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Sex Determination

In presence of the SRY gene male


(testes), without SRY female (ovariesfollicles dont develop until 3rd trimester)
If the sperm carries Y chromosome
male
Phenotypic Sex
Characteristics that make males males
and females, females.
Presence of testes, absence of the ovaries
Presence of ovaries, absence of the testes
Genotypic Sex
Chromosomal Constitution XY (male,
heterogametic), XX (females,
homogametic)
Bipotential Genital Ridge - contains
both Mullerian and Wolffian ducts are
present but with influence of AMH
secreted by Sertoli Cells, Mullerian duct
degenerate and Wolffian duct
differentiates into epididymis, vas
deferens and seminal vesicle through
the command of Leydigs cells in
presence of DHT and AMH MALE;
without, female (duct system/ anatomy
and physiology)
AMH (Anti Mullerian hormone), DHT (5
dihydrotestosterone) male duct
system
DHT - external male genitalia, male
anatomy and physiology, male brain
and behaviour
In females Wolffian ducts degenerate
and Mullerian ducts differentiates to
form the oviduct, uterus and outer
vagina
SRY gene- sex determining gene in Y
chromosome; found only in mammals
SOX9 common to all vertebrates ,
universal regulator of sex in males
Gonadal Differentiation
a. Approx 42 days after gestation
embryonic gonads are indistinguishable

b. PGCs (Primordial germ cells)seed


the undifferentiated gonads from their
extragonadal origin in the yolk sac;
PCGs are required as progenitor of
the m/f gonad 42 d
c. with influence of SRY/ other genes
that encode male sex determination
male
d. Formation of Testis/ Differentiation
(from bipotential genital ridge) 43- 50 d
e. Differentiation of Leydigs cells 60d
f. Diff. Of external genitalia 65- 77 d
g. Without SRY females; differentiation
of germ cells;meiotic prophase- oogonia
oocyte
h. primordial follicles 90 d
i. Pre- antral follicles 6 mos
j. birth fully developed oocyte
Differentiation
8 wks of fetal life bipotential sex
exist
- if no gonadal hormone present
female
- testosterone (DHT) present
male external genitalia
FEMALE GENITAL ORGAN
1. Ovaries
Ovoid bodies found suspended on each
side of uterus
Mesovarium attachment to the broad
ligaments
Ovarian Ligaments attachment to the
ovaries
Infundibulopelvic ligament suspensory
ligament of the ovary where nerves and
ovarian vessels pass through
Cortex- contains atretic follicles which
may arise at any stage of development
Interstitial gland cells also present in
the cortex; are thought to secrete
estrogen
Surface Epithelium present all over
mesovarium that covers the ovary from
beneath

Medulla- composed of loose areolar


connective tissue, large blood
vessels,nerves, lymphatics
Hilus region on which blood vessels,
lymphatics and nerves enter and leave
the ovary, continuous with the medulla;
histologically similar to medulla
2. Genital ducts oviduct, uterus,
vagina
Uterine Tube/Fallopian Tube/ Oviducts
transport ovum from the ovary to the
site of fertilization
- help transport the spermatozoa from
site of deposition to the site of
fertilization
- provide appropriate environment for
fertilization
-transport fertilized ovum (embryo) to
the uterine horns- where
IMPLANTATION and further
development will occur
- divided into: infundibulum, isthmus,
ampulla
Infundibulum- most proximal to ovary,
has finger like projections, funnel
shaped
Ampulla middle, 1/3 region where
fertilization occurs
Isthmus most proximal to the uterine
horns; smooth muscle helps peristaltic
movement of embryo toward the
uterine horns and the uterus
Uterus
Myometrium
Endometrium- consists of simple
columnar epithelium and the stroma
(thick connective tissue)
- mucosa has invaginated
to form the uterine glands
- subject to cyclic changes
that result in menstruation (only the
mucosa of the uterus
body takes part in the
menstrual cycle )
Divided into:
a. Basalis - not sloughed off
during menstruation; regenerative zone

b. Functionalis sloughed off


during menstruation and sites for cyclic
changes proliferative
(follicular), secretory (luteal),
menstrual
Vagina - fibromuscular tube with three
layered wall:
a. Mucosa stratified squamous
epithelium
b. Muscularis inner circular,
outer longitudinal layers of smooth
muscle
c. Adventitia elastic fibers,loose
connective tissue
3. External genitalia labia minora,
labia majora, clitoris
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Testes oval organs shaped like large
olives; responsible for testosterone
production and sperm; considered an
external reproductive organ
Scrotum sac- like structure that
contains the testes as well as blood
vessels; acts as climate control for
testes since production of sperm
happens in temperatures that are
slightly cooler than the human body;
also considered as external reproductive
organ
Epididymis long coiled tube
functioning in storage of sperm cells;
brings the sperm to maturity since
sperm emerging from the testes is
immature and incapable of
fertilization
Seminal Vesicle found on either sides
of the neck of the bladder; secretes
mucoid materials which contains
fructose, fibrinogen and ions.

Penis external male genitalia, for


sexual intercourse
Root
Opening of urethra
Nerve endings
Vas Deferens long narrow muscular
tube that travels from epididymis to the
pelvic cavity; transports sperm to the
urethra in preparation for ejaculation
Bulbourethral/ Cowpers Glands
secretes clear slippery fluid (lubricates
the urethra, neutralized acidity due to
residual urine) that empties into the
urethra
Prostate Gland Contributes additional
fluid to the ejaculate to be expelled
during ejaculation

Hormones in Reproduction
Endocrine System ductless glands in
diff. Parts of the body; secretion through
the blood stream and not into the duct
system
Hormones secretion of the endocrine
gland which has specific effects on
target organs
Hormones derived from amino acids;
derived from peptides and proteins;
derived from cholesterol and can be
separated into 3 categories:
a. with intact steroid nucleus; Proteins
b. with broken steroid nucleus; Lipids
c. Monoamines
Reproductive functions of hormones

1. regulate growth and structural


maintenance of reproductive
organs
2. influence production of gametes
3. influence pattern of sexual
behaviour
4. dictate phenotypic difference
between males and females
5. dictate continuation of the species

Mechanisms of Hormone Action


1. Receptors provide specificity for
hormone- cell interaction; may be
components of the cell membrane or
they may be cytosolic or nuclear
receptors; cells do not possess
receptors for all hormones but rather a
limited number of receptor types.
Receptors visualized as
macromolecules, glycoprotein in nature,
that have high affinity to hormonal
ligand; present in the outer surface of
the membrane
Transport and metabolism of hormones
-protein hormones and amines circulate
in free form
- steroids are bound with their transport
proteins
-hormones that circulate in bound forms
clear much slower
-bulk of hormone clearance is done by
the liver and the kidneys
Regulation of Receptor Number
(Balikan mamaya)
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Gland - function depends on
the hypothalamus

- lies below the hypothalamus


- has 2 lobes anterior and
posterior
Posterior Pituitary
Anterior Pituitary connected
to the hypothalamus by superior
hypophyseal artery
produces:
Prolactin, GH,TSH, ACTH
(adenocorticotropic hormone), FSH, LH
Feedback Mechanism
- The final product inhibits the function
of the enzyme which catalyzes the first
step in a multistep pathway
- Ex. Hormone A is used to synthesize
hormone B which in turn acts on
hormone A, inhibiting it or causing it to
decrease its function
Receptor Properties
1. recognize specific hormone among
molecules present
2. must have high affinity to hormone
3. specificity

Hormones
Gonadotropins
Luteinizing Hormone ovulation and
transformation of ovarian follicle
Function
a. stimulates production of estrogen by
follicle
b. Cause ovulation
c. Formation and secretion of corpus
luteum
d. stuimulates Leydigs cells to produce
Testosterone

Follicle Stimulating Hormone


development of the graafian (tertiary)
follicle in the ovary
Function
a. growth and development of follicle
b. estrogen production of follicle
c. stimulates spermiogenesis in males
(seminiferous tubules) FSH
production of androgen through
stimulation of growth of Sertoli Cells
production and secretion of ABG
Functions in females (LH/ FSH)
a. growth of ovarian follicle
b. maturation of oocytes within follicle
c. secretion of estrogen by cellular
components
d. ovulation of the Graafian follicle
e. development of corpus luteum
f. secretion of P4 by CL
g. Regulates blood supply to the ovary
Prolactin
- misfit among gonadotropins
-more of a metabolic hormone than a
gonadotropin
a. stimulates milk secretion
b. luteotropic properties- maintenance
of CL
Steroid Hormones lipid in origin
Estrogen secreted by the CL and
placenta (during pregnancy)
responsible for conversion of girls into
sexually matue woman (development of
breasts, uterus and vagina, broadening
of pelvis, pubic/ axillary hairs, increase
in adipose, participate in monthly
preparation for pregnancy, participates
in pregnancy)
- non- reproductive effects antagonize
effect of parathyroid hormone,
minimizing loss of Ca from bones; also
promote blood clotting

Corpus luteum
- secretes PROGESTERONE after
ovulation and continues the preparation
of the endometrium for a possible
pregnancy; inhibits contraction of uterus

1. Adrenarche
2. Decreasing repression of the
gonadostat
3. Gradual amplification of the GnRHgonadotropin interaction

If pregnancy does occur:


Placenta begins secreting
PROGESTERONE; by the 5th month of
pregnancy placenta secretes enough
progesterone that CL is not essential

Gametogenesis
1. Extraembryonic origin of the germ
cells and their migration to the gonads.
2. Increase on the number of germ cells
by mitosis.
3. Reduction in chromosomal number by
meiosis.
4. Structural and functional maturation
of the eggs and spermatozoa

Regulation of Estrogen and


Progesterone
Secretion/ Synthesis of Estrogen FSh
which is controlled by GnRH
Hypothalamus GnRHPituitary
FSH Estrogen high level of
estrogens suppress release of GnRH
(negative feedback mechanism)
Progesterone
- production is stimulated by LH
Hypothalamus GnRHPituitary LH
CL Progesterone
Testosterone
- the principal androgen (male sex
hormone)
- manufactured by Leydigs/ Interstitial
cells of the testes
- responsible for secondary sex
characteristics in males; essential also
for production of sperm
Production of Testosterone
- controlled by LH
Hypothalamus GnRH
Pituitary LH Testes
Testosterone
Physiology of Puberty
Pre-pubertal Period

Oogenesis
Oogonia mitotically active germ cells
in females
2nd 5th month of pregnancy then
undergo atresia until menopause
Oogonia (PGC) mitosis primary
oocyte first meiotic division primary
oocyte, Primary follicle second
meiotic divison secondary oocyte

- without pregnancy: decreased


progesterone, estrogen and inhibin

Menstrual Cycle
Follicular Phase
- FSH stimulate follicular development
-Estrogen: Feedback mechanism, limits
more follicles
Ovulation
- increased estrogen increased LH
(some FSH) ovulation
Luteal Phase
-begins with formation of CL
- granulosa cells form CL
progesterone
-increase in progesterone and estrogen
maintain endometrium
-inhibin inhibits new follicular
development
- if pregnancy occurs: progesterone
levels maintained, estrogen and inhibin
as well

Female reproductive Cycle


a. Ovarian ovulation
b. Menstrual endometrial changes
Spermatogenesis
- formation of haploid spermatozoa
-occurs in the seminiferous tubules
a. mitotic phase
b. miotic phase
c. spermiogenic phase
Sertoli Cells sustain and promote
development of sperm, secrete fluid
that generates tubular lumen, directs
testis differentiation
Leydigs Cells/ interstitial Cells
produce testosterone
Spermatogonium mitosis 2 daughter
cells one differentiated, one
undifferentiated one becomes
spermatozoa primary spermatocytes
Meiosis secondary spermatocytes
meiosisspermatids
Hormonal Control of Spermatogenesis
1. Testosterone - essential for division of
germ cells
2. FSH needed for spermatid remodelling
- both exert effects by acting on Sertoli
cells