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KPI ANALYSIS REASONS AND SOLUTIONS

What is Dropped Call?

All cell resources are available but calls are failing, then we have a call drop scenario. This could
be caused by software errors, congestion, C7 link failures,HW problems or many other reasons.
If a call is abnormally disconnected, a Clear Request is sent to the MSC .If the Call is
disconnected in a normal Fashion then Clear Message with cause code Call Control is
sent. It is important to establish what types of calls are failing, and over what percentage of
the network it is occurring.

Here are some steps by which we can reduce


SD Blocking1. Check the No. of SDCCH channel Available, if less then increase SD channel taking
care that there is no TCH Blocking.
2. Check LAC boundary, If location update is more than change the LAC of that site and
set C2 and HYS.
3. Use of Dynamic SDCCH (It is a BSC parameter and will be applied on whole BTS).
4. Hardware check / shift SD to new time slot
5. Sometimes BMA and HYS parameters are useful to remove SD Blocking.

If SD drop is high plz look on parameters


like

Overshooting

Shift the SD time slot

Hardware issue

Interference

Change the values of RXP PMAX

It may be uplink or downlink issue in which cells for UL put a TMA in that cell and for
DL provide tilt

Re orient that antenna

Reasons of SD Drop:

Hardware Fault.
Interference.
MAIO mismatch.
Bad Coverage.
High TR Fail.
Outage.
Overshooting.
Abis Drop.
High Path Loss.
Wrong Parameter Planning.
Due to ICM Band(CDMA)
High LAPD Utilization
Heavy blocking and DR feature being used extensively

Solutions for removal of SD Drop:


Interference:

Check the BCCH Plan (C/I or C/A).


Co-BSIC & Co BCCH.
Use latest ND 111 and MapInfo to find out proper frequency to reduce interference.

Arrange Drive Test:


The best way to find the real issues for Interference makes DT.
Check interference by Interference scanning.
Check clean BCCH by frequency scanning.

High TR Fail:

Check and clear TR fail from OSS end.

Bad Coverage:

If the drop call is due to low signal strength uplink, check the receive path of this
particular TRX. Check receiver sensitivity, VSWR, feeder connection and etc. Drops
due to Low Signal Strength.
If the drop call reason is due to low signal strength downlink, then, check the transmit
path. Check cards, feeder and etc.
Use MapInfo or Google Earth to find location of sites.
Due to ICM Band(CDMA):

Some time SD drops takes place due to near sites of CDMA.

Check the ICM band value of that site.

Use BPF (Band pass filter).

Use the spectrum analyzer


Check for parameter:
Check the Timer T 3101
Check the Timer T 200(20ms)
T11 Expired(10 s)
MAIO check.
Reasons for TCH Blocking:
Some of them are

High Utilization of TCH

Time slot faulty.

Lock TRXs.

HW Problem.

Solutions for removal of TCH Blocking:

Implement half rate or Dual rate.


Check FRL & FRU.
Add another TRX.
If TRX addition not possible, try to share the traffic of that cell with the neighboring cell by
changing tilt or orientation.

Reasons for TCH Assignment failure:

Hardware Fault(TRXs,Combiner,Duplexer,Cables)

VSWR
High Path Loss.
Faulty TMA.
High TCH Blocking.
Loose connections.
DR being used extensively

Solutions for removal of TCH Assignment:

Clear VSWR
IF TRXs are faulty lock them and try to replace them soon to avoid blocking
Path Imbalance clear.
Connection from BTS to Antenna
Connector connection
Check TMA.
Check Duplexer,Combiner,TRXs connections,Multicuppler etc.
Check BOIA card.
Check BB2F Card.

TCH Drop:

Drop during conversation is known as TCH drop. It takes place after connect ACK msg on TCH.TCH
drop occurring.
For TCH drop first cross check the BCCH of that cell, hardware issue may be, change RXP and RLT
value. Find out there is any interference ,neighbor defined.

Reasons for TCH Drop:

Wrong Parameter Planning.


BAD HOSR.
Hardware Fault.
High TR Fail.
Overshoot.
Outage.
Due to Low Coverage.
Due to ICM Band(CDMA)

Solutions for removal of TCH Drop:


Check Parameter:
Check the BCCH Plan (C/I or C/A).
Co-BSIC & Co BCCH.
Check the Timer T 100(should be 20 ms)
Check Overshooting:
If a cell is picking call from long distance, Check the sample log according to TA..
Site Orientation.
Effective tilt should be check.
Mount position should be check

mprove HOSR:

Check the Hopping plan.


Check the Neighbor Plan

Check and clear TR fail from oss end.

High TR Fail:

Bad Coverage:

If the drop call is due to low signal strength uplink, check the receive path of this
particular TRX. Check receiver sensitivity, VSWR, feeder connection and etc. Drops
due to Low Signal Strength.

If the drop call reason is due to low signal strength downlink, then, check the transmit
path. Check cards, feeder and etc.

Use MapInfo or Google Earth to find location of sites.

Effective tilt should be check.

Mount position should be check.

Check HW:

Check Alarms on site.

Check TRXs.

Check Slips.

Check the Hopping plan.

Check BB2F card.

Check VSWR,

Path imbalance.

Connector Connection.

Check TMA

Drop Reason because of HW Issues:

if drops are only on one site, then go for a check for that particular even attach with
that site.

If drops are on all sites connected to a single link, then check the slip or interference
on that Abis interface.

If Drops are distributed on all site of the BSC, then check the slips on A-ter.

Down Time of the cell.

TRX condition.

BTS should not getting the temperature alarm continuously.

HOSR:
Hand over success rate:
If HOSR will be good TCH drop will also be good.
If Handover success rate degrades call drop rate will take place.

Reasons for HOSR:

Improper Neighbor planning.


CO-BCCH-BSIC issues in Neigh.
Parameter Check.
HSN clash.
SL value.
LAC boundary.
DAC value mismatch.
Syn mismatch.
Overshoot.
HW Issues.
Low Coverage

Solutions for removal of HOSR:


Arrange Drive Test:
The best way to find the real issues for HO fail make DT and check layer 3 msg gor HO
fail.By DT it is very easy to find the fail between cells.
Neighbor Tuning:
Try to retune neighbors
Avoid CO-BCCH-BSIC neighbors.
Avoid extra neighs.
Delete long distance neighs.
Check neighs are defined form both ends.
If there are high fail delete and recreate neighs.
Parameter Check:
1. Retune SL.It can change bw -90,-95,-105.
2. Check HSN.
3. Check SYN.
4. Retune LDR, LUR, IDR, IUR.
5. Retune LMRG, QMRG, PMRG.
DAC value Check:
Check DAC value. If DAC value is high or low tune it at the TH value. It should be 2050
Overshoot:

When neighs are far away then chances of HO fail increases. In this case ping-pong HI
takes place by which fail takes place. So it the inter distance is high its batter to del that
kind of neigh.

LAC Boundary Check LAC boundry.


High fail takes place there will be Inter BSC cells.
High fail takes place there will be Inter MSC cells.
Define proper LAC in neigh cells.

High RACH Failures:

Other reasons look for Random access statistics, if there is a lot of random access failures
try to check hardware too. It includes thorough hardware audit including CF Reloading, IDB
Setting and reloading, Software synchronization, filter check etc)

What Is RAKE RECEIVER And Its Purpose In CDMA


Rake Receiver

Instead of trying to overpower or correct multipath problems, CDMA takes advantage of the multipath to
improve reception quality in fading conditions. CDMA does this by using multiple correlating receivers
and assigning them to the strongest signals. This is possible because the CDMA mobile is synchronized to
the serving base station. The mobiles receiver can distinguish direct signals from multipath signals
because the reflected multipath signals arrive later than the direct signals.

Special circuits called searchers are also used to look for alternate multipaths and for neighboring base
station signals. The searchers slide around in time until they find a strong correlation with their assigned
code. Once a strong signal is located at a particular time offset, the searcher assigns a receiver element to
demodulate that signal. The mobile receiver uses three receiving elements, and the base station uses four.
This multiple correlator system is called a rake receiver. As conditions change the searchers rapidly
reassign the rake receivers to handle new reception conditions.
Instead of trying to overpower or correct multipath problems, CDMA takes advantage of the multipath to
improve reception quality in fading conditions. CDMA does this by using multiple correlating receivers
and assigning them to the strongest signals. This is possible because the CDMA mobile is synchronized to
the serving base station. The mobiles receiver can distinguish direct signals from multipath signals
because the reflected multipaths signals arrive later than the direct signals.
Special circuits called searchers are also used to look for alternate multipaths and for neighboring base
station signals. The searchers slide around in time until they find a strong correlation with their assigned
code. Once a strong signal is located at a particular time offset, the searcher assigns a receiver element to
demodulate that signal. The mobile receiver uses three receiving elements, and the base station uses four.

This multiple correlator system is called a rake receiver. As conditions change the searchers rapidly
reassign the rake receivers to handle new reception conditions.
Rake Receiver Design
The design of a rake receiver can be visualized as a series of time delayed correlator taps fed from a
common antenna. If each correlator tap is delayed to match the arrival of a particular transmitted signal,
then the outputs of each tap can be recombined in phase. Once an RF signal with a particular travel time
is locked onto by the correlator tap, an estimate of the gain or loss experienced by that signal must be
made. The weighting of the taps perform this gain normalization function. Once adjusted, the outputs of
each finger of the rake can be combined to form a better version of the transmitted signal. Notice that this
description visually matches the analogy of a common garden rake with each tap forming a tine of the
rake, hence the name rake receiver.

Another form of time diversity occurs in the base station when transmitting at reduced data rates. When
transmitting at a reduced data rate (more detail will be presented on this later), the base station repeats
the data resulting in full rate transmission. The base station also reduces the transmitted power when it
operates at reduced data rates. This added redundancy in the transmitted signal results in less
interference (power is lowered) and improves the CDMA mobiles station receiver performance during
high levels of interference.

What is Multipath and Rake Receiver ?


Multipath Propagation:-

Radio propagation is characterized by multipath propagation which may result into


attenuation of signal energy.

Effects of Multipath Propagation:

Constructive
Destructive

Multipath components are delayed copies of the original transmitted wave traveling through
a different path, each with a different magnitude and time-of-arrival at the receiver.

Since each component contains the original information, if the magnitude and time-ofarrival (phase) of each component is computed at the receiver (through a process called
channel estimation), then all the components can be added coherently to improve the
information reliability
The Multipath components can be combined coherently to obtain mutipath diversity by
the WCDMA receiver if the time difference of the multipath components is at least 0.26
microsec.
At certain time delay positions ,many paths nearly equal in length may arrive at virtually the
same instant at the receiver. This results in FAST FADING.
Signal can drop down by 20-30dB.
Now lets see How to deal with this fast fading by using rake receiver in nodeB.
Rake Reception:1. A rake receiver is a radio receiver designed to counter the effects of multipath fading. It
does this by using several "sub-receivers" called fingers, each assigned to a different
multipath component
2. Multipath components are delayed copies of the original transmitted wave traveling
through a different path, each with a different magnitude and time-of-arrival at the receiver

3. Since each component contains the original information, if the magnitude and time-ofarrival (phase) of each component is computed at the receiver (through a process called
channel estimation), then all the components can be added coherently to improve the
information reliability. This could very well result in higher signal-to-noise ratio (or
Eb/N0) in a multipath environment
4. Multipath signals reflected from obstacles and signals from different NodeB's can be
combined using rake receiver.
5. Rake receiver takes different factors (attenuation timing) into account and receiver
fingers combine multipath signals to one signals.

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For reselection 2g3g, you can try FDDREP=ECNO, Qsearchi=7 (always), FDD Qmin=7 (-12dB) and
FDDQoffset=0 (always) or FDDREP=rscp, Qsearchi=7 (always), FDDRSCPmin=6 (-102dBm). Hope you
can easily camp on 3G .
if you are worried that the UL coverage may be very small you can confirm by checking the propagation
delay distribution but first check what is the RTWP on that cell, a high noise floor would cause the UE to
transmit at a higher than normal power on order to overcome the noise floor even when close to the
nodeb