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PIPE STRESS

ANALYSIS

REVISION
DATE
ORIG. BY
APP. BY
SIGNATURE

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD
01
June 99

D1
July 99

A.
CLIPSTONE
A.
CLIPSTONE
A.
CLIPSTONE

A.
CLIPSTONE
A.
CLIPSTONE

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 1 OF 32
REV: D1

D2

Contract:

1-14-6960/89

Clients Name:

VIETROSS

Project Title:

VIETROSS REFINERY PROJECT

Project Location:

DUNG QUAT, VIETNAM

Doc. Sequence No:

760

Document Category:

CLASS 1

CONTENTS
SECTION
1
2

SUBJECT
PURPOSE
SCOPE

REFERENCES

OUTLINE EXECUTION

ORGANISATION

BASIC RESPONSIBILITIES

GUIDELINES FOR STRESS ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS

DETAIL STRESSING CONSIDERATIONS

6960-8230-SP-0004
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FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

ATTACHMENTS
RD1

RD1

1. EXTENT OF ANALYSIS- Piping Connected to Equipment other than


Rotating Machinery Air-coolers and Tanks
2. EXTENT OF ANALYSIS- Piping Connected to Rotating Machinery or
Air Fin Coolers
3. EXTENT OF ANALYSIS- Piping Connected to Tanks (No Flexible

Joints)
4. EXPANSION COEFFICENTS
5. EXPANSION COEFFICENTS
6. NEMA CHECK DATA SHEET
7. STRESS LOOP SIZING FOR PIPERACKS
8.
LOOP FORCES AND STRESSES

1.

PURPOSE

1.1

To define the working practices and responsibilities that relate


to the stress analysis for the designed piping systems.
To define the actions to be performed in order to satisfy these
requirements together with the actions necessary to prove
functional integrity of the piping systems in accordance with
the relevant codes and standards.

2.

SCOPE

2.1

The scope of this standard is to establish the base level of


stress analysis to be undertaken, by Contractor, for all process
and utility piping systems.
It
outlines
the
primary
working
methods,
design
considerations, documentation, and guidelines associated with
the required analysis in order to form the standard for
adoption by Contractor.

2.1.2

The stress analysis of piping systems shall include all


necessary supports, ancillaries, loads, pre-applied forces and
the like needed to examine and resolve the loads in
accordance with those stated as acceptable by the listed codes
and standards

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

3.

REFERENCES

3.1

National Codes and Standards


ASME B31.1
ASME B31.3
ASME B31.4
Hydrocarbons,
ASME B16.5
API 610
API 618
Nema SM-23/
API 611
API 661
WRC 107
API 620/
API 650

3.2

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 3
REV: D1

Power Piping
Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Code
Liquid
Transportation
Systems
for
LPG, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols
Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
Centrifugal Pumps
Reciprocating Compressors
Steam Turbines
Air Fin Coolers
Welding Research Council Bulletin
Storage Tanks

VietRoss Standards
6960-8300-SP-0001 Wind, Earthquake and Snow and Ice Loading
6960-8230-SP-0001 Piping Material Specification
6960-8230-SP-0002 Piping Layout and Design
6960-8411-SP-0001 Centrifugal Pumps for Heavy Duty
Services
6960-8411-SP-0002 Positive Displacement Reciprocating
Pumps
6960-8411-SP-0003 Positive Displacement Pumps - Controlled
Volume
6960-8411-SP-0004 Special Purpose Centrifugal Compressors
6960-8411-SP-0005 Special Purpose Reciprocating
Compressors
6960-8411-SP-0008 General Purpose Steam Turbines
6960-8411-SP-0009 Special Purpose Steam Turbines
6960-8411-SP-0021 Centrifugal Pumps for General Duty
Services
6960-8480-SP-0001 General Requirements for Shell & Tube
Heat
Exchangers
6960-8480-SP-0002 General Requirements for Air Cooled Heat
Exchangers
6960-8480-SP-0003 General Requirements for Double Pipe &
Multi-Tube Heat Exchangers
6960-8480-SP-0004 General Requirements for Plate & Frame
Heat
Exchangers

6960-8230-SP-0004
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FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

6960-8430-SP-0001 General Requirements for Welded,


Unfired Pressure Vessels.
6960-8430-SP-0003 API Storage Tanks
4.

OUTLINE EXECUTION
Contractor is responsible for the mechanical integrity of all the
designed piping systems. Contractor shall demonstrate the
above by under taking and providing the following
requirements:

4.1

Specific Stress Analysis Procedure


Contractor shall prepare and issue a Stress Analysis Procedure.
This will take due account of the project, national and VietRoss
standards as defined herein.
The document should be based on the requirements of this
standard, supplemented and amended where necessary to
include all related design considerations. It shall be submitted
to VietRoss for approval prior to the commencement of any
stress analysis.

RD1

4.2

Review of Project Engineering Data


Contractor shall review the Piping and instrument Diagrams,
Line Classification List and the Basic Engineering Data Sheets
for potential piping design problems and inconsistencies.
Particular care shall be taken in the review of the Line
Classification List, which forms the basic design document for
all piping systems stress analysis.

4.3

Stress Critical Line List and Approval Index.


Contractor shall prepare and provide the Stress Critical Line
List.
This is a summary and status document of all the lines
requiring formal analysis, whether by computer or other
means.
Contractor shall prepare and complete a Line Stress Approval
Index in order to establish that all the above lines and stress
related components (including elements such as support
springs) have been examined, checked and approved by
Contractors Stress Engineer.

RD1

4.4

Equipment Specification

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 5
REV: D1

Contractor shall review and (as necessary) comment on


equipment standards/specification where these form part of
the piping system analysis. (E.g. heavy duty base plates on
pumps, all heat exchanger nozzles to have reinforcing pads,
compressor nozzle loading 1.85 x NEMA as a minimum).
4.5

Initial Flexibility Checks


The initial flexibility checks may be carried out by Contractor
using recognised graphical means as nomographs and/or
related charts, with particular attention being given to those
lines contained within the project Critical Line List.
Lines on this list should have specific stress input during
routing.

4.6

Formal Analysis
As a minimum, formal flexibility analysis shall be undertaken
on lines (including terminations) as defined in the Critical Line
List.

4.7

Equipment Nozzle Loading


Contractor shall ensure the suitability of piping loads at the
equipment nozzles (or equipment skid interfaces) and the
support locations for inclusion in their overall design.

4.9

Civil and Structural Loading


Contractor shall ensure the suitability and co-ordination of the
design and structural loading for pipe support foundations
required by all relevant civil and structural works.

4.10

Interface Piping
Contractor shall liase, agree and formalise design basis at
other contractor battery limits, packaged unit limits and at
VietRoss interfaces.
This includes piping, services and
ductwork designed by others.

5.

ORGANISATION
Contractor shall perform all stress calculation work employing
highly competent stress engineers experienced in similar work
and projects. In general, the personnel shall be in a group
(task force) environment with the piping design team.

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 6
REV: D1

6.

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

BASIC RESPONSIBILITIES
Stress analysis forms an integral part of piping engineering,
and as such, Contractor shall report progress and other
prescribed administrative matters to representatives of, or
directly to VietRoss.

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

RD1

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 7
REV: D1

7.

GUIDELINES FOR STRESS ANALYSIS

7.1

Introduction

7.1.1

The Contractor shall ensure that piping systems are safe for all
specified design conditions. These guidelines are concerned
with the piping flexibility aspect of this function, other related
activities include piping design for pressure containment.

7.1.2

This standard, by emphasising the need for demonstrating


engineering integrity, does not seek to restrict the use of
sound engineering judgement based on Contractors
experience. Computer usage should be resorted to where
accurate assessment of loading and stresses are essential for
line approval or where an alternative (recognised) method of
calculation, as identified in Contractors approved procedure,
would be more costly in terms of time or resources. Where
computer calculation is used, consideration shall be given to
the form of input data, which must give verifiable results
within the completed calculation report.

7.1.3

Whatever the method used for reviewing piping flexibility and


stress calculation, the results should be clearly identified and
documented for subsequent audit by either VietRoss or by a
third party.

7.2

General

7.2.1

Piping systems may be subjected to many diverse load


conditions. Stresses induced by pressure, weight of pipe,
equipment vibration, fittings and fluids, external loadings such
as wind loads, seismic loads, settlement, solar/frost
temperature effects and thermal expansion and contraction
are significant in the stress analysis of piping systems.
Generally most piping movements are due to thermal
expansion, but all the above criteria shall be taken into
consideration during stress analysis.

7.2.2

Piping systems shall be designed to be adequately flexible and


wherever possible this should be achieved by the natural
flexibility of the pipework. If necessary the route of the piping
should be modified (or expansion loops incorporated) in order
to obtain sufficient flexibility. Only in exceptional cases where
it is impractical to increase the system flexibility (to reduce the
stress range to an acceptable level or to reduce equipment
loading) should an expansion joint or similar be considered as
for a design solution. The use of expansion joints shall require
the prior written approval of VietRoss

6960-8230-SP-0004
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RD1

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

7.2.3

When carrying out a flexibility analysis, the worst process


design conditions shall be considered, including steam-out.
Practical engineering judgement shall be used to decide the
worst load case scenario and consideration must be given to
running the worst load case. Process conditions which give
rise to impulse loading such as pressure surge, relief discharge
reaction or two phase flow shall also be taken into account.

7.2.4

Strain sensitive equipment (vessels, heat exchangers, reactors,


tanks, pumps and compressors) at which pipe systems
terminate shall be considered rigid for pipe stress analysis.
The loads shall be calculated at the vessel nozzle/shell
interface for all classes of equipment with the exception of
rotating machines, where the nozzle is recommended for
inclusion within the pipework analysis and treated as rigid.
7.2.4.1. The acceptance or approval of nozzle loads shall be
the
responsibility
of
Contractors
Specialist
Equipment Engineer.
7.2.4.2. In the case of tanks, the nozzle loads shall be referred
to Contractors Specialist Vessel Engineer for review.
Design shall follow the requirements of API 650
unless otherwise stated within the listed documents.
7.2.4.3

In all cases Contractor shall be responsible for the


structural integrity of piping flanges. Flange leakage
calculations shall be performed as required by the
relevant Code

7.2.4.4. Piping connected to machinery shall be flexible to


ensure that the piping loads transmitted to the
machine are acceptable under all design conditions.
7.2.5

Boundary conditions at other Contractor or VietRoss interfaces


must be clearly defined before detail commencement of design
work.
This should include, but is not limited to, the
movements, forces and pipe support provisions at boundaries.
See also paragraph 4.10.

8.

ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS

RD1 8.1

General
All Systems shall be analysed in accordance with Attachments
1, 2 and 3. These out-line the methods of examination
required for all piping systems covered by this standard and
diagrammatically represent the potential need for computer or

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 9
REV: D1

other analysis. Contractor shall develop these for all cases of


pipe schedules and conditions within the detailed design.
8.1.2

Visual inspection or approximate calculation methods may be


applied only if they are used in the range of configuration for
which their adequacy has been demonstrated. Approximate
calculations may include the use of approved charts,
nomographs and simplified formulae. The objective of using
these methods is to demonstrate that recourse to more precise
methods is not required.

8.1.3

Acceptable comprehensive methods of analyses include


computer and analytical methods, which include stress
intensification and flexibility factors for all components other
than pipe, and provide an evaluation of the forces moments
and stresses caused by piping displacement.

8.2

Visual, Chart or Informal Checking Methods

8.2.1

Piping flexibility can be checked by visual inspection and the


use of approved reference charts e.g. stress nomograph,
expansion loop charts, or analogy. Piping loads on equipment
shall be avoided by adding suitable guides, restraints and/or
anchors.

8.2.2

At pumps having end suction nozzles it may be possible to


restrain/anchor the piping close to the pump. However this
restraint/anchor should not be more than 1 metre from the
fixed point of the pump casing and should be designed such
that adjustment can be made when bolting the pipe flange to
the pump nozzle. Loads on the restraint/anchor must be
minimised by the location of guides further upstream e.g. in
the piperack. This design option should be used with care as
poor support specification and installation can generate large
forces.

8.2.3

Piping which connects the tube bundles of air cooler


exchangers can be checked and the terminal loads evaluated
usually by basic hand calculations. Loadings on structures can
be estimated by approximate methods. Computer analysis
may be necessary in the following cases:

8.2.3.1. Where items of equipment are particularly strain-sensitive, e.g.


compressors and very thin walled vessels.
8.2.3.2. For large pipes, diameters greater than 24 NPS.
8.2.3.3. Where movements are large, particularly when due to
extraneous causes e.g. differential settlement of foundations,
overhead lines rising with tower expansion.

6960-8230-SP-0004
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REV: D1

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

8.3

Comprehensive Methods of Analysis

8.3.1

Before resorting to formal calculations and computer analysis,


check that the proposed piping configuration is approximately
correct by visual appraisal and by reference to an approximate
method. If the stress in the pipe itself is the only criterion,
further calculation may be unnecessary, but care must be
taken, as the presence of components subject to intensified
local stresses such as branches, and reduced size piping may
cause stresses in excess of those suggested by the
nomograph.
In general, computer analysis will be required for that listed
below. The listing is not intended to be exhaustive and
address every eventuality, however and experienced,
engineering judgement shall prevail.
8.3.1.1. Lines connected to strain sensitive equipment to
evaluate the magnitude of the terminal loads with
sufficient accuracy for final review by the specialist
Engineers. Engineering judgement shall be used to
decide as to which equipment should be treated as
strain sensitive.
8.3.1.2. Rotating equipment with nozzles 2 NPS and above
with a design temperature of 80 C and above.
8.3.1.3.

Large diameter (24 NPS and above) or heavy wall


pipes, and also lines with design conditions for ferrous
and alloy piping above 350 C and for Stainless Steel
above 270 C.

8.3.1.4. Thin walled vessels (e.g. corroded thickness less than


5mm) with a design temperature of 80 C and above.
8.3.1.5. Heat exchangers with a design temperature of 80 C
and above.
8.3.1.6. Piping systems operating at temperatures minus 40 C
and below
8.3.1.7. All piping with a wall thickness greater than standard
weight, considered on its individual case.
8.3.1.8. Where movements are large due to extraneous
causes, e.g. differential settlement of foundation, etc.

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

6960-8230-SP-0004
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FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

8.3.1.9. Piping which connects together the tube bundles of


air-cooled exchangers.
8.3.1.10. Lines subject to large displacements imposed on
them by the movements of other lines or equipment
to which they
are connected, even though they may be below the
limits recommended
8.3.1.11.Jacketed pipework.
8.3.2

Computer Analysis - Normally, the computer input should


include the following information:

8.3.2.1.
contained.

Physical

characteristics

of

the

piping

and

fluid

8.3.2.2. Rate of expansion.


8.3.2.3. Terminal movements.
8.3.2.4. Details of restraints, including fixed supports, which
will significantly affect vertical movement of the pipe.
8.3.3

Computer analysis for lines, which are likely to impose


significant loads on equipment, are to include all relevant
effects (e.g. pressure, weight, and thermal expansion).
However, Contractor is cautioned that the computer analysis
normally treats nozzle connections as rigid anchors so that
very small deflections of pipe between supports may cause
indicated bending moments at the nozzle which, in practice,
will disappear with very small rotations.

8.3.4

The interpretation of computed forces and moments must take


account of the movements from which they originate, and
Contractor must make a distinction between loadings which
are sustained over a large range of movement and can cause
gross distortion, and secondary loading which cause only
minor strains.

9.

DETAIL STRESSING CONSIDERATIONS

9.1

Temperature Conditions

9.1.1

The Line Classification List indicates for each line a design


temperature and an operating temperature. Stress analysis
shall be carried out on the basis of the design temperature. In
instances where the design temperature is exceptionally high

6960-8230-SP-0004
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FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

when compared with the operating temperature, Contractor


should establish the mode of operation at the higher
temperature and the extent to which the system is affected.
Note: The ASME Code B31.3 does not permit an increase in
allowable stresses in the piping for short-term variations above
the normal design temperature. However, it may be possible
to allow higher loads on equipment especially if that
equipment is not itself subject to the higher temperature.
9.1.2

Steam Tracing - Tracing can cause the temperature of the line


to rise above normal, during periods when the line is empty or
when no flow occurs.
Piping design must take this into
account when calculating movements.

9.1.3

Steam Out - Lines in hydrocarbon service may occasionally be


steamed out and pipe stressing must take into account the
resulting rise in temperature. Note that the equipment is also
steamed out and in the case of columns, the resulting vertical
expansion may cause large movements in the connected
piping, which may remain at ambient temperature.

9.1.4

Solar Radiation - Long straight uninsulated pipe runs,


especially off-site pipelines may be subject to significant
movements as a result of solar radiation. Due allowance shall
be made for this.

9.1.5

Ambient Temperature - The minimum ambient design


temperature will be given in the Project Basic Engineering
Design Data (BEDD). This is the temperature, which is to be
used as the basis for expansion and analysis purposes.

9.2

Equipment Considerations

9.2.1

Piping connected to pumps - Pipework at two-pump sets shall


be analysed with both pumps in operation first. A further oneoff case, one pump in operation, one pump on standby shall be
run after consideration has been given to which of the pumps
operating will produce the worst case. The temperature of the
line to the standby pump shall be considered as either:
9.2.1.1. 75% operating temperature where check valve bypass is specified.
9.2.1.2. Minimum maintained temperature where specified in
line list.
9.2.1.3. Minimum ambient temperature.

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

RD1

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 13
REV: D1

9.2.1.4. Where applicable the maximum piping load allowed at


the operating pump nozzle shall conform to API 610.
This is a pump manufacturers standard, which allows
double the permitted piping loads (in accordance with
Appendix F of that standard). This option may be
noted in Engineering Std. 8411-SP-0001 Centrifugal
Pumps for Heavy Duty Services and Contractor shall
ensure that compliance with this standard is being
observed.
For large pumps that are outside the scope of API 610, refer to
NEMA Std SM23 (Mechanical Drive Steam Turbines) and the
allowable nozzle loads have to be increased by at least a factor
of 1.8. (Note this factor may be able to be increased on
negotiation with the Vendor).
Pumps which are purchased in accordance with Engineering
Std. 8411-SP0021 Centrifugal Pumps for General Duty
Services, may not conform to API 610. Allowable loadings
must be requested at an early date from the pump
manufacturer.
When in doubt about allowable piping loads on pump nozzles,
the calculated loads resulting from the desired piping
arrangement should be sent to the manufacturer for approval.
In situations where space restrictions make it especially
difficult to achieve satisfactory nozzle loadings the following
measures can be considered:
A bleed to maintain temperature in the stand-by pump piping
thus reducing the differential expansion in the piping legs to
the two (or three) pumps.
Eliminating or reducing any difference in size between the pipe
and the pump nozzle.
Either case must be approved by VietRoss.

9.2.2

Turbine and Centrifugal Compressor Piping - Nozzle


displacements for turbine and compressor nozzles should be
obtained from the supplier. For turbines, minimum nozzle
loads may be obtained from NEMA SM-23, whilst a factor of
1.85 may be applied to obtain minimum nozzle loads for
centrifugal compressors. Refer to Attachment 6 - NEMA Check
Data Sheet for calculation requirements.
Note: Higher allowable loads for turbines and compressors
may be obtained from the vendor.

6960-8230-SP-0004
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9.2.3

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

Air-Cooler Piping - For piping loads at air-coolers the Contractor


should refer to API 661 and for equipment requisitions twice
the load given by API 661 should be used. With multi-bundles
it is generally advantageous to connect the piping inlet
manifold as close as possible to the exchanger nozzles and
allow thermal expansion to shift the tube bundles laterally. At
even-pass units the flexibility of the outlet piping must allow
for this movement. At odd-pass units the outlet piping must
allow for a possible failure of a single fan thus causing a
differential temperature along adjacent tube bundles. The
exchanger manufacturer should be required to provide low
friction pads under tube bundles as a matter of routine for all
multi-bundle air-fin coolers.
To limit the vertical pipe loads on the inlet nozzles it may be
necessary to extend the air-cooler support steelwork upwards
between the bundles in order to carry the weight of the
manifold for both hydrostatic test and for operating (normally
vapour) conditions.
Should the force required to shift the tube bundles exceed the
maximum allowed on the nozzles, the following alternative
solutions may be considered:
9.2.3.1. Request the vendor to provide mechanical links
between the tube bundles at the inlet header boxes
so that expansion across the entire air-cooler matches
that of the inlet-piping manifold. This device can only
be used where distance between adjacent header
boxes is minimal and expansion across both piping
manifold and header boxes is identical.
9.2.3.2. Support the inlet manifold on a separate structure and
connect it to the air-cooler inlet nozzles by pipe loops
of adequate flexibility.

9.2.4

Transfer Lines from Heaters - These require special attention


and a computer analysis should be considered as routine
practice.
The vendor usually specifies allowable loads conservatively on
heater nozzles. If these cannot be achieved, the Contractor
shall liase directly with the vendor and submit the calculated
loads for further consideration by the vendor.
Lateral
movement of the connecting piping can, to some extent, be
absorbed by allowing the terminal tubes to shift a small
amount (approx. 25-mm). The vendor should be asked to
include this feature in their design. Vertical movement of
piping connections to horizontal tubes can be similarly

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 15
REV: D1

incorporated in the heater design by pre-setting the tube


upwards, i.e. lifting it off the nearest supports.
Check also the location of the fixed ends of the tubes to
determine the movement of the heater terminals and whether
a change in the heater design would reduce the problems
resulting from overall expansion of the pipe and tubes.
Transfer lines carrying a mixed phase fluid can be subjected to
severe vibrations.
The Contractor shall check for this
possibility and, if necessary, add restraints to prevent
movement from this source.
Depending upon the type and function of the heater, the
contents of the transfer line may be vapour during operation,
but liquid during start-up or shutdown when the operating
temperature is less than normal. The design and location of
supports to meet the two weight conditions must be taken into
account when designing and analysing the transfer line.
Information with regard to the weight of liquid and the
temperature/pressure characteristics of transition to vapour
phase shall be obtained from the process design
9.2.5.

Piping at Storage Tanks Differential settlement at tanks is


particularly important and data must be obtained prior to the
design of piping on the following:

9.2.5.1.

Amount of settlement.

9.2.5.2.

The period of time over which settlement occurs.


9.2.5.3.Amount of settlement and recovery
following construction and hydrotest.

that

occurs

When large storage tanks are filled, the walls bulge and
nozzles located in the lower course are rotated downwards.
Any restraint to this rotation by the stiffness of the connected
piping will cause a stress in the tank shell, which must be
limited to values defined by the Specialist Vessel Engineer. It
is imperative for design to proceed that the values of tank
bulge and nozzle rotation and the methods of calculation to be
used are agreed early in the project. The definition of these
values is the responsibility of the Specialist Vessel Engineer.
The combined effects of settlement and nozzle rotation may
suggest supporting the piping on springs. However, before
pursuing this course a check should be made on the possibility
of the line becoming drained during a normal operation cycle.
If this should occur the supporting springs may impose an

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 16
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PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

excessive upward force on the tank nozzle. Where the line can
only be drained when the tank is out of service, instructions
shall be issued for the springs to be locked before draining.
9.3.

Surge/Slug Flow

9.3.1.

Check the possibility of surge occurring in off-site lines as a


result of valve closure.
Install line stops at changes of
direction to withstand surge forces and consequent movement
of the pipe.
The following are conditions that should be considered for slug
flow:
9.3.1.1. Slug development due to start-up/shutdown.
9.3.1.2. Slug build-up in condensate lines.
9.3.1.3. Slug development in relief flare systems (liquid relief).

9.3.2.

A slug of liquid, with a mass (kg) and velocity (m/s), being


driven along a piping system has a momentum, and if it
travels around a sharp bend or elbow, there is a change in
momentum.
The following formula may be applied to calculate the force
acting on elbows:

[ =pav5

(1)

where: p = density of fluid


a = internal cross sectional area
v = velocity of which slug is travelling
[ = Resultant force as slug strikes elbow
2

It should be remembered that this force generated is an


impact force and it is suggested that formula (1) should be
factored by a dynamic load factor i.e.

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 17
REV: D1

[ =2 x pav5
9.3.3.

A full dynamic analysis should not be attempted if a system is


acting close to slug flow condition due to the complexity of
predicting the time period of slug generation. However, an
attempt should be made to increase the first mode of
vibration (natural frequency) to a value above 5Hz.

9.4.

Earthquake Forces

9.4.1.

Piping in earthquake zones must be designed on the basis that


spring supports should be avoided.

9.4.2.

Lateral movement of the ground requires restraints to be


added along the pipe. To calculate the horizontal force on
these restraints multiply the dead weight by a factor
dependent on the earthquake severity zone.

9.4.3.

A dynamic analysis may be necessary on sensitive lines


subject to earthquake design.
This technique should be
carefully used, as it is generally an iterative process.

9.5

Wind Loading

9.5.1

VietRoss Engineering Standard 6960-8300-SP-001, Wind,


Earthquake and Snow and Ice Loading is aimed at the
structural integrity of buildings and structures to ensure that
surface areas that are exposed to wind, including pipes, are
designed for. The piping code ASME B31.3 paragraph 301.5.2,
Wind, states The effect of wind loading shall be taken into
account in the design of exposed piping. The method of
analysis may be as described in ASCE 7-88, Minimum Design
Loads for Building and Other Structures, or the Uniform
Building Code.
Therefore, wind loading should be considered on the following
pipelines to ensure structural integrity of pipe support
structures and vessel shells when the pipe outside diameter
(including insulation thickness) is 400 mm and over:
9.5.1.1. Lines that are routed down towers, columns or vertical
drums.
9.5.1.2. Inlet lines to Air-coolers.

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 18
REV: D1

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

9.5.1.3. Flare or Run Down or similar lines when routed in


exposed areas between process units and the flare stack.
9.5.1.4. Lines that are routed over and around exposed
platforms such as top platforms on columns or high structures
at elevations 10 m and above.
RD1

9.6

Foundation Settlement

9.6.1

Differential settlement must be taken into account in piping


stress analysis when the following values are exceeded:
Pumps to piperacks
Pumps to drums and storage tanks
Pumps to shell and tube exchangers
Pumps to columns
Turbines to piperacks
Shell and tube exchangers to piperacks
Shell and tube exchangers to drums
Shell and tube exchangers to columns
Columns to piperacks
Columns to air-cooler exchangers

5 mm
10 mm
10 mm
5 mm
5 mm
10 mm
10 mm
10 mm
15 mm
15 mm

9.6.2

Where it is necessary to design for greater settlements, the


initial amount occurring during construction and testing may
be ignored. In such cases it should be clearly noted that piping
connections must be made after hydrostatic testing.

9.7

Rack Deflection

9.7.1

It is recommended that piperack deflections concur to the


above criteria for modular design and a maximum of 5 mm
should be adopted for the lateral deflection of piperacks.

9.8

Buried Piping

9.8.1

Buried piping will expand or contract with temperature


changes in the flowing medium or the surrounding soil. This
movement will occur regardless of the burial depth or the soil
type. The total change in length of the pipeline is dependent
on the soil fiction and the passive resistance.

9.9

Control Valve Piping

9.9.1

Control or let down valves cause vibrations in connecting


pipework and may sometimes reach dangerous amplitudes or
destructive frequencies. In general the connecting pipelines
should be guided whenever possible to eliminate such large
amplitude vibrations.

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 19
REV: D1

Rigid attachments should be avoided if:


9.9.1.1. Pipelines are subjected to sonic vibrations with highenergy input.
9.9.1.2. Where the pipe wall tends to oval.
9.9.1.3. Wave patterns develop circumferentially.
9.10

Bowing of Pipe

9.10.1

Due to pipelines being subjected to unequal heating across the


pipe wall along its length the pipe will bow. This type of
bowing is unrelated to column instability resulting from
compressive axial loads.

9.10.2

Bowing may occur when the flowing medium, which may be


hot or cold, partially fills the pipelines or the suns radiation
heats the top of large empty pipelines which lay close to frozen
ground.

9.10.3

The requirement to include bowing in the analysis should be


considered if the differential temperature across the pipe wall
is 50 C or greater.

9.11

Stress Loops

9.11.1

Stress loops within piperacks can be sized using nomograph


methodology. Refer to Attachment 7 Stress Loop Sizing for
Piperacks

9.11.2

Refer to Attachment 8 Loop Forces and Stresses for


calculation requirements. Loads on piperack bents should be
transmitted to the Civil Engineers to enable them to complete
the piperack design.

9.12

Support Design

9.12.1

Contractor shall provide a comprehensive pipe support


standard. This shall use stress loads calculated and integrate
them fully with design range of the piping systems and the
requirements of this standard.
Contractor shall provide for design of support trunnions
(including reinforcement as required) in accordance with the
requirements of the codes and documents listed. Trunnion
diameters shall normally be one pipe size down on line size.

9.12.2.

9.13

Branch Reinforcement

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 20
REV: D1

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

To be in accordance with ASME 31.3.


9.14

Expansion Joints

9.14.1

In cases where it is impractical to increase the flexibility of a


pipeline to reduce the stress range and/or termination loads to
an acceptable level, the Specialist Stress Engineer may specify
the use of bellows or expansion joints as a design solution.
(See also paragraph 7.2.2.)

9.14.2

If it is found that an expansion joint is required then the


technical requirements shall be identified and listed.

9.14.3

Contractor shall to obtain written approval for the use of


expansion joints or flexible hoses from VietRoss prior to
proceeding with the requisitions.

9.15

Spring Supports

9.15.1

Spring supports shall be avoided as an easy solution for piping


which is affected by vertical thermal expansions or mechanical
movements. An alternative is to reposition supports or re-route
the piping.
VietRoss approval is required for the use of spring supports.

9.15.2

If spring supports are necessary in a pump system, the pre-set


reaction force is set to the value required when the system is
filled with liquid. Prior to start-up this reaction could be
applied to an empty piping system. If the pump or piping is
unable to accept such loading the spring must be pre-set at a
value between the piping system being full and empty. If this
still fails to meet the acceptable loads, the piping will require
re-routing.

9.15.3

Spring supports are ideal for situations where vertical


expansions or mechanical movements are restricted by solid
supports, which results in unacceptable reactions or stresses.
Spring supports must be used on hot piping systems adjacent
to pumps, turbines and compressors when solid supports
prove to be unsatisfactory.

9.15.4

Care should be taken that springs are accessible for the


release of gags during commissioning.

9.16

Other Considerations

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

9.16.1

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 21
REV: D1

The following considerations have been included as an aide


memoir to cover other specific areas of detailed analysis
requirements.
9.16.1.1. Firewater systems, whereas these are not subject to
high thermal loads they are often subject to large
surge loads. The pipework must therefore, include
adequate restraint.

RD1

9.16.1.2. Impulse loading to relief valve discharges venting to


atmosphere. The Specialist Instrument Engineer
normally determines relief valve forces after valve
throat sizing.
Note: For relief valve discharges
relieving into a closed vent or flare header, impulse
loadings can be ignored. Relief valve piping,
however, still needs restraint but in this case
analysis is not required.
9.16.1.3 Thin walled piping is to be considered for shortened
spans.
9.16.1.4. Flare systems must be reviewed with consideration
given to the full temperature range, and the
possibility of slugging and shock loading criteria.
Branch connections, tie-ins, for flare systems should
be at 90 degrees for maximum strength for stress
analysis.
Unless process requirements dictate
otherwise the following stress intensification factors
should be applied:-

Where:

90
60
45
30

Degrees
Degrees
Degrees
Degrees

SIF
SIF
SIF
SIF

x
x
x
x

1
1.25
2.25
3.5

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 22
REV: D1

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 23
REV: D1

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

ATTACHMENT 1 EXTENT OF ANALYSIS


Piping Connected to Equipment other than Rotating Machinery, Air-coolers and
Tanks

Note: Chart is based on Standard Wall Thickness

T C

400
T 330 C
T < 330 C
T 230 C
T < 230 C

1
300

200

T 180 C
T < 180 C

T 80 C
T 80 C

100

0
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

3
Nominal Pipe Size (Inches)

22

24

230
C

230
C

LEGEND:

Indicates computer analysis required

Indicates chart/nomograph analysis is adequate

Indicates visual inspection is probably


adequate

T 40 C
T < 40 C

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 24
REV: D1

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

ATTACHMENT 2 EXTENT OF ANALYSIS


Piping Connected to Rotating Machinery or Air Fin Coolers
Note: Chart is based on Standard Wall Thickness

T C
400

2
1

300

T 180 C

200

T < 180 C

100

T 80 C
T < 80 C

0
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Nominal Pipe Size (Inches)

LEGEND:

Indicates computer analysis required

Indicates chart/nomograph analysis is


adequate

Indicates visual inspection is


adequate

22

24

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 25
REV: D1

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

ATTACHMENT 3 EXTENT OF ANALYSIS


Piping Connected to Tanks (No Flexible Joints)
Note: Chart is based on Standard Wall Thickness

T C
400

300
T 230 C
T < 230 C

200

T 180 C
T < 180 C

100

T 80 C
T < 80 C

0
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Nominal Pipe Size (Inches)

LEGEND:

Indicates computer analysis required

Indicates chart/nomograph analysis is


adequate

Indicates visual inspection is


adequate

22

24

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 26
REV: D1

RD1

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

ATTACHMENT 4 - EXPANSION COEFFICIENTS FOR CARBON STEEL


Note: Material will be subject to temperature and stress limitations

DEG C
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95

mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C
-0.32
100
0.92
200
2.2
300
3.61
400
5.16
500
6.81
600
8.49
700
-0.27
105
0.98
205
2.27
305
3.69
405
5.24
505
6.89
605
8.57
705
-0.22
110
1.04
210
2.34
310
3.76
410
5.32
510
6.98
610
8.65
710
-0.16
115
1.11
215
2.41
315
3.84
415
5.4
515
7.06
615
8.73
715
-0.11
120
1.17
220
2.48
320
3.91
420
5.49
520
7.14
620
8.81
720
-0.05
125
1.23
225
2.54
325
3.99
425
5.57
525
7.22
625
8.89
725
0
130
1.29
230
2.61
330
4.06
430
5.65
530
7.3
630
8.97
730
0.05
135
1.35
235
2.68
335
4.14
435
5.74
535
7.38
635
9.04
735
0.11
140
1.42
240
2.75
340
4.22
440
5.82
540
7.47
640
9.13
740
0.17
145
1.48
245
2.82
345
4.29
445
5.9
545
7.55
645
9.21
745
0.22
150
1.55
250
2.89
350
4.37
450
5.99
550
7.64
650
9.29
750
0.28
155
1.61
255
2.96
355
4.45
455
6.07
555
7.72
655
9.37
0.33
160
1.67
260
3.03
360
4.52
460
6.15
560
7.81
660
9.45
0.39
165
1.74
265
3.1
365
4.6
465
6.23
565
7.9
665
9.54
0.45
170
1.8
270
3.18
370
4.68
470
6.31
570
7.98
670
9.62
0.51
175
1.87
275
3.25
375
4.76
475
6.4
575
8.06
675
9.71
0.56
180
1.94
280
3.32
380
4.84
480
6.48
580
8.15
680
9.79
0.62
185
2
285
3.39
385
4.92
485
6.57
585
8.23
685
9.88
0.68
190
2.07
290
3.46
390
5
490
6.65
590
8.32
690
9.96
0.74
195
2.14
295
3.54
395
5.08
495
6.73
595
8.41
695
10.04
0.8
0.86

mm/M
10.13
10.21
10.29
10.38
10.46
10.54
10.63
10.71
10.8
10.88
10.97

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

RD1

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 27
REV: D1

ATTACHMENT 5 - EXPANSION COEFFICIENTS FOR A312 TP321


STAINLESS STEEL

Note: Material will be subject to temperature and stress limitations

DEG C
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95

mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C
-0.49
100
1.35
200
3.1
300
4.93
400
6.83
500
-0.41
105
1.43
205
3.19
305
5.03
405
6.93
505
-0.33
110
1.52
210
3.28
310
5.12
410
7.03
510
-0.24
115
1.61
215
3.37
315
5.21
415
7.13
515
-0.16
120
1.69
220
3.46
320
5.31
420
7.23
520
-0.08
125
1.78
225
3.56
325
5.4
425
7.32
525
0
130
1.87
230
3.65
330
5.5
430
7.42
530
0.08
135
1.95
235
3.74
335
5.59
435
7.52
535
0.16
140
2.04
240
3.83
340
5.68
440
7.62
540
0.25
145
2.13
245
3.92
345
5.78
445
7.72
545
0.33
150
2.22
250
4.01
350
5.87
450
7.82
550
0.41
155
2.3
255
4.1
355
5.97
455
7.92
555
0.5
160
2.39
260
4.19
360
6.06
460
8.01
560
0.58
165
2.48
265
4.28
365
6.15
465
8.11
565
0.66
170
2.57
270
4.37
370
6.25
470
8.21
570
0.75
175
2.66
275
4.47
375
6.34
475
8.31
575
0.83
180
2.75
280
4.56
380
6.44
480
8.41
580
0.92
185
2.84
285
4.65
385
6.54
485
8.51
585
1
190
2.92
290
4.75
390
6.64
490
8.61
590
1.09
195
3.01
295
4.84
395
6.74
495
8.71
595
1.18
1.26

mm/M DEG C
8.81
600
8.92
605
9.02
610
9.12
615
9.23
620
9.33
625
9.43
630
9.53
635
9.64
640
9.74
645
9.84
650
9.94
655
10.04 660
10.14 665
10.25 670
10.35 675
10.45 680
10.55 685
10.66 690
10.76 695

mm/M DEG C
10.86
700
10.96
705
11.06
710
11.17
715
11.27
720
11.38
725
11.48
730
11.58
735
11.68
740
11.78
745
11.89
750
11.99
755
12.09
760
12.19
765
12.29
770
12.39
775
12.49
780
12.59
785
12.7
790
12.8
795

mm/M DEG C
12.9
800
13
805
13.1
810
13.2
815
13.31
13.41
13.51
13.61
13.71
13.82
13.92
14.02
14.12
14.23
14.35
14.46
14.58
14.7
14.81
14.93

mm/M
15.04
15.16
15.29
15.41

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 28
REV: D1

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

ATTACHMENT 6 NEMA CHECK DATA SHEET


TYPICAL DATA SHEET

PIPING ENGINEERING

VIETROSS

NEMA CHECK DATA SHEET

FOSTER WHEELER
ENERGY LIMITED

Fy
Fz

Mz

My

Fx Parallel to Turbine Shaft

+ ve system

Fx

Fz Perpendicular to Turbine Shaft

Mx

1. FORCES AND MOMENTS AT NOZZLE FLANGE FACES


Node Nozzl Nozzle
e
Dia.
No. No.
(inch
)

Tota
l

Area

Fx

Fy

Fz

Mx

My

Mz

3F+M

(inch (inch)
) 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

<=500
0 D OK
0
0
0
0

Stres
s
Calc
No.

OK
OK
OK
OK

Note: Moments and Forces to be in Foot Pounds and Pounds


2

F=

Fx + F y + Fz

M =

Mx + My + Mz

D = Nom.Dia

if Nom.Dia 8"

16 + Nom .Dia
if Nom .Dia > 8"
3

2
Area = ( Nozzle bore Dia )
4

D=

FWEL * * * * / 1

g:\piping\form\2101a6

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 29
REV: D1

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

ATTACHMENT 6 NEMA CHECK DATA SHEET (CONTINUED)


TYPICAL DATA SHEET

PIPING ENGINEERING

VIETROSS

NEMA CHECK DATA SHEET

FOSTER WHEELER
ENERGY LIMITED

2. FORCES AND MOMENTS AT CENTRELINE OF EXHAUST FLANGE FACE CONNECTION


Node
No.

Nozzle
No.

Fx

Fy

Fz

Line
No.

Sum
0
0
0
0
0
0
Allowable 50 D c
125 D c 100 D c 250 D c 125 D c 125 D c
=
0
0
0
0
0
0

Area
Dia (inch)

Dc
Fc
Mc
Actual
Allowable
Factor 'K'

0
0
0
0
0
#DIV/0!

Note: Moments and Forces to be in Foot Pounds and Pounds

Dc =

Total Area

up to 9"

18 + Equiv . Dia
Dc =

Fc =
Mc =

Fx + F y + Fz
2

over 9"
2

M x + M y + M z

Actual = Fc +

Mc
2

Allowable = 125 D c
Factor ' K ' =

Actual
Allowable

Additional Moment Due to Transposed Forces:

M x = + ( F y Z ) ( Fz Y )
M y = ( F x Z ) + ( Fz X )
M z = + ( Fx Y ) ( F y X )
FWEL * * * * / 2

g:\piping\form\2101a6

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 30
REV: D1

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

ATTACHMENT 7 STRESS LOOP SIZING FOR PIPERACKS

TYPICAL NOMOGRAPH

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 31
REV: D1

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

ATTACHMENT 8 LOOP FORCES AND STRESSES

TYPICAL DATA SHEET

VIETROSS

PIPING ENGINEERING
LOOP FORCES AND STRESSES

FOSTER WHEELER
ENERGY LIMITED

Page 1 of 1

G=
W=
A

FX

FX
H=

CL

B
G

6m
(min
)

h=

tR
r2

6m
(min)

S=

k=

( SIF Inplane ) =

1.65
h
0.9
2

h3
L = 2 RK + 2 H + G 8R
Y = ( RK +W + H 4 R ) H / L
2

I X = AA , BB ,CC Y L
Where:

( 2W + H 6 R ) H 2
2
( H 2 R) 3
BB =
6
AA =

CC =[( H 2 +3R 2 2 HR )

+ HR 2 R 2 ]4 RK

EC I S
10 5 I X
E
FX ( HOT ) = H FX
EC
FX =

FWEL ****/ 1

MAX

= [( H Y ) FX ] / Z if G 2W

MAX

= Y FX / Z if G < 2W

g:\piping\form\2101a8

6960-8230-SP-0004
PAGE: 32
REV: D1

PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS

FOSTER WHEELER
ENGINEERING
STANDARD

ATTACHMENT 8 LOOP FORCES AND STRESSES (CONTINUED)


TYPICAL DATA SHEET

PIPING ENGINEERING

VIETROSS

LOOP FORCES AND STRESSES

FOSTER WHEELER
ENERGY LIMITED

Page 2 of 2

Line No:
Input

Fill in this section only

Nominal Size

inches

Wall thickness

inches

Calculation

inches

inches

Material

0 cm 4

0 cm 3

h
K

#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

(SIF in)

#DIV/0!

Temperature

degC

mm/m

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

Ec

MN/m

#DIV/0!

Y *L

Eh/Ec

0 m3

BB

CC

m
N

Allowable Stress

MN/m

0 m3

Allowable Force

AA

Relbow rad

Ix

0 mm

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

Result
Fx
Fx HOT

#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

MAX

N
N
MN/m

#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

FWEL ****/ 1

g:\piping\form\2101a8