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1.

- ESTRUCTURA
2.- PROPIEDADES
3.- PROCESAMIENTO

4.- PERFOMANCE
O USO

Relacin entre propiedades, estructura y


procesamiento

Estructura de los materiales

Propiedades de los materiales

Procesamiento de los materiales

Estructura de los materiales


Estructura atmica

Unin atmica y
Ordenamiento atmico

Estructura de granos

Estructura multifsica

Estructura atmica y enlaces interatmicos

Enlaces Primarios
Metlico

Inico

Enlaces secundarios
Van der Waals

Puente de hidrgeno

Covalente

2003 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning

ENLACE METLICO

The metallic bond forms


when atoms give up their
valence electrons, which
then form an electron sea.
The positively charged atom
cores are bonded by mutual
attraction to the negatively
charged electrons

2003 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning

When voltage is applied to a metal, the


electrons in the electron sea can easily
move and carry a current

ENLACE METLICO

2003 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning

Covalent bonding requires that electrons be shared


between atoms in such a way that each atom has its outer sp
orbital filled. In silicon, with a valence of four, four
covalent bonds must be formed
ENLACE COVALENTE

2003 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning

Covalent bonds are directional.


In silicon, a
tetrahedral structure is formed, with angles of
109.5 required between each covalent bond
ENLACE COVALENTE

2003 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning

An ionic bond is created between two unlike atoms with different


electronegativities. When sodium donates its valence electron to
chlorine, each becomes an ion; attraction occurs, and the ionic bond
is formed

ENLACE INICO

2003 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning

When voltage is applied to an ionic material, entire ions must


move to cause a current to flow. Ion movement is slow and the
electrical conductivity is poor

ENLACE INICO

Enlaces secundarios

(a) Polymer chains have strong covalent backbones, but bond to each other only with
weak hydrogen bonds unless they become cross-linked. (b) Cross-links bond the
chains tightly together. The strong carboncarbon bonds are shown as solid red lines.

SEMICONDUCTORES

Schematic diagram of donor and acceptor levels located in the


forbidden energy gap

SEMICONDUCTORES

In a typical insulating solid, a full valence band


is separated by a substantial energy gap from
the empty conduction band. Note the break in
the vertical scale

Superconductors have the ability to levitate vehicles with embedded magnets.


This picture shows an experimental zero-friction train in Japan, built to use
helium-coo led metal Superconductors.

Fibras de refuerzo en una matriz polimrica


COMPUESTO

PROPIEDADES DE LOS MATERIALES


Propiedades
Fsicas

Densidad
Color
Punto de fusin
Conductividad trmica
Conductividad elctrica

Propiedades
Mecnicas

Magnetismo

Resistencia a la tensin
Resistencia a la compresin
Resistencia al impacto
Resistencia a la fatiga
Resistencia a altas temperaturas
(termofluencia)
Rigidez

Comportamiento ptico

Ductilidad

Elasticidad

Desgaste (abrasin)

Resistencia a la corrosin

PROPIEDAD
TRMICA

PROPIEDAD
ELCTRICA

PROPIEDAD
MECNICA

PROPIEDADES DE LOS MATERIALES


Propiedades
Fsicas

Propiedades
Tecnolgicas

Propiedades
Qumicas

(importante por el uso)

(importante para la
fabricacin)

(importante para el
uso y la fabricacin )

Densidad

Forjabilidad

Resistencia a la
corrosin

Punto de fusin
Conductividad trmica

Maquinabilidad
Aptitud para
soldar

Aleabilidad
Propiedades
venenosas

Conductividad elctrica
Elasticidad

Dureza
Resistencia mecnica

Resistencia a la tensin

a) Aluminio

b) Magnesio

Rigidez

Resistencia a la fatiga

Resistencia a la compresin

Resistencia al impacto

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

The impact test: (a) The Charpy and Izod tests, and (b) dimensions of
typical specimens

Procesamiento de los materiales


METALES
Colada o vaciado
Introducir material lquido en moldes en el
que tiene lugar la solidificacin

VACEADO

Vertical continuous casting, used in


producing many steel products. Liquid
metal contained in the tundish partially
solidifies in a mold

Elaboracin mecnica
En muchos casos son elaborados en caliente (1000C en el caso de
aceros) o en fro (temperatura ambiente).

Forjado
El material se calienta hasta una temperatura a la cual se le puede
deformar fcilmente: mediante un martillo de mano o usando
presin.

FORJADO

Anillos / Camisas Forjadas


mx. 70" diam. ext. - 8.2 tons

Anillos Rolados (sin costura)


mx. 160" diam. ext. y 30"
altura de cara - 6.8 tons

Discos Forjados
mx. 70" diam. ext. - 8.2 tons

Flechas Forjadas
mx. 70" diam. ext. 8.2 tons

FORGING

ROLLING

EXTRUSION

DRAWING
TREFILADO

EXTRUSION

Metalurgia de polvos

Perforado y estirado

Estirado

Doblado

Maquinado

Aptitud para soldar

A schematic diagram of the


fusion zone and solidification
of the weld during fusion
welding: (a) initial prepared
joint, (b) weld at the
maximum temperature, with
joint filled with filler metal,
and (c) weld after
solidification.

Procesamiento de los materiales


CERMICOS
Laminado

Flotado
2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Techniques for manufacturing sheet and plate glass:


(a) rolling and (b) floating the lass on molten tin.

Procesamiento de los materiales


CERMICOS
Compresin

Trefilado
Presionado y soplado

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Techniques for forming lass products: (a) pressing, (b) press


and blow process, and (c) drawing of fibers.

Procesamiento de los materiales


CERMICOS

Compresin

Extrusin

Moldeo por
escurrimiento
2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Processes for shaping crystalline ceramics: (a) pressing, (b) isostatic


pressing, (c) extrusion, (d) jiggering, and (e) slip casting.

Steps in slip casting of


ceramics. (Source:
From Modern Ceramic
Engineering, by D.W.
Richerson, Copyright
1992 Marcel Dekker.
Reprinted by
permission.)

Procesamiento de los materiales


POLIMEROS
Segn el polmero:
TERMOPLASTICOS y TERMORIGIDOS (termoestables)
TERMOPLASTICOS (Acrlicos, ABS, Nylon, polietileno, PVC)

Inyeccin

Schematic diagram of an injection molding apparatus. (Adapted from F.W. Billmeyer,


Jr., Textbook of Polymer Science, 2nd edition. Copyright 1971 by John Wiley & Sons,
New York. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

Extrusin

Schematic diagram of an extruder. (Reprinted with permission from


Encyclopdia Britannica, 1997 by Encyclopdia Britannica, Inc.)

Soplado

(c) 2003 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning

This figure shows a schematic of the blow-stretch process used for fabrication of a
standard two-liter PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottle from a preform. The stress
induced crystallization leads to formation of small crystals that help reinforce the
remaining amorphous matrix.

Schematic diagram of an apparatus that is used to form thin polymer


films. (Reprinted with permission from Encyclopdia Britannica,
1997 by Encyclopdia Britannica, Inc.)

TERMORIGIDOS : (epxicos, fenlicos, poliamidas, etc)


Typical forming processes for thermosetting polymers: (a) compression
molding and (b) transfer molding.

Moldeo por compresin

Moldeo por transferencia

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure 15.29 Typical forming processes for thermoplastic: (a) extrusion, (b) blow
molding, (c) injection molding, (d) thermoforming, (e) calendaring, and (f) spinning.

RESISTENCIA
QUMICA

Resistencia a la corrosin

Electrolito
nodo

Fe

Fe++ + 2e-

Flujo de
electrones

O2 + 2H2O+4e-

Ctodo
Metal

4OH

Resistencia a la corrosin
Electrolito
nodo

Flujo de
electrones

Fe

Fe++ + 2e

2H+ + 2e

Ctodo
Metal

H2

Microstructural features
in metals, showing their
length scale and the
properties which they
determine. Each interval
on the length scale is a
factor of 1000.

Microstructural features in
ceramics and glasses, showing
their length scale and the
properties which they determine.
Each interval on the length scale is
a factor of 1000.

Microstructural features
in polymers and
elastomers, showing
their length scale and the
properties which they
determine. Each interval
on the length scale is a
factor of 1000.

Evolution of molecular architecture in polymer molding.


(a) Alignment of molecules during viscous flow in
shaping. (b) Partial crystallization during cooling.

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under
license.

During hot working, the elongated anisotropic grains immediately


recrystallize. If the hot-working temperature is properly
controlled, the final hot-worked grain size can be very fine

Schematic
trends in
structure and
strength,
hardness,
and ductility
properties of
cold worked
metals that
are annealed
at different
temperatures
for a fixed
time.