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NOOR FATILAH BINTI YUSOP

880321-49-5488

PISMP SEJARAH JUN 2013

TIPS TO MANAGE STRESSFUL SITUATIONS

It might surprise you to learn that the conception of biological stress is a fairly recent discovery. It wasn't until the late 1950s that endocrinologist Hans Selye first identified and documented stress. While symptoms of stress existed long before Mr. Selye, his discoveries led to new research that has helped millions combat stress. We’ve made overcoming stress easy by compiling a list of the top 10 ways to relieve stress.

NOOR FATILAH BINTI YUSOP 880321-49-5488 PISMP SEJARAH JUN 2013 TIPS TO MANAGE STRESSFUL SITUATIONS It might

Listen To Music

If you're feeling overwhelmed by a stressful situation, try taking a break and listening to relaxing classical music. Playing calm music has a positive effect on the brain and body, can lower blood pressure, and reduce cortisol, a hormone linked to stress. We recommend cello master Yo-Yo Ma playing Bach, but if classical really isn’t your thing, try listening to ocean or nature sounds. It may sound cheesy, but they display similar relaxing effects to music.

Call A Friend

Talk Yourself Through It If you're feeling overwhelmed, take a break to call a friend and

Talk Yourself Through It

If you're feeling overwhelmed, take a break to call a friend and talk about your problems. Good relationships with friends and loved ones are important to any healthy lifestyle, and there's no time that this is more evident than when you're under a lot of stress. A reassuring voice, even for a minute, can put everything in perspective.

Talk Yourself Through It If you're feeling overwhelmed, take a break to call a friend and

Sometimes calling a friend is not an option. If this is the case, talking calmly to yourself can be the next best thing. Don’t worry about seeming crazy—just tell yourself why you're stressed out, what you have to do to complete the task at hand, and most importantly, that everything will be OK (trust us, it will be).

Talk Yourself Through It If you're feeling overwhelmed, take a break to call a friend and

Eat Right

Stress levels and a proper diet are closely related. Unfortunately, it’s when we have the most work that we forget to eat well and resort to using sugary, fatty snack foods as a pick-me-up. Try to avoid the vending machine and plan ahead. Fruits and vegetables are always good, and fish with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce the symptoms of stress. A tuna sandwich really is brain food.

Eat Right Stress levels and a proper diet are closely related. Unfortunately, it’s when we have" The Ministry of Silly Walks ." Those Brits are so hilarious, you’ll soon be cracking up, rather than cracking up. " id="pdf-obj-2-6" src="pdf-obj-2-6.jpg">

Laugh It Off

Laughter releases endorphins that improve mood and decrease levels of the stress- causing hormones cortisol and adrenaline. Laughing tricks your nervous system into making you happy. However, bursting into a fit of giggles at your desk may not be the most appropriate way to deal with stress. Our suggestion: watch some classic Monty Python skits like "The Ministry of Silly Walks." Those Brits are so hilarious, you’ll soon be cracking up, rather than cracking up.

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Try Tea

A large dose of caffeine causes a short-term spike in blood pressure and may cause your hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to go into overdrive. Instead of coffee or energy drinks, try green tea. It has less than half the caffeine of coffee and contains healthy antioxidants, as well as theanine, an amino acid that has a calming and soothing effect on the nervous system.

Try Tea A large dose of caffeine causes a short-term spike in blood pressure and may

Be Mindful

While most of the tips we’ve suggested provide immediate relief, there are also many lifestyle changes that can be more effective in the long run. The concept of “mindfulness” is a large part of meditative and somatic approaches to mental health and has become en vogue in psychotherapy. From yoga and tai chi to meditation and Pilates, these systems of mindfulness incorporate physical and mental exercises that prevent stress from becoming a problem in the first place. Try joining a class—many are free to try on the first day.

Try Tea A large dose of caffeine causes a short-term spike in blood pressure and may

Exercise (Even For a Minute)

Exercise doesn't necessarily mean power lifting at the gym or training for a marathon. A short walk around the office or simply standing up to stretch during a break at work can offer immediate relief in a stressful situation. Getting your blood moving releases endorphins and can improve your mood almost instantaneously.

Exercise (Even For a Minute) Exercise doesn't necessarily mean power lifting at the gym or training

Sleep Better

Everyone knows stress can cause you to lose sleep. Unfortunately, lack of sleep is also a key cause of stress. This vicious cycle causes the brain and body to get out of whack and only gets worse with time. Make it a point to get the doctor-recommended seven to eight hours of sleep. Turn the TV off earlier, manage your time, and do your best to get into bed. It may be the most effective stress buster on our list.

Exercise (Even For a Minute) Exercise doesn't necessarily mean power lifting at the gym or training

Breathe Easy

The advice “take a deep breath” may seem like a cliché, but it holds true when it comes to stress. For centuries, Buddhist monks have been conscious of deliberate breathing during meditation. For an easy three- to five-minute exercise, sit up in your chair with your feet flat on the floor and hands on top of your knees. Breathe in and out slowly and deeply, concentrating on your lungs as they expand fully in your chest. While shallow breathing causes stress, deep breathing oxygenates your blood, helps center your body, and clears your mind.

Breathe Easy The advice “take a deep breath” may seem like a cliché, but it holdshttp://www.healthline.com/health-slideshow/10-ways-to-relieve-stress#1 Accessed on : 3 April 2015 " id="pdf-obj-5-6" src="pdf-obj-5-6.jpg">

Accessed from :

Accessed on : 3 rd April 2015

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Helping Yourself While Helping Others

‘’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’ ’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’Volunte ering and its Surprising Benefits Helping Yourself While Helping Others With busy lives, itVolunteering connects you to others  Volunteering is good for mind and body Volunteering can advance your career Volunteering brings fun and fulfillment How to find the right opportunity Getting the most out of volunteering Benefits of volunteering #1: Volunteering connects you to others One of the better-known benefits of volunteering is the impact on the community. Unpaid volunteers are often the glue that holds a community together. Volunteering allows you to connect to your community and make it a better place. However, volunteering is a two-way street, and it can benefit you and your family as much as the " id="pdf-obj-6-6" src="pdf-obj-6-6.jpg">
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With busy lives, it can be hard to find time to volunteer. However, the benefits of volunteering are enormous to you, your family, and your community. The right match can help you find friends, reach out to the community, learn new skills, and even advance your career. Volunteering can also help protect your mental and physical health. Learn more about the many benefits of volunteering and find tips on getting started as a volunteer.

IN THIS ARTICLE:

One of the better-known benefits of volunteering is the impact on the community. Unpaid volunteers are often the glue that holds a community together. Volunteering allows you to connect to your community and make it a better place. However, volunteering is a two-way street, and it can benefit you and your family as much as the

cause you choose to help. Dedicating your time as a volunteer helps you make new friends, expand your network, and boost your social skills.

Volunteering helps you make new friends and contacts

One of the best ways to make new friends and strengthen existing relationships is to commit to a shared activity together. Volunteering is a great way to meet new people, especially if you are new to an area. Volunteering also strengthens your ties to the community and broadens your support network, exposing you to people with common interests, neighborhood resources, and fun and fulfilling activities.

Volunteering increases your social and relationship skills

While some people are naturally outgoing, others are shy and have a hard time meeting new people. Volunteering gives you the opportunity to practice and develop your social skills, since you are meeting regularly with a group of people with common interests. Once you have momentum, it’s easier to branch out and make more friends and contacts.

Volunteering as a family

While it might be a challenge to coordinate everyone’s schedules, volunteering as a family has many worthwhile benefits. Children watch everything you do. By giving back to the community, you show them firsthand how volunteering makes a difference and how good it feels to help others and enact change. It’s also a valuable way for you to get to know organizations in the community and find resources and activities for your children and family.

Benefits of volunteering #2: Volunteering is good for your mind and body

Volunteering provides many benefits to both mental and physical health.

Volunteering increases self-confidence. Volunteering can provide a healthy boost to your self-confidence, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. You are doing good for others and the community, which provides a natural sense of accomplishment. Your role as a volunteer can also give you a sense of pride and identity. And the better you feel about yourself, the more likely you are to have a positive view of your life and future goals.

Volunteering combats depression. Reducing the risk of depression is another

important benefit of volunteering. A key risk factor for depression is social isolation. Volunteering keeps you in regular contact with others and helps you develop a solid support system, which in turn protects you against stress and depression when you’re going through challenging times.

Volunteering helps you stay physically healthy. Volunteering is good for your health at any age, but it’s especially beneficial in older adults. Studies have found that those who volunteer have a lower mortality rate than those who do not, even when considering factors like the health of the participants. Volunteering has also been shown to lessen symptoms of chronic pain or heart disease.

I have limited mobility—can I still volunteer?

Whether due to a lack of transportation, time constraints, a disability or other reasons, many people prefer to volunteer via phone or computer. There are many projects where you can help. Writing and graphic design lends itself to working at home, and in today’s digital age many organizations might also need help with email and websites.

If you think home-based volunteering might be right for you, contact organizations you like and ask what some of the possibilities might be. Some volunteer organizations may require you to attend an initial training or periodical meetings. You also want to make sure that you are getting enough social contact, and that the organization is available to support you should you have questions.

Volunteering: The happiness effect

Helping others kindles happiness, as many studies have demonstrated. When researchers at the London School of Economics examined the relationship between volunteering and measures of happiness in a large group of American adults, they found the more people volunteered, the happier they were, according to a study in Social Science and Medicine. Compared with people who never volunteered, the odds of being “very happy” rose 7% among those who volunteer monthly and 12% for people who volunteer every two to four weeks. Among weekly volunteers, 16% felt very happy—a hike in happiness comparable to having an income of $75,000– $100,000 versus $20,000, say the researchers. Giving time to religious organizations had the greatest impact.

Adapted with permission from Simple Changes, Big Rewards: A Practical, Easy Guide for Healthy, Happy Living, a special health report published by Harvard Health Publications.

Benefits of volunteering #3: Volunteering can advance your career

If you’re considering a new career, volunteering can help you get experience in your area of interest and meet people in the field. Even if you’re not planning on changing careers, volunteering gives you the opportunity to practice important skills used in the workplace, such as teamwork, communication, problem solving, project planning, task management, and organization. You might feel more comfortable stretching your wings at work once you’ve honed these skills in a volunteer position first.

Volunteering can provide career experience

Volunteering offers you the chance to try out a new career without making a long-term commitment. It is also a great way to gain experience in a new field. In some fields, you can volunteer directly at an organization that does the kind of work you’re interested in. For example, if you’re interested in nursing, you could volunteer at a hospital or a nursing home. Your volunteer work might also expose you to professional organizations or internships that could be of benefit to your career.

Volunteering can teach you valuable job skills

Just because volunteer work is unpaid does not mean the skills you learn are basic. Many volunteering opportunities provide extensive training. For example, you could become an experienced crisis counselor while volunteering for a women’s shelter or a knowledgeable art historian while donating your time as a museum docent.

Volunteering can also help you build upon skills you already have and use them to benefit the greater community. For instance, if you hold a successful sales position, you raise awareness for your favorite cause as a volunteer advocate, while further developing and improving your public speaking, communication, and marketing skills.

When it comes to volunteering, passion and positivity are the only requirements

While learning new skills can be beneficial to many, it’s not a requirement for a fulfilling volunteer experience. Bear in mind that the most valuable skills you can bring to any volunteer effort are compassion, an open mind, a willingness to do whatever is needed, and a positive attitude.

Benefits of volunteering #4: Volunteering brings fun and fulfillment to your life

Volunteering is a fun and easy way to explore your interests and passions. Doing volunteer work you find meaningful and interesting can be a relaxing, energizing escape from your day-to-day routine of work, school, or family commitments. Volunteering also provides you with renewed creativity, motivation, and vision that can carry over into your personal and professional life.

Many people volunteer in order to make time for hobbies outside of work as well. For instance, if you have a desk job and long to spend time outdoors, you might consider volunteering to help plant a community garden, lead local hikes, or help at a children’s camp.

Consider your goals and interests

You will have a richer and more enjoyable volunteering experience if you first take some time to identify your goals and interests. Start by thinking about why you want to volunteer. Also think about what you would enjoy doing. Volunteer opportunities that match both your goals and your interests are most likely to be fun and fulfilling for you.

Tips for Getting Started Volunteering

First, ask yourself if there is something specific you want to do.

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example,

 

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I

want…

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it

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where

 

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me

…to

try

something

 

new

…to

do

something

 

with

 

my

spare

 

time

…to

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different

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new

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…to

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…to do something I’m good at

The best way to volunteer is to match your personality and interests. Having answers to these questions will help you narrow down your search.

Source: World Volunteer Web

How to find the right volunteer opportunity

There are numerous volunteer opportunities available. The key is to find a volunteer position that you would enjoy and are capable of doing. It’s also important to make sure that your commitment matches the organization’s needs. The following questions can help you narrow your options:

Would you like to work with people or would you rather work in solitude?

Do you prefer to work alone or as part of a team?

Are you better behind the scenes or do you prefer to take a more visible role?

How much time are you willing to commit?

How much responsibility are you ready to take on?

What skills can you bring a volunteer job?

What causes are important to you?

Consider several possibilities

In your search for the right volunteer opportunity, don’t limit yourself to just one organization or one specific type of job. Sometimes an opportunity looks great on paper, but the reality is quite different. Try to visit different organizations and get a feel for what they are like and if you click with other staff and volunteers. The more satisfaction you have as a volunteer, the better your contributions and the more likely you’ll continue.

Where do I find volunteer opportunities?

Community theaters, museums, and monuments

Libraries or senior centers

Service organizations such as Lions club or Rotary clubs

Youth organizations, sports teams, and after-school programs

Historical restorations and national parks

Places of worship such as churches or synagogues

Online databases such as those contained in Resources section below

Getting the most out of volunteering

You’re donating your valuable time, so it’s important that you enjoy and benefit from your volunteering. It’s important to make sure that your volunteer position is a good fit and to communicate with the people you’re working with in the volunteer organization.

Ask questions. You want to make sure that the experience is right for your skills, your goals, and the time you want to spend. If you have any questions, be sure to speak up. Sample questions to your volunteer coordinator might address your time commitment, if there’s any training involved, who you will be working with, and what to do if you have questions during your experience.

Make sure you know what’s expected. Before starting, make sure you are comfortable with the organization, know what is expected, and understand the time commitment. Consider starting small so that you don’t over commit yourself at first. Give yourself some flexibility to change your focus if needed.

Don’t be afraid to make a change. Speak up if your experience isn’t what you expected. Don’t force yourself into a bad fit. Talk to the organization about changing your focus or consider looking for another match.

Enjoy yourself. Most importantly, make sure you’re having fun! The best volunteer

experiences benefit both the volunteer and the organization. If you’re not enjoying yourself, ask yourself why. Is it the tasks you’re performing? The people you’re working with? Or are you uncomfortable simply because the situation is new and familiar? Pinpointing what’s bothering you can help you decide how to proceed.

Authors: Joanna Saisan, M.S.W., Melinda Smith, M.A., and Gina Kemp, M.A. Last updated: September 2013.

Accessed from :

Accessed on : 3 rd April 2015

Accessed by : Nurul Fatin Naqiyah binti Yatim

950619-12-5990

PISMP SEJARAH JUN 2014

ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY II ARTICLE

Name

: Nurhizatul Adibah binti Hasinin

Unit

: PISMP Sejarah Ambilan Jun 2014

The 5 Types Of Friends Everyone Should Have

It was like one of those "meet-cute" scenes in a Hollywood movie, minus the romance. I met Susan, an author, through a mutual friend a few months ago. She was from Dallas. I was from Dallas. She'd lost her mother. I'd lost my mother. She'd written books. I'd written books. A few coffees led to dinner with our husbands and the friendship chemistry was apparent. If I'd have met her in my 20s, we might have been godmothers of each other's children. But now that we're older, the friendship thing doesn't work quite as well as it used to. Kids, jobs and, well, just life get in the way of forging a real connection. Yes, we've gotten together, but not nearly as often as I would have liked.

And that's just how it goes as you grow older. The urgency you felt in your 20s, when every overture from a new beau required a 30-minute analysis with a friend over the phone, is gone. Or there's just not time for it. Perhaps it's that people simply grow more discerning as time becomes more scarce. Spending hours in a bar drinking margaritas with an egomaniac or with someone who can't let go of something I may have done wrong five years ago? Who has the time?

Thanks to Facebook, the idea of "de-friending" someone is not a foreign one. With a few simple clicks, you can wipe someone from your "friends" list and never again be faced with a seemingly endless stream of birthday party photos from someone you're no longer close to. But in the real world it's a lot harder to "de-friend" someone, but it can be even more important to do so.

It's an interesting process, reaching such a level of self-awareness that you finally realize which friendships deserve tending -- and which are a drag, wearing you down. As someone who considers her friendships as life-sustaining as water, it's been difficult

to take a hard look at the relationships I've cultivated through the decades and realize, with a heavy heart, that they're not all going to last.

Precious time must be spent taking stock of the like-minded people in your life. Just because I attended elementary school with someone, do I really need to keep reaching out to them? As I juggle work with kids, the answer often is "no" if we no longer have anything in common. So what kinds of friends do I want to hang onto? After giving it some thought, I came up with the following list. Have your own ideas about friendship in midlife? Let us know in comments.

There is five types of friends worth keeping forever. First, friends who make the effort. I have one friend who although she is swamped with career and childcare duties never fails to reach out via text, email or phone every few days, no matter what else is going on. Even if it's simply something succinct, like "just wanted to touch base and say hi" I truly appreciate these signals that I'm being thought about and that our friendship is important to her. I also appreciate my friends who are forgiving. I'm not saying that someone should forgive an offense quickly or superficially. It takes time to forgive. But if too much time is taken, bad feelings fester, and the friendship may never get back on track. No one is perfect and a true friend will understand that.

Friends who are genuinely happy for me when something good happens. I'm fortunate enough to have at least a few friends who are sincerely and openly happy for me when something nice occurs. (You're probably wondering, shouldn't every kind of friend be happy for others? You'd think so, but that's not always the case.) Friends who are genuinely happy exhibit not a smidgeon of jealously, but seem truly thrilled about the sale of my book and the various accomplishments of my three children. They watch and revel in my glory without any inkling of bitterness and I do the same for them. (After all, friendship is a two-way street.)

Friends who are upbeat. You know the opposite of this type. They are those folks who ruminate over every little problem in their life again and again and yet never make one move to change their situation. They are Debbie Downers. And they bring me down. Misery loves company and downbeat friends generally are more interested in your bad news than your good news. People who are positive and motivated and optimistic and who lift up those around them are worth hanging on to. I have one friend who never fails to compliment me on something even if it's just "wow, are you parting your hair on a different side? Nice!" when she sees me.

Friends who are up for anything. Earlier this month, I went with five girlfriends to a Korean spa in New Jersey called King Spa. The facility is like a mall, with three floors composed of all types of hot and cold spas. The night before our "spa day," we checked the website and realized we'd be naked and so would everyone else. But rather than cop out, we decided to go for it. And it was one of the best times I've ever had. There is something completely liberating about sitting with friends, chatting about our lives, while totally naked. Talk about shedding one's inhibitions! I left there loving the fact that my friends were willing to try something completely outside their comfort zone.

Friends who are authentic. This is the steadfast friend who is anything but pretentious the one who's not afraid to see you without makeup or after she's been crying or when her house is a mess. She's not averse to showing you her trueself or seeing yours. She's "real" and honest and will tell you the truth when asked her opinion. When your behavior is questionable, there is a fine line between expressing concern and expressing judgement. A true friend will tell you the truth and will let you know they'll always be on your side no matter what decision you make even if, in their opinion, it's the wrong one.

Shelley Emling (2014). The 5 Types Of Friends Everyone Should Have. Access on 1 March. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/shelley-emling/friendships-after-

50_b_4733554.html.