Cubicboronnitride
(a) Hasaveryhighhardnesswhichiscomparableto
y g
p
thatofdiamond.
(b) Hasahardnesswhichisslightlymorethanthatof
HSS
(c) Isusedformakingcylinderblocksofaircraft
engines
(d) Isusedformakingopticalglasses.
I df ki ti l l

79

75
Contd

IES1994

76

IES1996

grey cast iron is 300 ~400


400 m/min
y Speed ranges for other materials are as follows:
y Hard
H d castt iron
i
( 400 BHN) : 80
(>
8 300 m/min
/ i
y Superalloys (> 35 RC) : 80 140 m/min
y Hardened steels (> 45 RC) : 100 300 m/min
y Itt iss best to use ccBN too
toolss with
t a honed
o ed o
or cchamfered
a e ed
edge preparation, especially for interrupted cuts. Like
ceramics,, cBN tools are also available onlyy in the form
of indexable inserts.
y The only limitation of it is its high cost.
cost

74
Contd

73

y CBNislessreactivewithsuchmaterialsashardened

y The operative speed range for cBN when machining

IAS1998

Cubicboronnitrideisused
(a) Asliningmaterialininductionfurnace
g
(b) Formakingopticalqualityglass.
(c) Forheattreatment
(d) Fornoneoftheabove.

Page 135 of 205

78

Whichofthefollowingtoolmaterialshavecobalt
asaconstituentelement?
1. Cementedcarbide
2.
CBN
3. Stellite
4.
UCON
Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodesgivenbelow:
C d
Codes:
(a) 1and2
(b) 1and3
(c) 1and4
(d) 2and3

80

Rev.1

81

Coronite
y Coronite is made basically by combining HSS for strength and

toughness
and
and
h
d tungsten carbides
bid for
f heat
h
d wear resistance.
i
y Microfine TiCN particles are uniformly dispersed into the matrix.
y Unlikeasolidcarbide,thecoronite
lk
ld
bd h
b d
basedtoolismadeofthree
l
d f h

layers;
y thecentralHSSorspringsteelcore
th t lHSS i t l
y alayerofcoronite ofthicknessaround15%ofthetool
diameter
y athin(2to5m)PVDcoatingofTiCN
y The coronite tools made by
b hot extrusion
e trusion followed
follo ed by
b PVD
PVD
coating of TiN or TiCN outperformed HSS tools in respect of
cutting forces,
forces tool life and surface finish.

IES1993

83

84

Considerthefollowingtoolmaterials:
1. HSS
2.
Cementedcarbide
3. Ceramics
4.
Diamond
Thecorrectsequenceofthesematerialsindecreasing
orderoftheircuttingspeedis
( ) 4,3,1,2
(a)

(b) 4,3,2,1

(c) 3,4,2,1
(d) 3,4,1,2

MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswer
M t hLi t I ithLi t II d l tth
t

usingthecodesgivenbelowtheLists:
ListI
ListII
(Materials)
(Applications)
A. Tungstencarbide
1.
Abrasivewheels
B
B.
Sili
Siliconnitride
i id
2.
H i l
Heatingelements
C. Aluminium oxide
3.
Pipesforconveying
liquidmetals
q
D. Siliconcarbide
4.
Drawingdies
Code: A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 3
4
1
2
(b) 4
3
2
1
(c) 3
4
2
1
(d) 4
3
1
2

Match.ListI(Cuttingtoolmaterials)withListII
M t h Li tI(C tti t l t i l ) ithLi tII
(Manufacturingmethods)andselectthecorrectanswer
usingthecodesgivenbelowtheLists:
ListI
ListII
A. HSS
1.
Casting
B
B.
Stellite
2
2.
Forging
C. Cementedcarbide
3.
Rolling
D. UCO
UCON
4.
4
Extrusion
5.
Powdermetallurgy
Codes:A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 3
1
5
2
(b) 2
5
4
3
(c) 3
5
4
2
(d) 2
1
5
3

85

86

87

IES1999

Attritionwear

IES1996

y The
bonding
the
Th strong
t
b di between
b t
th chip
hi and
d tool
t l material
t i l att

Thelimittothemaximumhardnessofawork
Th li itt th
i
h d
f
k
materialwhichcanbemachinedwithHSStools
evenatlowspeedsissetbywhichoneofthe
tl
d i tb hi h
fth
followingtoolfailuremechanisms?
( ) Attrition
(a)
(b) Abrasion
(c) Diffusion
(d) Plasticdeformationundercompression.
Plasticdeformationundercompression

y
y

Whichoneofthefollowingisnotasynthetic
abrasivematerial?
(a) SiliconCarbide
(b) Aluminium Oxide
(c) TitaniumNitride
(d) CubicBoronNitride

82

IES2000

IES2003

MatchListIwithListITandselectthecorrectanswerusingthe
M t hLi tI ithLi tIT d l tth
t
i th
codesgivenbelowthelists:
List I(CuttingtoolMaterial) List II(Major
characteristicconstituent)
h
t i ti
tit
t)
A. Highspeedsteel
1.
Carbon
B. Stellite
2.
Molybdenum
y
C. Diamond
3.
Nitride
D. Coatedcarbidetool
4.
Columbium
5
5.
Cobalt
Codes: A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 2
1
3
5
(b)
2
5
1
3
(c) 5
2
4
3
(d)
5
4
2
3

high temperature is conducive for adhesive wear.


The adhesive wear in the rough region is called attrition
wear .
In the rough region, some parts of the worn surface are still
covered
d by
b molten
l
chip
hi and
d the
h irregular
i
l attrition
ii
wear
occurs in this region .
The irregular attrition wear is due to the intermittent
adhesion during interrupted cutting which makes a
periodic attachment and detachment of the work material
on the tool surface.
surface
Therefore, when the seizure between workpiece to tool is
broken, the small fragments of tool material are plucked
and brought away by the chip.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
88

Page 136 of 205

IAS2001

IES2005
Considerthefollowingstatements:Anincreasein
thecobaltcontentinthestraightcarbidegrades
ofcarbidetools
1. Increasesthehardness.
2 Decreasesthehardness.
2.
Decreasesthehardness
3. Increasesthetransverserupturestrength
4. Lowersthetransverserupturestrength.
L
h

h
Whichofthestatementsgivenabovearecorrect?
(a) 1and3
(b) 2and4
(d) 2and3
(c) 1and4
89

Rev.1

90

Ch-1 Basics of Metal Cutting: Answers with Explanations


GATE-2014

Page No.2

Slide No.3

Ans. (a)

IES-2013

Page No.2

SlideNo.4

Ans.(c)

Speed V
IES-2001

DN
1000

Page No.2
degree.

m / min

30 1000

Slide No.5

1000

m / min 94.2 m / min

Ans. (c) For cutting brass recommended rake angle is -5 to +5

IES-1995
Page No.2
Slide No.6
Ans. (a) It is true form-cutting procedure, no rake should be
ground on the tool, and the top of the tool must be horizontal and be set exactly in line with the axis of
rotation of the work; otherwise, the resulting thread profile will not be correct. An obvious disadvantage
of this method is that the absence of side and back rake results in poor cutting (except on cast iron or
brass). The surface finish on steel usually will be poor.
GATE-1995;2008
Page No.2
Slide No.7
Ans. (a) Increasing rake angle reduces the cutting force
on the tool and thus power consumption is reduced.
IES-1993

Page No.2

Slide No.8

specific pressure. Specific pressure =

Ans. (d) Negative rake angle increases the cutting force i.e.

Cutting force
feeddepth of cut

IES-2005
Page No.2
Slide No.9
Ans.(b)Carbide tips are generally given negative rake angle it is
very hard and very brittle material. Negative rake is used as carbides are brittle not due to hardness.
Hardness and brittleness is different property.
IES-2002

Page No. 3

Slide No.10

Ans.(c)Carbide tools are stronger in compression.

IES-2011 Page No. 3


Slide No.11 Ans. (b)The rake angle does not have any effect on flank but
clearance anglehas to reduce the friction between the tool flank and the machined surface.
GATE-2008(PI)
Page No.3
Slide No.12 Ans. (c) Brittle workpiece materials are hard and needs
stronger tool. Tools having zero or negative rake angle provides adequate strength to cutting tool due to
large lip angle.
IES-2007 Page No.3
Slide No.13 Cast Iron contents more than 2% carbon and due to high carbon
content very large amount of Iron Carbide is produced and hence cast iron is very hard. It needs stronger
tool. Tools having zero rake angle provides adequate strength to cutting tool due to large lip angle.
IAS-1994

Page No.3

Slide No.14

Ans. (d)

IES-2014

Page No.3

Slide No.15

Ans. (c)

IES-2012 Page No.3


Slide No.16 Ans.(d) When cutting velocity is increased, it will lead to increase
in power and temperature, and cutting force will be slightly reduce so we take as cutting forces will not
be affected by the cutting velocity.
IES-2006

Page No.3

Slide No.17

Ans. (d)All other tools are multi-point.

IES-2012 Page No.3


Slide No.18 Ans. (b)Both are correct. We have used negative rake angles for
different purpose but not for the direction of chip.
IES-2003

Page No.4

Slide No.19

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Ans. (b)
Page 137 of 205

Rev.1

GATE(PI)-1990
Page No.4
Slide No.20 Ans. (c)
No of chattering per cycle 360/30 = 12
No of cycle per second = 500 /60
Therefore chattering frequency is 12 x 500/60 = 100 Hz
IAS-1996

Page No.4

Slide No.21

Ans. (a)

IAS-1995

Page No.4

Slide No.22

Ans. (a) Fy Ft cos Ft sin CS

IES-2010

Page No.4

Slide No.23

Ans. (c)

Fy Ft cos Ft sin CS

(radial

force)

Fx Ft sin Ft cos CS (axial force)and SCEA has no influence on cutting force i.e. tangential force. But
this question is not for Orthogonal Cutting it should be turning.
IES-1995 Page No.4

Slide No.24

Ans. (c)

IES-2006 Page No.4

Slide No.25

Ans.(c) Smaller point angle results in higher rake angle.

IES-2002 Page No.4


Slide No.26 Ans. (d)Strength of a single point cutting tool depends on lip
angle but lip angle also depends on rake and clearance angle.
IES-2012 Page No.4

Slide No.27

Ans. (b)

IES-2009 Page No.5


Slide No.28 Ans. (c)Large nose radius improves tool life. A sharp point on the
end of a tool is highly stressed, short lived and leaves a groove in the path of cut. There is an
improvement in surface finish and permissible cutting speed as nose radius is increases from zero value.
But too large a nose radius will induce chatter.
IES-1995

Page No.5

Slide No.29

Ans. (c) It will increase tool cutting force.

IES-1994

Page No.5

Slide No.30

Ans. (b)

IES-2009

Page No.5

Slide No.31

Ans. (b)

Slide No.32

Ans. (b)The second item is the side rake angle. Thus 6 is

IES-1993 Page No.5


theside rake angle.
ISRO-2011 Page No. 5

Slide No.33

Ans. (b)

GATE-2008 Page No. 5

Slide No.34

Ans.(d) We may use principal cutting edge angle or approach

angle = 90 -

CS . When, principal cutting edge angle =90;then S . Dont confuse with side cutting

edge angle. Side cutting edge angle is not principal cutting edge angle.
GATE-2010 (PI) Page No.5

Slide No.35

This question is out of our syllabus.

GATE-2001Page No.6

Slide No.37

Ans.(c)

tan 1

r cos
0.4cos10
tan 1
22.944
1 r sin
1 0.4sin10

GATE-2011Page No. 6

tan 1
IES-1994 Page No.6

Slide No.38

Ans. (b) r

t 0.81

0.45
tc 1.8

r cos
0.45cos12o
tan 1
25.90o
1 r sin
1 0.45sin12o
Slide No.39

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Ans. (b)

Page 138 of 205

Rev.1

GATE-2014 Page No.6

Slide No.40

Ans. 2.8 to 3.0

t
f sin
0.2 sin 90o

(for turning) =
0.4
tc
tc
0.5

r cos
r cos 0
tan 1
tan 1 r tan 1 0.4
1 r sin
1 r sin 0
21.80o

tan 1

Shear strain( )= cot tan cot 21.80o tan(21.80 0)o 2.9


IES-2004 Page No.

Slide No.41

Ans.(d)

r = 0.3, 10

tan 1

r cos
0.3cos10
tan 1
17.31o
1 r sin
1 0.3sin10

shear strain ( ) = cot tan cot17.31o tan 17.31 10 3.34


o

IES-2009 Page No. 6

Slide No.42

GATE-1990(PI)Page No.6

Ans. (d)as rake angle is zero. shear strain ( ) = cot tan

Slide No.43

Ans. (a)

cot tan 12
d
cos ec 2 sec2 12 0 gives 51o
d
GATE-2012 Page No. 6

Slide No.44

Ans. (c)

r 0.4; 10
r cos
0.4 cos10
tan 1
22.94
1 r sin
1 0.4sin10
from the velocity triangle;

tan 1

VS
V

sin 90 sin 90
VS
2.5

sin 90 22.94 10 sin 90 10


VS 2.526m / s
Shear strain rate( )

VS 2.526 m / s

1.0104 105 / s
tS 25 106 m

IES-2004 Page No.6

Slide No.45

Ans. (b) actually 2,3 and 4 are correct.But best choice is (b)

IES-2006 Page No.7

Slide No.46

Ans. (c)Cutting torque decreases with increase in rake angle.

IES-2004 Page No.7

Slide No.47

Ans. (c)

IES-2004,ISRO-2009 Page No.7

Slide No.48

Ans. (a)

VC
V

sin sin 90
VC

35 sin 45
28.577m / min
sin 90 15 45

IES-2008 Page No.7

Slide No.49

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Ans. (b)
Page 139 of 205

Rev.1

Cutting ratio means chip thickness ratio, r 0.75; V 60 m / min


r

t
2.4
tC
3.2 mm
tC
0.75

VC
sin

r 0.75
V sin(90 )
VC 0.75 60 45 m / min

IES-2014 Page No.7

Slide No.50Ans. (c)f = f sin = 0.2 sin 90 = 0.2 mm ; tc= 0.32 mm; cutting

ratio = chip thickness ratio = t / tc = 0.2/0.32 = 0.625 But examiner has given reciprocal value = 1.6
IES-2001 Page No.7
Slide No.51 Ans. (a) Most of the students get confused in this question.
Velocity of chip sliding along the shear plane is shear velocity (Vs) and velocity of chip along rake
face is chip velocity (Vc ).
IES-2003 Page No.7

Slide No.52

t 0.5 mm , tc 0.6 mm,


or VC

Ans. (d)

VC
t 0.5
r
V
tc 0.6

2 0.5
1.66 m / s
0.6

IAS-2003 Page No.7

Slide No.53

Ans. (a)

IAS-2002 Page No.7

Slide No.54

Ans. (a)

IAS-2000 Page No.8

Slide No.55

Ans. (d)

IAS-1998Page No.8

Slide No.56

Ans. (b)

DN

1000 60

m/ s

100 480
1000 60

m / s 2.51m / s

IAS-1995 Page No.8


Slide No.57 Ans. (b) It is orthogonal cutting means depth of cut equal
to uncut chip thickness. As depth of cut halved, uncut chip thickness is also halved and hence chip
thickness will be halved.
GATE-2009(common data S-1) Page No.8

t 0.2 mm; tc 0.4 mm; 15

Slide No.58

Ans.(c)

t
r cos
0.5cos15
0.5; tan 1
tan 1
29.02
tc
1 r sin
1 0.5sin15

Nearest option is c

GATE-2009 (common data S-2) Page No.8

V 20 m / min;

Slide No.59

Ans. (b)

VC
r 0.5 orVC 10 m / min
V

GATE-1995 Page No.8


Slide No.60 Ans. (b)It is multi-point cutter and mild steel is ductile material.
Ductile material with multipoint cutter will produce regular shaped discontinuous chip.
IES-2007Page No.8

Slide No.61

Ans. (b)

IAS-1997Page No.8

Slide No.62

Ans. (a)

GATE-2002 Page No.8


Slide No.63 Ans. (b)Low cutting speed means long chip tool contact
time. And long contact time will sufficient to form bond between chip and tool.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 140 of 205

Rev.1

GATE-2009 Page No.9


Slide No.64 Ans. (d)Low cutting speed means long chip tool contact time. And
long contact time will sufficient to form bond between chip and tool. This micro-weld have to break due to
relative motion between chip and tool. It will increase co-efficient of friction.
IES-1997Page No.9
Slide No.65 Ans. (d)Cast iron means brittle material and will form
discontinuous chip. So chip breaker is not needed.

Ch-2: Analysis of Metal Cutting: Answers with Explanations


ESE-2000(conventional) Page No.9
10, r 0.35, t 0.51 mm, b=3mm,

Slide No.68Ans.

y 285 N / mm 2 , 0.65
r cos
0.35 cos10

0.3669
1 r sin 1 0.35sin10
tan 1 0.3669 20.152
tan

bt
3 mm 0.51 mm
285 N / mm 2
1265.7 N
sin
sin 20.152
tan , tan 1 tan 1 0.65 33.023
FS y

From Merchant Circle:


Fs R cos R

FS
1735.6 N
cos

(i) Cutting force (Fc ): Fc R cos 1597.3 N


(ii) Radial force (Fy ) =0 [This force is present in
turning but it is orthogonal cutting]
(iii) Normal force on tool (N): N R cos 1455.2 N
(iv)Shear force (Fs ):1265.7 N
Note : Shear force on tool face is friction force ( F ) R sin 945.86 N
GATE-2010 (PI) linked S-1 Page No.9
Slide No.69
Ans.
Friction force is perpendicular to the
cutting velocity vector that means = 0
F
1( given) N 402.5 N
N
t 0.2
t 0.2 mm; tc 0.4mm, r
0.5
tc 0.4
F 402.5 N ; and

r cos
r cos 0

r 0.5.......( = 0)
1 r sin 1 r sin 0
or tan 1 r tan 1 0.5 26.565
tan

tan 1; 45
From merchant circle:
F R sin or R 402.5 N

sin 45

569.22 N

In FS and FC triangle:

Fs =Rcos 569.22 cos 45 0 26.565 N 180.0 N

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 141 of 205

Rev.1

GATE-2011 (PI) linked S-2 Page No.9


V 2m ;
s
From the velocity triangle , applying sine rule;

Slide No.70

Ans.

VS
V

sin 90 sin 90
V
2
S
sin 90 26.565 sin 90
VS 2.2361 m

s
Heat generation at the primary shear zone
will be because of shear velocity and shear force
Heat =FS VS 180.0 N 2.2361 m / s 402.5W
GATE-2013 linked queS-1 Page No.9

Slide No.71

Ans. (a)
From Merchant Circle if cutting force ( FC ) is perpendicular to the friction force ( F ) then the rake
angle will be zero

GATE-2013 linked queS-2


From merchant circle;

Page No.9

Slide No.72

Ans. (b)

= 0, then F, N, FC , Ft will form a rectangle.


Fc N 1500 N
Ft F
GATE-2014
IAS-1999

=45 +

Page No.10
Page No.10

45

Slide No.73 Ans. (d)


Slide No.74 Ans. (b)

20 25.5

42.25
2
2

GATE-1997
Page No.10
Using Merchant Analysis:

= 45 +

Slide No.75 Ans. (c)

2
10
20 45

2
2
ESE-2005(conventional)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

60

Page No.10

Slide No.76

Page 142 of 205

Ans.

Rev.1

0.5; tan 1 tan 1 0.5 26.565


using Merchant Analysis:

= 45 +

26.565
36.717
2
bt
2 mm 0.2 mm
FS y
400 N / mm 2
267.61 N
sin
sin 36.717
From merchant circle:

or 45 5

Fs R cos -
or 267.61 N R cos(36.717 26.565 10 )
or R 447.6 N
and Fc R cos -
FC 447.6 cos(26.565 10 ) 429.02 N
Ft 447.6sin(26.565 10 ) 127.61N
GATE-2008 (PI) Linked S-1 Page No.10

Slide No.77 Ans. (d)

For minimum cutting force we have to use merchant Theory

10 , 0.7 tan or tan 1 34.99


Using Merchant Analysis

45

2 2
10 34.99
45

32.5
2
2
GATE-2008 (PI) Linked S-2 Page No.10
b 3.6 mm

Slide No.78 Ans. (b)

Calculating shear force Fs :


bt
3.6 mm 0.25 mm
460 N / mm 2
770.52 N
sin
sin 32.5
Using Merchant Circle:
Fs y

In triangle formed by Fs , Fn and R;


Fs R cos

or 770.52 N R N cos(32.5 34.99 10 ) R 1433.7 N


In triangle formed by Ft , Fc and R;

Fc =Rcos 1433.7 cos(34.99 10 ) 1299.5 N


150
m / s 3248.8W 3.25 KW
60
IES-2010 Page No.10
Slide No.79
Ans. (b) Merchant Analysis
IES-2005 Page No.10
Slide No.80
Ans. (a)
IES-2003 Page No.10
Slide No.81
Ans.(c)
Fs Fc cos Ft sin 900cos30 600sin 30 479.4 N
Power=FC V 1299.5 N

IES-2014

Page No.11 Slide No.82

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Ans. (b)

Page 143 of 205

Rev.1

Fs Fc cos Ft sin 900 cos11.31 810sin11.31 723 N


But we have to calculate without using calculator
sin11.31 = 0.2 given cos 11.31 1 sin 2 11.31 1 0.22 0.98
900 cos11.31 810sin11.31 900 0.98 810 0.2 720 N
IES-2000 Page No.11
F Fc sin Ft cos

Slide No.83 Ans. (a)

N Fc cos Ft sin
0;
. so F=F 500 N
t

N Fc 1000 N
F
500
1

N 1000 2
GATE-2007 (PI) Linked S-1 Page No.11
FC 1200 N ; Ft 500 N ; 0

Slide No.84 Ans. (a)

Using the relations:


F FC sin Ft cos 1200sin 0 500 cos 0 500 N
N FC cos Ft sin 1200 cos 0 500sin 0 1200 N
F 500

N 1200
500
tan 1
22.6
1200
GATE-2007 (PI) Linked S-2 Page No.11
Orthogonal machining, t = depth of cut = 0.8 mm,
t c =1.5 mm, V =1m/s

tan

Slide No.85 Ans. (b)

t 0.8 Vc Vc


tc 1.5 V
1

Vc 0.53 m / s
GATE-2011 (PI) linked S-1
Page No.11
Slide No.86 Ans. (b)
t 0.25 mm; tc 0.75 mm; 0; b 2.5 mm; N 950 N ; Ft 475 N

t 0.25

0.33333
tc 0.75

r cos
r cos 0

r 0.33333
1 r sin 1 r sin 0
18.435
tan

To calculate shear force;


as = 0, N = Fc 950 N
Fs Fc cos Ft sin 950 cos18.435 475sin18.435 751.04 N
GATE-2011 (PI) linked S-2
Page No.11
Slide No.87 Ans. (d)
bt
We know, FS y
;
sin
2.5 mm 0.25 mm
751.04 N y N / mm 2
sin18.435
y 379.90 N
mm 2
IFS-2012
Page No.11
Slide No.88
Ans.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 144 of 205

Rev.1

d t 0.1 mm, tc 0.2mm, b 5 mm, Fc 500 N , Ft 200 N , 10


To calculate co-efficient of friction:
Using relations:
F Fc sin Ft cos 500sin10 200 cos10 283.79 N
N Fc cos Ft sin 500 cos10 200sin10 457.67 N
F 283.79

0.62
N 457.67
To calculate shear strength;

r=

t 0.1 mm

0.5
tc 0.2 mm

r cos
0.5cos10
tan 1
28.334
1 r sin
1 0.5sin10
Using relation;

tan 1

Fs Fc cos Ft sin 500 cos 28.334 200sin 28.334 345.18 N


bt
Shear force(FS ) shear strength( y ) shear area

sin
bt
5 0.1
Fs y
345.18 y
sin
sin 28.334
y 327.65 N / mm 2

GATE-2006 common data Q-1


Page No.11
15; t 0.5mm; tc 0.7mm; Fc 1200 N ; Ft 200 N

Slide No.89

Ans. (b)

t 0.5

0.7142
tc 0.7

r cos
0.7142 cos15
tan 1
40.24
1 r sin
1 0.7142sin15
F Fc sin Ft cos 1200sin15 200 cos15 503.77 N

tan 1

N Fc cos Ft sin 1200 cos15 200sin15 1107.3 N


F 503.77

0.455 0.46
N 1107.3
Alternatively

Using Merchant Theory:

45

2 2
15
45
40.24 24.5
2
tan tan 24.5 0.456 0.46
GATE-2006 common data Q-2
Page No.11

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 145 of 205

Slide No.90

Ans.(a)

Rev.1

V 20m / min; Fc 1200 N ; Ft 200 N ( given)


Vc
t
r
V
tc

or

Vc
0.5

20 m / min 0.7

orVC 14.286 m / min


20
m / s 400W
60
14.286
Frictional power=F VC 503.77 N
m / s 119.95W
60
Percentage of total energy dissipated as frictional power is

Total power Fc V 1200 N

F VC
119.95
100%
100% 29.988% 30%
Fc V
400
GATE-2006 common data Q-3
Page No.12
Slide No.91

cot tan( ) cot 40.24 tan(40.24 15 ) 1.653

Ans. (d)

IES-1995 Page No.12


Slide No.92
99% of the power consumption.

Ans. (b) Tangential force accounts for

IES-2001

Page No.12

Slide No.93

Ans. (a)

IES-1997 Page No.12


IES-1999 Page No.12
GATE-2014 Page No.12
t f sin

Slide No.94
Slide No.95
Slide No.96

Ans. (c)
Ans. (a)
Ans. 0.08 to 0.12

90 CS 90 60 30
t 0.2sin 30 0.1 mm

ESE-2003(conventional) Page No.12

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Slide No.97 Ans.

Page 146 of 205

Rev.1

0;f 0.2mm / rev, d 4mm, tc 0.8mm, dia( D) 160mm, speed 400rpm


it is a turning operation,
Fc 1200 N
Fx
800

828.22 N
sin sin 75
(i) Using the force relations
Ft

F=FC sin Ft cos 1200sin 0 828.22 cos 0 828.22 N


N Fc cos Ft sin 1200 cos 0 828.22sin 0 1200 N
(ii ) it is a turning operation,
t f sin 0.32sin 75 0.3091 mm
d
4

4.1411 mm,
sin sin 75
t 0.3091 mm
Now , r
0.38638
tc
0.8 mm

r cos
r cos 0
tan 1
tan 1 r tan 1 0.38638 21.13
1 r sin
1 r sin 0
Fs Fc cos Ft sin 1200 cos 21.13 828.22sin 21.13 820.76 N

tan 1

bt
sin
F
820.76
or y s
230.93 N / mm 2
bt
4.1411 0.3091
sin
sin 21.13
DN 0.160 400
(iii ) V

3.351 m / s
60
60
Power consumption(P)=Fc V 1200 3.351W 4.021kW
Fs y

GATE-1995(conventional)
Given : =10

750

Page No.12

Slide No.98

Ans.

t f sin 0.15455mm
r

t
0.32197
tc

r cos
0.33586
1 r sin
f = 0.16 mm/rev or =18.5650
t c 0.48mm

tan =

Fc 500N
Fx
200

207N
sin sin75
F = Fc sin Ft cos 500sin10 207 cos10 290.68N
Ft

N Fc cos Ft sin 500 cos10 207sin10 456.56N


F 290.68

0.63667
N 456.56
tan 1 32.484 o

Fn Fc sin Ft cos 500sin18.565 207cos18.565 355.42N


Fs Fc cos Ft sin 500cos18.565 207sin18.565 408.08N

IAS-2003(main exam)

Page No.12

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Slide No.99

Page 147 of 205

Ans.

Rev.1

Given :

b 7; CS 30; 90 30 60
t 2mm; b 2.5mm; Fc 1177 N ; Ft 560 N
Using relations:
tan tan s sin tan b cos
or tan tan s sin 60 tan 7 cos 60...........(i)
tan b tan cos sin tan i
or tan 7 tan cos 60 sin 60 tan 0
or 13.79
From (i ) s 12
Using force relations

F = FC sin Ft cos
1177 sin13.79 560 cos13.79 824.44 N
N FC cos Ft sin
1177 cos13.79 560sin13.79 1009.6 N
F 824.44

0.816
N 1009.6
tan 1 tan 1 0.816 39.214

Using Merchant Theory

= 45+

45

2 2
Using force relation:

13.79 39.214

32.288
2
2

Fs Fc cos Ft sin
1177 cos 32.288 560sin 32.288 695.87 N
Shear strength ( y )

Fs
bt

sin
695.87

74.34 N / mm 2
2 2.5
sin 32.288

GATE-2007
Page No.13
90 ; 0
t f sin f sin 90 0.24 mm
tc 0.48 mm
r

Slide No.100

Ans. (b)

t 0.24 mm

0.5
tc 0.48 mm

tan 1
GATE-2007

r cos
r cos 0
tan 1
tan 1 r tan 1 0.5 26.56
1 r sin
1 r sin 0

Page No.13

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Slide No.101

Page 148 of 205

Ans.(c)

Rev.1

90 ; 0 ; 25 ; Fc 1000 N
Fx
800

800 N
sin sin 90
Using relations:
We know; Ft

F Fc sin Ft cos 1000sin 0 800 cos 0 800 N


N Fc cos Ft sin 1000 cos 0 800sin 0 1000 N

F 800

0.8
N 1000

GATE-2003(common data)S-1
Page No.13
f 0.25 mm / rev, d 0.4 mm, 10, 27.75
t f sin 0.25sin 90 0.25 mm
r cos
r cos10
tan

1 r sin 1 r sin10
r cos10
tan 27.75
1 r sin10
t 0.25
r 0.4888
tc
tc

Slide No.102

Ans. (a)

tc 0.51138 mm

GATE-2003(common data)S-2Page No.13


using Merchant Analysis;

=45+

Slide No.103

Ans. (d)

10
44.5
2
2
tan tan 44.5 0.9826

27.75 45

GATE-2008(common data)S-1
y 250MPa;V 180 m / min;

Page No.13

Slide No.104

Ans. (d)

Slide No.105

Ans. (b)

f 0.20 mm / rev; d 3 mm; r 0.5; 7


r cos
0.5cos 7
tan 1
27.85 28
1 r sin
1 0.5sin 7
We know;

tan 1

d b sin
.........( 90); d b & t f
t f sin
bt
0.20 3
Fs y
250
321.09 N 320 N
sin
sin 27.85
GATE-2008(common data)S-2

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page No.

Page 149 of 205

Rev.1

Using Merchant Theory:


7
7
28 45 41
2 2
2 2
Using Merchant Circle:

45

Fs R cos
320 R cos(28 41 7) R 681.62 N
Fc R cos 681.62 cos(41 7) 565.09 N
Ft R sin 681.62sin(41 7) 381.16 N

IES-2004

Page No.13

MRR Vfd

Slide No.106

Ans.(b)

50 103 0.8 1.5mm3 / min


60000mm3 / min

GATE-2013

Page No.13
Slide No.107
Ans.(d)
DN
200 160
MRR fdV fd
mm / s 0.25mm 4 mm
mm / s 1675.5mm3 / s
60
60

GATE(PI)-1991

Page No.13

Slide No.108

Ans. (d)

GATE-2007

Page No.14

Slide No.109

Ans. (d)

The energy consumption per unit volume of material removal, commonly known as specific energy.

e
or 2.0

Fc
Power (W )

3
MRR mm / s 1000 fd

Fc
Fc 800 N
1000 0.2 2

GATE-2013(PI) common data question Page No.14


Slide No.110
FC
200
Specific cutting energy
J / mm3
2 J / mm3
1000 fd
1000 0.11
GATE-2014

Page No.14
Slide No.112
F
F
400
Specific pressure C C
2000 N / mm2
bt
fd 2 0.1
GATE-1992
Page No.14
Slide No.113
GATE-1993
Page No.14
Slide No.114
IES-2000
Page No.14
Slide No.115
IES-2004
Page No.14
Slide No.116
IES-2002
Page No.14
Slide No.117
chip : work piece : tool = 80 : 10 : 10
IES-1998
Page No.15
Slide No.118
IAS-2003
Page No.15
Slide No.119
IAS-2003
Page No.15
Slide No.120
IES-2011
Page No.15
Slide No.121
IES-1993
Page No.15
Slide No.122
IES- 1996
Page No.15
Slide No.123

Ans. (b)

IES- 1998

Page No.15

Slide No.124

Ans. (b)

IAS- 2001

Page No.15

Slide No.125

Ans. (c)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 150 of 205

Ans. (b)

Ans. (b)
Ans. (b)
Ans. (a)
Ans. (b)
Ans. (d)
Ans. (a)
Ans. (b)
Ans. (c)
Ans. (c)
Ans. (b)
Ans. (b)

R
G
R

Rev.1

FOR PSU & IES Page No.15

Slide No.126

Ans. (a)For higher sensitivity, two

gauges are used for tensile strain, while two others are for compressive strain, total of which adds up to four
gauges.
All the four gauges in each bridge are active gauges, and the bridge fully compensates for temperature changes.
For 3-D lathe dynamometer total 12 strain gauge is needed, 4 for main cutting force, 4 for Radial force and 4 for
feed force.

Ch-3 Tool Life: Answers with Explanation


IES-2010

Page No.16

Slide No.129 Ans.(a)

IES-2007

Page No.16

Slide No.130 Ans.(c)

IES-2014
Page No.16
stress on tool material.

Slide No.132 Ans. (b) Think only the parameters which can produce cyclic

IES-1994
Page No.16 Slide No.135 Ans.(c) Flank wear directly affect the component dimensions.
GATE-2014 Page No.17 Slide No.137 Ans.(c)
IES-2004
Page No.17 Slide No.142 Ans.(b)
GATE-2008(PI)
Page No.17 Slide No.143 Ans.(b)
Solving using straight line equation:

y y1

y2 y1
x x1
x2 x1

1.8 0.8

2 0.8
x 10
60 10

x 51.666
IES-2002
Page No.18 Slide No.148 Ans.(c)For crater wear temperature is main culprit and tool
defuse into the chip material & tool temperature is maximum at some distance from the tool tip that so why
crater wear start at some distance from tip.
IAS-2007
Page No.18 Slide No.149 Ans.(c)
IES-2000
Page No.18 Slide No.150 Ans.(d)
IES-1995
Page No.18 Slide No.151 Ans.(a)Crater wear occurs due to temperature mainly. And high
carbon tool steel withstands least temperature 200oC.
IAS-2002
Page No.19 Slide No.154 Ans.(c)
IES-1995
Page No.19 Slide No.155 Ans.(a)
IAS-1999
Page No.19 Slide No.156 Ans.(c)Chemical reaction between abrasive and workpiece
material at elevated temperature and in the presence of grinding fluid.
IAS-2003
Page No.19 Slide No.158 Ans.(b)
IES-1996
Page No.19 Slide No.160 Ans.(b)
IES-1992
Page No.20 Slide No.165 Ans.(d)
IES-2012
Page No.20 Slide No.169 Ans.(a)
IES-2008
Page No.20 Slide No.170 Ans. (c)
In Taylors tool life equation is
n = 0.08 0.20 for H.S.S.
n = 0.20 0.60 for Carbides.
n = 0.60 0.80 for Ceramics.
IES-2006
Page No.20 Slide No.171 Ans.(b)
IES-1999
Page No.21 Slide No.172 Ans.(c)
IAS-1998
Page No.21 Slide No.173 Ans.(d)
GATE-2009(PI)
Page No.21 Slide No.174 Ans.(a)

Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation VT n C

V1T1n V2T2 n
or 100 10n 75 30n
or n 0.2616 can be solved using solve function on calculator
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 151 of 205

Rev.1

ISRO-2011

Page No.21

Slide No.175 Ans.(c)

D 50mm;

N1 284rpm; T1 10 min;V1

D 284

m / min
1000
D 232
N 2 232rpm; T2 60 min;V2
m / min
1000
Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation, VT n C
V1T1n V2T2 n
or

D 284

10n

D 232

1000
or n 0.1128
GATE-2004

1000

Page No.21

60n

Slide No.176 Ans.(c)

Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation, VT n C


V1T1n V2T2 n
n

1
T
or V T 2V or 8n 2 or n
3
8
n

IES-2000

Page No.21

IES-1999,ISRO-2013

Slide No.177 Ans.(b)same as previous question


Page No.21

Slide No.178 Ans.(d)

Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation, VT n C


V1T1n V2T2 n

V
or V1T10.25 1 T2 0.25
2
or T2 2
IAS-2002

1
0.25

T1 16T1

Page No.21

Slide No.179 Ans.(a)

Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation, VT n C


V1T1n V2T2 n

V1

Where, n 0.5;V2 2

V
or V1T10.5 1 T20.5
2
or T2 20.5 T1 4T1
%change
IAS-1995

T2 T1
4T T
100% 1 1 100% 300%
T1
T1

Page No.21

Slide No.180 Ans.(d)

Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation, VT n C


V1T1n V2T2 n

or V1 T10.25
IES-2013

or n 0.25;V2

V1
2

V1
T 0.25 or T2 16T1
2 2

Page No.22

Slide No.181 Ans.(b)

Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation, VT n C


n 0.25;V 60m / min; T 1 hr 21min 81min
60 810.25 C 180
IAS-1997

Page No.22

Slide No.182 Ans.(c)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 152 of 205

Rev.1

Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation, VT n C


V1T1n V2T2 n
n 0.5; V1 18 m / min; T1 180 min; T2 45 min;V2 ?
Putting in equation:
or 18 1800.5 V2 450.5
or V2 36m / min
IES-2006 (conventional)

Page No.22

Slide No.183 Ans.

Given: V1 = 30 m/min; T1 = 1 hr = 60 min, V2 = 2V1, T2 = 2 min, T3 = 30 min,


Taylor tool life equation gives
VTn C
or

V1 T1n V2 T2n
n

T1
V2

T2
V1
taking log on both side we get

or

T
V
n ln 1 ln 2
T2
V1
V
2V
ln 2 ln 1
V1 V1 0.204
or n =
T
60
ln
In 1
2
T2
Now for = T3 30min, V3 ?
Here

V1 T1n V3 T3n
n

T
V1 T1n
60
V1 x 1 30
T
T3n
30
3
V3 = dN

or V3

or N =

0.204

34.55 m/min

V3 34.55
=
=36.66 rpm
d 0.3

GATE-2009 Linked Q-1


VTn C

Page No.22

Slide No.184 Ans.(a)

V1 T1n V2 T2n
60 81n 90 36n
n

90
81
or
1.5
60
36
In1.5
n=
n = 0.5
81
In
36
C =60 810.5 90 360.5 540 K

GATE-2009 Linked Q-2

Page No.22

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Slide No.185 Ans.(c)

Page 153 of 205

Rev.1

Now, according to the given question V =

V1 60

30m / min;
2
2

1/n

C
T1
V1

1/n

C
T2
V2

T2 T1 V1

T1
V2

1/n

IFS-2013

1 2

1/0.5

Page No.22

1 300%

Slide No.186 Ans.

Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation:


V1T1n V2T2 n
or 100 120n 130 50n
or n 0.2997 0.3
NowC 100 1200.3 420.49
Tool life when cutting speed is 2.5 m/s = 2.5 60 m/min

2.5 60 T 0.3 420.49


or T 31.06 min
Velocity when tool life is 80 min
V 800.3 420.49
or V 112.94 m / min
GATE-2010 Page No.22 Slide No.187 Ans.(a)
forCarbide n1 1.6, K1 90
for HSS n2 0.6, K 2 60

Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation:VT n =C


let cutting speed is x m/min
xTA

0.45

and xTB

90
=90 TA =
x

0.3

0.45

60
= 60 TB =
x

0.30

for TA >TB
1

90 0.45 60 0.30

x

x
Solve for x using calculator, x = 26.7 m/min
GATE-2013

Page No.22

Slide No.188 Ans.(b)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 154 of 205

Rev.1

for A

n1 0.45, K1 3000

for B n2 0.3, K 2 200


Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation:VT n =C
let cutting speed is x m/min
1.6
c

xT

3000
=3000 Tc =

and xTH

0.6

1
1.6

200
= 200 TH =

0.6

for Tc >TH
1

3000 1.6 200 0.60


x x

Solve for x using calculator, x = 39.389 m/min


EXAMPLE
Page No.22 Slide No. 189 Ans.
This can be solved using regression analysis:

Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation:VT n C


taking log on both sides: log V n log T log C

or log V log C n log T


On comparing with straight line equation,in Casio Calculator:
y A Bx
y log V ; x log T ; A log C ; B n
T
V
X=logT
Y=logV
2.94
49.74 X1= log2.94
Y1= log49.47
3.90
49.23 X2= log3.90
Y2= log49.23
4.77
48.67 X3= log4.77
Y3= log48.67
9.87
45.76 X4= log9.87
Y4= log45.76
28.27 42.58 X5= log28.27
Y5= log42.58
Now on calculator,
Press mode 2 times-then press 2(Reg-2)
Then select the type (lin-1)
Then start entering the values as below;
x1 ,y1 i.e. log2.94, log49.47 then press DT(M+) it will display n =1 then press AC
x2 ,y2 i.e. log3.90, log49.23 then press DT(M+) it will display n =2 then press AC
x3 ,y3 i.e. log4.77, log48.67 then press DT(M+) it will display n =3 then press AC
x4 ,y4 i.e. log9.87, log45.76 then press DT(M+) it will display n =4 then press AC
x5 ,y5 i.e. log28.27, log42.58 then press DT(M+) it will display n =5 then press AC
After entering all values then press shift then S-VAR(on number 2),then press the right arrow 2 times
then A (1) press 1 then = it will give A = 1.732
Again press the right arrow 2 times then B(2) press 2 and = it will give B = -0.07

From y A Bx; A log C C 10 A 54


B n 0.07 n 0.07
equation becomes:VT n C VT 0.07 54
GATE-2003 Page No.23 Slide No.190 Ans.(a)
10 cutting tools produce 500 components
Therefore, 1 cutting tool will produce 50 components

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 155 of 205

Rev.1

we know : V DNm / min


For the 1st case:
N 50rpm, f 0.25mm / rev
Let t1 be the time to produce 1 component in 1st case,t1
Tool life(T1 ) 50components t1 50

L
min
fN

L
min
f 50

10 cutting tools produce 122 components


Therefore, 1 cutting tool will produce 12.2 components

For the 2nd case:


N 80rpm, f 0.25mm / rev
Let t2 be the time to produce 1 component in 2nd case,t 2

L
min
fN

L
min
f 80
Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation:VT n C V1T1n V2T2 n

Tool life(T2 ) 12.2components t2 12.2

L
L

or D 50 50
D 80 12.2

0.25 50
0.25 80

or n 0.2499 0.25

For 3rd case : N 60rpm, f 0.25mm / rev


Let t3 be the time to produce 1 component in 3rd case,t 3
Tool life(T3 ) ( x)components t2 x

L
min
fN

L
min
f 60

now, V1T10.25 V3T30.25


L

or D 50 50

0.25

50

0.25

D 60 x

0.25

60

0.25

0.25

x
or 50 60
60
or x 28.926 29components
GATE-1999

Page No.23

Slide No.191 Ans.(b)

flank wear cot


tool life tan
% change in life

tan 2 tan 1
tan 7 tan10
100%
100% 30%
tan 1
tan10

% change in life = 30% decrease


IES-2010
Page No.23 Slide No.193 Ans.(d)
ISRO-2012
Page No.23 Slide No.194 Ans.(d)
IES-1997
Page No.23 Slide No.195 Ans.(a)
IES-1994,2007 Page No.23 Slide No.196 Ans.(c)
We know that cutting speed has the greatest effect on tool life followed by feed and depth of cut
respectively. For maximizing tool life we will adjust 3- 2- 1 respectively.
IES-2008
Page No.23 Slide No.197 Ans.(a)
IAS-1995 Page No.23Slide No.198Ans. (a)Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
ESE-1991,IAS-2010( conventional)
Page No.24 Slide No.199 Ans.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 156 of 205

Rev.1

given;VT 0.3 f 0.6 d 0.3 C


V 40m / min; T 60 min; f 0.25mm / rev; d 2mm
Putting in equation : 40 600.3 0.250.6 20.3 C

C 36.49

When speed, feed & depth of cut are together increased by 25%; tool life will be

Now when V, f and d are increased by 25%


New V,f and d are:V 40 0.25 40 50 m / min
f 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.3125mm / rev
d 2 0.25 2 2.5mm
putting in given equation:VT 0.13 f 0.6 d 0.3 36.49
50 T 0.13 0.31250.6 2.50.3 34.99
T 2.29 min
When only speed is increased by 25%, rest parameters remain same; then

Now when V is increased by 25%


New V,f and d are:V 40 0.25 40 50m / min, f 0.25mm / rev, d 2 mm
putting in given equation: VT 0.13 f 0.6 d 0.3 34.99
or 50 T 0.13 0.250.6 20.3 34.99
or T 10.779 min
When only feed is increased by 25% , rest parameters remain same; then tool life

Now when f is increased by 25%


New V,f and d are:V 40m / min, f 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.3125mm / rev, d 2mm
putting in given equation:VT 0.13 f 0.6 d 0.3 36.49
or 40 T 0.13 0.31250.6 20.3 36.49
or T 21.41min
When only depth of cut is increased by 25%, rest parameters remain same; then

Now when d is increased by 25%


New V,f and d are:V 40m / min, f 0.25mm / rev, d 2 0.25 2 2.5mm
putting in given equation:VT 0.13 f 0.6 d 0.3 36.49
or 40 T 0.13 0.250.6 2.50.3 36.49
or T 35.844 min
IES-2010
IAS-2003
IES-2014
IES-1996

Page No.24
Page No.24
Page No.25
Page No.25

IES-2009(conventional)

Slide No.203
Slide No.204
Slide No.211
Slide No.214

Ans.(a)
Ans.(a)
Ans.
Ans.(b)

Page No.26

Slide No.219 Ans.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 157 of 205

Rev.1

Tc 3min, Tool regrind time(Tr ) 3min, Cm Rs.0.50 / min


Depriciation cost Rs.5.0, n 0.2; C 60
Using the equation for optimum tool life for minimum cost
C 1 n

To Tc t
Cm n

Ct Cm Tr Depriciation cost
Ct Rs.0.50 / min 3min Rs.5.0 Rs.6.5 / regrind
Putting in equation:
6.5 1 0.2

To 3
64 min
0.50

0.2
Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation:VoTon C
Vo 64
GATE-2014

0.2

60 orVo 26.11 m / min

Page No.26

Tc 1.5 min; n 0.2

Slide No.220 Ans. 5.9 to 6.1min

Using optimum tool life equation for maximum productivity:


1 n
1 0.2
To Tc
or To 1.5

6 min
n
0.2
ESE-2001(conventional)

Page No.26

Slide No.221

V1 50m / min; T1 45 min;V2 100m / min; T2 10 min; Tc 2 min


Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation:VT n C V1T1n V2T2 n
50 45n 100 10n

or n 0.46, C 50 450.46 288

Using equation of optimum tool life:


1 n
1 0.46
To Tc
2 0.46 2.34
n

Again Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation:VoTon C


Vo 2.340.46 288 orVo 195m / min
IAS-2011(main)

Page No.26

Slide No.222 Ans.

Tc 9 min; n 0.5; C 100


Using optimum tool life equation for max productivity:
1 n
1 0.5
To Tc
or To 9

9 min
n
0.5
Using Taylor's Tool Life Equation:VoTon C , Vo 90.5 100 orVo 33.33 m / min
GATE-2005 Page No.26 Slide No.223 Ans.(a)
IAS-2007
Page No.26 Slide No.224,225
Ans.(b)
IES-2011
Page No.27 Slide No.226 Ans.(d)
IES-1999
Page No.27 Slide No.228 Ans.(c)
IES-1998
Page No.27 Slide No.229 Ans.(c)
IAS-2002
Page No.27 Slide No.230 Ans.(c)
The minimum cost criterion will give a lower cutting speed i.e. lower prodeuction rate, while the
maximum production rate criteria will result higher cutting speed i.e. higher cost per piece as it reduces
tool life.
IAS-1997
Page No.27 Slide No.231 Ans.(b) it is less than one but very close to each other so 0.1 is not
possible.
IES-2000
Page No.27 Slide No.232 Ans.(a)
IES-2004
Page No.27 Slide No.233 Ans.(a) To improve MRR = fdv i.e. productivity we can increase
velocity or feed. but increase in velocity will reduce the tool drastically so will increase cost more than
feed.
IES-2002
Page No.27 Slide No.234 Ans.(c)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 158 of 205

Rev.1

IAS-2007
Page No.28 Slide No.235 Ans.(a)At optimum cutting speed for the minimum cost of
machining gives low production rate.
IES-2010
Page No.28 Slide No.236 Ans.(d) After some time cutting speed will be so that tool
changing time will be significant.
IES-2012
Page No.28 Slide No.240 Ans.(d)
IAS-1996
Page No.28 Slide No.241 Ans.(d)Machinability is a comparative measure not absolute.
IES-2011(conventional)
Page No.29 Slide No.245 Ans.
Effect of elements on machinability of steels:
S.NO ELEMENTS
Cause
MACHINABILITY
1.
Aluminium& silicon
Hard oxide former
Decrease
2.
Sulphur& selenium
Internal lubrication, chip Increases
breaker
3.
Lead & Tin
Internal Lubrication, chip Increases
breaker
4.
Carbon
Carbide former
Decreases
5.
Molybedenum, vanadium
Strong carbide former
Decreases
IES-1992
Page No.29 Slide No.247 Ans.(a) large grain means soft workpiece material.
IAS-2000
Page No.29 Slide No.249 Ans.(a)Built up edge protects the cutting edge of the tool from
wear, So tool life increased but it changes the geometry of the cutting.
IES-1992
Page No.30 Slide No.253 Ans.(a)
IES-2007,2009 Page No.30 Slide No.254 Ans.(a)Machinability: Machinability can be tentatively defined as
ability of being machined and more reasonably as ease of machining.
Such ease of machining or machining characters of any tool-work pair is to be judged by:
Magnitude of the cutting forces
Tool wear or tool life
Surface finish
Magnitude of cutting temperature
Chip forms
ISRO-2007
Page No.30 Slide No.255 Ans.(a)But All of the above are machinability criteria. We have to
select best option that so why chosen (a)
IES-2003
Page No.30 Slide No.256 Ans.(c)Free-machining steels are basically carbon steels that
have been modified by an alloy addition to enhance machinability. Sulfur, lead, bismuth, selenium,
tellurium, and phosphorus have all been added to enhance machinability. Sulfur (0.08 to 0.33%)
combines with manganese (0.7 to 1.6%) to form soft manganese sulfide inclusions. These act as
discontinuities in the structure which serve as sites to form broken chips. The inclusions also provide a
built-in lubricant that prevents formation of a built-up edge on the cutting tool and imparts an altered
cutting geometry.
IES-2009
Page No.30 Slide No.257 Ans.(a) Sulphur, Lead and Phosphorous are added to steel which
when added to Manganese forms Manganese sulphide etc. which has low shear strength.
IES-1998
Page No.30 Slide No.258 Ans.(c) It is CNC machine, dimensional accuracy and surface
finish is prime factor.
IES-1996
Page No.30 Slide No.259 Ans.(d) smaller shear angle means higher force.
IES-1996
Page No.30 Slide No.260 Ans.(b)
IES-1995
Page No.30 Slide No.261 Ans.(c)
IES-1992
Page No.31 Slide No.263 Ans. (b) Titanium is very reactive and the chips tend to weld to
the tool tip leading to premature tool failure due to edge chipping. Almost all tool materials tend to react
chemically with titanium.
Titaniums work-hardening characteristics are such that titanium alloys demonstrate a complete absence
of built-up edge. Because of the lack of a stationary mass of metal (BUE) ahead of the cutting tool, a
high shearing angle is formed. This causes a thin chip to contact a relatively small area on the cutting
tool face and results in high loads per unit area. These high forces, coupled with the friction developed by
the chip as it passes over the cutting area, result in a great increase in heat on a very localized portion of
the cutting tool. All this heat (which the titanium is slow to conduct away), and pressure, means that tool
life can be short, especially as titanium has a tendency to gall and weld to the tool surface.
IES-1995
Page No.31 Slide No.265 Ans. (a) Titanium high cost and need 10 times much energy than
steel to produce.Light weight, strong, corrosion resistant, properties between steel and aluminium.
IES-2002
Page No.31 Slide No.267 Ans. (b)
IAS-1996
Page No.31 Slide No.268 Ans. (d)
IES-1999
Page No.31 Slide No.269 Ans. (d)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 159 of 205

Rev.1

we know : hc

f2
8R

When f1 2 f , and hc remains the same;


GATE-1997

Page No.31

f2
f2
f 2 4f
1 or

R1 4 R
8R 8R1
8R 8R1

Slide No.270 Ans. (a)

h 5 m 5 106 m; R 1.8mm 1.8 103 m


we know : h

GATE-2007(PI)

f2
f2
or 5 106
or f 2.68 104 m / rev 0.268mm / rev
8R
8 1.8 103
Page No.32

Slide No.271 Ans.(a)

f 1mm / rev; SCEA 30; ECEA 10

Using formula: h
GATE-2005

Page No.32

f
1

0.16mm
tan SCEA cot ECEA tan 30 cot10

Slide No.272 Ans. (b)

f
tan SCEA cot ECEA
f
f
hP
and hQ
tan 30 cot 8
tan15 cot 8
tan15 cot 8
h
P
hQ tan 30 cot 8
Using formula:h

IES-1993,ISRO-2008 Page No.32 Slide No.273 Ans. (c) Surface roughness is directly dependent on
square of feed. Slow cutting results in formation of built-up edge, but after certain speed the finish
remains same.Rake angle has noticeable effect at slow speeds, but its effect is small at speeds, used for
finish machining. So f has maximum effect.
IES-2006
Page No.
Slide No.274 Ans. (a) refer previous question
GATE-2014(PI)
Page No.32 Slide No.275 Ans.
GATE-2010(PI)
Page No.32 Slide No.276 Ans. (b)
For increasing surface finish means reduce roughness we have to increase nose radius and reduce feed.
Here MRR remains same therefore feed remains same only nose radius can be changed.
IES-2001
Page No.32 Slide No.279 Ans. (c)
IES-2012
Page No.33 Slide No.280 Ans. (b)

Ch-4: Limit, Tolerance & Fit: Answers with Explanations


For PSU
PageNo.34
ISRO-2010
Page No.34
GATE-2010,ISRO-2012

Slide No.7
Slide No.8
Page No.35

Ans.(b)
Ans.(b)
Slide No.11 Ans.(d)

upper limit = 35-0.009 = 34.991mm


lower limit = 35-0.025 = 34.975 mm
Fundamental Deviation = basic size-nearer limit = 35-34.991= 0.009 mm
Tolerance = upper limit-lower limit = 34.991 - 34.975 = 0.016 mm
GATE-1992

Page No.35

Slide No.12

Ans.(a)

Tolerance of shaft A=100.1-99.9=0.2


Tolerance of shaft B=0.1001-0.0999=0.0002
So, tolerance of shaft A > tolerance of shaft B
GATE-2004 Page No.35 Slide No.13 Ans.(c)
Maximum clearance = Higher limit of hole lower limit of shaft
= 25.020-24.990 = 0.03 mm = 30 microns
IES-2005
Page No.35 Slide No.14 Ans.(c)
Since basic size is 20mm so, minimum rejection will be of the batch having mean diameter 20mm
GATE-2000 Page No.35 Slide No.15 Ans.(c) Reference will be taken from side therefore only tolerance
on toll position will affect our product.
GATE-2007 Page No.35 Slide No.18 Ans.(c)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 160 of 205

Rev.1

max clearance = upper limit of hole - lower limit of shaft = 40.50-39.95= 0.1 mm
IES-2011
IES-2013
GATE-2005

Page No.36
Page No.36
Page No.36

Slide No.21
Slide No.22
Slide No.23

Ans.(a)
Ans.(a)
Ans.(a)

IES-2014
GATE-2011

Page No.36
Page No.36

Slide No.24
Slide No.25

Ans. (c)
Ans.(c)

GATE -2012 Same Q in GATE-2012 (PI)


Page No.36 Slide No.26 Ans.(c)
Maximum Interference = Maximum size of shaft Minimum size of hole
= (25 + 0.04) (25 + 0.02) mm = 20 m
IAS-2011(main)
Page No.36 Slide No.27 Ans.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 161 of 205

Rev.1

Using unilateral hole base system;


Min clearance = 0.03mm; Max clearance = 0.09 mm; Basic size = 20 mm
Refering the figure:2 x 0.03 x 0.09 or x 0.02 mm
size of hole: lower limit = 20 mm
upper limit =20+2x 20+2 0.02=20.04 mm
size of shaft:Lower limit = 20.04+0.03= 20.07 mm
upper limit = 20.07+ x =20.07+0.02=20.09 mm
IES-2007
Page No.37 Slide No.28 Ans.(a)
For clearance fit Maximum metal condition of shaft will be smaller than minimum metal condition of the
hole. (a) Smax=50.000, Hmin=50.005 so Smax<Hmin
ISRO-2011
Page No.37 Slide No.29 Ans.(c)
IES-2006
Page No.37 Slide No.30 Ans.(d)
IES-2009
Page No.37 Slide No.31 Ans.(d)
IES-2008
Page No.37 Slide No.32 Ans.(d)
An interference fit creates stress state in the shaft therefore 2 is wrong.
IES-2004
Page No.37 Slide No.33 Ans.(b)
GATE-2001 Page No.37 Slide No.35 Ans.(b)
GATE-1998 Page No.37 Slide No.36 Ans.(c)
IES-2012
Page No.38 Slide No.37 Ans.(b)
ISRO-2010
Page No.38 Slide No.39 Ans.(c)

It is transition fit, Using formula of minimum clearance


Min clearance = upper limit of shaft - lower limit of hole = -0.02 mm
Here Minimum clearance is negative i.e. maximum inteference occur.
ISRO-2008
Page No.38 Slide No.43 Ans.(c)
IES-2005
Page No.38 Slide No.44 Ans.(c)
GATE-2014 Page No.40 Slide No.57 Ans.(d)
IES-2008
Page No.40 Slide No.58 Ans.(a) All statements are wrong. 50 mm is not hole diameter it
is basic size. And examiner ask INCORRECT not correct options. Therefore all options are incorrect.
IES-2006(conventional)
Page No.40 Slide No.59 Ans.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 162 of 205

Rev.1

Basic size =100 mm; D D1 D2


80 120 97.97mm
Fundamental deviation of shaft
= 5.5D 0.41 36 m
Fundamental deviation of hole 36 m
1

i 0.45D 3 0.001D 2.1711 m


IT 8 25i 25 2.17 m 54 m
IT 10 64i 64 2.17 m 139 m
Allowance = min clearance = 36 m
IES-2002
Page No.40 Slide No.60 Ans.(c)
GATE-2009 Page No.40 Slide No.61 Ans.(a)
60 mm diameter lies in the diameter step of 50-80mm. Therefore
Geometric mean diameter,D Dmin Dmax 50 80 63.246mm
Fundamental tolerance unit i (0.45D1/3 +0.001D) m
[0.45(63.246)1/3 0.001(63.246)] 1.859 m = 0.00186mm
For IT8 25i 25 0.00186 0.04646mm
Fundamental deviation for 'f'shaft, 5.5D0.41 5.5[63.246]0.41 0.030115mm
GATE-2008(PI)
Page No.40 Slide No.62 Ans.(c)Without calculating we can choose option (c) as
fundamental deviation is zero therefore LL = Basic size = 25.000 mm
But proper calculation is

D D1 D2 18 30 23.23 mm
1

i 0.45D 3 0.001D 1.3076 m 1.3076 103 mm


For IT 8 25i 0.0326mm
upper limit of hole = basic size + tolerance = 25+0.0326=25.032mm
hole base system so, lower limit = basic size=25mm
GATE-2000 Page No.40 Slide No.63 Ans.(d)
Hole: Lower limit = Basic size = 25 mm
Higher limit = lower limit + tolerance = 25 + 0.033 = 25.033 mm
Shaft: Higher limit = basic size fundamental deviation = 25 0.04 = 24.96 mm
Lower limit = Higher limit tolerance = 24.96 0.033 = 24.927 mm
Therefore Maximum clearance = Higher limit of hole lower limit of shaft
= 25.033 24.927 = 0.106 mm = 106 microns
GATE-2003

Page No.41

Slide No.64

Ans.(b)

diametric steps are not given we take given dia as the basic diameter only.
i 0.45 3 D 0.001D 1.34 m 1.34 103 mm
For IT 7 16i 16 1.34 103 0.021 mm
it is a shaft base system:
Upper limit = basic size=25.00 mm
Lower limit = Upper limit tolerance = 25.00 -0.021=24.978 mm
GATE-2010(PI)
Page No.41 Slide No.65 Ans.(d)
Fundamental deviation of all the bore is zero.
For IT7, Tolerance = 16i = 0.021 mm
For IT8, Tolerance = 25i = 0.033 mm
For IT6, Tolerance = 10i = 16i 6i = 0.021 mm (0.033-0.021)x(6/9) mm =0.013 mm
Therefore Upper Limit = 25.013 mm for IT6
GATE-1996,IES-2012 Page No.41
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Slide No.67

Ans.(d)

Page 163 of 205

Rev.1

Remember
H7 with p6, s6: Interference fit
H7 with k6, n6: Transition fit
All other fits are clearance fit.
IES-2000
Page No.41 Slide No.68
ISRO-2008
Page No.41 Slide No.71
IAS-2010(main)Page No.41 Slide No.72
GATE-2003 Page No.42 Slide No. 74
P 35+0.08mm

Ans.(b)
Ans.(a)
Ans. Refer Slide
Ans.(b)

Q 12.00+0.02mm
R 13.00.04
0.02 13.01 0.03
Now all have same bilateral tolerance, so
P QWR
Considering dimension

35 12 W 13.01
w 9.99mm

Tolerance are probabilities and not the absolute value on any part, at
least one section must be there that treated as sink, and tolerance of
sink will be cumulative sum of all tolerances.

GATE-1997

Tolerance 0.08 0.02 0.03 0.13

Page No.42

S P Q R T
GATE-2007(PI)
GATE-2007(PI)

Slide No. 75

Ans.(d)

or T S P Q R or Tmin Smin Pmax Qmax Rmax

Page No.42
Page No.42

Slide No.76
Slide No.77

Ans.(a) It requires centre.


Ans.(d)

Before plating the hole size will be bigger ,


Maximum limit will correspond to min thickness;so,
min thickness 2 10 103 mm 0.02mm
Max limit = max size of hole + min thickness = 30.050+0.02=30.07 mm
Minimum limit will correspond to max thickness;so,
max thickness 2 15 103 mm 0.03mm
Min limit = min size of hole + max thickness = 30.010+0.03=30.04 mm
GATE-2013

Page No.42

Slide No.78

Ans(c)

Upper limit of pin = 25.020 mm


Lower limit of pin = 25.010 mm
Max thickness of plating =2 0.032=0.064 mm
Min thickness of plating =2 0.028=0.056 mm
Minimum size will correspond to max thickness
Size of GO-Guage = Lower limit of pin Max thickness of plating
Size of GO-Guage 25.020+ 2x0.032 = 25.084 mm
ISRO-2008
GATE-2014

Page No.42
Page No.43

Slide No.80
Slide No.86

Ans.(c)
Ans.(d)

Lower limit of hole = 25-0.015=24.958 mm


lower limit of GO-Guage = 24.985 mm
Work tolerance = 10% of guage tolerance = 10% of (2 0.015) = 0.003mm
Upper limit of GO- Guage = 24.9850+0.003 mm
GATE-2004 Page No.43 Slide No.87 Ans.(b)
Higher limit of hole = 20.05 mm
Lower limit of hole = 20.01 mm
Work tolerance = 20.05 20.01 = 0.04 mm
Gauge tolerance = 10% of work tolerance = 0.004 mm
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

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Therefore, Dimension of GO gauge = 20.01 + 0.004 = 20.014 mm


Dimension of NOT GO gauge = 20.05 0.004 = 20.046 mm
GATE-1995 Page No.43 Slide No.88 Ans.(b)
GATE 2006, VS-2012
Page No.43 Slide No.89 Ans.(c)

Ch-5 Measurement of Lines & Surface: Answers with Explanations


ISRO-2010
Page No.44 Slide No.97 Ans.(a)The vernier reading should not be taken at its face value
before an actual check has been taken for zero. Engineering metrology
ISRO-2008
Page No.44 Slide No.98 Ans.(c)Least count = 0.5/25 = 0.02 mm
ISRO-2009, 2011
Page No.45 Slide No.101 Ans.(a)

Total dimension= pitch No.of div +

Pitch
reading
No.of div in thimble

0.5x5 + (0.5/50) x 12 = 2.62 mm


GATE-2008
Page No.45 Slide No.105,106
Ans.(c)
If there is axial intersection Rp must not equal to RQ
GATE-2014(PI)

Page No.45

Slide No.107 Ans. (d)

ISRO-2010
Page No.46 Slide No.115 Ans.(c)
A measuring device of a standard size that is used to calibrate other measuring instruments.
ISRO-2008
Page No.46 Slide No.116 Ans.(d)
Primary standards are used for calibration only. In workshop it has no use.
GATE-2007(PI)
Page No.47 Slide No.119 Ans.(d)
During the measurement, a comparator is able to give the deviation of the dimension from the set
dimension. Cannot measure absolute dimension but can only compare two dimensions. (Rest all the
options will give reading of the dimension measured it will not compare)
PSU
Page No.47 Slide No.121 Ans.(c)A feeler gauge is used to check theThickness of clearance
IAS-2011(main)
Page No.
Slide No.
Ans. Refer slides for theory
ISRO-2011
Page No.48 Slide No.135 Ans.(c)
A sine bar is specified by the distance between the centre of the two rollers
GATE-2012(PI)
Page No.49 Slide No.136 Ans.(a)

L 250 mm; H r 100 mm ;( Diameter d 20 mm or r 10 mm) or H 90 mm


H
L

sin 1

90

1
o
sin 250 21.1

GATE-2011(PI)

Page No.49

Best Wire Size : d


GATE-2013

Page No.50

Slide No.144 Ans.(a)

p
2.5 60
sec
sec 1.443 mm
2
2
2
2
Slide No.145 Ans.(c)

p
2 60
Best Wire Size: d sec sec 1.1547 mm
2
2 2
2

GATE-2011(PI)
Page No.50 Slide No.146 Ans.(c)
Difference between the readings of micrometers= 16.532-15.398=1.134mm
Diameter of cylindrical standard = 30.5mm
Effective diameter= 30.5-1.134=29.366mm
IES-2012
Page No.51 Slide No.156 Ans.Refer slides for theory
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

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Rev.1

IES-1992
Page No.51 Slide No.159 Ans.(b)
IFS-2011
Page No.51 Slide No.161 Ans.Refer slides for theory
ISRO-2011
Page No.52 Slide No.167 Ans.(d)
IES-2006
Page No.52 Slide No.168 Ans.(d)
IES-2007
Page No.52 Slide No.169 Ans.(c)Lay direction: is the direction of the predominant surface
pattern produced on the workpiece by the tool marks.
IES-2008
Page No.52 Slide No.170 Ans.(b)Lay directional of predominant surface texture produced
by machining operation is called Lay.
IES-2010
Page No.52 Slide No.171 Ans.(b)
IES-2008
Page No.53 Slide No.172 Ans.(c)

ISRO-2010
Page No.53 Slide No.173 Ans.(a)
IAS-2013(main)
Page No.53 Slide No.174 Ans.Refersildes for theory
GATE-1997
Page No.54 Slide No.182 Ans.(b)
IAS-2012(main)
Page No.55 SlideNo.191 Ans.Refer sildes for theory
IES-2012(conventional)
Page No.55 SlideNo.192 Ans.Refer sildes for theory
GATE_2003
Page No.55 Slide No.195 Ans.(a)

nl
2

(1.002 1.000) 101 cm

n 0.0058928 101 cm 101 cm


2

n 0.678 / cm
So for both fringes=2 n 1.357 2 fringes

Ch-6 Miscellaneous of Metrology: Answers with Explanations


GATE-1998 Page No.56
Slide No.203 Ans. (c)Autocollimator isan optical instrument for noncontact measurement of small angles or small angular tilts of a reflecting surface
GATE-2009(PI)
Page No.56 Slide No.204Ans. (a)
GATE-2014 Page No.56 Slide No. 205 Ans. (b)Autocollimator is also measure flatness.
ISRO-2010
Page No.57 Slide No. 208 Ans. (b)In optical square two mirrors are placed at an angle of
45o to each other and at right angles to the plane of the instrument. Angle between the first incident ray
and
the last reflected ray is 90o.Two mirrors may be replaced by two prisms.
IES-1998
Page No.57 Slide No.211 Ans. (d)
GATE-2014 Page No.57 Slide No. 212 Ans. (c)Laser interferometeris widely used to check and calibrate
geometric features of machine tools during their assembly
GATE-1992 Page No.58 Slide No. 218 Ans. (b)
GATE-2004 Page No.58 Slide No. 221 Ans. (b)
GATE-1995 Page No.58 Slide No. 223 Ans. (b)
GATE-2010 Page No.59 Slide No.227 Ans. (a)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 166 of 205

Rev.1

10
30
18.434
tan

Also,
tan

x
10

tan18.434

x
10

x 3.334
diameter at z 0 is (20 2 x)
diameter (20 2 3.334) 13.336
GATE-2008(PI)

Page No.

Slide No. 228 Ans. (d)

C2 A
3
tan

2 5 15.54 8 28.54

6.006

12.001

GATE-2014

Page No.59

Slide No.229Ans.

H1 20.55; H 2 35.55
H=35.55+60=95.55mm

H1 20(radius) 40.55
H 40.55 95.55 40.55 55
55 30(radius) 25 CB
CB
25
tan

(30 20) 50
30
R
cos 30
50
R 43.30
D bigger radius+43.30+smaller radius
D 30 43.30 20 93.30mm

ISRO-2007 Page No.59


Slide No. 230 Ans. (d)Environment errors are those errors which occur due to
change in temperature,humidity,pressureetc of the atmosphere.

Ch-7 Metal Forming: Answers with Explanations


GATE-1995
Page No. 60 Slide No.9
Ans. (b)If the specimen is stressed slightly beyond the yield point
and unloaded then the phenomena of strain hardening takes place as a result of which strength
increases.
IES-2013
Page No.61 Slide No. 10 Ans. (b)
IES-20011
Page No.62 Slide No. 26 Ans. (b) If cold worked it will improve mechanical properties.
GATE-2003
Page No. 62 Slide No. 27 Ans. (c)If working below Rx temp then it is cold-working process
GATE-2002,ISRO-2012
Page No. 63 Slide No. 28 Ans. (d)
ISRO-2010
Page No. 63 Slide No. 29 Ans.
(d)Annealing
is
used
to
induce
ductility,
soften material, relieve internal stresses, refine the structure by making it homogeneous, and
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

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improve cold working properties.Normalization is an annealing process in which a metal is cooled in


air after heating.
IES-2006
Page No.63 Slide No.30 Ans. (c)When a metal is heated & deformed under mechanical
force, an energy level will reached when the old grain structure (which is coarse due to previous cold
working) starts disintegrating. Simultaneously, an entirely new grain structure (equi-axed, stress free)
with reduced grain size Starts forming. This phenomenon is known as recrystallisation
IES-2004
Page No. 63 Slide No. 31 Ans. (b) For cold working metal should have high ductility.
IES-2009
Page No. 63 Slide No.32 Ans. (d) Strength increases due to grain refinement.
IES-2008
Page No. 63 Slide No. 33 Ans. (b)
IES-2008
Page No. 63 Slide No. 34 Ans. (a)
Advantages of Cold Forming vs. Hot Working:
Better accuracy, closer tolerances
Better surface finish
Strain hardening increases strength and hardness
Grain flow during deformation can cause desirable directional properties in product
No heating of work required (less total energy)
Dis-advantages of Cold Forming
Equipment of higher forces and power required
Surfaces of starting work piece must be free of scale and dirt
Ductility and strain hardening limit the amount of forming that can be done
In some operations, metal must be annealed to allow further deformation
In other cases, metal is simply not ductile enough to be cold worked
IES-2004
Page No. 63 Slide No.35 Ans. (c) During deformation, a portion of the deformation energy
becomes stored within the material in the form of additional dislocations and increased grain boundary
surface area.
IES-2003
Page No. 63 Slide No. 36 Ans. (a)
IES-2000
Page No. 64 Slide No. 37 Ans. (d) Annealing required.
ISRO-2009
Page No. 64 Slide No. 38 Ans. (a)
IES-1997
Page No. 64 Slide No. 39 Ans. (c)
Phenomenon where ductile metals become stronger and harder when they are deformed plastically is
called strain hardening or work hardening.
During plastic deformation, dislocation density increases. And thus their interaction with each other
resulting in increase in yield stress.
IES-1996
Page No. 64 Slide No. 40 Ans. (c)Cold working increases the strength and hardness of the
material due to strain hardening. Strength, fatigue, and wear properties are improved through strain
hardening.
IES-2006
Page No. 64 Slide No. 41 Ans. (d) Should be above the recrystallisation temperature.
IES-1992
Page No. 64 Slide No. 42 Ans. (c)
Annealing relieves the stresses from cold working three stages: recovery, recrystallization and grain
growth.
During recovery, physical properties of the cold-worked material are restored without any observable
change in microstructure.
Grain growth follows complete crystallization if the material is left at elevated temperatures.
Grain growth does not need to be preceded by recovery and recrystallization; it may occur in all
polycrystalline materials.
IAS-1996
Page No. 64 Slide No. 43 Ans. (c)For Mild Steel, recrystallisation temp is of the order of
10000C
IAS-2004
Page No. 64 Slide No. 44 Ans. (a)
IAS-2002
Page No. 64 Slide No. 45 Ans. (b)Ulta hai. Assertion reason me hona chahiye.
IES-2008
Page No. 65 Slide No. 46 Ans. (d)Malleability- It is a special case of ductility which permits
materials to be rolled or hammered into thin sheets. A malleable material should be plastic but it is not
essential to be so strong. Lead, soft steel, wrought iron, copper and aluminium are some materials in
order of diminishing malleability.

Ch-8 Rolling: Answers with Explanations


GATE -2013 Page No.65 Slide No.49 Ans.(c)Bi axial compression and frictional force between roller
and workpiece produces shear stress
IAS-2001
Page No.65 Slide No.54 Ans.(c)Rolling means hot working it will not show work
hardening
ISRO-2006
Page No.66 Slide No.56 Ans.(c) You may confused with Forging, but Cold rolling (cold
working) is mentioned therefore answer will be (c) because forging means hot working.
ISRO-2009
Page No.66 Slide No.59 Ans.(a)

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Rev.1

IES-2006
Page No.67 Slide No.64 Ans.(c) A continuous form of three-point bending is roll bending,
where plates, sheets, and rolled shapes can be bent to a desired curvature on forming rolls.
IES 1992, GATE-1992(PI) Page No.67 Slide No.71 Ans.(b)Since brittle materials cannot handle
plastic deformation.
IES 1993, GATE-1989(PI) Page No.67 Slide No.72 Ans.(d)
Thread rolling is used to produce threads in substantial quantities. This is a cold-forming process
operation in which the threads are formed by rolling a thread blank between hardened dies that cause
the metal to flow radially into the desired shape. Because no metal is removed in the form of chips, less
material is required, resulting in substantial savings. In addition, because of cold working, the threads
have greater strength than cut threads, and a smoother, harder, and more wear-resistant surface is
obtained.
One obvious characteristic of a rolled thread is that its major diameter always is greater than the
diameter of the blank. When an accurate class of fit is desired, the diameter of the blank is made about
0.002 inch larger than the thread-pitch diameter. If it is desired to have the body of a bolt larger than the
outside diameter of the rolled thread, the blank for the thread is made smaller than the body.
IES-2013(conventional)
Page No.68 Slide No.73 Ans. Refer slides
IAS-2007
Page No.68 Slide No.79 Ans.(d)
IAS -2003
Page No.68 Slide No.80 Ans.(b)
IAS-2000
Page No.68 Slide No.81 Ans.(b)Rolling with smaller diagram rolls requires lower force.
IES-1993
Page No.69 Slide No.85 Ans.(a)In order to get uniform thickness of the plate by rolling
process, one provides camber on the rolls to take care of unavoidable tool bending. Cylindrical rollers
would result in production of plate with convex surface. Because of the limitations in the equipment and
workability of the metal, rolling is accomplished progressively in many steps. Plate, sheet and strip are
rolled between rolls having a smooth, cylindrical, slightly cambered (convex) or concave working surface.
IAS-2004
Page No.69 Slide No.87 Ans.(c) Rolling means hot rolling where no lubricant is used.
GATE -2009(PI)
Page No.69 Slide No.89 Ans.(d) Due to directional granule deformation.
GATE -2007 Page No.70 Slide No.94 Ans.(d)

ho 16 mm ; h f 10 mm ;D 400 mm;R=200 mmh 6 mm;


h D(1 cos )

6 400(1 cos ) 9.936


GATE 2012 Same Q in GATE 2012 (PI) Page No.70

Slide No.95

ho 8 mm ; h f 8 x 1 0.1 7.2 mm; D 410 mm;

Ans.(c)

h 10% of 8 mm 0.8 mm alternative : ho h f 8 7.2 0.8 mm


We know that, h D(1 cos ) or 0.8 410 (1 cos )
or 3.58o 3.58

180

rad 0.062 rad

GATE -1998 Page No.70 Slide No.96 Ans.(d) For strip rolling sheet rolling width remains same.
Initial thickness (h1) = 4.5 mm.
As width constant therefore 20% reduction in area means 20% reduction in thickness also.
Final thickness (h2 = 0.8 x 4.5 = 3.6 mm
h D 1 cos or 4.5 3.6 450 1 cos or 3.62 0.063radian
GATE -2004 Page No.70 Slide No.98 Ans.(b)
Roll strip contact length, L = R

h D(1 cos ) or 25 20 600 1 cos or 7.402 0.129 rad

Therefore L R 300 x 0.129 38.76 mm 39 mm


GATE -2011

Page No.71

Slide No.101 Ans.(a)Maximum possible draft. hmax

GATE -2014

Page No.71

Slide No.102 Ans.(b)

2R

Maximum possible draft. hmax

2R

IES-1999
Page No.71 Slide No.103 Ans.(b) Actually metal will get hardened in every pass due to
strain hardening. Therefore in actual practice the reduction in second pass is less than in the first pass.
GATE-2006 Page No.71 Slide No.105 Ans.(c) h max ho h f ,min 2 R 0.12 150 mm 1.5 mm

or 4 h f ,min 1.5 or h f ,min 2.5 mm


GATE 2011 (PI)

Page No.71

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Slide No.107 Ans.(d)

Page 169 of 205

Rev.1

h max 2 R 0.1

300 mm 3 mm

Therefore we cannot reduce more than 3 mm in a single pass but we have


to reduce total, 30 mm -10 mm = 20 mm
Number of pass needed =
IES-2001

Page No.71

20
7
3

Slide No.108 Ans.(a)

R 150 mm; ho 30 mm; h f 15 mm


h
15
1
1

0.3something
R
150
10 3.something
In IESobjective exam calculators are not allowed, we have to use above apporx.calculation
h 2 R or
GATE-2014(PI)
GATE-1990(PI)
IES-2014
GATE-2008(PI)

Page No.72
Page No.72
Page No.72
Page No.72

Slide No.109
Slide No.111
Slide No.112
Slide No.113

Ans.(b) same as above


Ans.(b)
Ans. (b)
Ans.(a)

The velocity at neutral point is equal to the velocity of roller, as there is no slip occur
V=

DN
60

0.300m 100rpm
60

IES-2002
Page No.72
Selected Questions Page No.72
GATE-2014
Page No.72

1.57 m / s

Slide No.114 Ans.(d)


Slide No.115 Ans.(c & d)
Slide No.117 Ans.14.6 to 14.8 m/min

The inlet and outlet volume rates of material flow must be the same, that is,
h o bo vo h f b f v f
2
h ; b 1.02bo ; v o 10m / min
3 o f
2
h o bo 10 h o 1.02bo v f v f 14.706 m / min
3
hf

GATE-1992(PI)

Page No.73

Elongation factor = E =
En

Slide No.119 Ans.(c)

Ao
1.22...........( given)
A1

Ao
750 750
or 1.22n
or 11.04 close to (c)
An
250 250

GATE-2008
Page No.73 Slide No.122 Ans.(a)
h 20mm 18mm 2mm 0.002m
R 250mm 0.250m
Pr ojected Length (L p ) Rh 0.250 0.002 0.02236m
Arm length (a) Rh 0.5 0.250 0.002 0.01118m

Force(F) Pr essure Pr ojected area o (L p b) 300 10 6 0.02236 0.1 670.8 kN


Torque(T) F a

[Force F on both roller]

670.8 103 0.01118 7.5kNm


2 N
2 10
2 7.5 10 3
15.7 KW
60
60
IES 2000, GATE-2010(PI) Page No.73 Slide No.123 Ans.(a)The roll-separating force which separates
the two rolls apart can be obtained by multiplying the average roll pressure with the total contact area.
The average roll pressure can be decreased by reducing the maximum pressure, which is a function of
the contact length. Smaller contact lengths means lesser friction forces acting. Thus, by reducing the
contact length, it is possible to decrease the roll-separating force. This in turn, can be achieved by
reducing the roll diameter, since; smaller rolls would have less contact length than larger rolls for the
same reduction.
IAS-2007
Page No.73 Slide No.124 Ans.(c)Use small dia rolls to reduce Roll force.
IES-2001
Page No.74 Slide No.127 Ans.(a)Coefficient of friction is constant over the arc of contact
and But does not acts in one direction throughout the arc of contact.
Total Power for both roller (P) 2 T 2 T

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IFS-2010
IAS-1998

Page No.75
Page No.75

Slide No.137 Ans. Use analysis of rolling (Home work portion)


Slide No.138 Ans.(d)

Ch-9 Forging: Answers with Explanations


IES-2013
Page No.75 Slide No. 143 Ans.(a)
IES-1996
Page No.76 Slide No. 147 Ans.(d)
IES-2013
Page No.76 Slide No. 148 Ans.(c) Forging components poses high reliability i.e. point3. is
wrong, means (a), (b) and (d) wrong.
IES-2005
Page No.76 Slide No. 149 Ans.(b)
IES-2012
Page No.76 Slide No. 150 Ans.(b) If undercut is present it is not moldable means cant be
withdrawn from die.
ISRO-2013
Page No.76 Slide No. 151 Ans.(b)
IES-2012
Page No.76 Slide No. 153 Ans.(c)
IES-2006
Page No.77 Slide No. 155 Ans.(c) The draft provided on the sides for withdrawal of the
forging.
IES-2014
Page No.77 Slide No.158 Ans. (b)
IAS-2002
Page No.77 Slide No. 159 Ans.(b)Amount of flash depends on the forging size not on forging
force.
IES 1993, GATE-1994(PI) Page No.77 Slide No.162 Ans.(a)Closed die forging requires the provision of
gutters to provide space for excess material and ensure complete closure of die and defect free forged
part.
IES-1997
Page No.78 Slide No.163 Ans.(c) The provision of gutters to provide space for excess
material and ensure complete closure of die and defect free forged part.
GATE-1989(PI)
Page No.78 Slide No. 164 Ans. Gutter
IES-1998
Page No.78 Slide No. 167 Ans.(c)
IES-2001
Page No.78 Slide No. 168 Ans.(a)
IES-2003
Page No.78 Slide No. 169 Ans.(a)
IES-2011
Page No.78 Slide No. 170 Ans.(a)
IES-2005
Page No.78 Slide No. 171 Ans.(c)
IES-2002
Page No.79 Slide No. 172 Ans.(b)
IES-2003
Page No.79 Slide No. 173 Ans.(d)
IAS-2001
Page No.79 Slide No. 174 Ans.(b)
IES-2012 Conventional
Page No.79 Slide No. 175 Ans.
EDGING: Preform shape. Gathers the material as required in the final forging.
FULLERING: Reducing cross section and making it longer.
FLASH: The excess metal added to the stock to ensure complete filling of the die cavity in the finishing
impression is called Flash.
IES 1994, ISRO-2010
Page No.79 Slide No. 178 Ans.(c)The drop forging die consists of two halves.
The lower half of the die is fixed to the anvil of the machine, while the upper half is fixed to the ram. The
heated stock is kept in the lower die while the ram delivers four to five blows on the metal, in quick
succession so that the metal spreads and completely fills the die cavity. When the two die halves close,
the complete cavity is formed.
IAS-2000
Page No.79 Slide No. 179 Ans.(a) Due to low toughness.
IES-2011
Page No.80 Slide No. 182 Ans.(b)
IFS-2011
Page No.80 Slide No. 183 Ans. Refer slides
IES-2005
Page No.81 Slide No. 190 Ans.(c)
IES-2008
Page No.81 Slide No. 191 Ans.(a)
IES-2013
Page No.81 Slide No. 193 Ans.(a) As K.E V2, high energy is delivered to the metal with
relatively small weights (ram and die).
IFS-2011
Page No.81 Slide No.194 Ans.
Advantages of High Velocity Forming:
1. K.E V2, high energy is delivered to the metal with relatively small weights (ram and die).
2. Cost and size of machine low.
3. Productivity high, overall production cost low
4. A shapes having straight or tapered reduced sections may be forged with the aid of rolls.
5. Ram strokes short (due to high acceleration)
IAS-2011(main)
Page No.81 Slide No.195 Ans.
Smith Forging
Blacksmith uses this forging method
Quality of the product depends on the skill of the operator.
Not used in industry.
Upset Forging
Upset forging involves increasing the diameter of a material by compressing its length.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

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Rev.1

Parts can be upset forged both hot and cold on special high-speed machines where the workpiece
is rapidly moved from station to station.
Upset forging generally employs split dies that contain multiple positions or cavities.
Drop Forging
The drop forging die consists of two halves. The lower half of the die is fixed to the anvil of the
machine, while the upper half is fixed to the ram. The heated stock is kept in the lower die while
the ram delivers four to five blows on the metal, in quick succession so that the metal spreads
and completely fills the die cavity. When the two die halves close, the complete cavity is formed.
Drop forging is used to produce small components.
Press Forging
Metal is squeezed gradually by a hydraulic or mechanical press and component is produced in a
single closing of die, hence the dimensional accuracy is much better than drop forging.
Similar to drop forging, press forging is also done in closed impression dies with the exception
that the force is a continuous squeezing type applied by the hydraulic presses.
Most commonly used for the forging of bolt heads of hexagonal shape is close die press forging.
IES-2008
Page No.81 Slide No. 197 Ans.(None) Correct sequence is 2 1 3 - 4
IAS-1998
Page No.82 Slide No. 202 Ans.(b)
IES-2011
Page No.82 Slide No. 203 Ans.(c) Bonding between the inclusions and the parent material is
through physical bonding no chemical bonding possible.
GATE-2008(PI)
Page No.82 Slide No. 204 Ans.(c)
IES-2007
Page No.82 Slide No.205 Ans.
The mating surfaces of the two halves of the die define a parting line around the edges of the forging as
they come together.It can be located such that the line will surround the largest projected area of the
piece. The angle of the surface at the parting line from the primary parting plane should not exceed 75o,
in general, much shallower angles are preferred.Select the parting line so that no undercut are in either
die impression at the time of ejection of workpiece.
IES-2013
Page No.82 Slide No. 207 Ans.(b)
GATE-2010(PI)
Page No.83 Slide No. 209 Ans.(c)Low thermal conductivity because low heat loss
from workpiece.
IES-2013
Page No.83 Slide No. 212 Ans.(b)
GATE-2014 Page No.83 Slide No. 214 Ans.(c)

Engineering strain or Conventional Strain( E )

elongation
original length

elongation
instantaneous length
If suppose x is the length; dx is the elongation which is infinitely small

True Strain( T )

Lo

as

dx
L
ln
x
Lo

L Lo L
L

1
1 E
Lo
Lo
Lo

T ln 1 E

volume change will not be there so,Ao Lo AL


L Ao / 4 d o 2

Lo
A / 4 d 2

ln

A
d
L
ln o 2 ln o
Lo
A
d

GATE-1992, ISRO-2012, VS-2013

Page No.83

Slide No. 215 Ans.(c)

L
2 L0
ln
ln 2 0.693
Lo
Lo

T ln
GATE-2007

Page No.83
L

True strain T

Lo

Slide No. 216 Ans.(c)


L
A
D
200
dx
ln ln o 2ln o 2ln
1.386
D
Lo
400
x
A

negative sign indicates compressive strain.


GATE-2006 Page No.84 Slide No. 220 Ans.(b)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 172 of 205

Rev.1

GATE-2012 Same Q GATE -2012 (PI)

Page No.84

Slide No. 221 Ans.(d)

Volume of material will remain same due to incompressibility

d12
4

h1

d 2 d1

d 22
4

h2

h1
50
100
141.42 mm
h2
25

Percentage changein diameter

d 2 d1
100% 41.42%
d1

IES-2012
Page No.84 Slide No.224 Ans.(c)Forging force attains maximum value at the end of the
operation.
IES 2005 Conventional
Page No.85 Slide No.226 Ans.
Solution: h = 6 mm, 2L = 96 mm, 0.25

xs L

h
6
1
1

ln 48
ln
39.68 mm
2
2 0.25 2 0.25
2
xS

2
(L x )
2K

( x s x ) B. dx 2 2K e h
B . dx
h

xS

Ftotal = 2 Ps
0

Applying Von-Mises theory

or

4.04 N / mm2
3
K
Ps
16.16 N / mm2

39.68

or

48

2 0.25

39.68 x 150 . dx 2 (2 4.04) e


16.16
6

0
39.68
510 kN 29.10 kN 539kN(Von Mises)

F 2

Applying Trescas Theory, K

150 . dx

o
K
3.5
3.5 N / mm2 ; Ps

14 N / mm2
2
0.25

39.68

48

2 3.5

(39.68 x ) 150 dx 2 (2 3.5) e


14
6

0
39.68
442 kN 25 kN 467kN (Tresca ' s)
IES 2007 Conventional
Page No.85 Slide No. 227 Ans.
Solution: Given, h1 = 60 mm, d1 = 100 mm, h = 30 mm
0 120 N/ mm2 and 0.05
F 2

20.25
(48 x )
6

or

d12
h1 R2 h
4

or
or

1002
60 R2 30
4
R = 70.7 mm

20.25
(48 x )
6

150 dx

2
.R

R
1
eh

2.04 MN
F 2 0

2
2
2
2
2

h
h h
IES 2006 Conventional
Page No.85 Slide No. 228 Ans.

Solution: R1 = 150 mm, h1 50 mm, R = ?, h = 25 mm, = 0.25


For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 173 of 205

Rev.1

R12h1 R2 h
R = 212.1 mm
y 4 N/ mm2 (Shear yield stress) = K

By Tresca Theory;

Rs 212.1

25
1

ln
= 177.4 mm
2 0.25
2 0.25

0 mm to 177.4 mm sticking
177.4 mm to 212.1mm sliding

Ps

K
4

16 N / mm2
0.25

0 2K 2 4 8 N / mm2
20.25

(212.1 r )
25

177.4

212.1

24
16

(177.4

r
)
.
2

r
dr

(8) e

0 25

177.4
(Trescas Theory)
3.93 MN

Ftotal

. 2 r dr

Von Miscs Theory;


Rs 212.1

25
1

ln
= 170.25 mm
2 0.25 3 0.25

0 mm to 170.25mm sticking
170.25mm to 212.1mm sliding

Ps

K
4

16 N / mm2
0.25

0 K 3 4 3 N / mm2
Ftotal

RS

2
(R r )
2K

(Rs r ) 2 r dr 0 e h
2 r dr
h

RS

170.25

212.1

24

0 16 25 (170.25 r) 2 r dr 170.25
4 3. e
= 3.6 MN (Von Misces)
GATE-1987 Page No.85 Slide No. 229 Ans. Center
GATE-2014(PI) Page No.85 Slide No. 230 Ans. (a)
Practice Problem -1
Page No.85 Slide No. 231 Ans.
Ftotal

20.25
(212.1 r )
25

2 r dr

Given: 2L = 96 mm; L = 48 mm; h = 6 mm; B = 150 mm; 0.05


h
1
ln
2 2
xs 90.155 mm
xs L

Since

K = 4.04 N/mm2

xs came negative so there will be no sticking only sliding will take place.
L

F 4 KB e h

(L x )

dx

48

4 4.04 150

20.05

(48 x )
6

dx 177.98 kN

Practice Problem -2

Page No.85

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Slide No. 232 Ans.

Page 174 of 205

Rev.1

d1 200 mm; h1 100 mm; h 50 mm; 0.1; Y 230 MPa O


Volume before forging = Volume after forging

d 2 h R 2 h or 2002 100 R 2 50 R 141.421 mm


4 1 1
4
According to Von-Mises
h 1
50
1

ln
141.21
ln
297.1 mm

2 3
2 0.1 3 0.1
According to Tresca
Rs R

h 1
50
1

ln
141.21
ln
261.1 mm
2 2
2 0.1 3 0.1
Rs came out to be negative so only sliding friction takes place.
Rs R

The formula for pressure we get after the slab method of analysis of forging;
2

P oe h

R r

at r 0; P Pmax
Pmax 230 e

20.1
(141.21)
50

Practice Problem -3

404.94 MPa
Page No.85

Slide No. 233 Ans.

d1 150 mm; h1 100 mm; h 50 mm; 0.2;

Volume before forging = Volume after forging

d12 h1 R 2 h or

1502 100 R 2 50 R 106.66 mm


4
h
50
True strain ln ln
0.693
h1
100
4

Flow stress o f 1030 0.17 1030 0.6930.17 967.74 MPa

By Tresca Theory;

Rs 106.66

50
1
ln
=-7.87mm
2 0.2
2 0.2

Von Miscs Theory;


Practice Problem -4

Page No.85

Slide No. 234 Ans.

d1 200 mm; h1 70 mm; h 40 mm; 0.05; f 200(0.01 )0.41

Volume before forging = Volume after forging

2002 70 R 2 40 R 132.28 mm
4
h
40
True strain ln ln
0.5596
h1
70
4

d12 h1 R 2 h or

f 200(0.01 )0.41
f 200(0.01 0.5596)0.41 158.78 o

Now use Trescas theory

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 175 of 205

Rev.1

Von-Mses Theory
Practice Problem -5 {GATE-2010 (PI)}

Page No.86

Slide No. 235,236

Ans.

R H IN R H FN
2
IN

or

2
FN

2
2002 50 RFN
30 RFN 258.2 mm

200

and 0.35 1 e 258.2 0.51

Now at Rss

Shear stress in sticking K = shear stress in sliding Pss

or K = 3Ke

2
RFN Rss
H FN

1 2
or ln
RFN Rss

3 H FN
or

H FN 1
ln
RFN Rss
2 3

or Rss RFN
IFS-2012

H FN 1
30
1

ln
ln
254.55 mm
258.2
2 3
2 0.51 3 0.51

Page No.86

Slide No.237 Ans. Refer forging analysis

Ch-10 Extrusion and Drawing: Answers with Explanations


IES-2007
Page No.86 Slide No. 243 Ans. (d)
The equipment consists of a cylinder or container into which the heated metal billet is loaded.
On one end of the container, the die plate with the necessary opening is fixed. From the other end, a plunger or
ram compresses the metal billet against the container walls and the die plate, thus forcing it to flow through the
die opening, and acquiring the shape of the opening. The extruded metal is then carried by the metal-handling
system as it comes out of the die.
IES-2012
Page No.87 Slide No. 246 Ans.(c)
Advantages: 1. Material saving 2. Process time saving 3. Saving in tooling cost
All are correct but only a die change can change the product therefore (c) is most appropriate.
IES-2009
Page No.87 Slide No. 247 Ans.(c)
IES-1994
Page No.87 Slide No. 250 Ans.(c)Metal extrusion process is generally used for producing
constant solid and hollow sections over any length.
GATE-1994
Page No.87 Slide No. 251 Ans. (a)
IES-1999
Page No.88 Slide No. 253 Ans.(c)
IAS-2012(main)
Page No.88 Slide No. 254
Ans. Refer slides
IES-2009
Page No.88 Slide No. 256 Ans. (b)
IES-1993
Page No.88 Slide No. 258 Ans. (b) Both A and R are true but R is not correct explanation of
A.
Zinc phosphate coating is used to prevent metal contact.In direct extrusion, friction with the chamber opposes
forward motion of the billet. For indirect extrusion, there is no friction, since there is no relative motion.
IES-2000
Page No.88 Slide No.259 Ans.(c)As diameter decreases therefore for same mass flow rate
the speed of travel of the extruded product must be greater than that of the ram.
IES-2012
Page No.89 Slide No. 262 Ans.(c) The force required on the punch is less in comparison to
direct extrusion.
IES-2007
Page No.89 Slide No. 263 Ans. (b)In direct extrusion, friction with the chamber opposes
forward motion of the billet.
IAS-2004
Page No.89 Slide No. 264 Ans. (d) Only ram movement is there.
IES 2008, GATE-1989(PI) Page No.268 Slide No.
Ans. (a)Impact Extrusion is used for manufacture
of collapsible toothpaste tubes
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 176 of 205

Rev.1

IES-2003
Page No.89 Slide No. 269 Ans. (d)
IES-2014
Page No.89 Slide No.270 Ans. (c)
IAS-2010(main)
Page No. 90 Slide No. 271 Ans. Refer slides
IAS-2000
Page No.90 Slide No. 278 Ans. (d)Hydrostatic extrusion suppresses crack formation by
pressure induced ductility. Relative brittle materials can be plastically deformed without fracture. And materials
with limited ductility become highly plastic.
IES-2006
Page No.90 Slide No.279 Ans. (a) It is pressure induced ductility.
GATE-1990(PI)
Page No.91 Slide No. 280 Ans.(c)
IES-2001
Page No.91 Slide No.281 Ans. (d)
IES-2009(conventional)
Page No. 91 Slide No. 283 Ans.
For sketches refer slides.
(i)Direct Extrusion-curtain rods
(ii) Indirect Extrusion(iii) Hydrostatic Extrusion-Cladding of metals, Extrusion of nuclear fuel reactor fuel rod
(iv) Impact Extrusion-Collapsible tubes for toothpastes, creams etc.
IES-2014
Page No.91 Slide No.285 Ans. (d) For high extrusion pressure, the initial temperature of
billet should be low.
JWM-2010
Page No.91 Slide No. 287 Ans. (a)
IAS-2012(main)
Page No.91 Slide No.288 Ans. Refer slide
GATE-2014 Page No.92
Slide No. 289 Ans. (b)
IES-2007
Page No.92 Slide No. 293 Ans.(c)
IES-2009
Page No.92 Slide No. 294 Ans. (b)The wire is subjected to tension only. But when it is in
contact with dies then a combination of tensile, compressive and shear stresses will be there in that portion only.
IES-2005
Page No.92 Slide No. 295 Ans. (a)
GATE-1987
Page No.92 Slide No. 296 Ans. (a)
IES-2010
Page No.93 Slide No. 298 Ans.(c)
Cleaning is done to remove scale and rust by acid pickling.
Lubrication boxes precede the individual dies to help reduce friction drag and prevent wear of the dies.
It is done by sulling, phosphating, electroplating.
IES-2000
Page No.93 Slide No.299 Ans.(c)
IAS-1995
Page No.93 Slide No. 300 Ans. (d)The correct sequence for preparing a billet for extrusion
process is pickling, alkaline cleaning, phosphate coating, and lubricating with reactive soap.
IES-1996
Page No.93 Slide No. 301 Ans. (d)
IES-2014
Page No. 93 Slide No.303 Ans. (b)
IES-1993; GATE-1994(PI)
Page No. 94 Slide No. 308 Ans. (b)
IES-1993
Page No.94 Slide No. 311 Ans. (a)Tandem drawing of wires and tubes is necessary because
it is not possible to reduce at one stage.
IES-2000
Page No.94 Slide No. 312 Ans. (d)
IES-1999
Page No.94 Slide No. 313 Ans. (d)
IES-1996
Page No.94 Slide No. 314 Ans.(c)
IES-1994
Page No.94 Slide No. 315 Ans. (d)
IES-1993, ISRO-2010
Page No. 95 Slide No. 316 Ans. (b)since malleability is related to cold
rolling, hardness to indentation, resilience to impact loads, and isotropy to direction.
IES-2002
Page No.95 Slide No. 317 Ans. (a)
IAS-2001
Page No.95 Slide No. 318 Ans. (a)
IAS-2002
Page No.95 Slide No. 319 Ans. (b)
IES-2011
Page No.95 Slide No. 320 Ans. (b)
GATE-1991(PI)
Page No.95 Slide No. 322 Ans. Extrusion
IAS-1994
Page No.95 Slide No.323 Ans. (b) Extrusion and skew rolling produce seamless metallic
tubes.
IES-2012(conventional)
Page No. 95 Slide No. 324 Ans. Refer slide
GATE-2003
Page No.96 Slide No. 328 Ans. (b)

Extrusion constant k = 250MPa

do 2

and Final area A f


4
Force required for extrusion:
Initial area A o
A
P kA0 ln o
A
f
GATE-2009(PI)

df 2
4

/ 4 0.12

2
2.72219MN
250 0.1 ln
2
4

/
4

0.05

Page No.96

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Slide No.329 Ans. (a)


Page 177 of 205

Rev.1

A
Pressure ( ) o ln o
A
f

o ln r 300ln 4 416 MPa

GATE-2006
Page No.96 Slide No. 330 Ans. (b)
Given : Do 10mm;Df 8mm; 0 400 MPa;Ignore friction and redundant work means
r
Ideal Force 2 0 A f ln o
rf
GATE -2008 (PI) Linked S-1

82 5
ln 8.97 kN
2 400
4
4

Page No. 96 Slide No.331 Ans. (b)

do 10 mm, d f (1 0.2) do (1 0.2) 10 8 mm


A
Stress d o ln o
A
f

d
2 o ln o

df

GATE -2008 (PI) Linked S-2

Power Drawing force Velocity

10
2 800 ln 357 MPa
8

Page No.96

Slide No. 332 Ans. (a)

Stress d area Af Velocity


357

82
4

0.5W 8.97 KW

GATE-2001, GATE -2007 (PI)


Page No.96 Slide No. 333 Ans. (b)
A
d o ln o For Maximum reduction, d o
Af
A A
A Af
1
o o ln o or o e 2.71828 o
100 1 100 63%
Af
Ao
e

Af
IES-2014
Page No.97 Slide No.334 Ans. (b)
GATE-1996
Page No.97 Slide No. 335 Ans. (b)

Case(a) : 3 stage reduction final dia =15 1 0.8 1 0.8 1 0.8 0.12 mm error 0.02mm
(b) 4 stage reduction final dia =15 1 0.8 1 0.8 1 0.8 1 0.2 0.096mm error 0.004mm
(c)5 stage reduction final dia
=15 1 0.8 1 0.8 1 0.4 1 0.4 1 0.2 0.1728mm error 0.0728mm

IES-2011(conventional)

Page No. 97 Slide No.338 Ans.

d o 12.5mm; d f 10mm;V 100m / min; 5; 0.15; o 400 MPa


B cot 0.15cot 5 1.7145

o 1 B
B

2B
rf
1
ro

21.7145

400(1 1.7145) 5
d
1
338.653MPa

1.7145
6.25

Force P 338.653 102 N


4

100
Power P V 338.653 102
m / s 44.329 kW
4
60
Maximum possible reduction; o d
o 1 B

2B
21.7145

rf min
400(1 1.7145) rf min
1
or 400
1
or rf min 4.67 mm
o

B
1.7145
ro
ro

do d f min
ro rf min
Max possible reduction in dia =
100%
100% 25.3%
do
ro

If the rod is subjected to a back pressure of 50 N/mm2

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 178 of 205

Rev.1

o 1 B

2B
2B
rf rf
1 . b
ro ro

400(1 1.7145) 5
d
1

1.7145
6.25

6.25
For maximum possible reduction; o d

21.7145

21.7145

50 361.26 MPa

o 1 B

2B
2B
rf min rf min
1

. b
ro ro

400(1 1.7145) rf min


400
1

1.7145
6.25

21.7145

Max possible % reduction in diameter =


Max possible % reduction in area =
GATE 2011 (PI) Common Data-S1

Initial area A o

2
o

10

21.7145

rf min

6.25

50 rf min 4.78 mm

d o d f min
do

Ao Af min
Ao

100% 23.5%

100% 41.5%

Page No. 97 Slide No. 339 Ans.(c)


2

mm 2 78.54 mm 2

4
4
After first pass area A1 1 0.35 Ao 1 0.35 78.54 mm 2 51 mm 2
After second pass area A 2 1 0.35 Ao and then ........
2

After 7th pass area A 7 1 0.35 Ao 1 0.35 78.54 mm 2 3.85 mm2


7

L
A
78.54
True strain ln ln o ln
3.02
3.85
A
Lo
and Ao Lo A7 L7 or 78.54 100 3.85 L7 L7 2040 mm
GATE 2011 (PI) Common Data-S-2

A
P o Af ln o
A
f
GATE-2014

A
78.54
o A1 ln o 200 51 ln
N 4.40 KN
51
A1

Page No.97

Slide No. 341 Ans. = 0.9 to 1.1

Truestrain at any instant t T

Page No. 97 Slide No. 340 Ans. (d)

dL
dL
2tdt

ln 1 t 2

2
2
L
L0 1 t
0 1 t

as, L L0 1 t 2 , dL L0 2tdt

T
IAS-1997
IES-2012
IFS-2013

dT
2t
2 1

1.0
2
dt
1 12
1 t

Page No.97
Page No.98
Page No.98

Slide No. 342 Ans.(c)


Slide No. 343 Ans. Refer slides
Slide No. 348 Ans. Hint given on slide

Ch-11 Sheet Metal Operation: Answers with Explanations


Example
Page No.100 Slide No. 363 Ans.
The clearance to be provided is given by, C = 0.0032 t
Shear strength of annealed C20 steel = 294 MPa
Hence, C = 0.0032 1.5 294 = 0.0823 mm
Since it is a blanking operation,
Die size = blank size = 20 mm
Punch size = blank size 2 C = 20 2 0.0823 = 19.83 mm
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 179 of 205

Rev.1

Now when it is punching operation,


Punch size= size of hole = 20 mm
Die size = Punch size +2 C = 20 +2 0.0823 = 20.1646 mm
GATE-2003 Page No.100 Slide No.364 Ans.(a)
It is blanking operation
Therefore Diameter of die = metal disc diameter = 20 mm
3% clearance (c) = 0.06 mm on both side of the die (of sheet thickness)
Therefore Diameter of punch = 20 2c = 20 2 x 0.06 = 19.88 mm
Example
Page No.100 Slide No. 367 Ans.

GATE-2014

Page No.100 Slide No. 368 Ans.(b)

Punching Force(F) Lt

F 2(a b)t 2(100 50) 5 300 450 kN


IAS-2011(main)

Page No.100 Slide No. 369 Ans.

For punching operation 10 mm circular hole


d 10 mm; t 1 mm; 240MPa
(i) Punch size size of hole 10 mm

ii Die size

Punch size 2 C 10 2(0.0032t )=10 2(0.0032 1 240)= 10.09914 mm

(iii) Punching Force(F) Lt dt 10 1 240 N 7.54 KN


For blanking 50200 mm rectangular blank
(i) Punch size size -2C
Length will be = 200-2C =200 - 2(0.0032 1 240) =199.90 mm
Width will be = 50 -2C =50 - 2(0.0032 1 240) = 49.90 mm

ii Die size

correct size

Length will be = 200 mm


Width will be = 50 mm
(iii ) F 2(a b)t 2(200 50) 1 240 120 kN
IES-1999

Page No.101 Slide No.371 Ans.(b) min dia =4t

IES-2014

Page No.101 Slide No.372 Ans. (c)

ISRO-2008, 2011 Page No.101 Slide No. 373


IES-2013
EXAMPLE

fs
3
4 20 30 mm
fc
6

Ans.(c) dt c

d2
4

or d

4t

4t
t
4

Page No.101 Slide No. 374 Ans.(c)same as previous question


Page No.102 Slide No. 379 Ans.
Maximum force without shear = 550 x 100 x x 5.6 N = 968 kN
Work requires to shear hole = 968 x 5.6 x 0.4 = 2168 J
Force with shear = 30 T = 30 x 9.81 kN =294 kN

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 180 of 205

Rev.1

Fmax pt
968 0.40 5.6
or 294
s 7.36 mm
s
s

Angle of shear, tan = 7.36/100 or = 4.2o


EXAMPLE
Page No.102 Slide No. 380 Ans.

d1 25.4 mm; d 2 12.7 mm; t 1.5 mm; 280 N / mm 2

Total cutting force when both punches act at the same time and no shear is
applied to either the die or punch;
F d1t d 2t 25.4 1.5 280 12.7 1.5 280 50.271 kN
The cutting force if the punches are staggered, so that only one punch acts at a time:
Fmax d outsidet 25.4 1.5 280 33.515kN
Taking 60% penetration and shear on punch of 1 mm,
The cutting force if both punches act together;
F

d1t d 2t pt 25.4 1.5 280 12.7 1.5 280 0.6 1.5 45.225kN
S

GATE-2010 Statement Linked 1

t 5 mm; L 200 mm; 100MPa;

Page No.102 Slide No. 381 Ans.(a)

p
0.2
t

Fmax Lt 200 5 100 100 kN


Work Done Fmax ( pt ) 100 (0.2 5) 100 J

GATE-2010 Statement Linked 2


Page No.102 Slide No. 382 Ans.(b)
For 400mm length shear is 20mm; therefore for
200mm length it becomes10mm. Only 200 mm length
is effective.

Fmax ( pt )
S
100
F
10kN
10
F

IAS-2003
ISRO-2013
back.
GATE-2011

Page No.103 Slide No. 392 Ans.(a)


Page No.103 Slide No. 393 Ans.(a) Higher the modulus of elasticity higher will be the spring
Page No.104 Slide No. 404 Ans.(c)

Blanking Force(F) Lt dt 100 1.5 300 141.371kN

GATE-2009(PI)

Page No.104 Slide No.405 Ans.(b)

GATE-2013(PI)

Page No.105 Slide No. 406 Ans.(c)

Blanking Force(F) Lt dt 200 3.2 150 301.592kN


Blanking Force(F) Lt dt 10 2 80 5.026kN

ISRO-2009

Page No.105 Slide No. 407 Ans.(b)

GATE-2007

Page No.105 Slide No. 408 Ans.(a)

Blanking Force(F) Lt dt 25 10 500 392.69kN

Blanking Force(F) Lt dt
F1 5 dt

and F2 1.5d 0.4t

F1
dt
5
1

or

or F2 3
F2 1.5d 0.4t
F2 1.5 0.4
GATE-2004

Page No.105 Slide No.409 Ans.(a)

The blanking force (Fmax ) = dt 10 3 400 37.7 kN


F

GATE_2012

Fmax pt 37.7 0.40 3

22.6 kN
S
2

Page No.105 Slide No. 410 Ans.(a)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 181 of 205

Rev.1

Punch size without allowance = Die size 2 x radial clearance = 25 2 x 0.06 = 24.88 mm
We need another gap (die allowance ) i.e. final punch size will be = 24.88 0.05 = 24.83 mm
GATE-2008(PI)
Page No.105 Slide No. 411 Ans.(c)

C = 6% of t = 0.062.5mm = 0.15mm
Punch size = diesize - 2C = 50 - 20.15mm = 49.70 mm
Diesize = 50.00 mm
GATE-2002 Page No.105 Slide No.412 Ans.(c)
GATE-2001 Page No.105 Slide No. 413 Ans.(b)
GATE-1996 Page No.105 Slide No. 414 Ans.(d) Clearance only on punch for Blanking operation. Due to
insufficient data we cant calculate.
IES-1994
Page No.106 Slide No. 415 Ans.(a)
IES-2002
Page No.106 Slide No.416 Ans.(b)
IAS-1995
Page No.106 Slide No. 417 Ans.(c)
IES-2006
Page No.106 Slide No. 418 Ans.(c)
IES-2004
Page No.106 Slide No. 419 Ans.(a)
IES-1997
Page No.106 Slide No. 420 Ans.(a)
IAS-2000
Page No.106 Slide No. 421 Ans.(d)
It is blanking operation so clearance must be provided on punch.
Therefore, Die size = blank size = 30 mm
Punch size = blank size 2C = 30 -2 x 0.06 x t = 30 2 x 0.06 x 10 = 28.8 mm
GATE-2007(PI)
Page No.106 Slide No. 422 Ans.(c)

C 40 microns 0.040 mm; 2C 0.08 mm

It is blanking operation : Punch size 35 0.080 mm and Die size 35 mm


IAS-1994

Page No.106 Slide No. 423 Ans.(a)

Work done = Fmax pt 200 kN 0.25 4 200 J [2 105 N 200kN ]


IAS-2002
Page No.107 Slide No. 424 Ans.(a) In punching usable part is sheet so punch size is
Correct and clearance on die. In blanking usable part is punched out circular part so die size is correct and
clearance on punch
IAS-2007
Page No.107 Slide No. 425 Ans.(b)In punching useable part is punched sheet so size of hole
must be accurate i.e. size of punch must be accurate. Clearance have be given on Die only.
IAS-1995 Page No.107
Slide No. 426Ans.(a)Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
IES-2002
Page No.107 Slide No. 427 Ans.(c)
IAS-2003
Page No.107 Slide No. 428 Ans.(c)
IES-2000
Page No.107 Slide No. 429 Ans.(b)
IES-1999
Page No.107 Slide No. 430 Ans.(d) In blanking operation clearance is always given on the
punch . Die size is always the exact dimension
IES-1994
Page No.108 Slide No. 436 Ans.(c)

d 25mm; h 15mm;We know D d 2 4dh 252 4 25 15 46 mm


GATE-2003

Page No.108 Slide No. 437


d 100
Here
250 For d 20r ;D
r 0.4
ISRO-2011
Page No.108 Slide No. 438
IAS-2013(mains)
Page No.108

Ans.(c)
d 2 4dh 1002 4 100 100 224mm

Ans.(a)
Slide No. 441 Ans.

d 50 mm; h 100 mm; BlankDia D d 2 4dh 502 4 50 100 150 mm

d
d
; 1st Reduction; 0.4 1
d 90 mm
D
150
So, it can't be draw in a single draw.
Reduction 1

IFS-2013

Page No.109 Slide No. 442 Ans.

d 40 mm; h 60 mm; r 2 mm

D d 2 4dh 402 4 40 60 105.83mm


First draw 50% reduction, d1 0.5D=52.415mm
Second draw 30% reduction, d 2 0.6d1 31.44mm (possible)
It is not possible to draw the cup in singlestep.we have to use doublestep.
IES-2008
Page No.109 Slide No. 444 Ans.(c) A cylindrical vessel with flat bottom can be deep drawn
by double action deep drawing
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

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Rev.1

IES-1997

Page No.109 Slide No. 448 Ans.(c)

D = d 4dh = 15 cm
First draw 50% reduction, d1 = 7.5 cm
Second draw 30% reduction, d2 = 5.25 cm
Third draw 25% reduction, d3 = 3.94 cm possible
IES-1998
Page No.109 Slide No. 449 Ans.(d)
2

d
d
0.5;
Reduction 1 100% 50%
D
D
Thumb rule:
First draw:Reduction 50 %
Second draw:Reduction 30 %
Third draw:Reduction 25%
Fourth draw:Reduction 16 %
Fifth draw:Reduction 13%
IFS-2009
Page No.109 Slide No. 450 Ans.. Refer slides for theory
IFS-2013
Page No.110 Slide No. 455 Ans..Refer slides for theory
IAS-2007
Page No.110 Slide No. 457 Ans.(d) In drawing operation, proper lubrication is essential for
1. To improve die life.
2. To reduce drawing forces.
3. To reduce temperature.
4. To improve surface finish.
GATE-2008 Page No.111 Slide No. 465 Ans.(a)An insufficient blank holder pressure causes wrinkles to
develop on the flange, which may also extend to the wall of the cup.
IAS-1997
Page No.111 Slide No. 466 Ans.(c)
GATE-1999 Page No.111 Slide No. 467 Ans.(b)It is without a blank holder, so no stress.
GATE-2006 Page No.111 Slide No. 468 Ans.(d)
IES-1999
Page No.112 Slide No. 469 Ans.(b)
IAS-1994
Page No.112 Slide No. 470 Ans.(d)
GATE-1992 Page No.112 Slide No. 476 Ans.(a)

tc 1.5mm; 30

now tc tb sin ;

or 1.5 tb sin 30 tb 3 mm

IES-1994
Page No.112 Slide No. 477 Ans.(d)Mode of deformation of metal during spinning is bending
and stretching.
IFS-2011
Page No.113 Slide No. 478 Ans. Refer slides
IES-2011
Page No.114 Slide No. 489 Ans.(b)
Option (b) Magnetic pulse forming and (d) Eletro-hydraulic formingboth are High Energy Rate Forming (HERF).
But Question is "usedfor forming components form thin metal sheets or deform thin tubes"it is done by Magnetic
pulse forming only.
JWM-2010
Page No.114 Slide No. 490 Ans.(c)
IES-2010
Page No.114 Slide No. 491 Ans.(c)
IES-2007
Page No.114 Slide No. 492 Ans.(b)
High-Energy-Rate-Forming is metal forming through the application of large amount of energy in a very sort
time interval.
High energy-release rate can be obtained by five distinct methods:
(i) Underwater explosions.
(ii) Underwater spark discharge (electro-hydraulic).
(iii)Pneumatic-mechanical means.
(iv)Internal combustion of gaseous mixtures.
(v) Electro-magnetic (the use of rapidly formed magnetic fields)
IES-2009
Page No.114 Slide No. 493 Ans.(b)
IES-2005
Page No.114 Slide No. 494 Ans.(c)
IES-2013(conventional)
Page No.114 Slide No. 495 Ans. Refer slides for theory
GATE-2000 Page No.115 Slide No. 500 Ans.(b)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 183 of 205

Rev.1

For bi-axial strectching of sheets: 1 ln


Final thickness =

li1
l
and 2 ln i 2
lo1
lo 2

initial thickness(t )
e1 e 2

t 1.5mm; 1 0.05; 2 0.09 Final thickness


IES-1998
GATE-2005

Page No.116 Slide No. 509 Ans.(a)


Page No.116 Slide No. 510 Ans.(c)

1.5
1.304 mm
e e0.09
0.05

1 radian; R 100mm; k 0.5; t 2mm


Lb (R kt) 1(100 0.5 2) 101 mm

GATE-2007 Page No.117 Slide No. 514


GATE -2012 Same Q in GATE-2012 (PI)
GATE-2004 Page No.117 Slide No. 516
IAS-1999
Page No.117 Slide No. 517
IAS-1997
Page No.117 Slide No. 518
IES-2010
Page No.117 Slide No. 519

Ans.(d)
Page No.117 Slide No.515 Ans.(a)
Ans.(b)
Ans.(d)
Ans.(c)
Ans.(d)

Ch-12 Powder Metallurgy: Answers with Explanations


IAS-2003
Page No.118 Slide No.524 Ans. (c)It is for low melting point temperature metals.
IAS-2007
Page No.118 Slide No.525 Ans. (c)In atomization process inert gas or water may be used as
a substitute for compressed air.
IES-1999
Page No.118 Slide No.526 Ans. (c)An oxide film is formed in the case of air atomization and
that film can be avoided by using an inert gas.
GATE-2011(PI)
Page No.118 Slide No.528 Ans. (b)In reduction Metal oxides are turned to pure
metal powder when exposed to below melting point gases results in a product of cake of sponge metal.
IES-2013(conventional)
Page No.118 Slide No.531 Ans. Refer slide
IES-2012
Page No.119 Slide No.533 Ans. (b)
GATE -2014 (PI) Page No.119
Slide No.535 Ans. (b) Compaction is used for making product.
IAS-2000
Page No.119 Slide No.536 Ans. (b)Sintering used for making bond
IES-2010
Page No.119 Slide No.537 Ans. (d)
IES-1999
Page No.120 Slide No.541 Ans. (a)
IES-2013(conventional)
Page No.120 Slide No.544 Ans. Lubricants such as graphite or stearic acid
improve the flow characteristics and compressibility at the expense of reduced strength.
GATE-2010(PI)
Page No.120 Slide No.548 Ans. (b)Due to formation of bonding brittleness reduces.
IES-2002
Page No.120 Slide No.549 Ans. (c)
IES-2007(conventional)
Page No.121 Slide No.550 Ans. Refer slide
IAS-1997
Page No.121 Slide No.555 Ans. (d)A is false. Closed dimensional tolerances are possible
with iso-static pressing of metal power in powder metallurgy technique.
IES-2011(conventional)
Page No.121 Slide No.556 Ans. Refer Slide
ISRO-2013
Page No.122 Slide No.563 Ans. (b& c)Best choice will be ( c)
GATE-2009(PI)
Page No.123 Slide No.568 Ans. (d)
IES-2007
Page No.123 Slide No.569 Ans. (b)Disadvantage of PM is relatively high die cost.
IES-2012
Page No.123 Slide No.571 Ans. (b)
IES-2006
Page No.123 Slide No.572 Ans. (c)No wastage of material.It may be automated though it is
difficult for automation. this is not true
IES-2004
Page No.123 Slide No.573 Ans. (a)
IES-2010
Page No.123 Slide No.575 Ans. (c)
IAS-1998
Page No.123 Slide No.576 Ans. (c)
IES-2009
Page No.124 Slide No.577 Ans. (c)
GATE-2011(PI) Page No124. Slide No.578 Ans. (d)
IAS-2003
Page No.124 Slide No.579 Ans. (a)
IES-1997
Page No.124 Slide No.580 Ans. (d)
IES-2001
Page No.124 Slide No.581 Ans. (b)
IAS-2003
Page No.124 Slide No.583 Ans. (d)
GATE-2011 Page No.125 Slide No.588 Ans. (c)
IAS-1996
Page No.125 Slide No.589 Ans. (b)
IES-1998
Page No.125 Slide No.590 Ans. (b)
IES-2014
Page No.125 Slide No.591 Ans. (c)
IAS-2007
Page No.125 Slide No.592 Ans. (b)
IAS-2004
Page No.125 Slide No.593 Ans. (b)
IES-2001
Page No.125 Slide No.594 Ans. (d)
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Page 184 of 205

Rev.1

GATE-2008(PI)
Page No.126 Slide No.595 Ans. (d)
Conventional Question,IES-2010 Page No.126 Slide No.596 Ans. Refer slide
Conventional Question,IES-2005 Page No.126 Slide No.597 Ans. Refer slide

Ch-xx Tool Materials: Answers with Explanations


IAS-1997
Page No.127 Slide No.7
Ans.(a)Carbon steel tools have Limited tool life. Maximum
cutting speeds about 8 m/min. dry and used upto 250oC
IES-2013
Page No.128 Slide No.11 Ans.(b) Addition of large amount of cobalt and Vanadium to
increase hot hardness and wear resistance respectively
IAS-1997
Page No.128 Slide No.12 Ans.(a)Coating if TiC and TiN on HSS is done by by Chemical
Vapour Deposition (CVD) or Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD)
IES-2003
Page No.128 Slide No.14
per cent chromium and 1 per cent vanadium

Ans.(a)18-4-1 High speed steel- contains 18 per cent tungsten, 4

IES-2007

Page No.128 Slide No.15

Ans.(a)

IES-1993

Page No.128 Slide No.16

Ans.(b)The blade of a power saw is made of high speed steel.

IES-1995

Page No.129 Slide No.19

Ans.(d)

18-4-1 High speed steel- contains 18 per cent tungsten, 4 per cent chromium and 1 per cent vanadium
Molybdenum high speed steel contains 6 per cent tungsten, 6 per cent molybdenum, 4 per cent
chromium and 2 per cent vanadium.

IES-2000

Page No.129 Slide No.20

Ans.(b)

IES-1992

Page No.129 Slide No.21

Ans.(a)

IAS-2001

Page No.129 Slide No.22

Ans.(a)

IAS-1994

Page No.129 Slide No.23

Ans.(b)

IES-2011

Page No.129 Slide No.27

Ans.(a)

IES-1995

Page No.130 Slide No.33

Ans.(c)

IES-1994

Page No.130 Slide No.34

Ans.(a)

IES-1999

Page No.130 Slide No.38

Ans.(c)

IES-2013

Page No.131 Slide No.46

Ans.(a)

IES-2010
Page No.131 Slide No.47 Ans.(b)Constituents of ceramics are oxides of different materials,
which areGround, sintered and palleted to make ready ceramics
IES-1996

Page No.132 Slide No.48

Ans.(c)

IAS-1997
Page No.132 Slide No.49 Ans.(b)Ceramic tools are used only for light, smooth and
continuous cuts at high speeds.This is because of low strength of ceramics
IES-1996

Page No.132 Slide No.50

D(mm) N
1000

m / min

100 1000
1000

Ans.(b)

314.15m / min

Cutting speed in this case is 314 m / min, at which ceramic is suited.


For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 185 of 205

Rev.1

IES-2007

Page No.132 Slide No.51

Ans.(d)

IAS-2000

Page No.132 Slide No.52

Ans.(c)

H.S.S < Cast alloy < Carbide < Cemented carbide < Cermets < ceramics
IAS-2003

Page No.132 Slide No.53

Ans.(c)

IAS-1999

Page No.133 Slide No.58

Ans.(b)

IES-2010

Page No.133 Slide No.62

Ans.(c)

IES-2000

Page No.133 Slide No.63

Ans.(d)Cermets are Metal-ceramic composites

IES-2003

Page No.133 Slide No.64

Ans.(a)

GATE-2009(PI)
Page No.134 Slide No.66 Ans.(d)On ferrous materials, diamonds are not suitable
because of the diffusion of carbon atoms from diamond to the work-piece material.
IES-1995
Page No.134 Slide No.69 Ans.(b)Nonferrous materials are best to work with diamond
because ferrous materials have affinity towards diamond and diffusion of carbon atoms takes place.
IES-2001

Page No.134 Slide No.70

Ans.(b)

IES-1999

Page No.134 Slide No.71

Ans.(a)

IES-1992

Page No.134 Slide No.72

Ans.(d)

IAS-1999
Page No.134 Slide No.73 Ans.(a)Oxidation of diamond starts at about 450oC and
thereafter it can even crack. For this reason the diamond tool is kept flooded by the coolant during cutting, and
light feeds are used. - Book B L Juneja and Nitin seth page 88
IES-1994

Page No.135 Slide No.77

Ans.(a)

IES-2002

Page No.135 Slide No.78

Ans.(d)

IES-1996

Page No.135 Slide No.79

Ans.(a)Hardness of CBN is comparable to diamond

IES-1994

Page No.135 Slide No.80

Ans.(d)None of the uses is true for CBN.

IAS-1998

Page No.135 Slide No.81

Ans.(b)

IES-1993

Page No.135 Slide No.83

Ans.(b)

High speed steel, in addition to W, Cr & V, has Mo as the most influencing constituent. Thus A matches with 2.
Non ferrous alloys (stellites) are high in cobalt. Thus B matches with 5.
The major constituent of diamond is carbon. Thus C matches with 1.
Coated carbide tools are treated by nitriding. Thus D matches with 3
IES-2003
Page No.136 Slide No.84 Ans.(b)This is one of the natural abrasives found, and is also
called corundum and emery. However, the natural abrasives generally have impurities and, as a result, their
performance is inconsistent. Hence the abrasive used in grinding wheels is generally manufactured from the
aluminium ore, bauxite,
Silicon carbide (SiC) Silicon carbide is made from silica sand and coke with small amounts of common salt.
IES-2000
Page No.136 Slide No.85 Ans.(b)Cutting speed of diamond is very high but small feed rate
with low depth of cut. Degarmo and Kalpakjian both book written this.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 186 of 205

Rev.1

IES-1999
Page No.136 Slide No.86 Ans.(d)WC is used for drawing dies, silicone nitride for pipes to
carry liquid metal, Al2O3 for abrasive wheels, and silicon carbide for heating elements.
IAS-2001

Page No.136 Slide No.87

Ans.(d)

IES-1996

Page No.136 Slide No.89

Ans.(a)

IES-2005

Page No.136 Slide No.90

Ans.(d)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 187 of 205

Rev.1

Anal
A lysis
s off Forrgin
ng
ue stre
ess an
nd Tru
ue Strrain
Tru
The tru
ue stress is defineed as the
e ratio of the load
d to the cross
c
secttion area at any
instantt. (T ) =
Where

loa
ad
= (1 + )
Instantane
eous area
a

and is the eengineerin


ng stress and engiineering strain
s
resspectively
y.

True sttrain
L
L
A
d
Elong
gation
dx
x
=
= ln = ln (1 + ) = ln o = 2ln o
(T ) =
A
Lo
d
Instantane
eouslenght L x
o

or engineering strain
s
( ) = e T -1
The volume
v
off the specimen is a
assumed to
t be consstant durring plastic deform
mation.
[ Ao Lo = AL ] It is valid till the neck form
mation.

Flow Strress
Whenamaterialdeformsplasticallystrainhardeningocccurs.

Forgin
ngoccursiinplasticzonei.einb
between y and ultt
y Y
YieldStresss
o For
F forgingg, we need
d flow stress and flow stress is not constant and
d dependss on stress of the

workp
piece.
ult Ultimatetensilestre
esshereneeckformationstarts.

wCurve
EquationofFlow
hardening
(a)Withstrainh

o = K(T )n

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 188 of 205

Rev.1

e.g. o = 1000 (T )0.3

Here o is flow stress but it is truesttress and T is truesttrain.


(b)Wiithoutstrainhardening:

o = y

Wewillanalyzeonlyopen
ndieforgin
ngusingsllabmethodofanalyysisfor
(1)RectangularBarforgingg,and
(2)Axisymmetrricforging

1. Rectan
R
ngula
ar Bar Forgiing

oreforging
Befo

Afterrforging (length height


h
)

B
h

h1

2
2L

2L1

Herre we are using pla


ane strain
n conditio
on i.e. wid
dth wontt increasee.
At tthe end of
o the forrging, forrce will be
b maxim
mum because of th
he area in
nvolved
betw
ween the die and tthe workp
piece is maximum
m
m.
Geoometry sh
hould be ttaken at end
e of forrging
P

dx
x

(x+d
d x)

x =0
2L
L

point at which
w
the material does not move in any direcction.
x = 0 , is the p
Take an elemeent dx at a distancce of x (en
nlarged viiew):

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 189 of 205

Rev.1

Fig. FBD of Ellements


Now element w
will look like a sla
ab and hen
nce its na
ame slab method of
o analysiis.
ft side (sstress x area) = Force ( x Bh ) a
and on other
o
sid
de force will be
On left

( x + d x ) Bh

Upper die will give


g
presssure on upper surfface and llower surrface will get pressure by
die. So on
n upper siide force=
= P area
a = (P B
B dx) & similarly
y on lowerr side =
lower d
(P B dxx )

As mettal is mo
oving outtwards so
o friction
n force wiill act in
n oppositee directio
on, this
friction
n force iss shear fforce and
d will cau
use shearr stress on the ssurface eq
qual to
( x B dxx ) in lower and upp
per surface.

At the end of fforging th


he system
m must be
e in equiliibrium; th
herefore net
n resulttant force
e in any
directtion is zerro.

Fx = 0;
0 Gives
( x + d x ) B h x . B h 2x . B dx = 0

or
or

d x B h 2x B dx = 0
d x . h 2x dx = 0

d x 2 x

=0
h
dxx

(1)

x , x and
d x so we
v
e reduce iit into tw
wo variab
bles by ap
pplying
Here there arre three variables
condiition.

material there
t
are two the
eories of plasticitty.
For a ductile m
1. Vo
on-Mises Theory:: ( 1 2 )2 + ( 2 3 )2 + ( 3 1 )2 = 2 20
2. Trescas Th
heory: 1 3 = 0

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 190 of 205

Rev.1

( Plane strain co
ondition)

2 = 0

As

3
2

1
=0
E
E
E
2 = ( 1 + 3 )

or

2 = ( x P)
1
2

Note: In theorries of pla


asticity P
ge not occcur.
Poisson's ratio,
r
= as volume chang

2 =

There
efore,

From
m Von-Mises theo
ory:

1
( P )
2 x

2
2
x ( x P) + ( x P) + P + ( P x ) = 20
2

( x + P)2 ( x + P)2
+
+ ( x + P)2 = 220
4
4
3
2
( x + P) = 2 20
2
4
( x + P)2 = 20
3
2
( x + P) =
0
3

x + P = 2 K
ear stresss]
.(2)) [where K = 0 = flow she
3

or
or
or
or
or

m Tresca
as theor
ry :
From

1 3 = 0

or
or

x + P = 0

x + P = 2K
K .(2)) [where K =

0
= flow shear stress]]
2

g equatio
on (2)
Differrentiating

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 191 of 205

Rev.1

d x d P
+
=0
dx
d
dx
dx d P
=
d
dx
dx

or

....(3)

Condition-1
1:
ng slidin
ng friction all over th
he surfa
ace ( x
Considerin

= P )

PB
Bdx
Bdxx

F = N
orr dF = d
dN
x B dx = . PB dx

x = P

m equation
n (1) and (3)
From

or
or
or

d x 2 x
=0

h
dx
d P 2 P

=0
dx
h
dP
2
P = h dx
2
ln P =
x +C
h

.
......(4)

ndary con
nditions, at x = L
L, x = 0 (because
(
no force is applied so noo stress on that
Boun
surface) and x + P = 2K
K gives P = 2 K
or
or

2
L+C
h
2
.L
C = ln ( 2K ) +
h
ln ( 2K ) =

ng the va
alues of C in equattion (4)
Puttin
2
2
x + ln ( 2 K ) +
.L
h
h
P 2
(L x )
ln
=
2K h

ln P =

or
or

P 2
(L x )
ln
=
2K h

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 192 of 205

Rev.1

P = 2K
2 . e

or

2
(L x )
h

.... (5) (Pressu


ure distrib
bution equ
uation)

2
(L)
h

At

x = 0,

Pmax
= 2K e
m

At

x = L,

Pmin
= 2K e h
m

(0)

= 2K

Elemental forcce, dF = P.B.dx


P
2

dF = 2 K e h
L

(L x )

Integ
grating, F = 2 (2 K . e h

. B.dx

. (L x )

F = 4 KB
B . e h

(L x )

L
L
or 2L we use
u 2
. B . dx ) givess half porttion F so fo
0
0

. dx

Condition-2
2:
Considerin
ng stick
king fric
ction all over the
t surfface ( x

= y = K

Shearr failure w
will occurr at each and every point.

From
m equation
n (1) and (3)

or
or
or

d x
2 x =0
h
dx
dP 2K

=0
dx
h
2K
d P = h dx
2K
K
P=
x +C
h

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

......(6)

Page 193 of 205

Rev.1

Boun
ndary con
nditions, at x = L
L, x = 0 (because
(
no force is applied so noo stress on
o that
surface) and x + P = 2K
K gives P = 2 K
2K L
+C
h
2K
C = 2K +
.L
h

So,

2K =

or

ng in equ
uation (6)
Puttin
P=

2K
K
2K
. x + 2K
K+
.L
h
h

P = 2K
2 +
At

2K
(L x )
h

x = 0,

Pmax
= 2K +
m

x = L,

Pmin
= 2K
m

.....
(7) {P
Pressure distributi
d
ion equattion}

2K
.L
h

2k + 2k .L
h

2h

2kk

Elemental forcce,

dF
F = P . B . dx

or

dF
F = 2K +

x=0

x=L

2K

(L x ) B . dx
h

2K

F = 2 2 K +
(L
L x ) B . dx
d
h

Condition-3
3:
Considerin
ng stick
king and
d slidin
ng both model of fricttion
( Temperat
T
ture is same throu
ughout boody)

For Sliding
S
Reegion:

dx 2x

=0
d
dx
h

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 194 of 205

Rev.1

or
or
or

d P 2 P

=0
dx
h
dP
2
P = h dx
2
ln P =
x +C
h

......(4)

Boundary conditions, at x = L, x = 0 (because no force is applied so no stress on that


surface) and x + P = 2 K gives P = 2 K
or
or

2
L+C
h
2
C = ln ( 2 K ) +
.L
h
ln ( 2 K ) =

Putting the values of C in equation (4)


2
2
.L
x + ln ( 2 K ) +
h
h
P 2
ln
(L x )
=
2K h

ln P =

or
or

or

P 2
ln
(L x )
=
2K h

P = 2K . e

For Sticking Region:


or
or
or
At
or
or

2
(L x )
h

d x

2 x =0
dx
h
dP 2K

=0
dx
h
2 K
d P = h dx
2K
P=
x +C
h

.... (5)

......(6)

x = x s ; P = Ps
2K
xs + C
h
2K
C = Ps +
. xs
h
Ps =

2K
2K
x + Ps +
xs
h
h
2K
P = Ps +
( xs x )
...............(8)
h

P=

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 195 of 205

Rev.1

FTotal = FStticking + FSlidding


=2

Xs

PSticking . B . dx + 2
0

Sliding

. B dx

Xs

2
s
(L
L x)

2K
K

= 2 Ps +
( x s x ) B . dx + 2 2K e h
x
B . dx
h

0
xs

nd x s
To find Ps an
ame for bo
oth stickin
ng and slliding
At x = x s , Sheear stressses are sa

x = K
x = Ps
x = K = Ps
Ps =

At

(iff considerring stick


king)
(iff considerring slidin
ng)

....(9)

x = xs ;

P = Ps
2

Ps = 2K e h

( xs )
(L

2
((L x s )
K
= 2K e h

or

2
(L x s )
1
=eh
2

or

1 2
ln
n =
(L x s )
2 h

or

h
1
. ln = L x s
2
2
xs = L

h
1
ln
2
2

....(10) (in any q


question first
f
we fiind this x s )

Using
g this equ
uation we
e can deciide the condition of friction..
mple 1: L = 50 mm
m, h = 10 mm & = 0.25
Exam
xs = L

1
10
h
1

ln
ln = 50
mm
= 36.13m
2
0.25

0.25
2
2

0 to 36.13
3
mm
m sticking and 36.1
13 mm to 50 mm slliding willl take pla
ace.
Exam
mple 2: L = 50 mm
m, h = 10 mm & = 0.08

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 196 of 205

Rev.1

xs = L

h
10
1
1

ln = 50
ln
= 64.53 mm ( absurd value )
2
2
2
0.08
2
0.08

( x cannot be ve) i.e only sliding no sticking occur.

Example 3: L = 50 mm, h = 10 mm & = 0.65


xs = L

h
10
1
1

ln = 50
ln
= 52.01 mm
2
2 0.65
2 0.65
2

Only sticking no sliding


NOTE: If > 0.5 then only sticking, In hot forging ( ) is larger if > 0.5 only sticking
condition will occur.

IES 2005 Conventional


A strip of lead with initial dimensions 24 mm x 24 mm x 150 mm is forged between two flat
dies to a final size of 6 mm x 96 mm x 150 mm. If the coefficient of friction is 0.25,
determine the maximum forging force. The average yield stress of lead in tension is 7
N/mm2
Solution: h = 6 mm, 2L = 96 mm, = 0.25
xs = L

h
6
1
1

ln = 48
ln
= 39.68 mm
2
2

0.25
2

0.25


xS

Ftotal = 2 Ps +
0

2
(L x )
2K

( x s x ) B. dx + 2 2 K e h
B . dx
h

xS

Applying Von-Mises theory K =

= 4.04 N / mm2
3
K
Ps =
= 16.16 N / mm2

or
39.68

or

48

2 0.25

(39.68 x ) 150 . dx + 2 (2 4.04) e


16.16 +
6

0
39.68
= 510 kN + 29.10 kN = 539 kN (Von Mises)

F = 2

Applying Trescas Theory, K =

150 . dx

o
K
3.5
= 3.5 N / mm2 ; Ps =
=
= 14 N / mm2
2
0.25

39.68

48

2 3.5

(39.68 x ) 150 dx +2 (2 3.5) e


14 +
6

0
39.68
442 kN + 25 kN = 467kN (Tresca ' s)
F = 2

20.25
(48 x )
6

20.25
(48 x )
6

150 dx

Practice Problem-1
A strip of metal with initial dimensions 24 mm x 24 mm x 150 mm is forged between two
flat dies to a final size of 6 mm x 96 mm x 150 mm. If the coefficient of friction is 0.05,
determine the maximum forging force. Take the average yield strength in tension is 7
N/mm2
Given: 2L = 96 mm; L = 48 mm; h = 6 mm; B = 150 mm; = 0.05
h
1
ln
2 2
x s = 90.155 mm
xs = L

K = 4.04 N/mm2

Since xs came negative so there will be no sticking only sliding will take place.
L

F = 4 KB e h

(L x )

dx

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 197 of 205

Rev.1

48

= 4 4.04 150

20.05

(48 x )

dx = 177.98 kN

Axi Symmetrical Forging (Open Die):


Using cylindrical co-ordinate system (r, , z )
and Using Slab Method of analysis
d1

h1

At the start
of forging

At end of forging

Volume before forging = Volume after forging


2
d1 h1 = R 2 h
4
At an angle , we take an d element at a radius r we take dr element.
+ dr

dr

+ d

r
r

For axi-symmetrical forging d will be zero.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 198 of 205

Rev.1

Net resultant
r
force in radially
r
outward direction
d
i 0.
is
( r + d r ) (r + dr
d ) d . h ( r . r d . h ) 2 r . r d . dr 2 dr h . sin

d
=0
2

dr.h cos d
2

d
2

dr

dr.h
h cos d
2

drh

dr.h sin d
2

d
2

dr.h
h sin d
2

d
d

gets can
ncelled they
t
are op
pposite
cos

For Axi-Symm
A
metry fo
orging
r =

r =
i.e.
m above eq
quation,
From
( r + d r ) (r + drr ) d . h ( r . r d . h ) 2 r . r d . dr 2 r dr h .

or

d
=0
2

d d

U sin g : = r ; sin
2
2

( r + d r ) (r + drr ) . h ( r . rh) 2r . r dr r . dr . h = 0

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 199 of 205

Rev.1

or

( r . r . h + dr . rh
h + dr . drh
d + r drr . h) r . rh 2r . r dr r dr
d .h =0

or

d r . r h = 2r . r dr

or

d r 2 r

=0
h
dr

...(1)

For ductile
d
ma
aterial there are tw
wo theoriies of plassticity
1. Trescas Th
heory:

1 3 = 0

...(2)

+P=

r
0
or
2. Vo
on Miscs Theory::

(1 2 )2 + ( 2 3 )2 + ( 3 1 )2 = 2 20

or

( r r )2 + ( r + P)2 + ( P r )2 = 2 20

or

2 ( r + P)
P 2 = 2 02

...(2)

+P=

r
0
or
ating;
On diifferentia

d r d P
+
=0
dr
drr
d r
dP
=
dr
d
dr

...(3)

Con
ndition
n 1:
Con
nsidering slid
ding friiction all ove
er the ssurface
e
r = P

or

d P 2r

=0
dr
h
dP
P

2.
=0
dr
h

or

d P 2 P
=
d
dr
h

From
m (1) and ((3);

dP
2
=
. dr
P
h
2
ln
nP=
.r +C
h

or

At
or

r = R; r = 0

....(4)

(because
(
on this su
urface the
ere will b
be no force
e) and r + P = 0 ; P = 0
ln
n 0 =

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

2 . R
+C
h

Page 200 of 205

Rev.1

C = ln 0 +

or

2r
2 R
+ ln 0 +
h
h
P 2
ln
n
=
(R
( r)
h
0

m equation
n (4)
From

ln
nP=

or

P = 0 . e h

or
At
At
Here

2 R
h

(R
R r)

.. (5
5) Pressurre distribution

.R

r = 0; Pmax = 0 e h
r = R; Pmin = 0
r=0m
means a po
oint

For finding
f
fforce
Elemental forcce (dF)
dr

dA = 2
r dr

dF
F = d F = P . 2r . drr
2

d F = 0 . e h
R

or

F = 20 r.e h

(R r )

. (R r )

. 2r . dr

dr

or

(R r )

r . e h
F = 20
1 .
2

dr
2

h 0
2
(R r )
h

or

or

2
2
(R r )
(R r )

r.eh
eh

F = 20

2
2
2


h
h 0

2
R

h
R
1
e

F = 2 0

0+
2
2
2


h h
h

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 201 of 205

Rev.1

IES2007Conventional
A cylinder of height 60 mm and diameter 100 mm is forged at room temperature between
two flat dies. Find the die load at the end of compression to a height 30 mm, using slab
method of analysis. The yield strength of the work material is given as 120 N/mm2 and the
coefficient of friction is 0.05. Assume that volume is constant after deformation. There is no
sticking. Also find mean die pressure.
[20-Marks]
Solution: Given, h1 = 60 mm, d1 = 100 mm, h = 30 mm
0 = 120 N/ mm 2 and = 0.05
d12
h1 = R 2 h
4

or

1002
60 = R 2 30
4

or
or

R = 70.7 mm

R
1
F = 2 0

0+
2
2
2

h h

= 2.04 MN
2
2

h
2

eh

.R

GATE2014(PI)
In an open die forging, a circular disc is gradually compressed between two
flat platens. The exponential decay of normal stress on the flat face of the
disc, from the center of the disc towards its periphery, indicates that
(a) there is no sticking friction anywhere on the flat face of the disc
(b) sticking friction and sliding friction co-exist on the flat face of the disc
(c) the flat face of the disc is frictionless
(d) there is only sticking friction on the flat face of the disc
Answer: (a)
Condition -2: Considering sticking friction all over the surface
r = K

From (1) equation (3)

or

d r 2 r

=0
dr
h
d P 2K

=0
dr
h

or

dP =

or

P=

At

r = R; r = 0

2K
. dr
h

2K
.r +C
h

...(6)

(because on this surface there will be no force) and r + P = 0 ; P = 0

2K
.R+C
h
2K
C = 0 +
R
h

0 =

or
From (6)

P=

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

2K
2K
. r + 0 +
R
h
h

Page 202 of 205

Rev.1

P = 0 +

or
At

r = 0; Pmax = 0 +

2K
K
. (R r )
h

....(7) Presssure Distrribution linear


l

2K
.R
h

r = R; Pmin = 0

f
fforce:
For finding

r
R
2rdr
d F = P . 2 r dr

or

F = P . 2 r dr
R

or

2K

F = 0 +
R r ) 2 r dr
. (R
h

Con
ndition
n 3:
Whe
en ther
re is stticking
g and slliding both fr
friction
ns occu
ur

St
ic
ki
ng

d
Sli

i ng

Ps
r = Rs

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 203 of 205

Sliiding

Stickiing

Rev.1

For sliding region pressure distribution is same as we derived in previous condition same
boundary condition same differential equation.
2

P = 0 . e h

(R r )

For sticking region: Using equation (6).


P=

2K
.r +C
h

Boundary condition at r = R;
or

P = Ps

2K
. Rs + C
h
2K
C = Ps +
. Rs
h
Ps =

or
Putting in equation (6)

2K
2K
(r ) + Ps +
Rs
h
h
2K
P = Ps +
. (R s r )
h

P=

or

...(8)

FTotal = Fsticking + Fsliding


Ftotal =

Rs

sticking

Ftotal =

Rs

2 r dr +

sliding

2 r dr

Rs

2K

Ps + h (R s r ) 2 r dr +

2
0

.eh

(R r )

. 2 r dr

Rs

To find Ps and Rs
r = Ps = K

or
At

Ps =

r = Rs ;

......(9)

P = Ps
2

Ps = 0 e h

or

(R Rs )

2
(R R s )
K
= 0 e h

K
ln
0

2
(R R s )
=
h
h
K
Rs = R
ln

2
0

or
According to Trescas theory
K=

0
2

Rs = R

K 1
=
0 2

or
h
1
ln
2
2

...(10)

According to Von-Miscs Theory


K=

0
3

Rs = R

or

K
1
=
0
3

h
1
ln

2
3

...(11)

IES2006Conventional

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 204 of 205

Rev.1

A certain disc of lead of radius 150 mm and thickness 50 mm is reduced to a thickness of 25


mm by open die forging. If the co-efficient of friction between the job and die is 0.25,
determine the maximum forging force. The average shear yield stress of lead can be taken
as 4 N/mm2
[10 Marks]
Solution: R1 = 150 mm, h1 = 50 mm, R = ?, h = 25 mm, = 0.25
R12h1 = R 2 h

R = 212.1 mm
y = 4 N/ mm2 (Shear yield stress) = K
By Tresca Theory;
R s = 212.1

25
1

ln
= 177.4 mm
2 0.25
2 0.25

0 mm to 177.4 mm sticking
177.4 mm to 212.1mm sliding

Ps =

K
4
=
= 16 N / mm2
0.25

0 = 2 K = 2 4 = 8 N / mm2
20.25

(212.1 r )
25

177.4

212.1

24
Ftotal = 16 +
(177.4 r ) . 2 r dr + (8) e

25

0
177.4
= 3.93 MN
(Trescas Theory)

. 2 r dr

Von Miscs Theory;


R s = 212.1

25
1

ln
= 170.25 mm
2 0.25
3 0.25

0 mm to 170.25 mm sticking
170.25 mm to 212.1mm sliding

Ps =

K
4
=
= 16 N / mm2
0.25

0 = K 3 = 4 3 N / mm2
Ftotal =

RS

2K

(R s r ) 2 r dr +
Ps +
h

0 e h

(R r )

2 r dr

RS

170.25

212.1

20.25
(212.1 r )
24

25
16
+
(170.25

+
4
3.
2 r dr
r
r
dr
e

25

170.25
= 3.6 MN (Von Misces)

Ftotal =

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 205 of 205

Rev.1

S d
i
Sandcasting
y Sand casting uses ordinary sand as the primary

M t lC ti
MetalCasting
B SKM d l
BySKMondal

mould material.
y The sand grains are mixed with small amounts of
other materials, such as clay and water, to improve
mouldability and cohesive strength,
strength and are then
packed around a pattern that has the shape of the
desired casting.
casting
y The pattern must be removed before pouring, the
mold
ld is
i usually
ll made
d in
i two
t or more pieces.
i
y An opening called a sprue hole is cut from the top of
the mold through the sand and connected to a
system of channels called runners.
Contd.

Sequentialstepsinmakingasandcasting
i l
i
ki
d
i
y Apatternboardisplacedbetweenthebottom(drag)

andtop(cope)halvesofaflask,withthebottomsideup.
y Sandisthenpackedintothedraghalfofthemold.
y Abottomboardispositionedontopofthepackedsand,

andthemoldisturnedover,showingthetop(cope)half
ofpatternwithsprue andriserpinsinplace.
y Thecopehalfofthemoldisthenpackedwithsand.
Th
h lf fth ldi th k d ith d

y The molten metal is poured into the sprue hole, flows

y
y
y
y

through the runners,


runners and enters the mold cavity
through an opening called a gate.
G i
Gravity
fl
flow
i the
is
h most common means off
introducing the metal into the mold.
After solidification, the mold is broken and the
finished casting is removed.
The casting is then fettled by cutting off the ingate
and the feeder head.
Because the mold is destroyed, a new mold must be
made for each casting.
casting
Contd

y The mold is opened, the pattern board is drawn

(removed),
(removed) and the runner and gate are cut into the
surface of the sand.
y The mold is reassembled with the pattern board

removed,
d and
d molten
l
metall is poured
d through
h
h the
h
sprue.
y The contents are shaken from the flask and the metal

segment is separated from the sand, ready for further


p
processing.
g

Contd

CastingTerms
y Flask: A moulding flask is one which holds the sand

mould
ld intact.
i t t It is
i made
d up off wood
d for
f temporary
t
applications
pp
or metal for longterm
g
use.
y Drag: Lower moulding flask.
y Cope: Upper moulding flask.
y Cheek: Intermediate moulding flask used in three
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Page 1 of 240

piece
i
moulding.
ldi

Rev.0

Contd

p
j
y Pattern: Pattern is a replica
of the final object
to be
made with some modifications.

y Moulding sand: The freshly prepared refractory

material used for making the mould cavity. It is a


mixture of silica,
silica clay and moisture in appropriate

y Parting line: This is the dividing line between the two

moulding
ld
fl k that
flasks
h makes
k up the
h sand
d mould.
ld

proportions.
y Backing sand: This is made up of used and burnt

y Bottom board: This is a board normally made of wood,


wood

which is used at the start of the mould making.

sand.
y Core:
C
U d for
Used
f making
ki hollow
h ll cavities
i i in
i castings.
i

Threeflaskmould
Contd

g basin: A small funnelshaped


p cavityy at the top
p
y Pouring
of the mould into which the molten metal is poured.
y Sprue: The passage through which the molten metal

from the pouring basin reaches the mould cavity.


cavity

Padding
y Chaplet: Chaplets are used to support cores inside the

mould cavity.
y Chill: Chills are metallic objects, which are placed in

the
h mould
ld to increase
i
the
h cooling
li rate off castings.
i

y Runner: The passage ways in the parting plane through

y Riser: It is a reservoir of molten metal provided in the

which molten metal flow is regulated before they reach

casting so that hot metal can flow back into the mould

the
h mould
ld cavity.

cavity when there is a reduction in volume of metal due

y Gate: The actual entry point through which molten

Contd

IES2001

(a) To ensure directional solidification


(b) To provide efficient venting
(c) For aligning the mold boxes
(d) To
T support the
h cores
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

is known as 'padding'.
y This will require extra material.
y If p
padding
g is not p
provided, centre line shrinkage
g or
porosity will result in the thinner section.

to solidification

metal enters the mould cavity in a controlled rate. Contd

The main purpose of chaplets is

y Tapering
section
T
i off thinner
thi
ti towards
t
d thicker
thi k section
ti

IES1996
Which of the following methods are used for
obtaining
bt i i directional
di ti
l solidification
lidifi ti for
f riser
i design
d i
1.

Suitable placement of chills

2.

Suitable placement of chaplets

3.

Employing padding

Select the correct answer.


( ) 1 and
(a)
d 2 (b) 1 and
d 3 (c)
( ) 2 and
d 3 (d) 1, 2 and
d3
Page 2 of 240

IES2007
Which one of the following is the correct
statement?
t t
t?
Gate is provided in moulds to
(a) Feed the casting at a constant rate
((b)) Give p
passage
g to g
gases
(c) Compensate for shrinkage
(d) Avoid cavities
Rev.0

GATE2009
MatchtheitemsinColumnIandColumnII.
MatchtheitemsinColumnIandColumnII
ColumnIColumnII
P MetallicChills1 Supportforthecore
P.MetallicChills1.Supportforthecore
Q.MetallicChaplets2.Reservoirofthemoltenmetal
R Riser3 Controlcoolingofcritical
R.Riser3.Controlcoolingofcritical
sections
S ExothermicPadding4 Progressivesolidification
S.ExothermicPadding4.Progressivesolidification
(a) P1,Q3,R2,S4
(b)
P1,Q4,R2,S3
(c) P3,Q4,R2,S1
P 3 Q 4 R 2 S 1
(d)
P 4 Q 1 R 2 S 3
P4,Q1,R2,S3

Pattern
A pattern is a replica of the object to be made by the
gp
process,, with some modifications.
casting
The main modifications are
y The addition of pattern allowances,
allowances
y The provision of core prints, and
y Elimination of fine details, which cannot be obtained
by casting and hence are to be obtained by further
processing

GATE1992
Inagreensandmouldingprocess,uniform
rammingleadsto
(a) Lesschanceofgasporosity
(b) Uniformflowofmoltenmetalintothemould
cavity
(c) Greaterdimensionalstabilityofthecasting
(d) Lesssandexpansiontypeofcastingdefect

PatternAllowances
1. Shrinkageorcontractionallowance
2. Draftortaperallowance
3. Machiningorfinishallowance
M hi i fi i h ll
4 Distortionorcamberallowance
4.
55. Rappingallowance
pp g

GATE2011
Green sand mould indicates that
(a) polymeric mould has been cured
(b) mould has been totally dried
((c)) mould is g
green in colour
(d) mould contains moisture

Sh i k
Shrinkageallowance
ll
y All metals shrink when cooling except perhaps

bismuth.
bismuth
y This is because of the interatomic vibrations which

are amplified by an increase in temperature.


y The shrinkage allowance is always to be added to the

linear dimensions. Even in case of internal dimensions.

Contd

Liquidshrinkageandsolidshrinkage
y Liquid
refers
to the
in
Li id shrinkage
h i k
f
h reduction
d i
i volume
l

when the metal changes temperature from pouring to


solidus temperature in liquid state.
state To account for this,
this
risers are provided in the moulds.
y Solidification shrinkage
g refers to the reduction in
volume when metal changes from liquid to solid state
at the solidus temperature. To account for this, risers
are provided
id d in
i the
h moulds.
ld
y Solid shrinkage is the reduction in volume caused,
when a metal loses temperature in the solid state.
state The
shrinkage allowance is provided to take care of this
educt o .
reduction.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

y Gray CI with a carbon equivalent of 4.3% has

negative shrinkage, that is, it actually expands


upto 2.5%
2 5% because of graphite precipitation.
precipitation So,
So
for this, no riser is needed.

Page 3 of 240

y Pattern Allowances

Cast Iron
Brass, Copper, Aluminium
Steell
Zinc, Lead

10 mm/m
15 mm/m
20 mm/m
25 mm/m

Rev.0

IES1995

IES1999

GATE1999

Which one of the following materials will require


the largest size of riser for the same size of casting?
((a)) Aluminium
(b) Cast iron
(c) Steel

In
off metal
casting,
I solidification
lidifi ti
t l during
d i
ti
Which of the following materials requires the
l
largest
t shrinkage
hi k
allowance,
ll
while
hil making
ki
a
pattern for casting?
( ) Aluminium
(a)
l
(b) Brass
(c) Cast Iron
(d) Plain Carbon Steel

(d) Copper.

compensation
p
for solid contraction is
(a) Provided by the oversize pattern
(b) Achieved by properly placed risers
(c) Obtained

by

promoting

directional

solidification
lidifi i
(d) Made by providing chills

GATE2001

ISRO2007
Shrinkage allowance is made by
( ) Adding
(a)
dd
to externall and
d internall dimensions
d
(b) Subtracting from external and internal
dimensions
((c)) Subtracting
g from external dimensions and
adding to internal dimensions
(d) Adding to external dimensions and subtracting
from internal dimensions

GATE2011

GATE2008
While cooling, a cubical casting of side 40 mm
undergoes 3%, 4% and 5% volume shrinkage
during the liquid state, phase transition and solid
state
state,

respectively
respectively.

The

volume

of

compensated from the riser is


(a) 2%

(b) 7%

(c) 8%

Shrinkage allowance on pattern is provided to


p
for shrinkage
g when
compensate
(a) The temperature of liquid metal drops from
pouring to freezing temperature
(b) The metal changes from liquid to solid state at
freezing temperature
(c) The temperature of solid phase drops from
f
freezing
i to room temperature
(d) The temperature of metal drops from pouring
to room temperature

(d) 9%

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

metal

A cubic casting of 50 mm side undergoes volumetric


solidification shrinkage and volumetric solid
contraction of 4% and 6% respectively.
respectively No riser is
used. Assume uniform cooling in all directions. The
side of the cube after solidification and contraction is
(a) 48.32 mm
(b) 49.90 mm
(c) 49
49.94
94 mm
(d) 49.96 mm
Page 4 of 240

GATE2004
Gray cast iron blocks 200 x 100 x 10 mm are to be
castt in
i sand
d moulds.
ld Shrinkage
Sh i k
allowance
ll
f
for
pattern making is 1%. The ratio of the volume of
pattern
tt
t that
to
th t off the
th casting
ti will
ill be
b
(a) 0.97

(b) 0.99

(c) 1.01

(d) 1.03

IAS1995
Assertion
(A):
A
i
(A) A pattern is
i made
d exactly
l similar
i il to
the part to be cast.
R
Reason
(R) Pattern
(R):
P
i used
is
d to make
k the
h mould
ld
cavity for pouring in molten for casting.
( ) Both
(a)
B h A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true and
d R is
i the
h
correct explanation of A
(b) Both
B h A and
d R are individually
i di id ll true but
b R is
i not the
h
correct explanation of A
( ) A is
(c)
i true but
b R is
i false
f l
(d) A is false but R is true
Rev.0

D ft
Draft

IAS2003
Match
I (Material
II
M h List
Li
(M
i l to be
b cast)) with
i h List
Li
(Shrinkage Allowance in mm/m) and select the
correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
ListI
ListII
(MaterialtoCast)(ShrinkageAllowanceinmm/m)
(A) Greycastiron
1.
7 10
(B) Brass
2
2.
15
(C) Steel
3.
20
(D) Zinc
4
4.
24
Codes:A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 1
2
3
4
(b) 3
4
1
2
(c) 1
4
3
2
(d) 3
2
1
4

y To
the
off the
off the
T reduce
d
th chances
h
th damage
d
th mould
ld

cavityy at the time of p


pattern removal,, the vertical faces
of the pattern are always tapered from the parting line.
This provision is called draft allowance.
y Inner surfaces
f
off the
h pattern require higher
h h draft
d f than
h

outer surfaces.
surfaces
y Draft is always provided as an extra metal.
DRAFTALLOWANCE

Sh k ll
ShakeAllowance
y At the time of pattern removal, the pattern is rapped

y A metal when it has just solidified is very weak and

y Itt iss a negative


egat ve a
allowance
owa ce aand
d iss to be app
applied
ed o
onlyy to

those dimensions, which are parallel to the parting


plane.

y This is particularly so for weaker sections such as long

flat portions, V, U sections or in a complicated casting


which may have thin and long sections which are
connected to thick sections.
y The foundry practice should be to make extra

material provision for reducing the distortion.

Thepatternmaterialshouldbe

Which of the following materials can be used for

y Lightinweight

making patterns?

y Strong,hardanddurable

1. Aluminium

y Resistanttocorrosion,andtochemicalreactions

y Availableatlowcost.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

y
y

GATE2000
Disposablepatternsaremadeof

2. Wax

33. Mercuryy 4
4. Lead

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:


Codes:

y Dimensionallystableandunaffectedbyvariationsin

temperatureandhumidity.

very dimensionally stable. Commonly used teak, white


pine and mahogany wood.
wood
Metal patterns are more expensive but are more
dimensionally stable and more durable.
durable Commonly used
CI, Brass, aluminium and white metal.
Hard plastics,
plastics such as urethanes,
urethanes and are often preferred
with processes that use strong, organically bonded sands
that tend to stick to other pattern materials.
materials
In the fullmold process, expanded polystyrene (EPS) is
used.
used
Investment casting uses wax patterns.

IES1994

y Easilyworked,shapedandjoined

y Resistanttowearandabrasion

y Wood
are relatively
W d patterns
tt
l ti l easy to
t make.
k Wood
W d is
i nott

prone.
therefore is likelyy to be distortion p

all around the vertical faces to enlarge the mould


cavity slightly to facilitates its removal.
removal

P
M
i l
PatternMaterials

ll
DistortionAllowance

(a) 1,3 and 4 (b) 2,3 and 4 (c) 1, 2 and 4 (d) 1, 2 and 3
Page 5 of 240

(a)

Wood

(b)

Rubber

(c)

Metal

(d)

P l
Polystyrene
Rev.0

T
f P tt
TypesofPattern

T
f P tt
TypesofPattern

Single
Pattern
Si l Piece
Pi
P tt
These are inexpensive and the simplest type of
patterns.
tt
A the
As
th name indicates,
i di t they
th are made
d off a
single piece.

Split Pattern or Two Piece Pattern


This is the most widely used type of pattern for intricate
castings When the contour of the casting makes its
castings.
withdrawal from the mould difficult, or when the depth
of the casting is too high,
high then the pattern is split into two
parts so that one part is in the drag and the other in the
cope.
p

Gated Pattern

Gating and runner system are integral with the


pattern. This would eliminate the hand cutting of
the runners and gates and help in improving the
productivity of a moulding.

TypesofPattern
y Match Plate Pattern

The
h cope and
d drag
d
patterns along
l
with
h the
h
gating and the risering are mounted on a single
matching metal or wooden plate on either side.

IES2008

TypesofPattern
y Loose Piece Pattern

This type of pattern is also used when the


contour of the part is such that withdrawing the
pattern from the mould is not possible.
possible

T
f P tt
TypesofPattern

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

y Cope and Drag Pattern

These
ese aaree ssimilar
a to sp
splitt patte
patterns.
s. In add
addition
t o to
splitting the pattern, the cope and drag halves of
pattern along
g with the g
gating
g and riser systems
y
the p
are attached separately to the metal or wooden
plates along
p
g with the alignment
g
pins. Theyy are
p
called the cope and drag patterns.

T
f P tt
TypesofPattern
y Follow Board Pattern
This type of pattern is adopted for those
castings where there are some portions,
portions which
are structurally weak and if not supported
properly are likely to break under the force of
ramming.

T
fP
TypesofPattern
y Skeleton Pattern

y Sweep Pattern

The pattern adopted for those castings where there


are some portions
ti
which
hi h are structurally
t t ll weak
k and
d
are likely to break by the force of ramming are
called:
ll d
(a) Loose piece pattern
(b) Follow board pattern
((c)) Skelton p
pattern
(d) Single piece pattern

TypesofPattern

It is used to sweep the complete casting by means


of a plane sweep.
s eep These are used for generating
large shapes, which are axisymmetrical or
prismatic in nature such as bellshaped
bell shaped or
cylindrical.

Page 6 of 240

A skeleton of the pattern made of strips of wood


is used for building the final pattern by packing
sand around the skeleton. After packing the
sand the desired form is obtained with the help
sand,
of a strickle. This type of pattern is useful
generally for very large castings,
castings required in
small quantities where large expense on
complete wooden pattern is not justified.
justified

Rev.0

CoolingCurve

Fluidity
The ability of a metal to flow and fill a mold is known
as fluidity.
Pouring Temperature
y The most important controlling factor of fluidity is the
pouring
p
g temperature
p
or the amount of superheat.
p
y Higher the pouring temperature, the higher the fluidity.
y Excessive temperatures should be avoided, however. At
high pouring temperatures, metalmold reactions are
accelerated and the fluidity may be so great as to permit
penetration.
i
y Penetration is a defect where the metal not only fills the
mold cavity
ca it but also fills the small voids
oids between
bet een the sand
particles in a sand mold.

ISRO2011
Fluidity in casting (CI) operation is greatly
i fl
influenced
d by
b
a) Melting temperature of molten metal
b) Pouring temperature of molten metal
c)) Finish of the mould

Core
y Used for making cavities and hollow projections.
y All sides of core are surrounded by the molten metal

and are therefore subjected to much more severe


thermal and mechanical conditions and as a result the
core sand should be of higher strength than the
moulding sand.

d) Carbon content of molten metal

( )
GATE2012(PI)
In sand casting, fluidity of the molten metal
i
increases
with
ith
(A) increase in degree of superheat
(B) decrease in pouring rate
((C)) increase in thermal conductivityy of the mould
(D) increase in sand grain size

Desiredcharacteristicsofacore
y Green Strength: A core made of green sand should

b strong
be
t
enough
h to
t retain
t i the
th shape
h
till it goes for
f
baking.
y Dry Strength:
h It should
h ld have
h
adequate
d
d strength
dry
h
so that when the core is placed in the mould, it
should
h ld be
b able
bl to resist the
h metall pressure acting on
it.
y Refractoriness: Since in most cases, the core is
surrounded all around it is desirable that the core
material should have higher refractoriness.
Contd

y Permeability: Gases evolving from the molten metal

and generated from the mould may have to go


through the core to escape out of the mould. Hence
cores are required to have higher permeability.
permeability
y Permeability Number: The rate of flow of air passing

through
th
h a standard
t d d specimen
i
under
d a standard
t d d pressure is
i
termed as permeability number.

y The
Th standard
d d permeability
bili test is
i to measure time
i

taken by a 2000 cu cm of air at a pressure typically of


980
8 Pa
P (10
( g/cm
/ 2),
) to pass through
h
h a standard
d d sand
d
specimen confined in a specimen tube. The standard
specimen
i
size
i is
i 50.8
8 mm in
i diameter
di
and
d a length
l
h off
50.8 mm. For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

y Then,, the p
permeabilityy number,, R is obtained byy
VH
R=
pAT

WhereV=volumeofair=2000cm3
H=heightofthesandspecimen=5.08cm
p=airpressure,g/cm
p
p
, g/ 2
A=crosssectionalareaofsandspecimen=20.268cm2
T timeinminutesforthecompleteairtopassthrough
T=timeinminutesforthecompleteairtopassthrough
Insertingtheabovestandardvaluesintothe
expression,weget
501.28
R=
p.T240
Page 7 of

y Calculatethepermeabilitynumberofsandifittakes1min

25stopass2000cm3 ofairatapressureof5g/cm2 through


thestandardsample.

p = 5.0 g / cm 2
T = 1 min 25 s = 1.417
1 417 min
501.28
R=
= 70.75
5 1.417
1 417

Rev.0

IES2007

y Friability: The ability to crumble should be a very

Whatispermeability?Permeabilityismoreimportant
inthebasicprocessofsandcastingthanporosity.Give

y Collapsibility:
p
y At the time of cooling,
g, casting
g shrinks,, and

unless the core has good collapsibility (ability to decrease

oneimportantreasonforthisfeature.
i
t t
f thi f t
[2marks]

in size) it is likely to provide resistance against shrinkage

important consideration at the time of removal.


y Smoothness: Surface of the core should be smooth

f good
for
d finish
fi i h to
t the
th casting.
ti
y Low Gas Emission

and thus can cause hot tears.

C
S d
CoreSands
y Used
silica
d clay
l free
f
l sand.
d
y Binders used are linseed oil,
oil core oil,
oil resins,
resins dextrin,
dextrin

molasses, etc.
y Core oils are mixtures of linseed, soy, fish and

petroleum oils and coal tar.


y The general composition of a core sand mixture could

be core oil (1%) and water (2.5


(2 5 to 6%).
6%)

C b Di id M ldi
CarbonDioxideMoulding
y Sodium silicate (water glass, SiO2:Na2O) is used as a binder.

This is essentially a quick process of core or mould


p p
preparation.
y The mould is prepared with a mixture of sodium silicate and
sand and then treated with carbon dioxide for two to three
minutes such that a dry compressive strength of over 1.4
MPa is arrived.
y The carbon dioxide is expected to form a weak acid, which
hydrolyses the sodium silicate resulting in amorphous silica,
which forms the bond.
y The introduction of CO2 g
gas starts the reaction byy forming
g
hydrated sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 + H2O).

y The compressive strength of the bond increases with

standing time due to dehydration.


y Because of the high strength of the bond, the core need not

provided with anyy other reinforcements.


be p
y It does not involve any distortions due to baking and also

better dimensional accuracies are achieved.


y The
Th sand
d mixture
i
d
does
not have
h
good
d shelf
h lf life
lif and
d

therefore should be used immediatelyy after p


preparation.
p

Contd

IES2002
Assertion (A): In CO2 casting process,
process the mould or
core attains maximum strength.
Reason (R): The optimum gassing time of CO2
through the mould or core forms Silica Gel which
imparts sufficient strength to the mould or core.
core
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is
i false
f l but
b t R is
i true
t
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

GATE 2008(PI)
GATE
2008 (PI)
g of a hollow p
y
In sand casting
part of lead,, a cylindrical
core
of diameter 120 mm and height 180 mm is placed inside
the mould cavity. The densities of core material and lead

GATE2014
An
alloy
is
A aluminium
l i i
ll (density
(d i 2600 ) casting
i
i to be
b
produced. A cylindrical
p
y
hole of 100 mm diameter and
100 mm length is made in the casting using sand core

are 1600 kg/m3 and 11,300


11 300 kg/m3 respectively.
respecti el The net

(density 1600 ). The net buoyancy force (in Newton)

force ((in N)) that tends to lift the core during


gp
pouring
g of

acting on the core is ..

molten metal will be


(a) 19.7

(b) 64.5

(c) 193.7

(d) 257.6

Page 8 of 240

Rev.0

M ldi S d C
MouldingSandComposition
iti
y Sand:
silica
or olivine
S d Ordinary
O di
ili Sand
S d (SiO2),
) zircon,
i
li i

sands.

Oth Additi
OtherAdditives
y Cereal binder up to 2% increases the strength.
y Pitch
Pit h if used
d up to
t 3%
% would
ld improve
i
th hot
the
h t

y Clay: Acts as binding agents mixed to the moulding

sands

strength.
g
y Saw dust up to 2% may improve the collapsibility by

Kaolinite or fire clay (Al2O3 2SiO2 2H2O), and


B
Bentonite
i (Al2O3 4SiO
SiO2 H2O nH
H2O).
O)
y Water: Clay is activated by water.
water

slowly burning, and increase the permeability.


y Other materials: sea coal, asphalt, fuel oil, graphite,

molasses iron oxide,


molasses,
oxide etc.
etc

M ldi S d P
MouldingSandProperties
ti
y Porosity or Permeability: Permeability or porosity of

the moulding sand is the measure of its ability to


permit air to flow through it.
it
y Strength: It is defined as the property of holding
t th off sand
together
d grains.
i
A moulding
ldi sand
d should
h ld have
h
ample strength so that the mould does not collapse or
gett partially
ti ll destroyed
d t
d during
d i conveying,
i
t
turning
i over
or closing.
y Refractoriness: It is the ability of the moulding sand
mixture to withstand the heat of melt without showing
any signs of softening or fusion.
Contd

y Plasticity: Itisthemeasureofthemouldingsandtoflow

aroundandoverapatternduringrammingandtouniformly
filltheflask.
y Collapsibility:Thisistheabilityofthemouldingsandto
decreaseinvolumetosomeextentunderthecompressive
forcesdevelopedbytheshrinkageofmetalduringfreezing
p
y
g
g
g
andsubsequentcooling.
y Adhesiveness:Thisisthepropertyofsandmixtureto
p p y
adheretoanotherbody(here,themouldingflasks).The
mouldingsandshouldclingtothesidesofthemoulding
g
g
g
boxessothatitdoesnotfalloutwhentheflasksarelifted
andturnedover.Thispropertydependsonthetypeand
amountofbinderusedinthesandmix.

Oth S d
OtherSands
material sprinkled on the inner surface of the mold
give a better surface finish to the castings.
g
cavityy to g
y Backing sand: It is what constitutes most of the
refractory material found in the mould.
mould This is made
up of used and burnt sand.
y Green Sand: The molding sand that contains
moisture is termed as green sand. The green sand
should have enough strength so that the constructed
mould retains its shape.
y Dry
D sand:
d When
Wh the
th moisture
i t
i the
in
th moulding
ldi sand
d is
i
completely expelled, it is called dry sand.

Grainsizenumber
y ASTM (American
Society for Testing and Materials))
(

grain size number, defined as


n-1
N 2
y Where N is the number of grains per square inch
visible in a prepared specimen at 100X and n is the
ASTM
S Mg
grainsize
a s e number.
u be .
y Low ASTM numbers mean a few massive grains; high
numbers refer to many small grains.
grains

IES2008

g sand: The small amount of carbonaceous


y Facing

Small amount of carbonaceous material sprinkled


on the inner surface of mould cavity is called
(a) Backing sand
( ) Facing sand
(b)
(c) Green sand
(d) Dry sand

IES2002
In the grain size determination using standard
charts, the relation between the given size
number n and the average number of grains 'N'
per square inch at a magnification of 100 X is
( ) N = 2n
(a)
(b) N = 2nl
(c) N = 2n + 1

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

(d) N = 2n + 1

Page 9 of 240

S dSli
SandSlinger

Rev.0

Gating System
GatingSystem

CastingYield
Thecastingyieldistheproportionoftheactual
g
, ,
p
castingmass,w,tothemassofmetalpouredintothe
mould,W,expressedasapercentage.

Casting yield =

w
100
W

Contd

Gating System
GatingSystem

y Runner: A runner is commonly a horizontal channel

y Pouring basin: A small funnel shaped cavity at the

top of the mould into which the molten metal is


poured.
y Sprue:
S
Th passage through
The
th
h which
hi h the
th molten
lt metal,
t l

from the pouring basin, reaches the mould cavity. In


many cases it controls
t l the
th flow
fl
off metal
t l into
i t the
th
mould.

which connects the sprue with gates, thus allowing the


molten metal to enter the mould cavity.
cavity The runners

y Ingate: Achannelthroughwhichthemoltenmetal

entersthemouldcavity.
y Vent: Smallopeninginthemouldtofacilitateescape
p
g
p
ofairandgases.

are of larger crosssection and often streamlined to


slow down and smooth out the flow, and are designed
to provide approximately uniform flow rates to the
various parts of the mould cavity.
cavity Runners are
commonly made trapezoidal in crosssection.

Contd

fG
TypesofGateorIngate
Top
turbulence
in
T gate: Causes
C
b l
i the
h mould
ld cavity,
i it
i is
i prone
p
gradient towards the
g
to form dross,, favourable temperature
gate, only for ferrous alloys.
Bottom gate: No mould erosion, used for very deep moulds,
higher pouring time,
time Causes unfavourable temperature
gradients.
Parting Gate: most widely used gate, easiest and most
economical in preparation.
Step Gate: Used for heavy and large castings, size of ingates
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
are normally increased from top to bottom.

Contd

IES2011
In light metal casting,
casting runner should be so designed
that:
1. It avoids
id aspiration
i ti
2. It avoids turbulence
3. The path of runner is reduced in area so that
q
volume of flow through
g each g
gate
unequal
takes place
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Page 10 of 240

G
20 0 ( )
GATE
2010(PI)
During
the
process off a given
sand
D i
h filling
filli
i
d mould
ld cavity
i by
b
molten metal through a horizontal runner of circular cross
section the frictional head loss of the molten metal in the
runner will increase with the
(a) increase in runner diameter
(b) decrease in internal surface roughness of runner
(c) decrease in length of runner
(d) increase in average velocity of molten metal
Rev.0

IES 2011
IES2011
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using
the code given below the lists :
ListI

ListII

A.Topgate

1.Heavyandlargecastings

B.Bottomgate
g

2.Mostwidelyusedandeconomical
y

C.Partinggate

3.Turbulence

D.Stepgate

4.Unfavourable temperaturegradient

Codes
C
d
A
( ) 3
(a)
(c) 3

B
4
2

C
2
4

D
1
1

(b)
(d)

A
1
1

B
4
2

C
2
4

D
3
3

Th
Thegoalsforthegatingsystem
l f th
ti
t
y To
to
T minimize
i i i turbulence
t b l
t avoid
id trapping
t
i gasses into
i t

the mold
y To get enough metal into the mold cavity before the
metal starts to solidify
y To avoid shrinkage
y Establish the best possible temperature gradient in the
solidifying casting so that the shrinkage if occurs must
be in the gating system not in the required cast part.
y Incorporates a system for trapping the nonmetallic
inclusions.
inclusions

T
TypesofGatingSystems
f G ti S t
Thegatingsystemsareoftwotypes:
y Pressurizedgatingsystem
y Unpressurizedgatingsystem
U
i d i

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

IES1998
A sand casting mould
assembly is shown in
the above figure. The
elements marked A
and B are respectively
(a) Sprue and riser
(b) Ingate
I
t and
d riser
i
(c) Drag and runner
(d) Riser and runner

GATE2002
The primary purpose of a sprue in a casting
mould
ou d iss to
(a)Feed the casting at a rate consistent with the rate
of solidification
(b)Act as a reservoir for molten metal
( ) d molten
(c)Feed
l
metall from
f
the
h pouring
i basin
b i to the
h
gate
(d)Help feed the casting until all solidification takes
place

IES 1998
IES1998
Whichofthefollowingaretherequirementsofanideal
gatingsystem?
1 Themoltenmetalshouldenterthemouldcavitywithas
1.
highavelocityaspossible.
2 Itshouldfacilitatecompletefillingofthemouldcavity.
2.
Itshouldfacilitatecompletefillingofthemouldcavity
3. Itshouldbeabletopreventtheabsorptionofairorgases
fromthesurroundingsonthemoltenmetalwhile
flowingthroughit.
Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodesgivenbelow:
(a)1,2and3
(b)1and2 (c)2and3 (d)1and3

IES2009
Considerthefollowingstatements:
C
id th f ll i t t
t
1.Theactualentrypointthroughwhichthemolten
metalentersthemouldcavityiscalledingate.
2.Bottomgateincaseofamouldcreatesunfavourable
g
temperaturegradient.
3.Sprueincaseofamouldismadetaperedtoavoidair
inclusion.
Whichoftheabovestatementsis/arecorrect?
(a)1only (b)1and2 (c)2and3 (d)1and3

P
PressurizedGatingSystem
i d G ti S t

U P
i d G ti S t
UnPressurizedGatingSystem

y The total cross sectional area decreases towards the

y The total cross sectional area increases towards the

mold cavity
y Back pressure is maintained by the restrictions in the
metal flow
y Flow of liquid (volume) is almost equal from all gates
y Back pressure helps in reducing the aspiration as the
sprue always runs full
y Because
B
off the
h restrictions
i i
the
h metall flows
fl
at high
hi h
velocity leading to more turbulence and chances of
mold
ld erosion.
i
Page 11 of 240

mold cavity
y Restriction only
y at the bottom of sprue
p
y Flow of liquid (volume) is different from all gates
y Aspiration in the gating system as the system never

runs full
y Less
L
turbulence.
b l

Rev.0

Sprue Design

Sincethevelocitiesareproportionaltothesquareof
p
,
thepotentialheads,ascanbederivedfrom
Bernoulli'sequation,

y Sprue: Sprue is the channel through which the molten

metal is brought into the parting plane where it enters the


runners and g
gates to ultimatelyy reach the mould cavity.
y
y The molten metal when moving from the top of the cope to
the p
parting
gp
plane g
gains in velocityy and some lowpressure
p
area would be created around the metal in the sprue.
y Since the sand mould is permeable, atmospheric air would
be breathed into this lowpressure area which would then
be carried to the mould cavity.
y
y To eliminate this problem of air aspiration, the sprue is
tapered
p
to g
graduallyy reduce the cross section as it moves
away from the top of the cope as shown in Figure below (b).

At = Ac

Theexacttaperingcanbeobtainedbytheequationof
continuity.DenotingthetopandchokesectionsofThesprue by
thesubscriptstand'c'respectively,weget

A t Vt = A c Vc

At = Ac

The height of the downsprue is 175 mm and its


crosssectional
ti
l area att the
th base
b
i 200 mm2. The
is
Th
crosssectional area of the horizontal runner is
also
l 200 mm2. Assuming
A
i
no losses,
l
i di t the
indicate
th
correct choice for the time (in seconds) required to
fill a mould cavity
ca it of volume
olume 10
06 mm3. (Use g = 10
0
2
m/s ).
( )
(a)2.67
(b)
(b)8.45
( )
(c)26.72
(d)
(d)84.50

WhereH=actual
h
l
sprue height
andht=h+H

Vc
Vt
Contd

Contd

GATE2001

hc
ht

GATE 2007
GATE2007
g down sprue
p
A 200 mm long
has an area of cross
section of 650 mm2 where the pouring basin meets the
p
((i.e. at the beginning
g
g of the down sprue).
p )
down sprue
A constant head of molten metal is maintained by the
pouring
p
g basin. The Molten metal flow rate is 6.55 105
3
mm /s. Considering the end of down sprue to be open
p
and an acceleration due to g
gravityy of
to atmosphere
104mm/s2, the area of the down sprue in mm2 at its end
((avoiding
g aspiration
p
effect)) should be
(a)650.0 (b)350.0 (c)290.7 (d)190.0
Contd

G ti
Gatingratio
ti
y Gatingratioisdefinedas:Sprue area:Runnerarea:

Ingate area.
area
y Forhighqualitysteelcastings,agatingratioof1:2:2or

1:2:1.5willproducecastingsnearlyfreefromerosion,
willminimizeoxidation,andwillproduceuniform
ill i i i id i d ill d if

flow.
y Agatingratioof1:4:4mightfavour theformationof

oxidationdefects.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

IES2003
A gating
ratio
ti
ti off 1: 2: 4 is
i used
d to
t design
d i the
th gating
ti
system for magnesium alloy casting. This gating ratio
refers to the cross section areas of the various gating
elements as given below:
1
1.
Down sprue 2.
2
Runner bar 3.
3
Ingates
The correct sequence of the above elements in the
ratio 1: 2: 4 is
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1,3 and
d2
(c) 2, 3 and 1
(d) 3, 1 an 2
Page 12 of 240

IES2005
The gating ratio 2: 8: 1 for copper in gating system
d i refers
design
f to
t the
th ratio
ti off areas of:
f
(a) Sprue: Runner: Ingate
(b) Runner: Ingate: Sprue
((c)) Runner: Sprue:
p
Ingate
g
(d) Ingate: Runner: Sprue

Rev.0

GATE2010
Inagatingsystem,theratio1:2:4represents
(a) Sprue basearea:runnerarea:ingate area
(b) Pouringbasinarea:ingate area:runnerarea
(c) Sprue basearea:ingate area:castingarea
(d) Runnerarea:ingate
R

i
area:castingarea

IAS1999
Assertion
off metall through
A
i (A):
(A) The
Th rate off flow
fl
h
h sprue
is NOT a function of the crosssectional areas of
sprue runner and gate.
sprue,
gate
Reason (R): If respective crosssectional areas of
p
, runner and g
gate are in the ratio of 1: 2: 2,, the
sprue,
system is known as unpressurised gating system.
(a) Both A and R are individuallyy true and R is the correct
explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation
l
i off A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false
f l but
b R is true

Ri
RisersandRiserDesign
d Ri D i
y Risers are added reservoirs designed to feed liquid

metal to the solidifying casting as a means of


compensating for solidification shrinkage.
y To perform this function, the risers must solidify after
the casting.
casting
y According to Chvorinov's rule, a good shape for a riser
would
ld be
b one that
th t has
h a long
l
f
freezing
i time
ti
(i
(i.e.,
a small
ll
surface area per unit volume).
y Live risers (also known as hot risers) receive the last
hot metal that enters the mold and generally do so at a
time when the metal in the mold cavity has already
begun to cool and solidify.

TypesofRisers

Ch i
Chvorinovs
rule
l

IES 1994
IES1994
Assertion (A): In a mould, a riser is designed and placed
so that the riser will solidify after the casting has solidified.
Reason (R): A riser is a reservoir of molten metal which
will supply molten metal where a shrinkage cavity would
have occurred.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct
explanation
p
of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation
p
of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

IES2011
The relationship between total freezing time t,
t
volume of the casting V and its surface area A,
g to Chvorinovs rule is :
according
V
(a ) t = k

A
A
(b ) t = k

V
A
(c ) t = k

V
(d ) t = k

y Totalsolidificationtime(ts)=B(V/A) n

wheren=1.5to2.0
[Wh
[Where,B=mouldconstantandisafunctionof(mould
B
ld
di f
i f(
ld
material,castingmaterial,andconditionofcasting]
n=2 andtriser =1.25tcasting
2

or
Forcylinder
ofdiameterD
fdi
D
andheightH

V
V
= 1.25
A
riser
A casting

V = D2H / 4

2
A = DH + 2 D

)
GATE 2013 SameQuestion(PI)
GATE2013

IES 1998
IES1998
A spherical drop of molten metal of radius 2 mm

A cube
solidifies
in
The
b shaped
h
d casting
ti
lidifi
i 5 min.
i
Th

was found to solidify in 10 seconds. A similar drop of

solidification time in min for a cube of the same

radius 4 mm would solidify in

material, which is 8 times heavier than the original

(a) 14.14 seconds

casting, will be

(b) 20 seconds
d

( ) 10
(a)

(b) 20

( ) 24
(c)

(d) 40

(c) 28.30
28 30 seconds
2

Where K is a constant

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

(d) 4
40 seconds
Page 13 of 240

Rev.0

GATE2014

GATE2014(PI)

GATE2003

A cylindrical riser of 6 cm diameter and 6 cm height has

For a given volume of a riser, if the solidification


time of the molten metal in riser needs to be
quadrupled, the surface area of the riser should be
made

to be designed for a sand casting mould for producing a

With a solidification factor of 0.97 x 106 s/m2, the

steel rectangular plate casting of 7 cm 10 cm 2 cm

solidification time (in seconds) for a spherical

dimensions having the total solidification time of 1.36


1 36

casting of 200 mm diameter is

minute. The total solidification time (in minute) of the

(a) onefourth

(b) half

(c) double

(d) four times

IES2006
According

to

Chvorinov's

( ) 539
(a)

riser is ..

GATE 2010(PI)
equation,

the

Volume of a cube of side 'l' and volume of a sphere of

(a) v2

(b) Directlyy p
proportional
p
to the specific
p
heat of the

radius r are equal. Both the cube and the sphere are solid
and
d off same material.
t i l They
Th are being
b i cast.
t The
Th ratio
ti off the
th

cast material

p
is:
solidification time of the cube to the same of the sphere

(c) Directly proportional to the thermal diffusivity of

(c) 1/v

the
h molten
l
metall

(d) 1/v2
Where, v = volume of casting

(d)Inversely

proportional

to

the

A solid
D and
l d cylinder
l d off diameter
d
d height
h h equall to D, and
d a solid
ld
cube of side L are being sand cast by using the same material.

4 r

6 l

( b )

4 r

6 l

( c )

Assuming there is no superheat in both the cases, the ratio of


solidification time of the cylinder to the solidification time of the

diameter of the cylinder are equal. The ratio of the

cube is

solidification time of the sphere to that of the cylinder is

(a) (L/D)2

(d) 0.76

GATE2009(PI)

equal volumes are separately cast from the same molten

(c) 1.31

4 r
6 l

pouring

In a sand casting process,


process a sphere and a cylinder of

((b)) 0.877

(a )

temperature.

GATE 2011 (PI)


GATE2011(PI)
metal under identical conditions. The height and

(d) 3233

Solidification
off a metallic
S lidifi ti time
ti
t lli alloy
ll casting
ti is
i
(a) Directly proportional to its surface area

(b) v

( ) 4311
(c)

GATE2007

solidification
lidifi ti time
ti
off a casting
ti is
i proportional
ti
l to:
t

((a)) 1.14
4

(b) 1078
8

(b) (2L/D)2
(c) (2D/L)2

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

(d) (D/L)2

Page 14 of 240

Rev.0

4 r

6 l

( d )

IES 2011 Conventional


IES2011Conventional

IES 2012
IES

y A round casting is 20 mm in diameter and 50 mm in

Theratioofsurfaceareaofvolumeforaunitvolumeof
Th ti f f
f l
f it l
f

ConventionalQuestionESE2003

length. Another casting of the same metal is elliptical in

riserisminimumincaseof

cross section,
i
with
i h a major
j to minor
i
axis
i ratio
i off 2, and
d

Compare the solidification time of two optimum side

(a)Cylindricalriser

has the same length and cross


crosssectional
sectional area as the

risers of the same volume with one has cylindrical shape

(b)Sphericalriser

round casting. Both pieces are cast under the same

and other is parallopiped.

(c)Hemisphericalriser

conditions. What is the difference in the solidification

(d)Cuboidsriser

times
i
off the
h two castings
i
?

Area of ellipse = ab

[ Marks]
[10
M k ]

Ci
Circumference
f
= 3 ( a + b )

= 2

A cylindrical
with
li d i l blind
bli d riser
i
ith diameter
di
t d and
d height
h i ht h,
h is
i
placed on the top of the mold cavity of a closed type
sand
d mold
ld as shown
h
i the
in
th figure.
fi
If the
th riser
i
i off
is
constant volume, then the rate of solidification in the
riser
i is
i the
th least
l t when
h the
th ratio
ti h : d is
i

(a) 1 : 2
(c) 1 : 4

(b) 2 : 1
(d) 4 : 1

(a

( 3a + b )( a + 3b )

+ b2 ) / 2

(approx.)

M d l M th d
ModulusMethod

GATE2014

Sprue basin

[30 Marks]

Mold cavity

of the riser exceeds the modulus of the casting


g byy a
factor of 1.2, the feeding during solidification would be

D2
4

satisfactory.
f

+ D2

MR = 1.2
1 2 Mc

d
Riser

y It has
empirically
h been
b
i i ll established
t bli h d that
th t if the
th modulus
d l

y Modulus = volume/Surface area


y In steel castings, it is generally preferable to choose a

riser with a heighttodiameter ratio of 1.


Contd

Q
ConventionalQuestionIES2008
y Calculate the size of a cylindrical riser (height and diameter

C i Method
Caines
M th d
Freezingratio=ratio ofcoolingcharacteristicsofcastingto
theriser.
A
X=

equal) necessary to feed a steel slab casting of dimensions


30 x 30 x 6 cm with a side riser,
riser casting poured horizontally

( V)
( AV )

Casting

into the mould.

AccordingtoCaine

[Use Modulus Method]


[ 0 Marks]
[10

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Riser

Th i h ld lidif l
Therisershouldsolidifylastsox>1
X=

a
+c
Yb

V
Vcasting

riser
Y=anda,b,careconstant.

Page 15 of 240

Rev.0

Table:ConstantsinCaines Method

Q
Conventional QuestionIES2007
y Calculate the size of a cylindrical riser (height and

diameter equal)) necessary to feed a steel slab


casting of dimensions 25 x 25 x 5 cm with a side
riser, casting poured horizontally into the mould.
[Use Caines Method]
[ For steel a = 0.10, b = 0.03 and c = 1.00 ]

IES1995

GATE1998,2007,2014(PI)

Directional solidification in castings can be

Chills are used in moulds to

improved by using

(a) Achieve directional solidification

(a) Chills and chaplets

(b) Reduce the possibility of blowholes

( ) Chills and padding


(b)

(c) Reduce freezing time

(c) Chaplets and padding

(d) Smoothen
S
h metall flow
fl for
f reducing
d i splatter.
l

Chills
Chill
g
p
y, highthermal
g
y External chills are masses of highheatcapacity,
conductivity material that are placed in the mould (adjacent to
the casting) to accelerate the cooling of various regions.
Chills can effectively promote directional solidification or
increase the effective feeding distance of a riser. They can often
b used
be
d to reduce
d
the
h number
b off risers
i
required
i d for
f a casting.
i
y Internal chills are pieces of metal that are placed within the
mould cavity to absorb heat and promote more rapid
solidification. Since some of this metal will melt during the
operation,
ope
at o , itt w
will abso
absorb
b not
ot o
onlyy tthee heatcapacity
eat capac ty eenergy,
e gy, but
also some heat of fusion. Since they ultimately become part of
the final casting, internal chills must be made from the same
alloy as that being cast.

IAS1994
Chillsareusedincastingmouldsto
(a) Achievedirectionalsolidification
(b) Reducepossibilityofblowholes
(c) Reducethefreezingtime
(d) Increasethesmoothnessofcastsurface

(d) Chills, chaplets and padding.

Cupola
y Cupola has been the most widely used furnace for

IES1997

melting cast iron.


iron
y In hot blast cupola, the flue gases are used to preheat the
air blast to the cupola so that the temperature in the
furnace is considerably higher than that in a
conventional cupola.
cupola Coke is fuel and Lime stone
(CaCO3) is mostly used flux.
y Cost
C off melting
l i low.
l
y Main disadvantages of cupola is that it is not possible to
produce iron below 2.8% carbon.
y Steel can be also p
prepared
p
in cupola
p
byy employing
p y g
duplexing and
triplexing
operations.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Assertion (A):
( ) Steell can be
b melted
l d in hot
h blast
bl cupola.
l
Reason (R): In hot blast cupola, the flue gases are used to
preheat the air blast to the cupola so that the temperature in
the furnace is considerably higher than that in a
conventional
i
l cupola.
l
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct
explanation
l
i off A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation
l
i off A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Page 16 of 240

IES 2012
IES
) Cupola
C p
p y
Statement ((I):
furnace is not employed
for
melting steel in foundry
) The temperatures
p
generated within a
g
Statement ((II):
cupola are not adequate for melting Steel
((a)) Both Statement ((I)) and Statement ((II)) are
individually true and Statement (II) is the correct
explanation of Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are
individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct
explanation of Statement (I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement
(II) is true
Rev.0

Electric Arc Furnace


ElectricArcFurnace
y For heavy steel castings,
castings the

openhearth type of furnaces

Crucible Furnace or Pot Furnace


y Smaller foundries generally prefer the crucible furnace.
y The crucible is g
generallyy heated byy electric resistance
or gas flame.

with electric arc or oil fired

Inducti