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AD 1212 By MicHaeL BUTLER , RICHARD E. DANSKY, JAMES MALIszZEWSKI AND Guy-FRANCIS VELLA Vampire CREATED BY MARK REINHAGEN SprCIAL THANKS Authors: Michael Butler (Al-Andalus, The ToCarl “DragonBowen Z" Bowen, for secret shames Damned) RichardE. Dansky (Prelude, Castile, Lasombra and loud rants characters, Sorytelling), James Maliszewski (Shadowed ToKen ‘Flying Reynaldo” Cliffe, or beingone old- History, Christian Kingdoms, Powers That Be) and school vigilante Guy-Francis Vella (Taifa Kingdoms, The Damned); To Mike “My Mouth's Not Open” Tinney, for the Vampire and the World of Darkness created by Mark greatest ofall kamoke 2onge Reine Hagen To MT, Justin “Speed Racer J” Achill, and Fred oryteller game system designed by Mark — +Qy est Sylvie?” Yelk, for Friday night foolishness and Hagen Saturday pains. Developers Philippe R. Duulle Consultants: Carlos Checa Barambio, Pedro J. Cafiameras de Miguel, Jose Miguel Pérez Mir6, Luis Rodrigues, Ismael Rodrigues, C. A. Suleiman, Jordi Torres Art Direction, Layout & Typesetting: Becky Jollensten Interior Art: Mike Chaney, Guy Davis, Eric Hots and Mark Smylie Cartography: Conan Venus Front Cover Art: Cistopher Moeller Front & Back Cover Design: Becky Jollensten Fo) 735 PARK NORTH BLD, © 200 Waite Woif Publishing, Inc. llrightsreserved. Repro- [PF * diceiin without the written permission of the publisher i expzessly Sume1D8 forbidden except forthe purpose ofreviews,and forblankcharacter sheets, which may be reproduced forpersonal useonly. White Wolk, CLARKSTON, C3002] Vampire, Vampirethe Masquerade, Vampirethe Dark Ages, Hunter the Reckcning, Mage the Ascension, World of Darkness and Aber- ISK rant are registered trademarks of White Wolf Publishing, nr. All rights reserved. Werewolf the Apocalypse, Wraith the Oblivion, PUBLISHING Changeling the Dreaming, Werewolf the Wild West, Mage the. Sorcerers Crusade, Wraith the Grear War, Trinity, Iberia by Night, Biter Crsade, Cainite Heres), Constantinople by Night, Jerusalem by Night, Libellos Songun 1 Masters of the State, Libellus Senguinie2 Keepers of the Word, Libellus Sanguinis 3 Wolves atthe Door, Libellus Sanguinis 4 Thieves in the Night, The Ashen Knight, and Veil of Night are trademarks of White Wolf Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved. All characters, names, places and text herein are copyrighted by White Wolf Publishing, Inc. The menionof or reference toany company of pockt in these pages is no «challenge t the trademak or copyright concerned, Thisbook uses the supernacural forsettings, characters and themes, All mystical and supernatural elements are fiction and intended for entertainment purposes only. This book contains mature content. Reader discretion is advised. For a free White Wolf catalog call 1-800-454-WOLF. Check out White Wolf online at; and frp .storyceller PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES. TABLE OF CONTENTS AND THE Sea CALLED FoR Dust CPRELUDE) INTRopucTioN: From run Py vo GiprALrAR CuapTer OnE: SHADOWED HistorY Cnapter Two: THe CuristiaN KinGpoms CuapTer THREE At-ANDALUS Cuaprer Four: Powers Tuar Br Cuaprer Frye: THe DaMNeD Crater Six: LeGenps oF THE RECONQUISTA (STORYTELLING) \ . SY They have « seninig about Ceuta, the Cainites dot id vohere you tread of youll walk on your geandsice. Oh the city is prett enough and ships sail it and out of its harbor like great slovo birds, but there has beers blood here. INN48 as the surviving Obristians reckon ( iD the Ulinohads svwoept through it | Gke a beeath of fixe. There had been Jews in Ceuta then, wealthy and secure intheir ancient residence. Theydied. There were Christians, who thought that tradeandhardlabor shared with Muslims on the dock would somehow shield them from the sword. They died. Followers of the Prophet protested when the blood flowed in the streets, and they died, too, The Almohads were not men witha great store tierce, and when they had finished bending Ceuta to their will, they moved on. Ifyougoto the ug, orwalkdown by the docks, youean perhaps find grayheanie who remember thote days. For a coin, or perhspsameal, they can tell thestory endlessly — how they hid in alleys, or in barrels, or peeking up from. cellars, as the strange fierce horsemen swept by. Every year the tellers of the tales grow fewer, and the tales themselves row grander, until even those few survivors can scarcely remember how it had really been. Othereyes watched those nights of bloodandfire,eyes of the dead. The sons of Seth and the sons of Catne had suffered equally at the invadess’ hands, though no one would sing Qaddih for Salomon ibn Jedah ibn Gabirol Acer all, no one knew he was there, and the wind carried his dust to the sea, Allof the Cainites of Ceuta died, then, savethose fev who fled. Before the Almohadk, the cityhad been a popular place for the unliving of al-Andalus, a safe Portanda welcoming harbor, Mortals call it ahauntedcity, and they are not far wrong. Ht Almost a century after that bloody time, two weary travelers surveyed the achen city and remembered. The first was tall, with the sharp features and sun-darkened skin of one of the Almoravids. Close inspection would reveal that the cut of his robe was perhaps a hundred yeaa out uf dave, bur clove inspection was not something thismanencouraged. Nosword hungathisbelt,butstill, the cutpurses and thieves of Ceuta let him pass unmo- sted. "The manwho isasword,” said one ofthe thieves, 10 need to carry one." The oxhers nodded and left to seek easier prey. The second traveler was in all ways the opposite of his companion. He was short and heavy, and his steps were frequent ashe hurried to keepup. A casual observer would have seen the bag he carried slung aver one shoulder and decided that he was physician, and chey would nor have heen entirely wrong. “How much further i it, Ibrahim?” said the shorter of the two men, “We're shorton time, especially ifthat devil ibn Savi finds us here.” “saat, vay Gierwh” said the orher man quietly, “he thas much less ofa chance of finding us if you find it in yourheart tocmbracesilence. Andhe'sno devi. know; T've met him, He's as much a man as you or I.” IBERIA_BY NIGHT. “Allthings considered,” snorted Isaac, “that is small comiort indeed.” The two moved through the night with the pace of tired hunters on the trail of wounded prey. They moved chrough the narrow streets with inexorable purpose, though naw and again Thrahim stepped, exam- ined some intersection or fallen piece of stone, and then set off on his way again, Eventually, the two found themselves in what a generous man would call a cemetery, what an unkind man would call a field. Here and there stones poked chaonah te wonda,sheugh mors hod buen ished ever thanstillstood upright. “This s the place,” Ibrahim said, and folded his arms actoss his chest. “Hurry.” *You'resure?” Isaac looked around, sniffed the night air and began clearing brush away from one of the svones. “Itdoesn’t look like the histories said itwould, notatall.” “That's because the histories were written by a handful of terrified refugees who were too busy running ro take noteson the scenery, Isac. Now by the Prophet's beard, would you please do what you have to? I dislike being here almost as much as you do, and Fm not the ane they're trying to kill.” {saac muttered under his breath. “That's just a mat- cer of timing, Ibrahim. Now hush.” Wich that, he knelt down in front of the grave marker, taking cate not to bash off the pebbles on top of the stone. Hhuraming to himself, Isaac placed both hands on the stone, closed his eyes and concentrated. Behind him, Ibrahim turned in sloweircles, keeping watchful eyeoutfor interlopers. In the distance, he could hear the seabirds whining into the night. Otherwise, Ceuta sleptsilently. Even the thieves and lovers had gone to bed, and Ceuta had been left to she dead, For that, the dead were profoundly thankful erhaps a minute later, Istac moaned and stumbled ‘back from the stone. “Merciful God," he said, and sank back to his knees. “Oh, Lord, why?” With two strides, brahim wasnext to him. "Did you see what you needed to?” Isaac nodded as the other man helped him to hisfeet. “Saw that, and more. The dust we need is over there,” he said, and gestured tothe southeast. “Ifyou could see what {just save, Ibrchim, you'd want t pluck out your eyes Ir was ibn Sa’id, Ibrahim. The Almohads had already razed the judevia and movedon, They were dead, ofcourse, but they'd mmeved on. Gxlomon hed brought them here and hidden them, and they thought it was sae. And then Salid came, and he tore away the shadows Salomon was hiding them with, and he made him watch...” Isaac straightened and shook himself, then steode purposefully forward. Hs com- panion followed. "Thesoonerwe'reaway rom here Ibrahim, the better, Let's gee the dust and go.” “No, that’s since been di juse want the dus from where he bled and fell. There's sill something there that 1 fares, hae «er Uae in Burgos can use. Ibrahim Tuune snoried. “Haidly. Saloinion ibui Gabirol wasa scholar and a poet. nis ving days he virote a book, It was ealled Fons Vit Thrahinn laughed. “The Fountain of Lif ois it the Fountain of Blood! I see the joke. Buc surely your famous library must have had a copy, yes? ‘Ah, there's the tricky thing, [brahim. He wrote Fons Vitae when he was alive. He rewrote it after he died, but no one knows where he left the m: step to the left, 1d once we find your ‘tt yourseer, and find ‘your magical hook, perhaps you can then a answer one stall question for me?" i Isaac looked up isin?” in youplease tell me why in the 'sname | agreed to come along oon this foo!’s errand? I could be hundred leagues away from here, id instead Tindiagelf pobitgarund dead man's abattoir with a lunatic who thinks the key to his library lies in the dust! Allah, saveme from madmen, and save me doubly from dead ones.” Shakinghishead, Isaac ran dust chrough his finger You ate here, Don Ibrahim, because you are a man of honor, and because | saved your noble neck when you were younger, weaker and les tactful than you are now. And now you will do me the great and good favor of respecting your elder in blood, and remaining silent for ‘one moment while Ifind exactly what I need. Then we can leave this misbegotten plague pit ofa city, you can consider your debt to medischarved, and then your newer have to see me again. Unless, of course, you want to see how ic all comes out.” “Right now all I want to see are the walls of Ceuta receding in the distance. Hurry.” “Patience, my friend. You woaldn’t want me to rush this and make an error. We'd have to come back and do this all over again, you know. Ah, here we are,” Isaac said, and drew a pinch of gray dust from the ground between his fingers. Gingerly, he reached into his phy- sicians’bagand broughe forthaceramic flask. Withlong, she unstopped itand let the dust tickle in Herepeates the operation three times while Lbrahim, at firs: interested, grew bored and returned to scanning their surroundings. Finally satisfied, Isaac stoppeted the last ofthe flasks and pat chem back in his pouch. "I am quite ready to leave this place, brahim. [brahirn?” “Sssh!" The taller man motioned for silence. “What do you hear?" Isaoe listened for a moment, I hear nothing.” “That Letus depart “Indeed,” Issac said, and ran. Ibrahim followed, a halfstep behind. They boltedthrough the cemetery gate as alow, rumbling laughter drifted up over them. “Thun- der?” Isaac panted “There are no clouds,” Ibrahim replied, and re- doubled his pace. Ahead of them, aman —orsomething that had once teen a man — jumped out of an alley, Irandishinga wicked-looking nfo. With just the mer est hint of a break in stride, Ibrahim reached out and nched his fist. A frisson of cold knotted his stomach, even as a rope of shadow reached from the alley from aidlbrahim, “isexacily what wasafraid of ped around his throat, and thee was a sudden, sharp sound of something hard cracking, Then the tentacle dissipated, and the man’s body slumped tothe ground, Before it hit, Trahitn an Isaac were alrealy past i IBERIA BY NIGHT “There'll be more where he came from, I'm sure,” shouted Ibrahim, even as two more rose up from behind a reddler’s cart and leaped forward. Isiac somehow twisted in midair, dodged, and then brought his hand around on the hack of his aswilane’s neck. ‘The man fll to the street and did not move again. Ibrahim, me while, cought his assailant ae dhe man leaped then threw him aside. He landed against a wall with a shuddering crunch, and upstairs dog began barking. Ahead, more figures filled the street. An arrow whized past, and shautingg Could be heard behind them as well. “We can't fight them all and hope to get past ibn Sa’id,” Isaac shouted. “There's too many.” Ibrahim looked wildly left and right, then suddenly gestured. “Down this alley. Hurry!” He ran, and Isaac followed. Inthe street behind, men and thingsthat were not quite men bellowed defiance. The pursuers ran past locked doors, past empty bartels and heaps of moldering ‘rah. The alley was so narrow that the sky ebove was reduced to the thinnest strip. The hard-packed dire and stone of thealley floor echoed under their footsteps, and behind them, the pursu Inevitably, perhaps, the slley ended ina wall. Acthe top of the wall crouched a half-dozen grim-faced men with swords. Behind them hovered a cloud of blackness thar promised something terible hiding in tis depehs All Ceuta, it seemed, was waiting for them. “Wel,” Isaac said and turned to Thrahim, “that cured ‘outpoorly. Do you have s plan to get us our of here!” Ibrahim nodded. “I do," he said, and with ehsolutely no expression he watched a tendril of shadow tear off Isazc’s head. Blood fountained out and the body col lamed to the alley floor. Ibrahim felt rhe soulless inner ‘cold he had come to know as his Beast grow that much stronger. Then he took a step back and waited. Hedid not have to wait long, “Ibrahim!” boomed a voice from the wall. “I see you have something for me.” “I do,” he replied, quietly. “Come down here and take it” ‘With that, afigure leaped down, landing lightly and stacefully even in the muck of the alley. He was tall — taller even than Ibrahim —and he wore all white. “You cost me thee of my childer,” he said “Two. The one I struck will recover.” “Three. He failed me. [ don't want him co recover.” Tbrchim shrugged. “Bismallah. In any case, Isaac ibn ‘Mushadis dead, and his bloods spilling on my boots. My part of the bargain is fulfilled. Is yours?” cil came on. Ibn Sa'id nodded. “They ate already on theit way back across the water. Damn the old ones for giving this land back to the Christians. They don't deserve it.” “With all of the plotting the tifas did against one another, neither did we. The old oneshave spoken, You've gotten more for your cooperation than many. Be content.” “Ob, Lam, Lam.” Ibn Sa'id kicked the corpse, then, leaped back up co the top of the wall. The men who had stood there had already faded into the night. “I do wonder, though, Ibrahim. He seemed tothink you owed him a debe of honor, and yet you killed him. Why?” Ibrahim began walking back our of the alley slowly. “A promise made to an infidel is no promise at all, bn id. You shuld know that well enough.” Laughter drifted down. “Well said. This, then, is farewell to thee, Ibrahim. I won't see you again.” There was a rustle of cloth, and then suddenly, Ibrahim was alone. He waited for what would once have been adozen heartheatr, and then adosen more. Satisfied that he was indeed by himself, Ibrahim turned back to the quickly decomposing corpse on the alley floor. In a matter of minutes, it was nothing but some dust. Gently, he reached down and took the physician's satchel from the dir, and with a cough slung it over his shoulder. Then, he took a handful of the gray dlast and cast it into the air. There was anight breeze off the waver, which caught che dust and watted tt off into invisiility. Before it vanished completely, Ibrahim be gan chanting. Thelanguage hespoke wasalmost familiar, the wordsuncertain. But even as Farouk ibn Sa’ led his chalder tothe docks, tothe ships that awaite! thet, the man who answered tono name but Ibrahim sangQaddish othe night And when he was done, he walked out of the alley and set forth for the city of Burgos. There were promises one need not keep to an infidel, after all, that one could still keep to a friend + > Pyrenees to Gibraltar ALAND Drvipep ‘The Iberian Peninsula, which will one day become Spain and Portugal, i the lash point of conflict in the early thirteenth century, Indeed, while the Crusades forthe Holy Land are fought in Outremer (liter ally, “across the sea"), the battle in Iheria is in Europe proper. The Christians have gradually pushed the Muslims south for centuries, bur the battle isnaw in its most chaotic and decisive stage. And where there are kingdoms to be won and vengeance to be had, the childer of Caine are never far away Tue Curistian Reconquisra ‘The Christan north isunited behind the concept of a reconguost — in Castilian, Reconquista —ofthe peninsula from the Muslims who invaded icin the eighth century. This philosophical unity is hardly secure, however, as @ -vanety of ambitious kings vie for influence inthe Christian north, Once the Kingdon of Navarte was supreme, now Lec andCestileare on the ris. Yer, the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Portugal are expandingas wel. These kings and their knights are hardly above fighting one stwaliet. Chapter Two: The Christan Kingdoms details these lands THe Moortsy Tairas The sition is much the same in the Muslim south known as al-Andalus. Many of these lands have been Islamic for centuries, but various dynasties have come and gone. Once the Cordoban Caliphate stood as the apex of Moorish Theria, but now it too is @ patchwork, The Almoheas, aBerber dynasty that rules North Affica, claim torule al-Andalus from their capital at Sevilla, The truth is that most of the territery is divided between dozens of petty kingdcens called tifas, Paves with a dysnaini Chis tian threat, they choose to fight among one another and hence seal their doorn. Chapter Three: Al-Andalus cov- cers the tifa. IN THE SHADOWS With itsheady combination ofreligiousfervor, Byzan- tine intrigues and martial exploits, Iberia makes the ideal nesting ground for Clan Lasembra, The Magisters reign preeminent among the many local lars, and they intend to keep it that way. But the religious and political conflict of the Reconguisa divides them as well — es fervent Murlizn Lesombra, ty. £0 while theie Cristian clanmates embark on the Skadow Reconquista. Inthe chaos, many othersare tying to position themselves, tocutatthe Magisters power. Chapter Four: Powers That Be and Chapter Fiver The Damned detail many of che vampiric intigues within and around Clan Lasombra, ove ‘ab Ass IBERIA BY_NIGHT FarTHerR COMPLEXITY The divide between Christian north and Muslim south isa facile one that hides much of the richness of Iberia. Indeed, asthe Reconquisianears itsendgame, i'seasy to forget that there are more than just two sides to this war. “There are far more to Therians than that. Minoriry Grours Indeed) Christian Iberians do not think of themselves as“Spanish” butas Aragonese, Navarese, Catlians cr any other local affiliation. The divisions among che Muslim taifes are even greater, leading to similar local identifica tiors. Evenbeyond thislocalization thereare manyminority groups whose unique cultures tend to get pushed to the sideinesofhistory. Storytellerslookingt0adiflavor—and pathos — to their chronicles might consider using these ‘groups. Some of the most important minorities are: * Basques: The Basque (or “Euskaldunak" in their native tongue) speak Euskera, one of the oldest languages in Europe and very different from any other on the penin- sula, For the most part, they live in Navarre and are ethnically dstinct from the peoples who surround them hath inside the kingeoen and in France and thera, having preserved their identity among the waves of invaders that have passed through the regionsince prehistoric times. The Basqueshave many unique traditions, includingthe game of jot ala, which plays an important role in many of their festivals and celebrations. At the tum of the thirteenth century, the Basques still retain much of the identity and culture, although as Navarre’s position becomes weaker relative to other Iberian under threat. ‘© Jews: There has been a Jewish presence in Iberia since Visigothic times. Despite notable incidents of pers tian Tas remained very healthy. fa much of Must Iberia, Jews enjoy status as dhimmi, ot protected persons, and can continue to worship relatively freely (although they must pay a poll tax for this right). In some Christian Cities, Jewsenjoy similarstatus, buciaothers they havebeen compelled to convert to Christianity (either in the face of actual threats or socioeccnomic incentives). These con verts are called conversos. Those conversos who secretly keep up private Jewish worship are known as memaros. © Mozarabs: The Mozarabs are the Christians of Muslim feria. They form aseparate community and retain acertain degree of independence as dhimmi under Muslim tule. The Mozarabs have their own rulers, called counts, who are directly responsible to the Muslim caliph. Spectal agents, who ensure they are kept separate from those of the Muslims, collect theirtaxes forthe Muslim rulers. They are allowed to maintain their religious hierarchy, and they use Visigothic canon law. Theit liurgy, called the Mozarabic es, their cule ste, is similar to that ofancient Gaul and shows influence from the Byzantine Empire. Although reasonably well protected, the Mozarabs have suffered persecution in Mus- lim lands at various points in theie history The chief Mezarab centers are Toledo, Sevilla and Cérdoba. These Christians speak booth Arabic and Mozarabic, and retain many cultural traditions from the Visigothicera, Ashe Reeomquiser heats up. more and more Mozerabs have fallen under Christian tule, where their ‘exotic ways often make them the objectsof suspicion and distrust. + Mineallads: While many Jews and Mosatsbs con: tinue their religious practice under Muslim rule, many ethers have converted to Iam over the centuries. As in Christan lands, reasons for doing so vary from he threat of pogrom to simple economic incentive (Muslims need wot fay the dhimm.poll tax). The Muwalads end their descen- -nts maintain an ethic identity largcly ceparate from the ‘Arab and Berber aristocracy that rules over them in the Cordolsi, Almoravid and Almobuad dynasties, They have risen to positions of leadership in several kingdoms and even were in open revolt againstthe Cordoban state at the end of the ninch century LANGUAGES ‘The Iherian Peninsula isa melting pot of cultures and religions. The region is likewise home to numerous Lan quages, each one associated with a pasticulor culture or kingdom. * Arabic: Arabic is still widely spoken throughout Iberia, being alanguage used in cormmon by all Muslim — snd many ory Mualisn— cultures, Both the Jews and dhe Morarabs frequently use Arabic, even within Christian territories. Likewise, many scholars have earned Arabic as means of reading the ancient texts that survivein Muslim Urares uuroughout the peninsula, Aragonese: The language of Aragon, itis spoken in. the older parts of that kingdom, including Zarageza and Lérida.Icis quite similar to Castilian, and will eventually be absorbed by it + Castilian: The Romance languagethatwill become smadern Spanish, Castilian emerged around Burgos in Old Castile and spread with the Reconquista to Madrid, Toledo and the rest of New Castle. It will eventually absorb ‘Aragoneseand Leoneseas the three kingdomsmergeinthe centuries to come. © Catalan: Spoken in Rawelnna and the erst of Catalonia, Catalan is another Romance language with similarities to boch Casiian and French. Continued con- tact with Provence and the rest of France maintains that ING It INro Dors learning each languag Oa aU emu Cea ti Se et eset eens Peer ere arte or) ese, Leonese, Catalan or Port PCr came te aes a Paavo emiC omen nce itunes Soe acy ee eel ors ees eee re tes hy for a character to speak propetiy, a pertaceiinny eine Sees eet Pees cre pee area a Castilian character with In: eins Peres is and communicate in Aragonese, erreeeere Risa * Euskera: The language of the Basques, Euskera is spoken in Navarre and sevecal ofthe surrounding areas. I isa distinct language fom all others on the peninssla, and cone of the last healthy remnants of the langues poker before Roman times. It shares very little with any of the Spanish languages. Leaning it can # Hebrew: Although not spoken as widely as many orher languages, Hebrew remains an umportane tongue of Iberia. Jewish communities — both under Muslim and Chrisian rule — continue to use Hebrew in both religious services and scholarship. In some instances, Jews use Ara bic serpt to write in Hebrew, requiring’ skill in both languages to decipher its meaning * Leone Aragones cisely, astur-leonés) is bound to be absorbed by Castilian in the centuries co come. It began in Asturias and is now spoken in most of Leén, except in the northwest, which uses Galician, from which Portuguese is derived * Mozarabic: The Mozarab laneu: archaic dialect of Castilian Spanish th . from Arabic. Always « minority language, Mor slowly dying our as the Reconguista brings the under Catholic le + Portuguese: Another Romance languag mon roots with Castilian, Poruguese is spoken in the expanding Kingdom of Portugal andi tory directly to its north (in the form of Galician Leonese (or, more pre with com: the Leonese tert FROM _THE PYRE TO GIBRALTAR} How To Css THis Book Iberia by Nightisyour ude tothe peninsula from the Pyreneesco the Rock of Gibraltar. Set ust as the mortals are celebrating their decisive victory at Las Navas de Tolosa, it captures a region in the midst of massive change. This is, of course, lotto cover in these pages, but you will find plenty of material to bring your Dark Ages chronicle tothe peninsula Cnaprer By CHAPTE} Chapter One: Shadowed History presents asurvey of Iberian history from ancient times to Las Navas de Tolosa and beyond. It provides informacion of the Carhagintan and Romans settlement, on the Visigothic era and on the histories of the current Muslim and Christian powers a play. The chapter focuses on human history but provides plentiful information on varnpiric goings on. (Chapter Two: The Christian Kingdoms covers geog- raphy and society of the Kingdoms of Navarre, Leén, Castile, Portugal and the Crown of Aragon. It provides descriptions and details onal the majorcitiesand their key vampiric inhabitants. Important intrigues come to light across the Christian north. Chapter Three: Al-Andalus provides the same trea ment for the Muslim south, It covers all the regions still under Muskm control, including Valencia, Cordoba, Sevilla, Granada and the Balearic Islands, Chantet Four: Powers That Be Fxamines some of the key vampitic and mortal institutions at play in Theria ‘These include the doings ofthe Lacombra'ssecret council of Amici Noctis, the Knights of Santiago, and the cabal of witch-hunters called the Sword of Se. Jaros ‘Chapter Five: The Damned provicesbackgroundand same statisbies for some of the most influential and in: volved Cainites in Iberia. Thischapterdoesnot arterupt to catalog all the unliving ofthe penirwula, of course, only the key players, pter Six: Legends of the Reconquista provides toolsand advice forsettinga chronicle in Iberia. Irincludes Tue Asura AND Ven. oF NicHt Iberia by Night serves as an excellent comple- ment to Veil of Night, the sourcebook on the Cainites of the medieval Muslim world, Thee tome inclidessome basi information on al-Andahis that this book expands and updates. Veil of Night also includesa great deal ot informationon the philoso- phiesand cultures of Cainitesin Muslim anc, most notably the Ashinra sect that believes in an Islamic path through vampirism. These details can only enrich a chronicle set in Iberia, even one sarring Chistian characters. Veil of Night is not required reading to enjoy Iberia by Night, however. Not only is all the required information between these pages, Iheriakeeps the Arabic terms to aminimum, using the Buropean clan and Road namesreadersare ‘more familiar with. Those who have Veil of Night, can easily substitute Bay’tMushakisfor Clan Brajah, and Tarig el-Umma for Road of Humanity adescription of several options including running centu- ries Jong Reconquista chronicle or ruling a tifa, Iberia by Night is set in AD 1212 instead of the standani Dark Ages date of AD 1197. This isso for two reasons: The chronicle supplement Bitter Crusade re cenily charted major vampiric events in the period from 1202 to 1204orso, 2nd thisallows Iberiaby Night to follow up on some of those plot threads. More importantly, however, 1212issimplyamoredramatictime than 1197 for the Reconquista Iris the year ofthe great Chistian victory at Las Navas de Tolosa, which essentially breaks the back of the Moorish presence cn the peninsula (although theic retteat takes many mere years). I'smore interesting to play achronicle set ata moment of transformation than one se 15 years before. If you wish to set your games in 1197 or even in the decades after 1212, you'll have no difficulty doing so. Use the history in Chapter One and the destinies of various characters in Chapter Five to adjust the setting to yout heart's content. FES TO GIBRALTAR] ENI Bl e 2 1 ued Mou, OU) 78720 ee eas uobpuy a $6 rupnrgy J ne! =e PSXUUS As i i iff i) fi iY VG (4 WA Hn A ye Yy, = Ahapter One: Shadowed Sistory Let the night pass and morning come Look that ye ready be VWOith acre anid ovses, WOe vill forth that host of theirs fo see. Like mens gorse out in exile irtto a steange empice, ‘Chere shall it be defermined voho is wor thy of his hive. — The Song of the Cid ‘The history of the Iberian Peninsula is a long and complicated one, filled with multiple waves of invad: ers, each impressing their culture upon the region. Since the tenth century, the battles between the Chris tian states of the north ‘and the Muslim empire of the south have complicated matters further. In addition, the various Christian kingdoms havelongand intiicate relationships, often joining one another as the result of political alliances or marriages. Those unions then collapse and new kingdoms are torn. Consequently, it is almost impossible to do proper justice to the history of the peninsula. What follows isa necessarily abbrevi- faced otal simplified version of Tocrian history for the benefit of setting chronicles in this dynamic region of the Dark Medieval age ANCIENT History The oldest histories claim that the children of Tubal and Tarsis frst settled the Iberian Peninsula, ‘They were, so the stories fo, the son and grandson of Japheth, himself the son of the patriarch Noah. The peninsula takes its name from the Therians, a Medier: ranean Bronze Age culture that settled the east coast. Some claim the Basaues are descendents of ancien: Iberians, but the truth of these claims a matter of conjecture, even among Cainites. Over the course of several centuries, the Iberians and the Celts — who occupied much of France, Britain and Ireland in an: cient times —came into close contact. With the Celts may have come solitary members of Clan Gangrel. If true, the Animals wouldhave been the first vampires to inhabit the peninsula — although no trace of such ancient Gangrel remains. The meeting ofthe Celts and Iberians produced the region's first multicultural civil ion — aarbinger of the inixing to become a hallmark of the peninst The Phucnicians were the frse crue empize-butld- ersto come to Iberia. They celonized its Mediterranean, coasts, establishing several settlements (called “facto: ries’) inthe south. Themost significantof these factories was Gadi (later Gades under the Romana) on the site of what would become Cadiz, Gadir was the center of Phoenician power in Theria well asthe heart of theic cult of Meleart (a Phoenician god later associated with Hercules). Although the worship of Hercules has long since disappeared from Iberia, its presence still echoes in place names, most notably the Pillars of Hercules at the edge of the peninsula. Legends among the later Cainite population suggest that Followers of Ser once inhabited Iberia, based on maritime contact with Egypt and the rest of the Mediterranean besin. After the Phoenicians came the Greeks, who es- tablished severalcoloniesandourposts, including Rodhe (moder Resas), Emporium (Ampurias) and Saguntum (Sagunto). Both the Phoenicians and the Greeks suc and fusing thar was IBERLAL BY NIGHT. ceeded in bringing Iberia into the mainstream of Medi- tertanean culture. Consequently, the peninsula soon drew the attention of other imperial powers — and the Cainites who traveled in thetr wake. CARTHAGINIAN IBERIA The next people to set their eyes on Iheria were the Carthaginians, who first settled the Balearic Iles in the seventh century BC. In the sixth century, they rook possession of Cadiz from the Phoenicians and set up tradingoutpostsin the south. Following in the wake of the Carthaginians came Cainites from several clans. most ‘notably Brujah and Lasombra. Unlike their North Afr can counterparts, these Prujah seemed not to equate the idea of a Cainite utopia with any one place, believing it transcended both phce and time. The Lasombra who accompanied them seem to ave held simikir ideals, although eldersof theclan sought found asociety where Cainites ruled openly over mortals. Both the Bruja, led by the prophetic Yzzbel, and Lasombra neonates who found common cause with the Zealots opposed the Mag. ister elders. Infighting thus marked the first few centuries of verifiable Cainite presence in thepeninsula. The Beujah and younger Lasombra usually held the upper hand, but theartival uf te Lasonslina eller Zianithdi arouiral 300 BC shifted the balance. Zinnridi wasan accomplished warrior who rallied his followers azainse the Brujah and rebellious Lasombra. Only his Final Death at the hands of Yzebel herself prevented theL asombra from gaining total domin ion over Iberia. Unfortunately, Zinnridis defeat was a Pyerhic vie tory for the Brujah. Their losses to Zinnridis attacks made them easy eargets for Roman Ventrue, who ar rived later in the third century BC. Mortal Rome' victory against Carthage in the First Punic War emboldened the Ventrue, who began to appear in larger purabers. The mortal Carthaginians responded tevrhoie loss by attempting to conquer the whole of the Iberian Peninsula, believing it would compensate them for their losses in Sicily and elsewhere. Theirconquest was begun by Hamilcar Barca, and ultimately extended as far as the Ebro River, but it met with stiff local resis: tance. [tolaciusand Indoctes,twoCeliberian chieftains, raised an army of 50,000 men to fight against the Carthaginians. In the end, the rebellion was erushed and the leaders were put to death. But Orison, another Iberian chief, defeared Hamilcar at Helike (modern Elche), killing the general and throwing the Carthaginians into disarray. ‘Aste Punic Wars heated up, the chilver ot Zinnriai abandoned their Carthaginian brethren and supported the Roman cause. They did this not out of newfound love for Ventrue Rome, but for purely pragmatic rea- sons, They saw that Carthage’s days were nurubeted. Only by supporting Rome could they ever hope to achieve the dominion their sire sought to achieve, Moreover, these Cainites saw military prowess as the highest form of achievement. From this point on, they slowly began Embracing key military leaders as part of their ultimate plan for ruling the peninsula, Meanwhile, a slave assassinated Hasdrubal, the founder of the city of CathagoNova (now Cartagena), causing further chaos. Hasdrubal’s brother-in-law Hannibal then took control ofthe army to deal withthe worseningsituation, He quickly defeated the rebels and conquered much of the peninsula, except for the Ro- man dependency of Saguntum. Hannibal hared the Romansand believed taking the city wouldconsolidate Carthage’s power in Iberia against them. Instead, 1 drew their ite. The Romans decided to strike back against their rivals. The Second Punic War resulted Carthage’ defeat andthe complete los of Iberia. Th Romans vere now the peninsula's new masters who would not be dislodged for centuries 1o come ROMAN IBERIA ‘The Carchiginian Brujah remainedin Iberia. Indeed, «hey were joined by many more of their clanmates after the final destruction of Carchage in the Third Punie War. The Iberian Brujah were of a sober disposition. They Keliered in ubclety, lying in niefor thie phcoppertinley tosttike back against the Ventrue who'dorchestratedthe destruction of their beloved city. For that matter, they were equally happy to harm the Lasombra aswell, whose rresence they also sensed during the Punic Wars. Thus, the Brujah encouraged resistance against Roman rule, a plan chat worked for many years. Intheend, the Brujah miscalculated, believingthe Romans would retaliate against the resistance move- mentin thesame way they'd defeated the Carthaginians. Instead, the resistance wasdefeated notonly by strength of arms, but through “romanization.” The peninsula assimilated the cultureand civilizarionof Rome rosuch r degree as to produce thetoricians like Quintilian, poets like Lucan, Martial and Silius Italicus, philoso: phers like Seneca, and emperors like Trajan, Hadrian and Theodosius Roman civilization proved an invincible weapon. lis influence changed life in the peninsula forever Medieval Iberia is still covered with Roman ruins, particularly aqueducts and bridges. Yet, the most last Ing Roman influence is linguistic. Today, most inhabitants of the region speak a Latinate language, whether it be some dialect of Spanish or Porruguese: Only in those regions in which the Basques flourished was there any signuficanc resistance to the Lauin kan- guage. Of course, since the Moorish invasion, Arabic has proven influential as well, also affecting the devel- opment of Spanish and Portuguese Under Roman rule, tberia fist received Christan ity —and wich ita new wave of Lasombra, There is an ancient cradition that the Apostles Paul and James came to the peninsula, as well asthe so-called "Seven Apostolic Men (named Torquatus, Cresiphon, Secundus, Indalecius, Caecilius, Hesychius and Euphrasius), cowhom the foundation of variouschurches is attributed. Connected with the coming of St. James is the equally ancient tradition of “Our Lady of the Pillar” (laVingen del Pilar) of Zaragoza, an appearance of the Virgin Mary to St. James himself. Some of the Damned claim that among or alongside the Apostolic Men were some of the earliest followers of a Christian path of the Road of Heaven. ‘The Iberians were fervent believers in the new faith, suffering martyrdom during nearly every persecu- tion the Romans instituted. The most famous of these martyrs suffered the persecution of the emperor iocletian, whichbegan in AD302.Some local Ventrue cles, most notably Prince Flavius Siconis of Zarayor subtly encouraged the persecutions. Sidonis and his fellows believed that Christianity threatened the unity of the empireduring acritical time in its history. Thus, vampires who converted to the Way of Christ likewise suffered at the hands of their elders — a wound that festets even today. Despite the persecutions, many Church councils wereheld in Iberia, the mort important be Elvira and Zaragoza, as well as the First Council of Toledo. At the Council of Elvira in AD 324, the celibacy of the clergy was insisted upon — a practice that would nor become common throughoutthe Church, asa whole for centuries. AttheCouncilof Toledoarthe end of the fourth cencury, the Filaque (“and from the Son" clause was added to the Nicene Creed, a practice that would likewise spread throughout the Church in time, much to the conscernation of the Orthodox Churches, for whom such an addition is illicit at best, heresy at worst. Nevertheless, this was a time of Chris: tian flowering in Iberia, some of whose greatest inhabitants would riseto positions of prominence, most notably, St. Damasus, who became pope in AD 366. At the insistence of Damasus, St. Jerome undertook the translation ofthe Bibleinto Latin, producingthe Vulgate wed by the entire medieval Church, VISIGOTHIC IBERIA When the Germanic peoples invaded the Roman Empire beginning in the fourth century AD, even Iberia was not spared their depredations. Among those she invaded the peninwula wore che Alani» Geythian people, the Vandals and the Suevians, both Germanic in oigin. The Alani were, for the most part, quickly defeated by the inhabitants of Iberi establishing themselves in Baetic ca, while the Visigoths hemmed in the Suevi in Galicia until the latter were also defeated ‘The Vandals, after SHADOWED HISTORY Tue Afterthe death of Christ, Hisdiscip todifferent parts of the known wor (ere SPR eet eee en eee tee TOR OU UCC Msc Tt Mey inal tata arate) pain, where he spenta several years preaching the fe Pr Reta ere Laon turned to Jerusalem where he suffered under the persecution of Herod. In AD 44, he headed. Immediately following his m: Sener een ranean ts SUC MEM oem oie tet ferry ed and cartied them — and the Apostl body — hack to Spain. The boat landed at Iria Flavia on the coast of OOM oe eum mee Ween become the city of Compostels, The entire jour Geico enc ren aaa ea as captured as then buried in a hillside co Paes neice Early in the ninth century, Pelagius, a hermit Teanga mr erent ren subsequently teported to Theodomir, bishop of ria sens ey Coke ee eal one esse ian surrounded by a ring of smaller one: over a deserted spot in the hills. The bishop took slagius at his word and ordered that the spot be Se w time, the investigators en ese eaten siete Saint James (or Ree ene eee et ee Sot are ePreee Sere ia eae Para 1-824), heard of this di ever] eRe Eien serra Sena truction of achurch and asmall monastery over the Proirte eet at The contemporary city of Compostela grew up Eerie) enna kts ees erat un) an eet Primae Stellae (“Field of the First Star ae Esper ea na Senta ame enter) Pe eae ee crite ener Perot mys thesiteof the Reet nS Erol ete cca in tenrteret esting ts ty after being unearthed in the ninth century >mpostela, Once the hody of St. James was securely in the ret oaetarm earner etait promote the site. The archbishop and the local Cluniac monks aided them in this endeavor. Both felt that the existence of a major pilgrimage site on the peninsula would lend support to the strug ESO armen Nance roe acen noe CEC em eau at eset Holy Sepulcherin 1078, Compostela’s fort cen Tune eee Perea ene eee etter ese ete emir si csrme eet it Western Christendom. Its pla Pet Serene See rine me eee eetictars ne hese Visigoths, originating in the east, had sackex Rome itself in AD 410 under the leadership of Alaric and turned toward the Iberian Peninsula. Thei lender was Ataulf, anc they occupied the northeastern re: ns, whick eceived the thalandia, The Visigoths eventually extended theit rule over most of the peninsula, keeping the Suev trapped in Galicia, Finally, the chieftain Euric put end to the last remnants of Roman power in the peninsula in AD466. In this way, he may be considered the first monarch of Iberia, although the Suevians still ‘maintained their independence in Galicia. uric was give written lawsto the Visigoths. thereafter name of the first king The Visigoths were Arian hereries. That is, they believed that Christ was not God but rather a creation God, like any other creature. However, the Iberian was Catholic and opposed their Visigothic IBERIA_BY_NIGHT rulersin matters of religion. Thus, the Frankish kings o France (who were Catholics) attempted to establish themselves as the protectors of Iberian Catholics, lead. ing to frequent disputes berween the Franks and the Visigoths. These disputes provided an opening for the Cainite Heresy, which made a play for dominion in the peninsula. Though largely rebutied, the Heretics down roots in what would one day become Por thereby laying a groundwork for the future. The early yeats of Visigothic rule were thus charac terized by both political and religious auarrels. Thi rected substantial instabilityin the peninsula —which played into Lasombra hands. In the end, King Recared achieved both religiousand political unity by accepting Catholcizmat the’ Third Councilof Toledo in AD S89 The religious unity established at this council was the basis fora fusion of the Goths with the Iberiars, which would eventually produce the Spanish people A SHADOWED LAND Brujah, Lasombra and Ventrue vampires used the cover of the Visigothic invasion tomake war upon one another. Each hoped to take advantage of the chaos in Iberia to furtier their goals. The Ventrue hoped to restore Roman rule and a semblance of order. In keep- ing with their ideals, the Brujah hoped to forge a new Therian identity that transcended all the elements that hhad come betore. Meanwhile, che Lasombta relused to commit en masse to any oné faction, instead letting their rivals destroy each other and keeping the hands on the pulse of mertal institutions across the land, This seratezy can well be called cynical, but it was well advised and ushered in a era of Magister supremacy on. thepeninsula In AD 585, the Final Death of theBrujah, elder Yzebel at the hands of Ventrue raiders, in what would al, scale! dhe fate of oth Zealots and Patricians in Iberia. Indeed, although the Ventre claimed Yaehel’s blood, they did so only with Lasombra support. The raiders all met untimely death soon thereafter. Although vampires of every clan would be found across Iberia, the peninsula was from that poins on Magister land, Masum [Beri In the second half of the seventh century, the Byzan- tine resurgence begun under Justinian | fell before the expansion of Islam. By AD 698, most of North Africa was in Muslim hands, inclacling Egypt. In 705, al-Walid 1, caliph of the Umayyad dynasty, appointed Musa ibn Nusayr governor of these new territories of the empire. Musa then conquered the rest of North Aftica as far as Tangiers, He uso tse his new position to begin convert- ingthe Berberstolslam—aslowand dfficltundertaking at which he succeeded beyond all expectations. AsMusa’sarmies advanced, the Assamites advanced wich them, using the fog of war asa eloale forthe activites oftheir clan. Likewise, someof the surviving Carthaginian. Lasombra, as well as new atrivals, saw the march of Islam as the perfect opportunity to advance their own schemes. By the time Musa‘s armies reached the farthest edge of ‘North Aftica,bothclanshad ensconced themselves in the ew Muslim sciety. But Cainites of bothclans hoped the krilliane leader would not be content with his victories and seek: out naw conquests across the een “Those hopes were realised waen the Christianculerof Ceuta, Couns ulin, reached anagreement with Musa to Junch a join: invasion of the Tberian Peninsula, The invasion was thus the rerult of hoth » Muli reedimers to conquerand a all forail from the Visigothic faction Loyal to hefamily ofXing Witiza. These partisans had lest theit positions of power in 710 when the usurper Rodrigo sssassinated Witiza. The Muslimsseemedtobetheperfect alliesagainst the supportersof Rodrigo. In 711, Musa sent a Berber army under Tariq ibn Zivad across the strait whose modern name, Gibraltar, derives from his own. Upontheirartval, the Berbers foughtagainst Rodrigoand defeated him in betel Insteadofretumingto Aftica, however, Tariqmarched north and conquered Toledo, the Visigothie capital where he spent the winter of 711, The following year, Musa led another army deeper into the peninsula and conquered Mérida aftera lengthy siege. He reached Tariq in Toledo in the summer of 713. From there, Musa advanced northeast, taking Zaragoza and invading the country up to the northern mountains. He then moved from west to east, forcing the nativesto submit to Muslim ruleorflee. Both Musa and Tariq were recalled to Syria by the Umayyad caliph; they departed the region in 714. By then, most of the peninsula was in Muslim hands The rapidity of Muslim success resulted in large pare from the fact that Visigothic society had not succeeded inachievingagenutnesynthesisof its various elements. It was still rent by doctzinal and political cisputes stemming from the Visigoths’ own conquest of the peninsula centuries before. In fact, some elements of society, such as the Jews, were particularly hostile toward the Visigothic government — and with good reason: legal strictures against them were exceedingly harsh in places like Toledo, Moreover the Muslin aniquest brought advan- tages to many. The tax hurden, for example, was less ‘onerous under the Muslims than ithad been uniler the Visigoths. Likewise, serfs who converted to Islam be- came freedmen and were dependents of the nobleman who had conquered the territory to which they were attached. Jews were no longer persecuted and were placed on an equal legal footing with those Christians who did not renounce their faith, The situation was somewhat different for the Cainites living in the area. The Brujah and Ventrie who had survived their wars during the Visigothic era fought agjing: the invaders (inching some Muslim clanmates), but were ultimately displaced and fled north. Many Lasombra also fled, fearing the wrath of the Ashirra (as the Muslim Cainitescalled themselves) However, many stayed, understanding that they could ue Muslim society asa vel just as easily as they could Christianity. When Ashirra Lasombra moved into the region from Africa and the Middle East, they found Iberian clanmates ready to accept them. The divide between those Lasombra who accepted the Moors and those who fled north has never healed THE DEPENDENT EMIRATE The first half of the eighth ceneury saw the birth of new society in Iberia. The Arabs formed the ruling class Below them were the Berbers, who made up the majority ofthetroeps used to invade Iheria, and beneath them were Iberians who had converted to Islam. This latter class formed the majority of the region's native population because social and economic motives induce SHADOWED HISTORY convert. Christians and Jews who retained their religions came next in thesocial hierarchy. For this privilege, these “People of the Book” paid a small tax to the Muslim government. At the bottom of the class structure were slaves, whose numbers came primarily from captured northemers and black Africans. The Ashirra mirrored their mortal counterparts in their hierarchy, although shouls rather than slaves forraed the lowest rune The period between 711 and 756 is called the “dependent emirate” because Muslim Iberia, or al- Andalus, was a dependency of the Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus. These vears were marked by continuous hhostilities between Arab factions as well ashetween the social classes. Despite these upheavals, the Muslims continued their expansion into Europe — as did the Cainites who traveled with them. Muslim expeditions made forays across the Pyrenees regularly until 732. At that time, the Franks, led by Charles Martel, defeated the Muslims, led by the emir ‘Abd ar-Rahman al- Ghafiqi, at the Battle of Poitiers. This was the furthest reach of che Moorish conquest in Europe. It also marked the beginning of sericus Christian Cainite resistance to the Ashirra. also contributed to the Muslim 4 Beiber rebellion against the Anbs in North Affica proved disastrous for Iberia. It brought about the depopulation of the northwestern portion of che peninsula, whose primary inhabitants had been Berbers. Likewise, the rebellion brought a Events elsewher reweat, For exampl Syrian army and its leader Balj to al-Andalus, thereby creating yet another faction for this strife-torn region. ‘This unfortunate situation changed for the better with theestablishment ofan independent emirate in 756 by ‘Akl at-Rahsman lad-Dalkhil ‘Abd at-Rahman was the only Umayyad prince to ewape the slaughter of his family atthe hands of the ‘Abbasids, whotook over the Muslim empire from the Umayvads. Safe in al-Andalus, hedeclared political independence from the‘ Abbasids, although he continued to recognize their authonty in religious matters Tue INDEPENDENT EMIRATE The Andalusian Umayyad dynasty ruled Iberia from 756 until 1031, During this time, science and learning lourished, asd thearts, Al-Andalusachieved a level of sophistication unmatched in Europe at that time. In theshadows, itartractedsignificant numbers cf Brujah (or Mushakisin, to use their Arabic name), who hhad begun to believe the Moors could create the utopia, of which they creamed, The rift between the Muslim and Christian branches of the Lasombra grew as the Ashirra arrogantly pressed theirclaimsover their Chris tian brethren, Certain Assamites also gained a greater measure of domain in al-Andalus during this period. Indeed, shortly after the mortal ‘Abd ar-Rahman fled Damascus, theancient Assamite warrior Hilelal-M, IBERIA BY NIGHT arrived in Cordoba. One of the first of Hagim’s broad to conver: to iskam, he was a powerful force and quickly established himself as Sultan of Cérdoba, with a claim t0 domain across Moorish Iberia, Al Macaari had been a warrior before he became a schemer, however, and was happy to let his sultanate’s affairs he managed by Assamite viziers and Lasombra aids, ‘Abd skinaey based his ower upon-enderubiic aristocracy affiliated with his dynasty and lavished richesand poweron theseallies. Ar the sae time, he was ever mindfal of the slightest sign of rebellion ‘or any undermining of his authority. both of which he punished with great ruthlessness. ‘Abd ar- Rahman wasalsoacham- pion of Musiim orthedoxy, protecting the faith against all ‘opponents. Thus, be launched a series of campaigns against the Christian state of Asturias. In the eastern part of Iberia, he was troubled by intrigues of the ‘Abbasids, while in the north he had to cope with the ambitions of Charlemagne. Fortunately for al-Andalus, Charlemagne proved incapahle of raking control of Iberia, The Franks had tobe content with occupyingonly the Spanish March in modern Catalonia. While far less than they had hoped for, this occupation hemmed in the Muslims, which emboldened Ventrue and Lasornbra. "Abs! ar-Ranman I's successors, Hisham 1 and al- Hokam I, spent much of their reigns dealing with unrest among the Arab nobility. A massive rebellion in Toledo requ the iting of lage ruber of Berber an Slav meccenaties — as well as new taxes to pay for det Unsurprisingly, suchamove proved almostasdisastrousas therebellion itself, creating furtherinstability. Despice the est efforts of both the Brujah and Christian Lasombra to tako advantage of the situation, che Muslims were able 9 regain their focting, proving once more that mortal. determined the destiny of Iberia, not Cainites. “Abd ar Rahman II'sreign is remembered asa time of political, alminiseneive and ciltsml eusorarotions: Daring histimeas emir, he embarked upon an impressive program of “easternizing” Iberia, that is, ruming al-Andalus into a proper Muslim country like those in the Middle East. ‘While largely successful, this program met with resistance from the Mozarabs, or Arabic-speaking Christians. En- couraged by the leaders Alvaro and St. Bulogio, they sought to encourage resistance to the Muslims through acts of martyrdom, Most commonly, thisinvolved publicly reviling the Prophet Muhammad, an offense punishable by death from 850 onward. The emir reacted remarkably calmly to this wave of biasphemy by encouraging those acaused to repent and thereby avoid the penalty. Never- theless, a conservative faction within the. Mozarabic community kept thisresistance active for nearly a decade, resulting in 53 executions before ecclesiastical authorities stepped in and discouraged any further martyrdom. The (Clicistias Lasombra took advancage of these persecutions to Embrace several Mozarabs, who formed a corps of anti- Muslim firebrands to bate against the Ashirra. In foreign policy, ‘Abd ar-Rahman Il showed a con- cem fordiplomacy, Fleexchanged ambassadors with both the ByzantineEmpireand the FrankshkingCharies lI the Bald. Hewasalso able toconfronttheconstantly growing incursions of the Vikings, whom he defeated in the vicinity of Sevilla. Finally, ‘Abdar-Rahman Ilestablished permanent defenses against these northern invaders (and the eiherjar vampires who traveled with them) by the éreation of pwonaval bases, one on Atlantic at Sevillaand another on the Mediterr These bases curtaled the Viking thea witha new problem, which wasjustasdangerous: Muslim converts known as mawallads, The miewallad formed the majority of Iberia’s population, but they lacked political ming numbers. ‘Consequently, they rose in revole in both the north and shesothofhepenimiiain 873, Thereolthsteinone 5dyeors. Inorder tonip asimilarproblem mong the Aihira fate bak Scan eal ol Des within hindomain of Sevilla, I lelibecal- schy, allowing non-Arabs to gain positions of power within his realm. By 930, the est had ended and the Khayal, literally the “Clan of Shadows”) likewise consol dated their grip on Iberia, to the chagrin of both their Christian and Muslim rivals. This fact also weakened the Assamites (or Banu Hagim); without a threat to th sarvival of Islam in the peninsula, the Saracens seemed almostanachronistic. Theirinfluencein thereyionreached 8 lo point — postion fom which ther recover for some time, CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA dhvery much concemnedwith Iberia THe matters al diplo- nth the issue of Ikeria’s relationship to the Caliphate at Baghdad. Unsil 910, there existed religious unity among the Muslim domains, each one acknowledging the ulti tmateauthority of the declared their own changed and ‘Abd the adopted the ttle of caliph in 929, new regime, known as the Cal -Andalus for more thana century. Ironically tessawthis action asposiive for their own red them that Idam was no longer united ightly believed they could userhe dissent within irs Meanwhile the Christian kingdoms of the north continued to mike war on a-Aruals, ‘Abd a-Rahman IIIsuffered a severe defeat in 939 ar Simancas. Fortunately for him, the internal werneay ofthe Kingdon of lace, enabled him to restore his domination of the peninsula through political means. He consolidated his position, through several embassies to Holy Roman Emperor Otto: Isto the Christin sovereimsofthepeninsil, tothe pore and to Byzantium, The corsair enclave in Fraxinetum in southern France likewise acclaimed his sovereignty. From Tunis, the Fatimid Caliphate endeavored to establidhanemoie that would reach a fran he Alan id include al-Andalus. In onder to prevent Fac hegemeny in the Maghib, the Cordoba ealigh spied the North African portsof Melilla and Ceuta by BL Intense naval warfre between the two calihates conchae wihclahesonlandandartrapy seadtersee wars innorthwest Africa. In fact, ‘Abdar-Rahman almost succeeded in overthrowing the Fatimid Caliphate by supporting rebel factions, The eonflce dragged om fet eats cling only when the Fatimid concqered ype it 56d anaostinerestin the Maghnb, This created power vacuum that wes rapidly filled by the Umayyads. Asthe Christian Lasombra had suspected slam was now hopelessly rene with interul conics, Both in ay find night. The (berian Ashira now spent ts auch time fightingoncanceheresthey da huis yagainst tian ceniemies, despite the best efforts of Hilel al- Masai and foher dhecbyaatc saan: ‘Thi Sula of Sev the Toreador Haytham ibn Jakeem, formed a shortlived movement within the Ashirra tharadvocated unity in the foce ofthe Chrigianthreat. Unfortunatly, Hythe fll tothe mme infighting he hoped coon! forso forward-thinking an Ashirra “Abd ar-Rahian Ill was succeeded by hie son ab Hokarall in 961, who alsoadoptd the itl ofeaiph His relmn vas pence he succeed ia molvingthapcblers of the Maghrib thanks to the incredible strategic ability of his general, Ghalib, and the policies of his advisor, Abu'Amiral. 10 was knownvas al-Mansur, “the Victorious One."Upon the death ofa Hlakam,hisyoune sor, han lst Mitayyad oscuped the throne. shar Il rew up unde the tutelage of is mother, Aurora ard the vizier Jafar al-Mushafi. In 978, al-Mansur eliminated the isierand sezed contol the goverment. He then ‘used his influence to weaken the position of the caliph, dlegatingall real authority tohinself becoming the tut power behind the throne Al-Mansur used his newfound power to conquer most of the Maghnb, which he transformed into the viceroyalty of Cérdoba. He likewive prevented the growthof the Christian kingdoms of northern Iberia by attacking their domains with great regularity —~ ap. promitely every six monthe- He sheed to merty toward them, sacking thir capitals as often aspossible With the mipport of a profesional army consisting ‘an ironte fate IBERIA BY NIGHT. predominantly of Berbers, who obeyed him without question, al-Mansur sidestepped the Arab aristocracy, who were largely opposed to his weakening of the caliph’s authority. He likewise avoided dealing with the slaves, many of whom had achieved positionsof author- itywithin the government. The result was an extremely efficient, dynamic kingdom, but one that depended almost entirely upon his continued rulership. Al-Mansur was everything the Lasombra could want in a leader: strong, decisive and rational. He understood thestrengths and weaknessesof his position andl used cham wisely. He surrounded himeslf with the sreatest poets and artists of his age, as well as great philosophers and religious thinkers. Al-Mansur like- ‘wise continued his program of regular raids against the Christian kinedoms, winning over 50 harrles hy the time of hisdeath in 1002. The question of whether to Embrace al-Mansur occupied many nights among the Amici Noctis, especially chose with Muslim sympathies. Ultimetely,itwas decided that such a man would have to be drawn into the clan willingly, through a slow exposure to the hidden truths. The Muslim Lasombra Ibrahim is said to have led the effort to bring al-Mansur into theshadow. That hefailed istaken by most tomean the great man refused the offer. When al-Mansur died, his son, Abd al-Malik Al- Muzaffar, con ied his policies. He further weakened Hisham il and fought against the Christians, but had the msforune to die prematurely, Fis brothet “Abd a= Rahman Sanchuelo lacked the skill and determination necessary to maintain the structure built by his fathes, and an.uprisingthatsought to restore the political rights of Caliph Hisham If verulted i also spelled the end of the Umayyad dynasty in Iberia, although no one yet knew it, least of all the Muslim Lasombra. They were still smugly satisfied with the greatness of the empire al-Mansur had managed to create through his unorthodox actians. THE KINGDOMS OF THe Taras “Abd arRahman Sanchuelo’s death resulted in yeas cof unrest, most notably from 1009 to 1031. During ths time, the social and political unity among Andalusians began to unravel — with unfortunate consequences for all, Theresult wasnarchy and theformaticn of numerous independent kingdoms, or safas. The political history of the period readslikean uninterrupted series of civil war. Preeimnent is the conrontation between the Arab fac tions, under the leadership of Sevilla and the Berbers, led by Granada, Over time, Sevilla succeeded in uniting southem al-Andalus under itshanner. Only Granada ant Malaga resisted this sing state. This teginc win ruled by al-Mu'tadid, a thoroughly unscrupulous man who pre- tended thavefoundthe vanished lisham Il al- Mu'ayyad. jaucliveli’s des Je ‘Al-Mu’tadlid was succeeded by his son al-Mu'amid, who vas known asa poet as wellas aruler. In the east, except fora brief period when the small state of Denia built a powerful ce that enabled it to tage incursions Unuigy- cat the westem Mediterranean, the wafas preserved a certain equilibrium. Fartherto the north, the taifas wasted their time in interminable internal quarrels, much to the chagrin of the Muslim Lasombra ‘The Christianstates took advantage of the breakup of the Umayyad Caliphate, They slowly began to expand their bonlers, retaking lands lost centuries fefore Hawaver, the Christiane lacked the popula tions necessary to hold huge conquests. Thus, they moved conservatively and acted to build up the gains they did make. They imposed various taxes and tributes oon the tajas, most notably the parizs, a form of annuial tribute by which the wifa kings could buy immunity from attack for another year. In point of fact, the parias were nothing more than protection money, but his tribute revitalized the economy of the Christian states. Italsocreated friction between the Muslim rulers of the taias and their own subjects, because the kings con- tinually imposed more burdensome taxes to generate sufficient funds to buy off the Christian kingdoms for nother year. When cash wastacking, the tails devalit- ated their currency, mintingnew coins. The Christians would not accept this, however, and the taifa kings were then forced to increase taxes yet again, alienating them from their subjecis even more, The extravagant luxury in which the kings maincained themselves only added to popular resentment and further destabilized the Muslim hold on Iberia. At NIGHT AMONG THE TAIFaS The rise of thetaifas wasa heyday for the Lasombra ‘on both sides of the religious divide. With the collapse of Cordoban central authority, the Assamite Hill al- Masaari’s claim to overall domain became impossible te enforce, and other sultans rose to places of promi- nence. In Granada, the Lasombra Badr made his presence known, although his power would only tise to shake the peninsula in later centuries. More troubling was the rise of Miriam bint Aisha in Cérdoba. A Lasombra mistress of intrigues, she claimed no official domain (and even publicly supported al-Masaari as sultan), buc in private she began to weave a web of influence. The instability of the tifas suited her needs, the good of the Muslim cause be damned Unsurprisingly, this course of events suited the ‘tiats Lasouibra quice nicely. The whole of the cleventh century was a splendid time for them, as they both strengthened their hold on the Iberian Church and weakened their Muslim rivals. As they did so, they displaced the last Ventrue with any real authority, ‘whoseantiquated approach to the Muslim occupation had weakened them greatly During this time, the Gangrel elder Shabaq Nubian also announced his conversion to Islam. The Animals had rejected Muslim faith just as they had Christianity, sa weak calling for mortal sheep. Shabago, anancient ofthe clan, however, had found some strong and faithful allies among che Ashirra and listened to their stories of the Prophet. Hilel al-Masaari, both a Muslim and a terrible wacrior, woo the closest thing Shabaqo had toa friend, Itwashe who guided Shabags to an Ashirra imam when he was ready to convert in 1005. Although some Gangrel called him weak and some Ashirra called him blasphemout, ho andl hi childer became an important pare of the unliving mo: saic of al-Andalus. The term “Taifa Gangrel” soon came to mean these Animals who followed a Muslim wwattior's code and spread heyond the peninsula to the rest of the Muslim world, In Iberia, they preyed only on Christians and Jews, a fact that marked them for par- ticular hatred by Cainites promoting the Reconquista. Tue AtMoravips —* Jest how vulnerable Muslim theria had become became clear with the Castilian occupation of Toledo in 1085. Toledo was the key to the Meseta Central Plateau and therefore to the entire peninsula, and its fall rightly alarmed the remaining tafa kings. For help ‘stemming the rising Christian tide, they looked to a powerful Berber confederation in northwestern Africa called the Almoravids (literally, “Those Dwelling in Frontier Fortresses”). The Berbers were quite willing to help restore Muslim hegemony over Iberia. Their ruler, Yusuf ibn Tashufin entered the peninsula from North Alice and eventually reached the fields of Zalaca, north of Badajoz, where he defeated a Castilian army under Alfonso VI in 1086. Although a blow to Cl tian confidence, thisbaitlehad no lastingconsequences, osVore ato capitalise ube North Africa. Almoravid policy in Iberia remained indecisive over the next two years, but the siege of Aledo in 1088 convinced Yusuf that he needed to put an end to the taifas if he were to rescue Islam in Iberia. From 1090 onward he deposed the rulers of the taifas, beginning with those of Granada and Malaga, In 1091, he did the same to the rulers of Almeria and and he followed in 1093 with the ruler of 02. Only Rodrigo Dia: de Vive, known as El Cid (the Lon!” in Iberian Arabic usage), was able to resist the Almoravids. El Cid had established himself in an independent kingdom centered on Valencia. The figure of El Cid is an anomaly of Iberian history. At first, heserved asa mercenary in the waifaof Zaragoza. Later, he became an independent prince in the east, ruling over lands that were mainly inhabited by Muslims. El Cid had the good fortune, however, of finding efficient administrators among the Mozarabs in his anal reuanied to SHADOWED HISTORY domain, thereby enabling itto prosper in these difficult times, Insddition, bissuperb geasp of Almoravid tacties enabled him to overcome their greater numbers, lead- ng co several glorious victories. Upon his deseh in 1099, Valencia fell into the controls of his followers, whe held intl 1102. As that time, they were forced 6 evacuate and seek refuge in Castile. With the fall of Valencia, the Almoravids were able to expand their nquests in the peninsula, culminating in the fall of Zaragesa in VIO, Ircnically, the fll of Zaragoza, marked the beginning the end for the Almoravids. The Aragonese king, onso |, and his stepson, Alfonso VIL of Castile, began a series of attacks against the fronriers of the Muslim dho- mains,many of which were quite successful. Moreover, the A lmoravids found themselves distracted by religiousupri ings in North Africa. Consequently, they were unable :0 ight hack against the renewed assaults of Aragon a istile. So precarious was the Almoravid position that they were forced to hire Christian mercenaries to mount even. a feeble defense against their enemies. In 1113, agora fell to Aragon, which likewise conquered a large partofthe valleysof the Jakin and te Jiloca. The Almorav managed to defeat the Aragonese at Fraga in 1134, but their Victory proved ephemeral because the Muslims lacked IBERIA_BY_NIGHT the resources to exploit it properly. Throughout Aragon's bates, Chriscian Canites attacked their Muslim counter- pats, Led by wartiors such as Tercio Bravo and Blieser de Polanco, they struck major blows against the Ashirta and furchered the cause of the shadow Recmquista. Mar AND EL Cip For the Cainites of Iberia, the Almoravid petiod is nocable forcwo major factors thearrival ofthe Assamite Unar al-Rashid and the life of El Cid. Umar was a prominent member of the visier caste who had been preying among the Berbers for many years. He saw in them the potential to reinvigorate the Muslim drive toward conquest and helped set the stage for the Almoravid invasion, Umar set himself up in Sevilla where he quickly helped end a period of vampiric instability by suppocting the Brujah Gerusah bint Yoav for the position of sultan. There he has temained, but his dreams of unity and drive among the Ashirra were quickly undone by the machinations of the Lasombra Miriam bint Aisha, Thetworemain rival to thisnight As for El Cid, like al-Mansur hefore him, he be- ‘came the subject of fascination among Iberian Lasombra ndeed, they almost worshiped him as a living embodl- mentof theirideals:decisive action and awillingness to do what needed tobe done, whatever the cost. Just like al-Mansur, the clan ruled that he had to be brought to the Embrace ifhe were to come under the shadow, and just like al-Mansur he seemingly refused. Since: his bones have been moved to Burgos, the tomb of El Cid serves as a rallying point for the shadow Reconquista against the Ashirra. Cainites like Tercio Bravo — a former companion of El Cid —etill use his memory to inspite a new generation of vampires to take up his mantle in the fight against the Mocrs. For more on El Cid, see sidebar.) THe ALMOHADS Umar al-Rashid was not an Assamite to be easily thwarted. He knew that other Berber dynasties were on. the rise and he bitled his time. He used eatspaws in ‘North A frica to back the rise of one suchdynasty —the Alinohads (“Those Who Aifirm the Unity of God”) — ‘most notably through the instrument of zealous young warriors of his clan, He knew the dynasty would turn its, sights on Iberia at last. This hope was justified when, “Abd al-Mu’min became leader of the dynasty in 1130 He decided that the only way to restore Muslim power in Iberia was fist to conquer the remaining tafas and impose direct Almohad dominion over the region, Only then, he reasoned, could Islam triumph over the Christian states of the peninsula. Umar quietly sup- ported thispolicy, working behind thescenesto weaken any eafa that stood in the way of the Almohads, such as that of [bn Mardanish, ruler of Valencia, Murcia, Jaén, Granada and Cérdoba. The Assamite warriors rode the wave of Almohad progress, displacing stubborn Lasombra. Miiam bin Aisha saw some of her pawns fall in this wave but set about enacting het own ‘counterintrigucs. The Almohadsassumed the title of caliph and used new laws and measures, Theit intention was 10 strengthen their empire through religious unification. Thus, theycompelled both Christians and Jews in their domains to convert to Islam or emigrate a decision that greatly bolstered support against them in Iber Nevertheless, these strictures seemed tohave a benefi- cial effect, as the Almohad empire reached heights of Power unseen in western Islam si he days of the caliphate of Cérdoba, The Almohads then renewed the war against the Christians by defeating che king of Castile, Alfonso Vill. in 1195 at the Battle of Alatros. The victory wae a great one for the Almohads. Unfortunately, they proved no more able to capitalize on it than had their predecessors, the Almoravids. Thisgave the Christians the time they needed to regroup for another series of battles, culminating in che Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212. Las Navas pe Totosa Beginning in 1210, Alfonso VIII of Castile was preparing to launch a’ renewed attack against the Almohads. He launched numerous deep raics into Muslim tettitory, some of which finally drew theatten- tion of the Almohad caliph, Muhammad al-Nasir, The caliph struck back hard, eventually taking Salvatierra, arcantle of dhe Order of Calatrava in 1211. Newsof this ‘counterattack alarmed Pope Innocent III whopromptly a great crusade against the Almobads,which brought thousandsof reinforcementsacross the Pyrenees Gander the command of due bishops of Narbonne, Bordeaux and Nantes). In addition, there came the tronpsandpersonalleadership of Sancho VIL of Navarce, Pedro ll of Aragon and Alfonso Il of Portugal. The result of Innocent’s summons was the largest Christian army in Spanish history, which assembled in Toledo in June of 1212, with the intention of retaking Salvatierra — but whose destiny was far greater, The huge army left Toledo on the 20th of July and entered the town of Malagon, where the French crusaders razed and killed the entire populacion (despitethe opposition ofCastlians). Shorilythereafer, they enteredCalatrava, where Iberian leaders sismed an. armistice with the Moors. Atthis point, most of the foreign crusaders left, pointed in the Iberians’ desire for peace over conquest. Nevertheless, the remaining troops moved on toward Salvatierra Meanwhile, the Almohad troops were encamped on the level phin of Las Navas de Tolosa, justto the south of the Desperiaperros pass chrough the Sierra Morena. The Almohads had blocked a narrow canyen known as el ‘Muradal, through which the Christian artny wouldhaveto pass, The Christian army considered retreating, but soon found an unknown pass, known as el Rey, thanks to the effortsofa local shepherd. Thus, the twoarmiesfinally met bon July 10 and the hattle erupted The Castilian king, Alfonso VIII, commanded the center of the Christian army, while Pedro II com- manded the left wing and Sancho VII of Navarre the right. The Castilian militias were equally distributed aniong thethree divisions. These infantry detachments xed with cavalry forces, a move King Alfonso believed would protect his flanks from envelopment The Moorcalzoresortedto aconventional azangement of their troops in three units along aline with a reserve held hack. They also had an advance line of light skirmishers, whose thrust against the Christian lines opened the battle. Archers and North Africans ocew pied the center, while local Andalusian troopsoccupied the two wings ‘The battle began in eamest when Christian forces bezan an alvance against the Muslim skirmishece and scattered them while moving toward the main body of the Moors. The two armies then engaged in chaotic SHADOWED HISTORY Et Cip Leet ona aco rn Se Burgos, in Castile, The son of a minor noble and wealthy mother, he was brought up in the houschold 6f the boy who would grow to be Sancho I of Castle tee nt eae eee ary regis (commander of the royal troops) by his friend Fore ut ne ecetcea ns et est Perera eerteter eee ees time, his repatation asa general who wouldnever lose wasalready firmly in place Unfortunately, the Cid’s patron Sancho died while ee ete toc tee an ironic tum of events, was succeed by his brother Pee ees te Pca eect homever, Alfonsoinvited de Vivarinto his cour, abet noone eee eee Poa fora marriage to his nicee cern See eee ET a uae es center Pett kerer ken etna hence Pn COR ie eer rca Kingdom of Sevilla when it was invaded by an army from Granada, supported by Garefa Ordofie:. De Vivar won a resounding victory for Sevilla at Cabra, This set eee egten ae Re 1081, after an unauthorized raid on Toledo, ce Vivar eal ee esr Pe a Ne a eared Pentre TOE Armgon in. 1084, Ie was during this time that El Cid eT ene tenes asker rg unter ep ee Cuetec cd lay the grourcincek for his future ambitions. By 1090, he Neer aa eran Vee cote eet tas eat CO ee eRe cs eee Pee cena to ete It May 1094. When thesituation was settled, de Vivar hac him bumed alive. Over the next few year, while puta Ce tu tog PN ron VAC Re ER ee Ee ec een Teen eee Sete etree ‘The Christian kingdom of Valencia did nor long outlast its king, however. De Vivar died in 1099, and Dog lorks es sey ener een SO oe eee sae ee eee Pron MDS rere ee ear in the monsstery of San Pedro de Candefia, outside of Burgos. His legend, however, lived en long after his death. The images of the unbeatable general, revered by Moorand Christian alike, coalesced into El cantar de ean ee ee yee et Castile. His resting place became the center of an energetic “tomb cul” among mortals, and in death de Vivar became eulogized and transformed into che sym poeta AAMONG THE SHADOWS Fo: gocel orforill, Cainites have not been immune to his process of mythicization. Perhaps because (es it is suid) he turned down their offer of etemity, perhaps Prete enacts a ee racer reser ee eer em ae ors faeere keane eee et acetate considered fitting fora young Lasombra who ison the ‘verge of heing introduced to Cainite society — ot the Para eee ar ee ert Reha once eee Pennant a Race Reconquista clo so as well, though their purpose in the Somes Rua ates era Regardless, the tomb of the Cid is considered the newest thingtoashrine for many martial and Christian EOD ah el a een mV FS eeu eae em ta ceore erent antennae oe ets Petromaen al) enacts aed Dire ements accra eens) PUN ec anne occ ee eee ee Teen ae ce Pesce ue ese ees ey na eae peor aa ees ee eee ee nee econ er meer) Cainite artives to pay his respects. A few brothers ofthe ee eee diswmee, but they serve muinlytok inappropriar times. Cai Seer e ne en it As important a symbol as de Vivar’s tomb might Perea heote ecsaniaacat most hotheaded Ashirra knows thar the Cid is better Rarer ntact nc tent Ree eon a eae cron en Pertierra en tng loose shortly thereafter. combat. Then, al-Nasir committed a portion of his reserve wich the effect of buckling the Christian lines, causing some of their forces to retreat. In fact, the tetreat was so disheartening that King Alfonso consid- ered ending his life by entering the combat directly rather than face so humiliating a defeat. However, Archbishop Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada of Toledo seni his portion of the Christian reserve into battle, which stabilized the lines. This tumed the tide in favor ofthe Iberians, and the arrival of King Sancho’s wing finally broke the Moorish lines — including the caliph’s personal guard — sending al-Nasir into flight toward Jaen. Ther leaders retreat shattered Moorish morale and they turned and fled, pursued by the Christians for the rest of the night. The Christian army spent the next day regrouping, asessing the number of Muslim dead and Counting the booty. In the end, the treasure collected was so great that ittookover two thousand donkeys 10 haul ttaway Inaletter, Alfonso VIII vividly described the Christian victory to Pope Innocent IIL "In order to show how immense were the numbers of the enemy, when our amy rested after the battle for two days in the enemy camp, forall the fires which weee needed to cook food aad male beesd end ether thing, nc ocher wud wes needed than that of the enemy arrows and spears which were lyingabout, and even then we burned scarcely hall ofthem.” From that point the tide of the Reconuistz had turned irrevocably in favor of the Christians. Jews IN IBERIA While the great struggle of the Reconquista takes place between Muslims and Christians, the Jews of Iberia play an important part that far outweighs their numbers. However, their position isan awkward one. as they can not beeasily aligned with one side orthe other. Indeed, there is evidence of a Jewish presence on the Iberian Peninsula as early as the third century. While there are some anti-Semitic laws passed during the Visigothic kingdoms (most notably by the seventh century king Egica, who was convinced there was a Jewish conspiracy against him), Jews were fairly well integrated into society under Visigothic rule. In the early eighth century, when Tariq bn Ziyad!s forces entered the cities of Toledo, Cérdoba, Elvira and Sevilla, they entrusted the care of chose cities to the resident Jews. The same went for Granada, which eared the sanate Glass ul-Velual (Cada of the Jews) De- cause when the Muslim armies arrived, only the. the city remained togreet them, Asdlimmi or protected persons,” Jews enjoyed a fairbit of tolerance and prestige turder the Umayyademirate,and in many cases Jewo were chosen to oversee the Jewish and Christian communities in occupied cities (though prohibitive taxes kept them beat While the formal codificatior takes place in Provence in the late twelith cen: ee nett heer tare ne mid/-thireenth century, Granada and To et ere aura fo f Qabbslah ova its amr Feranes rtd re Ouse! point to the Sefer ha-Bahir (an almost unintelli Pecan tet seer tT thuch to codify the notion ot the sephirot) as the reece erat ee er eet ate ne ear Semana aoe eat Sereercentc an? liens from owning land). In some rare cases Jews even rose to high station under amie rule; the in Nagrell family, (or cxample, provided two vizier of Granada, and asdat ihn Shaprut (915-970) served the Cordoban caliphs vsier, diplomat and doctor However, as various invasions surged back and forth acrossthe peninsula, the statusof Jews became less stable. In some cases, the Almoravids incited pogronis inothers, they turned temporary authority over to Jews asa means of divorcing the area from the Arab rulers who had just heen displaced. While Jews were often carly setters of arcas reconquered by Christian kings (their facility with Arabic often serving to make them useful administeaters), in wat wegions they were atu ally regarded as the property of the king rather than landholders and citizens in their ows right Jews frequently served as tax collector Chior andl Molina outta ttes i large p the job was a particularly undesirable one. They also played major role in trade, a role that remained unchanged regardless of whether Visigothic, Spanish or Mislim rule was entrenched, and they serves bankers toboth sides, Mc El Cid himself did business wich the Jews hough as early as 1081, the Pope had been pressured to warn Alfonso VI of Castile about his tendency to pat Jews in penitinns of authority over Christians The conquests of the twelfth century finally d stabilized the position of the Jews in Iberia. They produce more anti-Semitic levislation and paseems although the progression to the ultimare expulsion of the Jews in 1492 remains uneven. GEOGRAPHY ‘While cheyare found acrossthe lengthandbreadth of Theria, fewstend to concentrate in cities such as Granada and Cérdoba, and in the ports along the southern and er both sre because SHADOWED HISTORY, casterncoasts ofSpain. However, the rowing oppression ofthe Almcravidand Almohad regimes has caused waves cof massmigration to variousChristian cities, most notably Toledo, Thete salsa reasonably solidpopulation of Jews in the Christian nore, with «strong agricultural history dating back to at least the fifth century. Jewish merchants also doa great deal of traveling, both along the coasts and through the interior of che peninsula, Most large popula: tion centers across Iberia boasted atleast a small Jewish population, and certain cities (especially Cérloba, Granada, Zaragoza, Sevilla and Toledo) are vibrane cet tore of Jowish culture. CHRISTIAN IBERIA Soon after the Muslim invasion, fleeing Visigothic nobles and the mountain-dwellers of Asturias united in. ‘opposition to the invaders under the leadership of the Gothic lord Don Pelayo. Later generations would regard Pelayo's victory over the Muslims at Covadonga as the beginning of the Reconquista, King Alfonso I expanded the Asturian kingdom by occupying Galicia after the withdrawal of the rebellious Berbers stationed there. He also devastated the Duero River valley to the south, thereby crearingan extensive buffer between the domains of Muslims and Christians. Many battles took place within thisno-man’s land over the fellowing centuries Meanwhile, the Basques regained their indspen- dence in the westem Pyrenees, while the Franks drove the Muslims from Septmania in southwestern France and occupied northeastern Spain. Although Charlemagne failed to capture Zaragoza in 778, the Frankseaptured Barcelona in 801 andoccupied mast of Catalonia. Later known as the “Spanish March,” this ‘occupied region consisted of several counties under Frankish rule, Consequently, Catalonia maintained nang tee with bath the Frankish eengire andh later, France, both in terms of euleure and politics. This long association eventually brought the region tothe atten- tion of French Toreador, some of whom ventured from the north to this area TH BEGINNING OF THE RECONQUISTA ‘While the Catalanslooked northward, the A sturians were firmlyfixedon the south, Alfonsoll placed hiscapital at Oviedo and attempted to restore the Visigothic king- cdom that had existed before the Muslim invasion. In the late ninth century, his descendant Alfonso took advan- tage of dissension within the Muslim ranks to attack and plunder their domains. He even succeeded in seizing the powerlul strongholdof Porto. Alfonsolll] also initiated the repopulation of sourhem lands char had been deserted e the time of the invasion. Alfonso constructed nu merous forts and castes throughout the region as adefense against further Muslim incursions, So great were the IBERIA_ BY NIGHT numbers of these fortifications that theregion was eventu- ally called Castile. During this time, the first chronicles of Iberian history were written, most of which emphasized the historical connectionbetweenthe Asturianmonarchy and the Visigothic kingdoms that had come hefore them. Thus was bom the myth of the Reconguisa as a “recon- quest” of what bad been unlawfully taken by the Moors ‘Naturally, this myth suited the purposes of Clan Ventrue, whose own authority had been usurped in the aftermath of the invasions. The Ventrue kept close warch over the Asturian dyrasty, hopingto use them as atmornal ferde lance w restore thelr domain xo es Roman heights. However, sucha plan proved shortsighted. As the Lasombra and even Brujah realized, the Reconquista was likely to take centuries and would he filled with meny reversals and changes of fortune. The prudent course would therefore be to spread one’s in‘luence as widely as possible Yet, the Ventrue continued in their belief that Inlam was weak and required only a. strong push to toppleit. They may well have taken this belief from the ‘mortals they movedamong, seeing asthe Asturian king Gorcia I transferred his capital southward from Oviedo to Login —a sign athis confidence in ultimate vietany His confidence was altogether premature, and the ca- liphs of Cérdoka proved far more vigorous than anyone had anticipated. They restored Muslim power in Iberia and renewed their raids against Christian lands. Thus, the tenth century was not the dawn of a new era for ‘Christianity, but one of both victory and defeat. Even the triumph of Ramiro II over ‘Abd ar-Rahman IIL at ‘Simancas in 939 was a hollow one. Ramiro found his Castilian subjects chafed under Leonese rule, The Castilians were a hard and independent people and bore the brunt of the wars between the Asturians and the Muslims. Consequently, they resented having Leonese laws and traditions imposed upon them. Ferma Gonaales, the count of Castle, led the resistance against Ramiro I and laid the foundations for Castile's even- tual independence. The lave ath cenwury proved even more problem atic for theChristian states, as the power of the Maslims increased tremendously. ‘Ambassadors from Leén, Navarre, Barcelona and Castile all eventually jour ncyed to Cérdoba in order to do homage to the caliph Nevertheless, the Christians did not abandon their dreams of an tberian empire that would one day govern the entire peninsula. The Asturians in particular con: lnused ps dear of n Chetician state centered on inte This idea proved especially comforting during the time of al-Mansur, when the Muslim general succeeded in conquering numerous Christian strongholds. He de- feated Count Ramén Borrell in 985 and burned Barcelona. Three years later, he plundered Lecn, the center of Astutian power. Finally, in 997 he sacked the great Christian shrine of Santiago de Compostela — a blow from which it took the Christians many decades to recover. Fortunately for them, al-Mansu’s death marked the effective end of the Caliphate of Cordoba, allowing them the time to rethink their strategies and marshal their forcesfor the nextstage of the Reconquista, SANCHO THE GREAT AND THE Navargse HeyDeY Little is known of the earliest history of Navarre, but it is certain that neither the Romans nor the Visigoths nor the Muslims ever succeeded in perma- nently subjugating the inhabiean’s of the western Pyrenees, the Basques. These Basques thus retained their own unigue language and culture well into the Middle Ages. The caprure ofPanuplonabyCharlemagne in 778 was nota lasting victory. In the same year, the Basques defeated him at the Pass of Roncesvalles, a defeat commeciorated in the epic poem La Chanson de Roland. In 806 and 812, the Franks again took Pamplona. Wheu, however, the Frankish emperors were no longer able togive their attention to the outlying borderlands of their empire, Nevarre began its development as an independent kingdom The fist Kinny of Pauplona was Inigo Arista Hs elder brother, Garcia Semen, hadbeen duke of Vasconi, After the death of Inigo Arista in 852, the two territo- ties were united although the long captivity of one of the succeeding king: (ia Muslim hande for 22 years) complicated matters. In 905, however, the Navarrese chose Sancho Garcés (who was married with a srandaughter of Fortin, the previous king) to be mon: arch. Sancho had fought against the Muslims with repeated success and had joined large portions of the peninsula to his personal dominions. Before his death, hecompleted the Reconquistain Navarre, having driven all the Muslims from the region, One of his successors Garcfa Sanches, surnamed the Trembler, likewise en gaged in a number of confliers with the Muslims. During the rule of his grandson, Sancho Il, called the Great, Navarre atvained its greatest prosperity. He seived Pisuerga and Cea, which belonged to the King- dom of Leda. He also conquered Cascile and ruled from the boundaties of Galicia to those of Barcelona. How- ever, as was tralitional at the time, at the time of his death, his holdings were divided ameng his sons, so that Navare, Castileand Aragonbecameindependentking- doms, The country was never again united ~ and neither was it ever as influential CainiTEs OF NAVARRE Nevarre did not attract substantial attention from tither the Ventrue orthe Lasombra, hothof whom were more concerned with affairs elsewhere, until wel into the Christian-Muslim conflict acress the peninsula, Consequently, Navarre became home to some other clans without 2 significant presence elsewhere in the peninsula. Chief among these were the Malkavians, thanks to the Madman Roque, who became Prince of Pamplona shorty after the Frankish conquest of 812 icklyestablished asizable domain within Navarre, one thathas attracted others of his clan in the centuries since. The rugged terrain of the region also attracted the attention of the Nosferatu. By the year 1000 or so, these Cainites were particularly numerous, thanke to. the leadership of Ezkerra, a Basque patriot who claimed the countryside as his personal demesne. Sometime around the year 1000, Navarre became the haven faralwealaway group of Cainive Haretion Fincwn asthe Apostlesof the Third Caine, these truebelieversfelt Narves, then Archbishap of Nod, wasa profligate hedonist without any concer for the well being of the Heresy. Undertheleadershipof Bénézt, the Apostles used Navarre as the base from which to expand deeper into the [berian Peninsula. Even in the thirteenth century, they retain a sible presence in Navarte Tre Reconquista CONTINUE The first battles of the next stage of reconquest jtuded dhave launched by Ramon Borrell, who sacked ‘Cérdoba in 1010 in revenge for past incursions into his ‘own realm. Alfonso V of Leén likewise took advantage of the situation and restored his kingdom to. promi- rence. In 1017, heheld general council in which he enacted the firs:setof laws forhisrealm. Unfortunately, the Christianssquandered the time of Muslim weakness by esuming their old squabbles —just as the Lasombra hal feared. A Ventricleadernamed Gutierreattempted todisplace the Malkavian Roqueas Prince of Pamplona during this time. Although he failed (and met Final Death), it marked atime of Ventrue resurgence inmany Christian realms, Navarre'shegemonyunderSencho theGreat brought gercaterties 0 northern Europe, especially France. French pilgrims became mere anc! more common, as the route to ‘Compestela became an important religious site for the whole af Europe Monasticreformaccerdingtothe French Cluniae model was introduced, as were French feudal ‘customs previously unknown in Iberia, This contace with the restof Europe brough: Cainites of otherclans to beria forthe frst time, aswell s strengthening the Toreador in theregion. Iberia wasno longer an isolated backwater, but was slowly enteting the mainstream of European society — which proved both a boon and a bane to the vampires who had called the peninsula home for so tong THE GROWTH OF CurisTi4N Power By extending his rule over all the Christian states except Catalonia, Sancho the Great made thefirst steps toward the unification of Christian Iberia, but they SHADOWED HISTORY would prove flecting ones. Sanche treated lis expires his private property ard ordered that, upon his death, ithe divided among his four sons as their inheritance Doingso set back the causeof Iberian unity and created farther instability on che penvincule. Bach of Sancho" sons bore the royal title, and Castile and Aragon were thereafter regarded as kingdoms. Vermundo Ill reccv. ered LeGnafter Sancho'sdeath, but Fernando defeated ind killed him in 1037, Taking possession of Led, he also assumed the title of “emperor,” a bold move that implied a greater degree of control than he posessed. During the next thirty years, Fernando attempted to gain contol of the entire peninsula by defeating his brothers and reducing the nearby Muslim states to vassal status Meanwhile, CountRam6n Berenguer of Barcelona was actively fostering Catalan interests and relation- shipsamong the lordsof Languedocin southern France. Healso published the earliest legal rextsincludedin the compilation of Catalan law later known as the Usatges de Barcelona (*Usages of Barcelona”). This relationship between Catalonia and souther Francecontinues well into the thirteenth century, leading to the involve- ment of Catalonia in the conflict with the Cathars and IBERIA BY_NIGHT other heretics Likewlse, it guaranteed the continual presence of the Toreador, whose interest in cross- cultural exchanges has always been strong. Followingin the footsteps of his father, Fernando 1 Uivided his realins between his sons, Sancho Tl, who received Castile, and Alfonso VI, who received Leén. The two brothers quarreled often and, after Sencho's murder in 1072, Alfonso VI gained the crowns of Castile and Led. Before recognising him as their new king, the Castilian nobility demanded that Alfonso swear that he had not brought about the murder of his brother, which he readily did. Astothe truth of his vaw nonecan say, although there iscircumsrantial evidence linkinghim tothe deed. Among Alfonso's new Castilian vassal was Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, better known as El id. Rodrigo suffered because of jealousies at the court ofthenew king and wasdriven intoexile. He then used his considerable skills asa mercenary, first for the Muslim king of Zaragoza and then for the king of Valencia, both of whom he served admirably. Hi exploits inspired both mortals and Cainites — as they ddo even alter his death: Initially, Alfonso VI. made the Muslim states his vassals, demandingrich tributes irom them. However, his dksie for self aggrandizement was so great that he ever tually set out t0 conquer them all and achieve Iberian unity. The surrender of Toledo in 1085 net only extended his frontiers to the Tajo River but also had great symbalic value. Possession of Toledo, the ancient seat of th Visigothic monarchy, eshanced Alfonso’ claims pen- insular supremacy. He then proclaimed bis power by taking the title “Emperor of Toledo” as well as “Emperor of Spain.” His might was so great that thousands of Muslims and Jews decided to remain under hisprotection nntherthan flee. Among themany Lasombra who flocked to Toledo was Elieser de Polanco, who has remained a dlinuinarne power in the city ever since The fall of Toledo frightened the Muslims ofs cm Iberia. They appealed co an ascetic sect of zealots known as the Almoravids for assistance. The Almoravidsentcrel the peninsulaand defeated Alfonso at Zalaca in 1086. They likewise conquered the inde- pendent Muslim kingsloms in an attempe to restore unity to Muslim Ikeria. In this they were only partially suceotsful. Their military mightwaoouch that they kept Alfonso on the defensive for the remainder of histeign, thereby halting the advance of the Reconquista for a time. It was during this time that El Cid successfully fepnlied the Almoravid attack on Valencia, securing the city forhimselé and hisfollowers. Nevertheless, his untimely death in 1099 eventually le to the fall of the ety to the Almoravic. Almoravid successes widened the Reconquista, tringing assistance to Iberia from many northern Euto- ean countries, especially France. French knights and ‘crusaders took up arms and stood beside their Iberian counterparts to fight against the Maslims. In doing so, they brought Iberia into even greater contact with the wwiderworld around it. For example, the reforming Pope Gregory VIT demanded liturgical uniformity by zequir ing the acceptance of the Roman liturgy in place of the Mozarabic one that had heen used for many centuries. Some Lasombra, such a Silvester de Ruiz, believed this tnifonnity would serve Theria well as it continued to press the Reconguista. Others feared it might create a Iucklash against the Church that would ultimately undermine its authority. Gregory also attempred to exert papal sovereignty over Iberia, but few of the countries there were willing to capitulaie; Gregory did not prose the issue. Nevertheless, the Church becatne increasingly importantin Iberia, afact Cainites did not fail to notice. In the following decades, most clans Embraced a larger number of priests and clerics in an artompt to enaire they hada voice im the future. fe wme haringthistime that theinfamous Archbishop Ambrosio ais Mongada first came under the Curse of Caine. Alfonso VII became king of Leén in 1126 and restored the prestige of his realm. His coronation as emperor in the cathedral of Lesn in 1135 was intended tw assert Leonese claims to ascendancy throughout Spain, However, thenewlyformed federation of Aragon and Catalonia as well as the newly independent king ddom of Portugal soon offered a daunting challenge to theseclaims, Once again, the few Vente still playing their imperial hopes in Iberia found their attempts to arrange a single [berian kingdom thwarted by the very portals they hoped j manipulate. This served the of the Lasombra, who had no desire to see a Ventiue-dominated state gain power inthe peninsula Thas, the first half of the twelfth century saw yet more infighting among the Christian kingdoms rather than the success of the Reconquista. Meanwhile, Alfonso | of Aragon extended his frontiers to the Ebro River by capturing Zaragoza in LIB. He then proceeded to march deep into the heart of Muslim territory, where he liberated the Mozarabs of Granada and resettled them in. Aragon. From that ppoincon, few Mozarabs remained in Muslim territory Consequently, the Toreador toskan increased intetext in Aragonese affairs, Embracing several Mozarebs as a ines ol vaesying dicie cays che face of Acapecee centralization. These Mozarabic Cainites thus served the Toreador as unliving memories of a lost culture another casualty of the Reconguisca. Before he dic, Alfium willed lio reals wo the military order of the Hosptalers and the Templars as well as £0 the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusa lem, However, his people rejected this arrangement fearing that these French-dominated orders would ex- erteven more control over their country. TheNavarrese, who had keen ruled by the kings of Aragon since 10° chose their own monarch, Garefa [V Ramfrez in 1134, while the Aragonese asked the deceased king's brother, Ramito Il, to leave the monastic life and accept the crown, Ramiro was reluctant to do this but felt some obligation to fis native land. Therefore, he left the monastery long enough to marry and father a daughter. Petronita, who could then inhertt the kingdort after him, Shorly thereafter, he rerurned to the monastery and again took up the life he had abandoned. In 1137, Petronila was betrothed roCount Ramin Berenguer lV of Barcelona, who took up the adminis- tration of Aragon. Their child, Alfonso Il, united the kingdom of Aragon and the county of Barcelona, creat ingg yee another united crown. There were nuraerous ofstacles to this union, chief among them belng the linguistic and cultural distinctiveness of each reali, Among the vampiric courts, rivalriesbeoween Lasombra ard Toreador also worked to undermine unification Risecile bre, the usumtnicrdurel aa given Aragon access to the sea, making it a maritime power whose reach extended far beyond the confines ofthe Iberian Peninsula, Nevertheless, the “Crown of Aragon,” as it became known, didnot becomea unified tate Instead it consisted of two distinct regions, each with its own laws and traditions. SHADOWED HISTORY As the Almoravid empire collapsed, the Christian states attempted to tke advantage ofthe situation. They increased their raids against the Moore and flayed one faction against the other, The peninsular kingdoms also received aid from other European states. [twas this mote thananything that characterived themiddle of the rwel, cennury? cooperation on the part of Christian «tates Whereas the Muslims warred among themselves and seemed mote interested in settling intemal scores, the Ibetian Christians regularly appealed to solidarity in the face of the Muslim threar. Under the leadershin of dy- namic leaders like de Ruiz and his childe Moncada, Christian Cainites followed suit. THE Risk OF CASTILE AND HRAGON ‘The appearance of the Almohads inittally put many Iberian Christians on the defensive, but they were not willing co give up dele dreams of the Reoogusta. Thu, King Alfonso VIII of Castile and King Alfonso II of Aragon signed a treaty in 1179 that indicated which parts of Musiim territory they would have jurisdiction over as, the Reconquista expanded. Castile gaiued sights w Andalusia and Murcia, while Aragon gained Valencia. Unforeanately, Alfonso VIII of Castile was unsatisfied with limitinghisconquessinsuch fashion. Hetherefore rumed his attentions to his Chistian neighbors, who resisted him, but not without weakening the coalition thachael been sounited for decades. Thus, in 1195 Castile suffered a disastrous defeat by the Almohads at Alarcos, just south of Toledo. Despite the Castilian king's ambitions, the strength, cof the Almohads forced the otherChristian states to seck accommodation with him, and with renewed ecoperation came renewed success, Sancho VII of Navarre and Pedro Hof Aragon joined Alonso VIM and Portuguese and Leonese troops in 1212, when they triumphed aver the Almohads at the epic Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (see p.27). This remarkable victory marked the beginning of the end of the Almohad empire in Iberia, as it opened the territones of Andalusia to theChnistian armies tor the first time in centuries. Irwas only a matter of time before they would overwhelm their Muslim enemies and usher in the endgame of the Reconquista Tue Rist oF CATALONIA ‘The Crown of Aragon is a double kingdom, con- sisting of two united but ceparate realms. Ac King of Aragon, itsruler takes aleading role in the Reconquista, As Count of Barcelona, however, he maintains strong ties to southem France, where several French lords were their vassals, Thus, when Pope Innocent II pro- cloimed a crusade against the Albigensians in 1209, Pedro II became embroiled in the conflict. He had no love for the duclist hereties, But he rightly worried that IBERIA BY_NIGHT the presence of so many French crusaders in the arca would eventually undermine his own feudal power ‘Thus, he acted on behalf of his French vassals, some of whom were sympathetic ta the Albigensians. This contributed t0 Catalonia’s importance to both the Cainite Heresy and the Apostles of the Third Caine, each of which maintains havens in the country. THE DOWNFALL OF NAVARRE After the murder of SancholV in 1076, Alfonso VI ‘of Castile and Sancho Ramirez of Aragon ruled jointly in Navarre. The townssouth ofthe Ehroand the Basaue provinces went to Castile, while theremainder went t Aragon, which retained them until 1134. Alfonso the Fighter, brother of Pedro Sanches, secured fer the country its greatest territorial expansion. He wrested Tulela from the Moors in 1114, reconquered the entire country of Bureba and advanced into Burgos. In add tion, Alfonso added numerous exher possessions to his realm, onceagain enlarging Navarte's border —though ‘When Alfonso died in 1134 with issue, Navarre and ‘Amgononceagain separated. In Aragon, Alfonsy'sbrother Ramiro became king. In Navarre, Garcia Ramitez, a sgranebons of Sancho die Oren, wok die daeone. Caress was a weak king who was obliged to surrender Rioja to Castile in 1136 and Tarsagona to Argon in 1157. Far thermore, he was compelled to declare himselfa vassal of King Alfonso Vil ofan, Gara as ely income tentandatvarioustimeswas deperclent upon the revenues of churches and convents. During Garcia's unfortunate reign, the power of both the Malkavians and Nosferan grew. and sienifieanr numbers of Vertue and Lasorbra left the country His son, Sancho Garcia the Wise, a patron of Jeamning and the arts, as well as an accomplished states- rman, fortified Navarre within and without: He also eave charters toa number of towns and was never cefeated in battle. The reign of his successor, Sancho th ‘was more troubled. He appropriated the rev churches and convents, granting them imporzantprivi- leges instead. In 1198, he presented the See of Pamplona with his palaces and possessions in that city, this gift heing confirmed by Pope Innocent IlJin 1199. While he was in Africa on an expedition against the Almohads, the Kings of Castile and Aragon invaded Navarre Consequently, the kingdom suffered further degrada- tion, lesing territories coboth of its Christian neig bos. The greatest glory of Sancho the Strong was the part he took in the battle of Las Navas de Toloss in 1212. ‘Through his valor, the victory ofthe Christians over the Caliph Muhammad al-Nasir was assured — although Novarre’s own future is less than bright. PORTUGAL Alfonso Henriques, first King of Porsugal, achieved through equal parts warfare and diplomacy the political independence of the country, as well as the enlarge- mentofits boundariesby conquests of Muslim tertitores. When Alfonso assumed the throne, the Muslims occu: pied morethan haif the kingdom he would one day rule Although he declared himself king in 1139, it was only years later that he was able to obtain recognition of his Kingship from Alfonso VII of Leén, to whom the territory of Portugal had formerly belonged. Early in his reign, Alfonso Henriques resolved to protect himself against the claims of Leén upon his realms. Thus, in 1143 he offered his kingdom to the Church, declaring himself the nope’s vassal. In addi- tion, he promised, for himself and his successors, to pay an annual feudal tribute of four ounces of gold to the Holy See. Pope Lucius I ratified thisagreement, taking Portugal under his protection and recognizing its inde- pendence, In 11/9, another pope, Alexander Ill, confirmed A fonsoHenriquesasKingofPortugal, mark: ing the te beginning of this new nation upon the Ikerian Peninsula Having won this confirmation from the Pope, Alfonso Henriques gave up the idea of extending his dominions beyond the Minho and the Douro Rivers, which formed its boundaries to the north and the east. Afict all, doing so would draw the ite of is former ford, the kingof edn —asituation he worked hard toavoid Instead, he focused hisattention on thesouthern lands held by the Muslims. He launched regular attacks and used 9 wide variety of strategies to catch his enemies unawares, including lare-night assaults on their settle- ments. In 1147, he took the almost impregnable city of Suntarém. Later the same year, aftera four-month siege, the great city of Lishon fell to his arms. In this great victory, Alfonso Henriqueswasassisted by afleet of 164 ships on their way to the Second Crusade. Once Lisbon vas safely in Portuguese hands, he declared that city his new capital. Alfonso then appointed an, Fnetlishman named Gilbert its bishop and transported the body of St. Vincent to the cathedral The capture of Lisbon marked the beginning of a long and successful partnership between the Portuguese and the crusaders, many of whom stayed in the region toassiat with the Recorypaist. Indeed, Alfonso Henriques did not even attempt to take the Muslimeityof Aleacer do Saluntil another group of crusaders arrived in 1158. ‘With their help, the cities of Evoraand Beja fell under his coatrol. Unfortunately, Alfonso's skill at arms ex- ceeded his ability to govern his conquests. Therefore, the Muslims soon recaptured all the lands south of the “Tejo River (the Tajo, in Spanish). Alfonso slast Jaysot life were spentattempting tohold his kingdom together — often without success. Nevertheless, Alfonso’sreten can hardly be called unsuccessful. When he cied in 1185, the independence of Por nga Ina been secured, its area doubled and che name of his kingdom was famous throughout Europe for its persistent struggle SHADOWED_ HISTORY against the Muslims. Alfonso had thus achieved far ‘more than many of his contemporaries. From the Cainite perspective, Alfonso Henriques hhad freed the westernmost porion of beta from the domination of the Ashirra. This served Brujah elders quite well, as its elders on the peninsula had been seeking their utopia since before the coming of the Muslims. However, Alfonsc's alliance with the Church drew the attention of the Christian Lasombra, who began to infiltrate Portugal in small numbers. This led to squabbles between the Magisters and the Zealots, which in turn pave an opening re the Cainire Alfonso Henriques's successor, Sancho I contin- uued the work of Reconquista and a large part of the Algarbe region fell into his hands. Sadly for Sancho, the successes of the Almohads again pushed back Portuguese borders, this time to the Tejo River. Nev- ertheless, Sancho was a hard man not given to defect. He resolttely resisted the Almohads and, asa show of his contempt, he was active in building towns and seitling his hand-won territories, thereby eaming hitn- self the nickname the Pepulstor. Sancho was also renowned as an avaricious man. During his reign, he amassed great wealth from his frequent forays into the rich territories oF the Mushits. Upon his accesiionto the throne, Sancho asked for and obtained papal confirmation of his royal title, ‘which protected him against his Christian neighbors, many of whom eyed Portugal as coverously as they did the lands of the Moors. Sancho hinnself was slow to pay the Holy See the tribute promised by hisfather, and the practice ended altogether alter his death —a sign that Portugal's position was no longer so prcuativus 4s 1 make papal protection crucial. Portuguese Cainites put up additional obstacles against clerical influence to prevent further spread of the Cainite Heresy or the influence of Lasombra with their elawe in the church, al became a land in which vampires gained influence chrough soldiers and warriors rather than churchmen, Sancho continued to rely heavily on enusaders in ‘his wars against the Muslims. Inaddition, he alsorelied upon military orders such as the Templars and Hospitalers, to which he gave great wealth and influ- nce in return for their protection of border castles and settlements in his domain. Sancho was also a supersti- tious man given to consulting with astrologers andseers for advice on many matters of state. In fact, a wise ‘woman regularly traveled in hiscompany, much fo the consternation of the clergy, whoworried thathis Chris- tian faith might suffer because of her presence. Such worries were well founded — but not for the reasons the clergy suspected. Sancho's chancellor Julian had studied Roman law at the University of Bologna and aimed to increase royal authority atthe expense of the Church. For example, Sancho intervened in a dispure IBERIA BY NIGHT beaween the Bishopof Oporto and that city'sinhabitanss, ruling against the bishop, Pope Innocent Ill reversed the decision and punished Sancho by placing Portugal under an interdict —a punishunenc the king promptly ignored. Helikewisecame into conflict with the Bishopof Coimbra, whom he imprisoned and treated withgreaccruclty.Inthis way, Sancho proved to be the most venal of the Ibert rule, pursuing the Reconquista for purel rather than religious reasons Throughout the rest of his reign, Sancho attacked the rightsand privilegesof che Church. In particular, he sohused ¢o.sccegnise the jurtediction of eeeleclaeal courts. Fle also did not accepe the immunity of clerics from military service, a situation that led to many conflicts with ecclesiastical authorities, Though he made someconcessionsbeforehisdeath, she disputes he began lasted through the reigns of two subsequent kings. For nearly a century, the clergy and che crown, were involved in a struggle over the limits of their respective powers. These disputes ultimately weakened Pottugal’s vibrancy and made iteusy prey for the grow- ing power of its Therian neighbors, some of whom still eyed its Lands and riches, Portusal’s carly kines rewarded honorable service byextensive grantsof lands. In theselatus, they give up royal jurisdiction. When their hoklers died without heirs, they often passed into the hands of the Church, Intime, somuch ofche country washeld by monasteries orhad passed into the hands of nobles thatthe rest di not produce enough revenue to mect the increasing expenses of government. The Portuguese monarchs. tried to overcome the difficulty by a revocation of grants, which naturally met further resistance from both the nobility and clergy. Despite his father's quar rels with the Church, Sancho's son Alfonso Il rook care toobtain the confirmation of hstitle from the Hly See in 1211, Though Alfonso Il retualena geucially yoacs fulking, hisfollowers fought beside the Castiliansat the great Christian victory of Las Navasde Tolosa in 1212. Tue [MMEDIATE Future The years after Las Navas de Tolosa see the Chris- tian frontier move south ata rapid pace, but they ave hardly years of simple surrender. In Muslin lands, the battle creates a power vacuum into which step some of the remaining taifas, the mest ssificant being Murcia and Arjona. Murcia becomes a center of resistance against the Christian states — and thus a haven for Ashirra bands hoping to strike a blow against the enemies of their faith. Arjona, on the other hand becomes a vassal of Castile, even goityg so far as to aid the Castilians against other Muslim states. This practi- cal approach enables Arjona to expand its borders to aS include other surrounding domains, most especially Granada. By the end ofthe thicteenth century, its the only remaining taifa on the peninsula — and’ butler state between the rising Christian powers and the Almohad Empire in North Africa, Inthenorth, 1213 seesthedeathofPedroll of Aragon atthe hands ofa crusading army at Muret after he goes to the aid of his brother-in-law, the Count of Toulouse. Pedto's death isa blow from which Catalonian power in southem France never recovers, much to the chagrin of the Toreador. As the Almohad empire slowly collapses, the Recrmmsta nears completion. Jaime | of Aragon wes, Catalan naval power to conquer the corsa kingdom of Mallorea in 1229, which marks the first time the Crown of Aragon takesadvantage of its newfound naval powerto ‘expand its influence into the Mediterranean, The con- quest of the kingdom of Valencia proves more difficult, ‘specially as Jaime becomesdistractedby eventsin Navarre. lis king, Sancho VII, has no heirs, and the growing presence of French pretenders to his throne becomes a Bowing subject of concern, Elsewhere, Alfonso IX of Ledn expands southward toward the Guadiana River. He captures Merida and Badajoz in 1230, preparing the way of his eventual conquest of Sevilla later thar same year. With tie help oferusaders, Alfonso Il of Portugal recovers Alcacct do Sal in 1217, bur by 1221, the old disputes reappear. Alfonso seizes church property and compels ecclesias- tics ta plead before seealarjustices and serve in the war of the Reconquista. The Archbishop of Braga thus con vokes an assembly of prelates in which he accuses the king of numerouscrimes, including the renunciation of his Christian faith, The kine replies hy comfiseating th goods of the archbishop, who flees to: Rome. Pope Honorius II] dispatches t Spanish bishops to speak with Alfonso and resolve the situation. Unfortunately, this meeting achieves little, leading to Alfonso’s ex: communication a year later. The Pope then threatens to absolve the king's subjects from their allegiance and handover the realm to any prince who cares to take it. ‘Threarened with the loss of the kingdom for which his grandfather had fought 59 hard, Sancho eventually relents, making concessions to the Church shortly before his death in 1223. Gh, Plhapter Two: ms Che Christian Singdoms oe De figi> they woill 110 nat Gitee iss Gree ~ The Song of the Cid ‘The Christian kingdoms of Iberiaarethe product of centuries of invasions and conquests. This fact has colored these lands in profound and lasting ways, mak- ing Iberian Christians a militaristic people, oftencimes given to resolving dispures through force of arms rather than diplomacy. They can also be dark and brooding, those who know all too well that progress comes at a cost, often paid in suffering ‘The dawn of the thirteenth century sees this region's people band together and chart their own course for the firs time since men first inhabited this unforgiving land. Aer centuries under the rile of outsider ~~ whether they were Carthaginians, Romans, Visigoths or Muslims Iberians have seized control of cheir own destinies and forged anew civilization here, one thac isthe inheritor of all these cultures while at the sime time transcending them, The kingdoms area unique fusion of cultures that is simultaneously wonderful and terrifying. Such contra- dictions are the purview of young and vibrant kingdoms, of course. Even the oldest among them is scarcely 500 yeursol. Many —suchas Portugal —haveexisted farles than that. Consequently, these realms. possess a dyna- mism lacking in their contemporaries elsewhere on the continent. But they also have a legacyof bloodshed, civil wars, myasions, hetrayals and conflict Christian Iberia draws mortal men and women for many reasons. They have come toexperience the birth of anew age and anew civilization, to witness the great victories ofthe Reconquista —and toentich themselves the process. With each year, the Christians pus back the Muslim threat and absorb new territory and learning, These gains draw scholars, soldiers, mer- chants and pricata to Iberia In addition, the wealth of the Moorish kingdoms is only exceeded by the avarice of those who would seize it. Cloaked in the veil offaith, adventurers and opportunists flack to Iberia, seeking their fortunes henesth the banner of holy erwond Wherever mortals go, Cainires follow. Like a‘lame artracting moths, the Chnstian kingdoms of Iberia draw their share of unliving visitors as well. Many, particularly neonates, come to the peninsula for the same reasons as their mortal counterparts: to witness God's plan unfold before their eyes and claim recon- quered tertitory for themselves. Adventure beckons: across the arid plains and craggy terrain, making it an ever more popular destination Likewise, the strength of faith in these realms is contagious. Cainites of a spiritual bent cannot help bur feel that the hand of God is at work in this place. offering the promise of redemption to all who seek it eamestly. Yet faith is a powerful tool for manipulation as well;notall who coil beneath the shadow of the cross doso for the love of Christ. Many mortals and Cainites have les than piousgoals, and the chaos of Iberia offers them the chance to achieve them, IBERIA BY_NIGHT Behind the scenes, vampiric factions clash, each attempting to use the vibrancy of these kingdoms fer their own purposes. A loose alliance of Christian Lasombta clearly his the upper hard. Over the cent ries, the Magisters’ willingness 10 bide their time and seek out the proper momencto strike have helped them to displace powerful Ventrue lords. Some Brujah alsa command respact, especially in areas like Portugal where new thinking has firmly taken hold. The Torea- dor are likewise intrigued by the new ideas bubbling from beneath these blood-soaked lands. Meanwhile, other Cainite clans and groups struggle to find » plac for themselves, miroring the efforts of mortal grours crushed beneath the armored foot of the Reconquista, Yer, forall theirdynamism and vibrancy, the Chris tian kingdoms also evokeapalpablesadness.tealizarion that cheirbright future has been purchased in blood and tears. Unlike Cainites, mortals exist only for a brief while. Although they are quite willing to sacrifice themselves for the good of future generations, they do notdoso without the regret that theyshall never see the fruits oftheir labors. Thus, while the Lasombra scheme and the Brujah plan their uzopia, the morrals of these Kingdoms struggle to make a better present for them selves and a better furute for their children. FAARAGON slevivesite nainefroina uibutary of cheEbto near Alfaro. Theriverf gularellipse, bounded on the north by the central Pyrenees, on the east by Catalonia and Valencia, on the south by Valencia and Gast and on the weet by Navarre and Castile. The country possesses some cf the most mountainous terrain in the Iberian Peninsula — perhaps in all of Europe. ‘Aragon is surrounded on the north by the Pyrenees, on the weer hy the Moncayn Mountain aru on the south bythe Montes Universales and the Sieria de Gidar. The Ebro crosses the country from northwest to southeast. Nearly all of the other rivers in this country are its tributaries. These topographical conditions have made the soil of Aragon very fertile. In addition, the ‘mountains are covered with great forestsand fruits gtow abundantly, Contrasting this are the many parts ofthe country that are extremely arid and lacking in waten, ‘which has led t0 a relatively low population density i some areas. LERIDA ‘The city of Lérida goes back to Roman times, but the exact date of its founding is in question. A pre- Roman city called llerda existed in the general vicinity of modern Lérida, During the Punic Wars, itsided with the Carthaginians. At the time, the city possesed a small population of Brujah with strong, ties to Carthage, but thar all changed with the Roman general Scipios defeat of Hanno in216BC. After that, Roman Ventre moved into the city, either driving out or destroying their Brujah rivals For centuries after that, the Brujah wwageda low-level hattle agninet the Ventruc, However, this battle ceased when the Moors captured the city in the early cighth century. Muslim Lasembra took ad- vantage of the conquest to displace both the Ventrue and Brujah elders. They retained uncontestedcontral ofthe city until 1149, when Ramon Berenguer IV took the city for the Crown of Aragon. When the city became the residence ofthe Aragonese king. ambitions and imcampenmising, Christian Lasombra entered the city and decided to clean house. Under the leadership of Anchel de Melgarejo, these Cainires systematicallydestrayed their Muslim brethren, despite appeals tothe Amici Noctis for intervention. Since then, Prince Anchel has exerted complete dominion over the vampires of the city. Rumors abound of Ashirmi who survived the purge, which drives the prince to distraction. He has thus set wp an inquisition co find these Muslim Cainites — it they existat all —and eliminate them cneeand forall DESCRIPTION ous of fa strategie postion, Lérida has aleraye been an important (and heavily fortified) holding, First to the Moors and then to the Christians, ts primary fortressis La Aleazaba, builtin [149, which dominates the portion of the city built on the right hank of the Scare River. The current structure isa developmentof amearlier Muslim citadel. Indeed, akazeba isan Arabic. word meaning roughly foriress” During Moorish rule, the Cainite sultan of the city used La Alcazaba as his haven, a practice the Christian prince has not contin- usd. Instead, Anchel and his court occupy a series of buildings near the citys new cathedral The cathedral shows both Byzantine and Gothic influences (as opposed to the Arabic influence ef most of Lérida’s other public architecture) and is under a constantstate of construction. The foundation vas laid only in 1203 and itis unlikely iewill se completion any time soon, This monumental undertaking has brought aatisans, masons and engineers from actoss Europe to participate. Among them have come Cainites as wel, including displaced Ventrue seeking wo regain theit former status within the city. This has only adied to Anchel de Melgarejo’s concerns atout the stability of hisrule —aconcem sharedby elders of ClanLasombia Pouitics AND RELIGION Lérida’s importance derives from the presence of the court of King Pedro I], Pedro's goals are to extend Aragonese influence beyond the confines of Iberia and into the wider world of Europe, In this, he is strongly supported by his advisors, many of them manipalated by the Lasombra. For his part, Pedro has been seeking. alliances with southern French lords, Indeed, the king hhopesto secure himselfa French wife asa way of further cementing his presence north of the Pyrenees. Some churchmen question their king's interest in southern France, worrying that his advieore may include hidden supporters of the Cathars. Canyrre ArRAIRS Many members of the Cainite Heresy wish the Church’s concems about King Pedro were warranted ‘Thus far, the Heresy and its allies have been thwarted in their effortsat gaining influence over the Aragonese court. To some extent, this is a testament to the power ‘ofthe Lasombra in Aragon. The eliers of the clin seek to prevent anyone — even Heretical members of their ‘own clan — from upsetting their plans for Aragonese growth and expansion. The Embrace of Pedro's half- sister Lucia in 1199 soaly partof thisagenda. Although Lucita has traveled across Europe as part of her service tohersire Ambrosio Luis Mongada and other members ofthe Amici Noctis,she keepsagentsin Lérida and at the royal cour: Anchel, the local prince, his thus fr been herally, buthefears that the neonate has the makingot a dangerous rival Even more infuriating to the Heresy is that one ofits ofithoot, the Apostles of the Thinl Caine, have a «ceeded in placing ene of their own within Pedro's court. ‘This member, Guillem Savall, acts neither directly nor through mortalagents. Instead, he observes events within the kine’s palace, looking for evidence that the mortal rulet might be the Apostles’ long aveaited messiah, The Heretics would dearly love to have the accesso the king that Guillem possesses, bur the Apostles have rebuffed every efor to co-opt them. In this, Lasombra like Lucita seemingly aid them— although her motivationstor doing so remain mysterious. King Pedro himself is uninterested in ecclesiastical ‘matters. His fascination with southeen France is driven more by polities than theology, Nevertheless, this has neither soothed the concerns of mortal clerics nor kept agents of the Cainite Heresy from attempting togain a foothold here. Consequently, the Apostles ofthe Third Caine currently hold the balance of power. Both the traditional Laombra and the Cainite Heresy are at tempting to in‘luence this small group to support their own causeas.a defense against their opponent's gaining to) much power. Yet both factions are hampered! by inflexible hard-liners. Lueita cannot deal too closely with the Apostles, asher sire Archbishop Mongaala has nothing but contempt for the Cainite Heresy — what ever ite form: Likewise, Nikita uf Galety the new Archbishop of Nod, ishard-pressed to make accemmo- dations with the Apostles, for fear of seeming 100 conciliatory toward the schismatics. Thus, Guillem Savall finds himself in the enviable position of being courted by two inimical factions — and having little imceresr in supporting either. ZARAGOZA ‘The great city of Zaragoza is situated on the Ebro, Pei he We oF 2 ro have been occupied by Salduba, a small century BC ded the colony of Caesar making (¢ dos cevital of daociet an an important military outpost. Pomponius Mela called tthe most illustrious ofthe inland cities of Hispania This new colony attracted Caini 1g ecclesiastical diocese is one of the oldest in Theria; its origin dates back to the coming of the legendary mission of St. James: fact of thewe hel neverheen any deubramong the Christian population of the city. Closely related to. the tradition of St. James's founding of the church of Zar are those of Our Lady of the Pillar and asius and Theodore. The two saints f St. James, who are supposed to have been the first bishops of Zar were discipl The city was the site of several Roman persecu: tions of, Christians, St. Valerius was bishop of the city inthe early fourth century and suffered martyr- Jom during the per along with his dexcon St. Vincent. The Ventrve prince of the city, Flavius sraged this persecu tion. Flavius wasa devotee of Neoplatonic philosophy and was more than happy to see Dacian and St. Vincent suffer at Roman hands. Local legend bi Shrstians by mea did so, he had them put immediately co the sword and bummed to ashes. These ashes were mixed ‘of eriminaly, so that no veneration might be paidthem, asDacian waswell aware ofthe powerfuleult of martyrs already in the city. The legend goes on to say hat a miraculous rain fell upon the ashes, ing hose of the martyrs from thave of the criminals, form ing white masses in the case of the martyrs, These, known as the “holy masses” were deposited in the crypt of the church dedicated to St. Engratia, where they are sull preserved. Se, Vincent was taken 10 Valencia, where he suffered a long and painful martyrdom at Roman hands. Meanwhile, St. Valerius was exiled to , near Barbusteo, where he died. Ab eng Rede fod during the Maslim invasions, his head and arm were brought back to Zaragosa when Christian forces had reconquered the city. In the fifth century, Zaragoza fell first to the Suevi and then to the Visigaths Nevertheless, St. Isidore of Sevilla extolled i: as one of the greatest cities of Iberia during the reign of the Goths, while Pacensis called it the most ancient and most flourishing” city of the region. The Gothic invasion did little to. harm the fortunes of the Vencrue. Nevertheless, Flavius was appalledby the rough nature of the barbarian invaders, who cared little for Roman sophistication. Cons quently, che prince swallowed his pride and quietly supported the Church as ameans to preserve something of Roman ways in Zaragoza. His gambit paid off, asthe audatory passages quoted above attest. However, Flavius's movealso gave the Church untold power—at the expense of his own. While under Muslim oceupation, Flavius and his broodattempeed w court theizopposite numberamong Moorish ites. The prince saw these Ashirra as altured peuple with whom he could comero an agtee- ment. He hoped shat he could use them as a means of weakening the strength of the Church in Zaragoz al the while rebuilding his own shattered authority. Ideally, dsis tapprochement worked 10 the Ventrue’sadvantage. Athissuggestion, several churches wereconverted for useas mosques, However, the wll of the Christian population only grew stronger. The Ashirra eventually conchided that Flavius’ advice only invigorated the cause of Christianity in Zaragoc Flavius soon found himself ignored by his Musli brethren, who established a separate Cainite sultanate in 912, flouting his claim of domain, For the next two: hundred years, FlaviusSidonis was prince in tmame only Alfonso | of Aragon defeated the Moors and took she city on December 18, 1118. The newly appointed Archbishop of Zaragoza first resided ar the Church of the Pillar, but on January 6, 1119, he consecrated a mosque, rededicated it to the Savior and moved the episcopal throne there. This Cathedral of St. Savior nolds a grear deal of symbolism for the people of Zaragoza because it was built on the site of an older church, which itself had been builton the site of one of the first mosques erected in the Iherian Peninsula. In local eyes, ic represents nct only the liberation of theit city from the Moors, but ao the. progress of the Reconquista. Even some of the city's Cainites hold the cathedral in similarawe —though few dare toapproach itt closely The decision to move the epscopal throne to St. Savior was unpopular with the canons of the Church of the Virgin of she Pilla, who since 1135 have reclaimed thetitle of cathedral as well. Zaragoza is thus unique in having two such churches, The second cathedral ts dedicated to the Virgin of the Pillar. The church commemorates the appearance of the Blessed Virgin Mary on a pillar erected in honor of Saint James the Greater. Since the establishment oftheepiscopal throne in St Savior, thischurch hasseen a sizable decline in its congregation. Except on feast days, such as the memoration of the Virgin’s apparition in January, cathedral is often devoid of many mortals. Conse: quently, neonates and Caitiff sometimes find the cathedral a convenient meeting place. Pourrics AND RELIGION Zaragoza is a strongly Christian city. Its former Muslim inhabitants have largely been driven out or have converted (typically under coercion), The city’s sinal] number of Jews suffer under numerous laws that restrict their movements and occupations. The people of Zaragoza have thus adopted a triumphalist attitude toward the Reconquista. They are cettain not only ofits ultimate victory against the Seracens but abo that God clearly on their side. This attitude makes it almost impossible toconvince them of thedangerstill posed by the Almohads —which frustrates their fellow Iheriane tonc end. Indeed, they show no greater inclination to actually taking up arms against the Saracens than any other on the peninsula, and they are even somewhat lackluster in theirsupporrwhen i comes raning mors than simply praying and speaking about the wats Instead, the inhabitants prefer to engage in schol arship and study. Ironically, this is a tradition begun under the hated Muslims, who made Zaragoza a city of learning. That reputation continues even today, al- though the Aragonese have as yet made litle effort co improve the city’s college near the Plaza de Maria Magllalena — a fact that rankles its inhabitants. The school atiracts visitors, both living nd unliving,andits grounds hide the haven of Alfonso Palacies, a Cainite Physician fascinated by Arabic medical texts. Causrre Firms Since theexpulsion ofthe Muslims, Flavius Sidanis hhas regained his domain. The subsequent flight of the Ashirra lefthim the most powerful Cainitein Zaragoza, as well as the most experienced. His ability to survive during the Muslim occupation has eared him the grudging respect of the younger Lasombra who. now flock to the city. However, Flavins’ disdain for Chris tianity has not been softened over the centuries. If anything, he is even more fervent in his hatred, but he eps his opinions to himself for fear of giving the Lasombra an excuse to depose him. He has suffered the Toss of his postion once: he has no desire to do so a second time. CATALONIA Cataloniais the other major prinespality within the Crown of Aragon, located in the northeast comer of the Therian Peninsula. The name derives either from the THE CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS compound “Goth-Alania,” referring to its historical occupation by the Goths and Alans, or from ‘Gothalandia,” supposedly the name of an early people srrounding area. Other legend est the name stems from that of Orger Catalo, a hero ofthe easter Pyrenees who defeated the Muslims in battle in 756. This last legend is especially popular among the locals, who see it as evidence of their willingness to fight against the Moorish invaders. indigenous to the In any event, Catalonia forms 2 right triangle, of which the smallest side lies along the eastern Pyrenees, her side forms the boundary of Aragon and the final side is the Mediterranean coastline. Its terrain. slopes: gently fromthe Pyrenees down to the seacoast on the one side and to the basin of the Mediterranean Sea on the other. Catalonia’s easter regions drain directly into the Mediterranean through several rivers, most notably the Ebro. The Ebro is the primary riverin Catalonia, although the Segre is used as 4 waterway to transport ember and produce from the upper portions of the country. BARCELONA Barcelona isone of the most ancient cities of Iberia— and one of the most important. Founded by the Hamilear, it was in the possession of the Carthaginians until the Romans drove them out. Despite the connection to Canhage, the Brujah never had a strong presence in Barcelona, apparently preferring other locales on the peninsela, Even afer it passed into. Reman, hands Barcelona continued! enjoyaposition of prominence in Iberia, Julius Caesar bestowed on it the name of Julia Augusct Faventia Pia in recognition of the support the city haa given him in hisstruggle against Pompey. Later Caesar made ita Roman colony, zn act that bestowed on its inhabitants the fll privileges of Roman citizenship. As it has elsewhere in the peninsula, this honer In the early days, the bulk of the vampiric inhabytants were Laxombra and Ventrue, with 2 small number of Malkavians. The position of prince was hotly contested fordecades bur ulsimarely fellto the Lasombra, whe have retained iteversince The curentprince isMireia Subira, the childe of the original ruler of the city, Ramon Vera. She has initiated policy oftelerance within her domain, a move that has won her the respect of neonates at the expense of elders, who would prefer she assume a less flexible approach. Barcelona went intoa decline after the fall of Rome until Ataulf, King of the Visigoths, chose ir for his residence inthe ifthcentury AD. Later, Barcelona assed successively into the hands of the Arabs and the Franks. Finally, Wifrid the Hairy declared independence for the city and surrounding territory, calling it the "County of Barcelona.” It remained under an independent govern- ‘mene with is own counts until the marriage of Petronila, daughter of King Ramiro the Monk of Aragon, to the Countof Barcelona in 1137. The mariage united the wo, IBERIA, BY NIGHT sdche cicy>pynatisns—Lual san realms under the Crown of Aragon, asituntion char has prevailed ever since Barcelona, being situated on the shores of the Medi tertanean and on a Roman military sad between Iberia and Geul, was always in contact with the rest of the empire. The city received Christianity carly, having been evangelized by disciples of the Apostles themselves, and the Seo of Barcelona thushecame an important bishopric within Christendom. Indeed, numerous councils have been held within its confines, most recently in 1125, and there's every reason to believe more will follow. The thirteenth connury ia rimeof great romoulrin sho thucch and as Iberia comes into closer contact with the rest of ‘Western Europe, it can hardly expect to be spared. DescRIPTION ‘Among the many monuments that distinguish the city, the most important is the cathedral, built in the early days of the Church and dedicated to the Holy Cross. Damaged during the Muslim occupation, the cathedral was rebuil: by orcer of Counc Berenguer and reconsecrated in 1058. Barcelona is committed to a program of impressive expansions and improvement forthe cathedral that are likely to continue throughout the thirccath century and beyond. Elewhere, the ancient church of Santa Maria del Mar is a beautiful specimen of Gorhie architecture, while Santa Maria del Pino has the most spacious and lofty nave of all the Gothic churches in Barcelona. The church of Saint. Justo and Pastor was the first dedicated to Christian ‘worship in Barcelona, givingit cachet with pilzrims and churchmen alike Rareelona alse possesses archives of great valte in which many preciousdocuments, saved romtheAmohad conquest under al-Mansur, are preserved. Among the archives are priceless hooks called Exemplar that relate important ecclesiastical events and include records of royal oaths and the like, Consequently, they are some of thebestarchivesin Iberia, andscholarsftom across Europe consultthem. Because these archives ere rumored to hold hitherto unknown works relating to The Book of Ned and other dark tomes, they have attracted the interest ch Cainites as well as mortals. Miresa herself has taken an interestin these rumors. She employs several Cainite and mortal pawns in her efforts to discover these supposed comes. Given thesizeanddisarray ofthearchives, this may be a long undertaking indeed. POLITICS AND RELIGION Barcalona is a city at odde with itrelf. On the one hand, it represents the success of the union known as the Crown of Aragon. On another, it seethes with resentment at the absorption of Catalonia within a “foreign” state. Neither attitude is strongenough to tip the balance, so Barcelona exists in a twilight realm between open-minded acceptance af its place and out right rebellion, “This attitude is reflected in its Cainite population as well. The prince isa Lasombra, but she grants no special privileges to her clanmates. Indeed, she regu- larly consults with Ventrue and Malkavian advisors — much to the chagrin of some Lasombra elders. They fear something else is at work other than simple broadmindedness. The most regularly voiced concern. is that she has been co-opted by a group such as the Cainite Heresy. The problem with such theories is that they provide no insight into why Mireia acts as she does, et alone what a group like the Heresy would have to gain by her actions. For now, the elders merely grumble and allow her ro rule as she has since the destruction of her sire in 1164, Ina similar vein, Barcelona's relationship with the Church is unusual as well. For centuries, Barcelona has been an impectant Christian center, notable both for its churches and for its strength of belief. However, Catalonia hasalways beena fertile breeding ground for dissent against Rome. The fact that the Church has a 1 of supporting efforts by Forel quer Catalonia has certainly not helped its cause. Likewise, the Aragonese have installed several oftheir own clerics into positions of power in Barcelona, add ing ta the constemation within the city LiFe IN THE Crry Barcelona is the key toCatalonia’s—and therefore Aragon’s — plans to expand beyond the confines of the Iberian Peninsula. The city is a major seaport, offering ready access to the Mediterranean and the maritime tities of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. Consequently, life in Barcelona revolves more and ‘morearound trade. Merchants from France, Italy and as far away as Outremer make regular visits, exchanging their wares for the best that Catalonia has to offer. The tity soften the frst port of entry for outsiders seeking wy jouiney on ko the Interior of the peninsula, Barcelona's seaport gives the city a cosmopolitan flavor thar is unmatched in Christian Iberia. Naturally, this makes the city a popular destination for foreign Cainites. Among them are refugees fiom the Byzantine Empire, recently dividedup during the Fourth Crusade.In the aitermath of the crusade, Byzantine Cainite society ts been cocked Fy turmoil and dissension, as various faetions vie with one another forthe favore of the now latinoverlonls TherefureeshavechosentofleeByzantium rather than bow before the invading westemers. Among their number isa Brujah named Nerea, who fled a blood hunt in Barcelona some 40 years aga after sha destroyed her site Guzmén Bravo in ajealous rage. Nerea now goes by the name Andrea since Bravo still has friends in the tity, (For more on Nerea, see Constantinople by Night and Bitter Crusade.) As noted above, Barcelona is well known for its aunyfinearchivesandcollectionsofbooks, and asmall jortion of the local industry revolves around these pursuits. Copyists and scribes can be employed for reasonable fees in order to locate and transcribe tomes ofancientknowledge, Representatives of Europe’ universities, like those in Parisand Paducy visit the city in order to purchase books for their own collecticns Likewise, seekersafteresoteric— even arcane —know! edge sometimes venture into the city on their own quests for wisdom, Among these visitors ate Cainites, includinga handful of Tremere, These young vampires ate certain that the archives hold untold knowledge of valueto both their clan and their mortal allies. policy of tolerance does not extend to the Usurpers however, and she has forbidden them to conault the archives. The prince's reasons for this action are un known, but they seemto revolve around her own quest for forbidden lore. Consequently, the Tremere act through surrogates to obtain the knowledge they seck Canite Arenirs The city’s proximity to southern France has also broughe it into contact with various Gnostic heretical groups like the Cathars. Under vampiric influence, agentof the Cainite Heresy have infiltrated Barcelona However, the Heresy has thus far met with litle success among either mortals ar Cainitos Only a fow minor ‘Church officials have joined the secretive cult — a great disappointment. This ailure is partially due to the Presence of the Apostles of che Third Caine, who oppose the mainstream Heresy. Even more significant in checking the Heresy is the vigil lona’s mortals, including members of the Sword of St. James. One important member of this mortal group, Mateu Agusti, has his primary residence in Barcelona. Conse- quently, the Heresy acts cautiously here; it doesn't wish to risk exposure either to other Cainites or to mortals. GiRONA Girona is bounded on the north by the Pyrenees and on the south and east by the Mediterranesn Sea ‘The surrounding region is mountainous, with forests of pine, oakand chestnut, aswell as many mineral springs. ‘The mountains are the site of many mines, particularly ‘of coal — an important part of the city’s economy Agriculture exists but is of limited value. Thus, Girona relies heavily on imported foodstufls to feed its popula- 1. Tn times of war, this rellance is a significant weakness, which is why soldiers regularly patrol on foot and on horseback the roads leading to the cit The city issituatedat the confluence of the Terand (Ona Rivers The must ancient portion ofthe city tans ona steep hill and includes the dilapidated remains of once formidable battlements. In ancient times, Girona was known as Gerundia, a city of the Ausetani tribe Local legend has i¢ that Saints Paul and James first preached Christianity here when they arrived in Iberia after the death of Christ. Legend also holds that the city's first bishop was St. Maximus, a disciple of St. THE CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS James. The city's inhabitants therefore pride them- selves on their ancient Christian heritage: DESCRIPTION Girona isacity of walls; its impressive battlements have withstoodnumerous attacks over the centuries. In. fact, the city has survived twenty-five separate sieges and has been captured seven times, making itone of the most fought-over eities in the peninsula. In the time of Charlemagne, it was wrested temporarily from the Muslims, who were not decisively driven ftom the city until 1015. Since then, remained firmly in Christian hands. The Muslims used the city’sancient cathedral asa mosque. Once the Moors were expelled for good, a new cathedral was rebuilt on the site of the old one. The contemporary church although still under construc- tien, is quite beautiful, showing influences both from the surrounding area and from the Muslims who once held sway here. The cathedral cen be reached by ascending eighty-stx steps. Its 73-foot stone arch opens into the body of the church and is one of the largest in allof Christendom. Amongits many beautiful interior decorations is a retable thatis the work of a Valencian silveromich, The retable io divide futo tluce tices of statuettes and reliefs, each framed in canopied nichesof cast and hammered silver. The high altar possesses a gold and silver froncal that is equally impressive. The cathedral contains the tombs of Ramon Berenguer and hhis wife, making it an important pilgrimage sive fo these who revere their memory Pouttics AND RELIGION Gitonais one of many cities under Christian con trol that retains a sizable Jewish population. The Jews settled in Girona vell before the Muslim invasion making themselves an important part of the city culture. As they became more successful, their initially small settlement spread, encompassing many houses and shops along the Via Augusta, the old Reman road that runs through the city. In time, the Jewish quartec became known as the Call and included 300 Jev Under both Muslim and early Christian rule, the Call functioned likean independent government. fs imbab itants recognized the ruler of Girona as their liege and paid taxes to him in return for the right to retain thei own ways Beglaning in the eleventh century, chough, that situation. changed for the worse. Since that time, the City’s inhabitants have persecuted the Jews, seeing them as a threat to the stakility of the new Christian o Many Jewe have decided tu leave uve vty seeking out safer havens elsewhere. No faction within Girona officially sponsors the persecution, but it does receive the tacit support of both Church and state. Camite Arras Hrpalicn, Girora’s Cappadocian prince, a devout Christian anciclaimstobave converted to the faith during the mission of St. James himself. Few of bis fellows take this boast seriously, but there is no question the prince fervently believes the Gonpel, looking to Christ as the only source cf eternal life. Yet, he also believes that his vampiric existence isadivine gift, ane that allows him to plumb the depths ofboth life anal death. Despite these ynemeies, Harpalion ie a just prince whe rules hie forint and eh good eine Meanwhile, a Lasombra named Melquiado Casamayor has used incidents of anti-Semitic out- breales to target assets of his ald rival, Menahem de Samaynigo. He believes that Menahem, a Brujah of Jewish stock, hasseveral agents among Girona’s Jewish, merchants. Thus far Melquiado has been unable to identify more than a few likely catsraws, hut he is growing incteasingly frustrated and is willing to try anything to strike back at his enemy. Morcover, these attacks provide an excellent cover for his feedings, an auled provocation he hones mish drow Menahemout and into his trap. CASTILE astile (or “Castilla in Spanish) derives 3 name from the vast numbers of castles and fortifications that dot its landscape. It is a kingdom in flux, constantly merging with and separating from Lec. The kingdom stands in the forefoot of dre Recunpuivs and was recently the site of the decisive battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, at which the might of the Almohad regime was finally broken. Prior to that, it was invaded by its sretwhile ollie in Nowarre and Lon, but rebuffed them decisively under the leadership of Alfonso VIII, annex- ing Alava and Guiptizeoa from Navarre in the process. Unofficially, Castile is divided into Old Castile, formerlykenown as Vellagia or Vetula, and NewCastle, territory that has been taken from the Moors since the beginning ofthe eleventh century. The dividing line is the Carpetano-Veténica mountain range, andabove it Old Castile forms a rough triangle. Tts boundaries are Leon to the west, the Sierra de Gredosto the southeast, and in the northeast, the river Ebro. The Duero and Pisuerga Rivers also flow across the plateau. The cl inate vares extensively, butthe varied weather produces excellent: crops of wheat and other grains. Notable points within Old Castile include Burgos, Valladolid, Segovia and Avila. lla Nueva” is a differentmatter, Resting on a slightly lower plateau, it is warmer and drier than Old Castile and is correspondingly less fertile, Its bound- aiesare the mountainchain ofthe Carpetano-Verontea to the north, the Sierra Morena to the south and the mountains of Cuencato the east. New Castile isdivided intocwomassive river valleys,the Tajoin the northand the Guadianato the south. The two areseparated by the mountains of Toledo, which join the Sierrade Guadalup in Extremadura. The third major river of New Castile is the Jicar, which flows through the southeast from its origins in the Cuenca. In the wake of Las Navas de Tolosa, Castile’s bourdaries have been extended southwards as far as Baeza and Ubeda. The cerrain consists primarily of farmland dotted wich intermittent fortifications. Until the Reconquista this land was used! for grazing, but with the land grants given out by the conquering Christians to their faithful vassals, agriculture has overwhelmed on. Castile also stretches out to encompass the cities of Toledo and Madr Is kings havebeen relent lessly expansionist, and as such have absorbed a great deal of land relatively rapidly. Manprip The sometime residence of the King of Castile, Madrid isa city of miracles. Located on the Manzanares River, the city was originally constructed as a simple fore during dhe Cordoban emirate. ts purpose Was to serveas the midpoint in a defensive line that ran from the Guadarrama to Toledo, and so watch the north south traffic on the roed ‘ftom Gredos. It initially comprised nine hectares ofland within a walled bound ary, afortress of the almudena style that was guorded on the north and west by rocky crags. However, its central location, rich neighboring territory and eminently de- fensible position quickly encouraged the city to grow. Because of Madrd’s strength as a fortress, Alfonso VI and the Cid bypassed it in their wars of conquest, instead choosing to capture Toledoandallowing Madrid towitheron the vine. [¢finallyfell in 1083. afterRarsiro of Leén destroyed the city’s original walls a century and a half earlier. The city’s name means “tich in waters," primarily because of the lushness of the river valley. It first entered history asMajerit” in 932, during the accounts of Ramiro's siege, and quickly transformed to the mod- ern “Madrid.” The earliest setilementson the site were along the river's banks, which featured abundant game Waters have always been tied intimately to the city's history, especially when a miraculous source of fresh water allowed the Christianized city to withstand an Almohad siege. {The city tsett s located on a promontory overlook ing the river, in the middle of the vast plateau calledthe Meseta. Resting over 2,100 feet above sea level, Madrid is often buffeted by high winds, especially in the tradi tionally cold, sharp winters, Summers, on the other hand, are frequently extremely hor. The nearby Carpetovetoniea Range of mountains also plays hob THE CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS, PaUacoiom dt | Keyan Orecyurast Sderier ese when he eer Peau eee teres meer ety ee ees een ing setback at Alarcos in 1195, he has been a relentless scourge of the Almohade, and it was h who forged the coalition of his former Christian eens ae e eC it aiea? Rear eet Eni fild generaland a canny politician. Hi er safeguarding the future of Casi ina Almehads from Iberia, not necessarily in that order Nora Tenrest tt eer engi teisr ett) Acree etn tear sat tas ae Enrique (who will succeed him in: 1214), the noted Pe een certo er ene Noone mere ne eee tie eventually unite Castile and Lesn. [eer ieee with the city’s weather, and the resultant wind pattern: cause heavy rains during the late fall months. Inhabitants of the city are called "Madrilotos" and are proud of their city’s burgeoning growth and increas ing stature. Madrid is the boastful youth of the cities 0 Castile, and a Madrilefio has no shame about living up putation, DESCRIPTION As is appropriate for a city in the land of castles, Maxtrid was built arounda fortress, and all of its subse quent expansion has been done with an eye toward the needs ofdefense. It isnota coincidence that the central construction of the city originally bore the name the Almudena —*The Citadel.” It rested within the origi- tual walls, along with the eratning Geld now called the King’s Camp (or Prado del Rey), and the small citadel which served as. residential ection, Thesmall citade was kept to the south primarily because the southern to his city’s ened more easily 0 the ouside world The city walls date to the ninth c anchored on the southwe citadel, Thewall extendsalong t ingthe so-called" Moorish C . Hill, where one of the city’s five gates opens, To the southeast is the Almudena Gite, known as St. Mary's Gate toChristians, and these twoentrances see most of the city’s trafic To the north of Vega Hill, an arm of the city wal extends ouvward to the Narigues Tower, an important sentry point. The wall itself continues, making a sharp turn north past St. Mary's Gate to rejoin the citadel by the Onent Square. Near here lies the Sagra Gate. The southwest corner of the city is known as the ria, and predictably, serves as the Moorish quar tury and are of the centra IBERIA BY NIGHT ter. Thisarea is particularly cramped, even forclaustro phobic Madrid. Residents, wary of another invasion, prefer to build up rather than out, and keep their city walls Poutics AND RELIGION Madrid was first a Muslim town, and a Moorish influence still hangs over the city. Place names, lan guage, architectural style — all hearken back to the Islamic origins of the city. In the century or so since the city was taken, a concerted effort has been made to stamp out this influence. Thus far it has not succeeded but the program of reconsecrating mosques as churches is progressing steadily The Jewish community of Madrid is small and earful, though ithashegun toexpand. The city’s juleria sslocated near the Puertade Vallmandu and sscentered con a single synagogue. The community's influence is very small, and its presence is eaxentially ignored by outsiders. The politicalscene inMaairid can best be described as ‘ambitious." While Toledo remains the capital, Madrid is rapidly increasing in size and population, and there are rumblingsamongthepopulace thacitshould be the center domiciles safely within Leora Sena Pei ee ak ara re en eine a reece ts F Castile and the mother cf foc emt yheura eee races PES rt nian ines ec ct ber rea ee Sees peeherey tierce ns Peete tent teem aren tte et: preacher teen ea eter vantage of wealth and position, which See Sterner even hy these not seeking royal favor ere Seat ern rece rar Temes a eee ener cet eee meter isshockingenoughtosome ofth eer aa te eed ere ee rea Buoy cert a eet Ro acre tere te Fone ere ae netarrearepor FPP cree ican es Fleer at ot ee a eae arte mtr See een esac eee mown Cainite with that much influence over a mely worrisome of Castile. Within the city, polities is game for the Christian wealthy, as there is no rocm at the top for the city'sJews and Muslin. CAINITE AFFAIRS Madrid's Cainites are also very heavily Christian. Power in the city is increasingly centered around the church where Archbishop Mongada makes hie haven. The Lasombra dominate the city, and every night Moncada dominates the Lasombta more and more. While he has not established himself as prince — he has nn interact in such remparal honor, afro all —he night as well be, and he is the real power in the city despite his relative youth. Of course potent Cainites in the Silvester de Ruiz (the current master of the Lasombra affais across Christian|beria) and the Ventrue Natasio, whoservesasfield general ofthe Shaclow Reconquista, Oddly enough, the Cainiees of Madrid are perhaps more tolerant than their human neighbors. While the tuling Christian Cainites are under Mongada’s thum heallowsthe city’ste g Ashirra (most fledorwere destroyed when the city was taken 1083) to stay so long as they feed only on their coreligionists and the city’s Jews. Chnstians, 1 seems, are stietly tor the Chistian nites. Some Achirra arc thankdulfor che respite from conflict, while mast resent the policy fiercely. TOLEDO Originally described by the Reman historian Tirus Livius as “a small fortified town,” Toledo: yn over the centuries to magnificent fllsand bounded by the Tayo River, the city is dotted with fortress walls Toledo isulmost impregnable against direct assault, though it issomewhat more vulner ew sieges The city is the capital of Castile and mains the kingdom's most worldly and cosmopolitan city. Its gates are al ands, and the satellite town of Talavera has a thriving pottery in dustry, The area around the city is Bild and fre from eorfict, and its reputation. as the place where the finest of everything can be found draws sages, physicians, phi- losonhere — and DESCRIPTION The main entry to the city is the north gate, alcernately knowns the Puerta de la Bisagra or the Puerta de Alfonso VL The latter name derives from the fact that this is the gare through which Alfonso and El Cid entered when they conquered the city in L083, The city’s market square, the Plaza de Zocodow. above the gate and sees much traffic. It is the main marketplace for Toledo, where goods as mundane. as meats and fruits and as exotic as azafrdn (saffron) and Damascene steel change hands. Merchants from the three faiths congregate here, as do farmers, fishermen who work the Tajo, puppetecrs, the tavelingplayers cf comicosde la lengua’and more. Even on days when there is no market, there is ofien excitement as men play at juegos de cafas (javelin contests). The Zocodover is ly the heart of the city, though at night itis almost deserted by the living Se aie Sc eee eevee CUO MES etc iets Dror eens? lous ability to come up with endless supplies of [pon ena reine ee Deterrent] Denar tae The truth is somewhat more pr ee ete Reh arcane gg waterworks undemeath the city ta provide fre water in case of siege. Madrid was originally con- rita ee teat Petraes ty Theaqueducts beneath the city area marvel of engineering, which provides an unexpected ide benefit to the local Cainite ponmtarion The Teme aia en ae «cellent means by which Cainites can enter Tiere erer emai res tetera Teen nnn een eter ital na] Tee ec acca ict ay Te eatin a i tenet eae eran erent ystemare still in place. Furthermore Sar ase CUR eerie by the depredations of the Fourth Crusade. The three previously fled Outremer, and have deter. pee rere roses errr reeset cisterns beneath Madrid is where they will mak their haven, and God help anyone who thinks CO ereoeaee nt oer tesa otear whom they guicle beneath the ity, They do not emesis ree SN cathe Preece iit tigen ere acein eters structed a maior peat IBERIA BY NIG: Inthe centerofthe city isthe Alediar,asquare fertres with four towers. Originally built in the ninch century by the Muslim forces inzent on securing the region, it occu pies the highest point in Toledo. It ie also extremely defensible, with overlapping ficlds of fire, and ic serves 2s the city’s last bastion of defense. After taking the city Alfonso VI restored and expanded the original Maslis fortressand granted it to the Cid. El Cid was also granted theSanServando castle, which standson the shore ofthe Tajo opposite the city Toledo is also a city of churches, including the Church of Santiago del Arrabal, which still spore ire ‘miuezzin's perch. There are also churches that survived the Muslim occupation intact, including the churches of San Sebastian, Santa Eulalia, Cristo de la Vega, San Vicente, San Miguel and Santo Tomé. These churches are decorated in a constantly evolving hodgepodge of Muslimgeometric and botanical styles and more tradi tonal Christian art,and there is always a church being constructed somewhere in the city. Also worth noting are the testa de Santo Cristode la Luz, and the cathedral project planed for the ruins of the main mosque of Toledo. The mosque itselfhad been built on the site of arazed Visigochic church, and it is over this Inat Alfons VIPs queen and Alfagul Abu ‘Walid had their famous quarrel (see sidebar) Tothe southwest of the city stretches the Puente de Alcntara ("the arch bridge’) that leads to the roads souch, The westem bridge, the Pu an Marcin collapsed during flooding in the twelfth century, and its one surviving tower has become an object of | folklore. Younggirls have taken to calling it “el bri de a Ca0a'" tying itta the legend of lorinda La Cava, ith whom the Visigoth king Rodrigo ell in love. In actual ity the site is also a favorite Cainite haunt, which explains many of the tal rales. locale Further down the river, not technically port of T. ledo, are the gardensand palace of the Muslim governor Galafre. Of no strategic or military importance, they are still quite beautiful and a favorite place for local Caines to take honored — or feared — visitors. Poutrics AND RELIGION Toledo isa cosmopolitan city. It hosts Muslim and Jewish districts, and there are mosques and synagogues hhcre as well a5 churches. While the population 1s growing ever more Christian, there are still sizeable minority populations, and the city is opento merchants of all faiths. Both Jews and Muslims regacd the Chris. flan ily forthe custom of damping chamber pots into the city streets swith an accompanying cry of “Agua va!” Still, Muslim, Jewish and Christian scholars and men of power still confer and soci Ly ao sunsersliat unsarittry, pa nd the city s open to all As in most of Iberia, the Jews live in their own auarter, or kahal, which is walled off from the rest ofthe city. The centerpiece of the juderfa is the main gogue, which has 32 pillars, 29 arches anda ceiling of larch wood. The katal, like other Jewish quarters throughout the region, has its own sct of zakkanot, or neighborhood laws. These are as binding as the king's own laws within the quarter, and the punishments for transgressions against the community can range all the ay up to Here — permanent excommunication, ‘This, however, is generally reserved for informers. Muslims are scattered throughout the city, though agreat many mosqueshave been turned into churches, The Grand Mosaic has been torndown, and achurch sisesin its place. There are several mosques still intact and open Tor prayer, however, including the Niezqutta —whichhasnine cupolasover four Gethiccolumns and another mosque next to the Puerta del Sol The Muslim presence in Toledo is almost bitter- sweet. While the city still welcomes Muslim trade, Toledo isbecoming inexorably Christian. In the mean- time, however, the city remains open, and the pace of trade grows ever more feverish as fanaticism and war limit the number of markets that might otherwise be available. Sooner ot later, its said, everyone interest- ing in Iberia comes through Toledo. Afterall, it's the ere all ofthe other interestingpeople are mast Cauntre AFRaiRs Toledo's Cainites, like their mortal counterparts, are cosmopolitancreatures, Thecity isloosely under Lasombra authority, but only loosely — there are simply too many Cainitesofallstripesmovingin andoutforanyonetokeep a thumb on the whole city. As a result, Toledo is the élosest thing ro a free city on the entire peninsula, with favors, allegrances and occasionally lives bought and sold at the Plaza de Zecodover’s night marker. Jorge Crespo, the ancient Nosferatu who eversces the market and indeed, much of Cainite business in Toledo, takes itashis Goty to wrap de righ’ hidethem from pryingmonal ey the last tower of the Puente de particularly sensitive transactions, and isdoinghis best to ‘emphasize the legend of the place, so as to keep humans arespectlul distance away. (doakot invisibility, co Crespoako maintains san Martin as a site for While the princedom of Toledo is something of a litical football, Elieser de Polanco isthe closest thing Bee power hoc tlds Iewearhpwtie wighieered Tercio Bravo's removal from the princedom. While his supportecs are the majority in the city, Bravo still has a fev iriends who are waiting for their moment. During de Polanca's incraasingly frequent ahsences, they dn their best to foment discontent and labby for Bravo's retum, But Toledo's Cainite population isso transient —manymore passthrough than actually dwell there — thatno one caresenough about the princedom to start afight, so long as trade remains open. JANUARY 24 ‘The 24thof January iscelebrated in Toledoas a day of unity. It was on this day that Alfonso VI ended the breach between his queen, Constancia (and her adv sor, Archbishop Bernardo of Sahagun) and the head of thecity’sMusim community, Alfaqui Abu: Walid. The queen had, against the king’s dictates, expelled the city’s Muslims from mesque built on the site of an earlier church. Abu- Walid me: theking outsidethe city toappealforan end tothe feud Eversince, January 24th has keen a holiday of peace Ic is also a night of safe passage for any, Cainites indving inreupls the ares, the one night oF tie Yeat when they are safe regardless of clan ot affiliation. However, the courtesy does not extend to the night January 25th, so those fugitives and outcasts who take ‘alvantage of the day of peace mustbe gone before dawn or face dire consequences. LEON LLe6n is situated in what was the southern part of the ancient kingdom of Asturias. Its primary natural toundaries are the Cantabrian Mountains. The range af the Defin Nogen forms ane: af ite aoudiars kseder Much of the kingdom is within the great Castilian plateau, at an elevation of more than 1,600 feet above sea level, rising toward the Cantabrian Mountains on the north. From north to west, it isdrained by the river Siland its tributaries. TheSil receive its waters fromthe southern slope ofthe Cantabrian Mountains, known as the Petia Rubia. Very mountainous in the north and northwest, Ledn becomes more level towards the south- cast, especially in the so-called Gothic Plains. From north co southwest ic is traversed by the Mountains of ‘Leon, which join the Cantabrian chain. The country- side is thus a mixture of the rough and the smooth — much like the Leonese people themselves The kinglomof Le6n aboundsin mineral resources. The hollows on both banks of the Bemesgs River contain depesits of coal as well as great quantities of limestone. Thereare also iron and copper mines as well as mineral waters, some of which are renowned through- out the peninsula for theithealingproperties. Indeed, a small industry has grown up around these medicinal in the waters, believing they possess qualities useful to them in theiralchemical experimentation. Others, like Alfonso Palacios of Zaragoza, seek them out as an aid to shot edlonl prapeiass The climate of Leén varies considerably from re- gion to region. Itis cold in the mountains of the north and warm in the lovlands of the southeast, The El Biero rezion, sheltered by the mountains from the north winds, is one of the mildest and most humid inthe country. In it, rapes, olives and many other fruits are THE CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS