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High-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis

Guide

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Table of Contents
1. Overview of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis ........................................................................ 1
2. Finite Element Analysis of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields ...................................................... 3
3. Elements and Commands Available in High-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis ............................... 9
3.1. Available Elements ............................................................................................................................ 9
3.2. High-Frequency Commands ............................................................................................................ 11
4. Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis ............................................................................... 13
4.1. Creating the Physics Environment ................................................................................................... 14
4.1.1. Specifying Element Types ....................................................................................................... 14
4.1.2. Specifying the System of Units ................................................................................................ 15
4.1.3. Specifying Material Properties ................................................................................................ 15
4.2. Building the Model, Assigning Region Attributes, and Meshing ........................................................ 17
4.2.1. Defining Model Region Attributes .......................................................................................... 18
4.2.2. Meshing the Model ................................................................................................................ 18
4.3. Applying Boundary Conditions and Excitations (Loads) .................................................................... 18
4.3.1. Applying Boundary Conditions ............................................................................................... 19
4.3.1.1. Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC) ..................................................................................... 19
4.3.1.2. Perfect Magnetic Conductor (PMC) ................................................................................ 20
4.3.1.3. Surface Impedance and Impedance Loads ..................................................................... 21
4.3.1.4. Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) ...................................................................................... 24
4.3.1.5. Periodic Boundary Conditions ........................................................................................ 27
4.3.2. Applying Excitation Sources ................................................................................................... 30
4.3.2.1. Excitation Ports ............................................................................................................. 30
4.3.2.2. Current Source .............................................................................................................. 33
4.3.2.3. Plane Wave Source ......................................................................................................... 35
4.3.2.4. Surface Magnetic Field Source ....................................................................................... 36
4.3.2.5. Electric Field Source ....................................................................................................... 37
4.3.2.6. Equivalent Source Surface ............................................................................................. 37
4.4. Solving Harmonic High-Frequency Analyses .................................................................................... 39
4.4.1. Defining the Analysis Type ...................................................................................................... 39
4.4.2. Defining Analysis Options and Estimating Computer Resources .............................................. 39
4.4.3. Setting the Analysis Frequencies ............................................................................................ 39
4.4.4. Defining a Scattering Analysis ................................................................................................ 40
4.4.5. Defining a Radiation Analysis for a Phased Array Antenna ....................................................... 40
4.4.6. Defining a Modal Port Solution ............................................................................................... 40
4.4.7. Characteristic Impedance ....................................................................................................... 40
4.4.8. Starting the Solution .............................................................................................................. 41
4.4.9. Finishing the Solution ............................................................................................................ 43
4.5. Postprocessing Harmonic High-Frequency Analyses ........................................................................ 44
4.5.1. Reviewing Results .................................................................................................................. 44
4.5.2. Commands to Help You in Postprocessing .............................................................................. 45
4.5.3. Calculating Near Fields, Far Fields, and Far Field Parameters ..................................................... 46
4.5.3.1. Near Fields .................................................................................................................... 46
4.5.3.2. Far Fields and Far Field Parameters ................................................................................. 47
4.5.3.3. Symmetry ..................................................................................................................... 49
4.5.3.4. Radiation Solid Angle .................................................................................................... 49
4.5.4. Calculating Circuit Parameters for High-Frequency Devices ..................................................... 50
4.5.4.1. Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters) ............................................................................. 50
4.5.4.2. Power and Frequency Selective Surface Parameters ....................................................... 51
4.5.4.3. Voltage, Current, and Impedance .................................................................................... 51
4.5.4.4. Displaying Network Parameters and Losses .................................................................... 53
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High-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide


4.5.4.5. SPICE Macromodels ....................................................................................................... 54
4.5.4.6. TDR/TDT Display ............................................................................................................ 55
5. Performing a Modal High-Frequency Analysis ..................................................................................... 57
5.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor and Specifying the Modal Analysis Type ....................................... 58
5.2. Setting Options for Modal Analysis .................................................................................................. 59
5.3. Specifying Modes to Expand ........................................................................................................... 59
5.4. Applying Boundary Conditions ....................................................................................................... 59
5.5. Solving a Modal High-Frequency Analysis ........................................................................................ 60
5.6. Calculating Propagating Constants, Characteristic Impedances, and Effective Dielectric Constants .... 60
5.7. Reviewing Modal High-Frequency Results ....................................................................................... 61
6. Adaptive Meshing ................................................................................................................................. 63
I. Basic Wave Radiation Examples ............................................................................................................. 65
Harmonic Analysis for a Point Current Radiation Source (Command Method) ......................................... 67
II. Basic Wave Propagation Examples ....................................................................................................... 69
Harmonic Analysis of a Coaxial Waveguide (Command Method) ............................................................ 71
Harmonic Analysis of a Coaxial Waveguide (GUI Method) ....................................................................... 73
III. Basic Wave Resonance Examples ......................................................................................................... 81
Modal Analysis of a Cavity (Command Method) ..................................................................................... 83
Modal Analysis of a Cavity (GUI Method) ............................................................................................... 85
Modal Analysis for a Circular Waveguide (Command Method) ................................................................ 91
IV. Basic Wave Scattering Examples .......................................................................................................... 93
Harmonic Analysis for Plane Wave Scattering from a Metallic Plate (Command Method) ......................... 95
V. Advanced Wave Radiation Examples .................................................................................................... 99
Harmonic Analysis for a JRM Array Antenna (Command Method) ......................................................... 101
Harmonic Analysis for a Lee-Jones Array Antenna (Command Method) ................................................ 107
Harmonic Analysis for Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna (Command Method) ..................................... 111
Harmonic Analysis for Radiation of a Waveguide Antenna with No Flare (Command Method) ............... 117
Harmonic Analysis for a Half Wavelength Dipole Antenna (Command Method) .................................... 121
VI. Advanced Wave Propagation Examples ............................................................................................ 127
Harmonic Analysis for a Microstrip Low-Pass Filter (Command Method) ............................................... 129
Harmonic Analysis for a Three-Stub Rectangular Waveguide Filter (Command Method) ........................ 133
Harmonic Analysis for Multi-layer Microstrip Interconnect (Command Method) .................................... 139
Harmonic Analysis for Microstrip Meander Line (Command Method) ................................................... 145
Harmonic Analysis for a Rectangular Waveguide with a Ridge Discontinuity (Command Method) ......... 149
Harmonic Analysis of a Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric Post Using Adaptive Meshing (Command
Method) ............................................................................................................................................. 153
Harmonic Analysis of a Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric Post Using S-Parameter Adaptive
Meshing (Command Method) ............................................................................................................. 157
Harmonic Analysis of a Parallel-Plate Waveguide with a Lumped Circuit Load (Command Method) ....... 161
Postprocessing Scattering, Admittance, and Impedance Parameters ..................................................... 165
SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna (Command Method) ....... 169
SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a T-type Transmission Line Network (Command Method) ........ 175
Harmonic Analysis for Rectangular Waveguide Filled with Two Dielectric Materials (Command Method)
........................................................................................................................................................... 185
Harmonic Analysis of Y-Junction Waveguide Circulator (Command Method) ........................................ 189
TDR/TDT Display of Shorted Single-Ended Uniform Transmission Line (Command Method) .................. 195
Harmonic Analysis of a Frequency-Dependent Dielectric Loaded Waveguide (Command Method) ....... 205
VII. Advanced Wave Resonance Examples .............................................................................................. 207
Modal Analysis for Resonant Frequencies of a Dielectric Resonator on Microstrip Substrate (Command
Method) ............................................................................................................................................. 209
Modal Analysis for Dispersion of a Microstrip Line (Command Method) ................................................ 215

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High-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide


Modal Analysis for Propagating Constants and Characteristic Impedance of Three Coupled Microstrip
Lines (Command Method) ................................................................................................................... 219
VIII. Advanced Wave Scattering Examples .............................................................................................. 225
Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Sphere Coated by Lossy Dielectric Layer (Command
Method) ............................................................................................................................................. 227
Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Dielectric Sphere (Command Method) ........................................ 231
Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Cube (Command Method) ............................................. 235
Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Sphere Coated by a Dielectric Layer (Command Method) ..................................................................................................................................................... 239
Harmonic Analysis of a Thick Bandpass Frequency Selective Surface (Command Method) .................... 243
Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Dielectric Grating (Command Method) ....................................... 247
Harmonic Analysis for a Lossy Free-Standing Ohmic Plate Array (Command Method) ........................... 251
Index ........................................................................................................................................................ 255

List of Figures
2.1. Computational Domain for a FEM Analysis .............................................................................................. 5
2.2. Open Microstrip Structure ....................................................................................................................... 7
2.3. Equivalent Circuit ................................................................................................................................... 7
2.4. Open Microstrip Structure Model ............................................................................................................ 8
3.1. Mixed Elements ...................................................................................................................................... 9
3.2. Object with a Large Aspect Ratio ........................................................................................................... 10
4.1. Flow Chart for a Harmonic Analysis ....................................................................................................... 13
4.2. Electric Field Distributions ..................................................................................................................... 18
4.3. Solid and Finite Element Models ........................................................................................................... 19
4.4. PEC Boundary Condition ....................................................................................................................... 20
4.5. PMC Boundary Condition ...................................................................................................................... 20
4.6. Impedance Sheet .................................................................................................................................. 23
4.7. Shunt RCL Lumped Circuit on a Surface ................................................................................................. 24
4.8. Microstrip Structure with PML Regions .................................................................................................. 24
4.9. PML Region Attached to Interior Region ................................................................................................ 25
4.10. Attenuation Distribution ..................................................................................................................... 25
4.11. Buffer Elements in Interior Domain ...................................................................................................... 26
4.12. Distance between Source/Objects and PML Region ............................................................................. 27
4.13. Arbitrary Infinite Periodic Structure ..................................................................................................... 27
4.14. Unit Cell .............................................................................................................................................. 28
4.15. Periodic Array Models ......................................................................................................................... 29
4.16. Exterior and Interior Ports ................................................................................................................... 32
4.17. Interior Ports ....................................................................................................................................... 33
4.18. Model for Scattering Analysis of Periodic Structure .............................................................................. 33
4.19. Spherical Coordinates ......................................................................................................................... 35
4.20. Exterior Hard Surface Magnetic Field Excitation ................................................................................... 36
4.21. Soft Interior Surface Magnetic Field Excitation ..................................................................................... 36
4.22. Equivalent Source Surface ................................................................................................................... 38
4.23. Spherical Coordinates ......................................................................................................................... 47
4.24. Solid Angle - Dipole Antenna .............................................................................................................. 49
4.25. Solid Angle - Monopole Antenna above Ground Plane ......................................................................... 50
4.26. Multi-port Network ............................................................................................................................. 50
4.27. Voltage Paths for Transmission Lines .................................................................................................... 52
4.28. Current Paths for Transmission Lines .................................................................................................... 52
4.29. Ten-Degree Symmetry Model of a Coaxial Waveguide .......................................................................... 53
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High-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide


4.30. Signal Integrity Design Flow ................................................................................................................ 54
5.1. Flow Chart for a Modal Analysis ............................................................................................................. 58
1. Symmetry Model of a Coax Waveguide .................................................................................................... 71
1. Magnetic Field in Coax ............................................................................................................................. 78
2. Electric Field in Coax ................................................................................................................................ 79
1. Teflon Filled Cavity ................................................................................................................................... 83
1. Magnetic Field Vector Display of TE101 Mode ........................................................................................... 88
2. Electric Field Vector Display of TE101 Mode .............................................................................................. 89
1. 34 JRM Array and FEA Model of Unit Cell .............................................................................................. 101
2. S-Parameter of JRM Array with E-Plane Scan at 9.25 GHz ......................................................................... 104
3. Directive Gain of Unit Cell with E-Plane Scan at 9.25 GHz ........................................................................ 104
4. Directive Gain of a 2525 JRM Array with E-Plane Scan at 9.25 GHz ......................................................... 105
1. 55 Lee-Jones Array and FEA Model of Unit Cell ..................................................................................... 107
2. Periodic Boundary Condition for Lee-Jones Array ................................................................................... 108
3. S-Parameter of Lee-Jones Array with E-Plane Scan at 9.5 GHz .................................................................. 110
1. Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna Geometry and FEA Model ................................................................ 112
2. S-Parameter of Line-Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna ................................................................................. 115
3. Contour of Electric Field Magnitude at 7.5 GHz ....................................................................................... 115
1. Waveguide Radiator with No Flare .......................................................................................................... 117
2. Radiation Pattern of Waveguide Radiator Without Flare on E-Plane ......................................................... 120
3. Electric Field Contour of Waveguide Radiator Without Flare .................................................................... 120
1. Contour of the Radiated Electric Field of a Half Wavelength Dipole ......................................................... 123
2. Far Electric Field of a Half Wavelength Dipole on E-Plane at r = 10 m ....................................................... 124
3. Radiation Pattern of a Half Wavelength Dipole on E-Plane ....................................................................... 124
4. Directive Gain of a Half Wavelength Dipole on E-Plane ............................................................................ 125
1. Top and Side views of Low-Pass Filter ..................................................................................................... 129
2. S11 of microstrip low-pass filter ............................................................................................................. 132
3. S21 of microstrip low-pass filter ............................................................................................................. 132
1. Side View and FEA Model of Filter (Dimensions are in mm) ..................................................................... 133
2. |S11| of Three-Stub Waveguide Filter ...................................................................................................... 136
3. Electric Field Contour of Three-Stub Waveguide Filter at 15 GHz .............................................................. 137
1. Three-layer Interconnect ........................................................................................................................ 140
2. S11 of the Multi-Layer Microstrip Interconnect ....................................................................................... 143
3. S21 of the Multi-Layer Microstrip Interconnect ....................................................................................... 143
4. Electric Field Contour of Multi-Layer Microstrip Interconnect at 6.5 GHz .................................................. 143
1. Microstrip Meander Line (Top View) ....................................................................................................... 145
2. S11 of the Microstrip Meander Line ........................................................................................................ 148
3. The Contour of Electric Field Magnitude ................................................................................................. 148
1. Waveguide with Ridge Discontinuity (Dimensions are in mm) ................................................................. 149
2. |S21| of the Rectangular Waveguide with a Ridge Discontinuity .............................................................. 152
3. Electric Field Contour of the Waveguide with a Ridge at 15 GHz .............................................................. 152
1. Waveguide with Dielectric Post (Dimensions are in mm) ......................................................................... 153
2. Initial Mesh Density .............................................................................................................................. 155
3. Mesh Density after Second Mesh Refinement Iteration ........................................................................... 155
4. |S11| of Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric Post from 8 GHz to 12 GHz ............................................ 156
1. Waveguide with Dielectric Post (Dimensions are in mm) ......................................................................... 157
2. |S11| of Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric Post from 8 GHz to 12 GHz ............................................ 159
1. 3-D Parallel-plate Waveguide Model ....................................................................................................... 161
2. 1-D Transmission Line Impedance Load .................................................................................................. 161
3. Lumped Circuit Loads ............................................................................................................................ 162
4. Shunt RCL Circuit ................................................................................................................................... 162
1. T-type Transmission Line Network .......................................................................................................... 165

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High-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide


2. S11 on Smith Chart ................................................................................................................................ 166
3. Y11 on Smith Chart ................................................................................................................................ 166
4. S11 and S21 Magnitude vs. Frequency .................................................................................................... 167
5. Z11 and Z21 Magnitude vs. Frequency ................................................................................................... 167
1. S-parameters of Line-Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna ................................................................................ 170
2. |Y11| Generated by SPICE3 Using Synthesized Equivalent Circuit ............................................................. 173
3. |Y11| Generated by ANSYS Full-Wave Solution ........................................................................................ 173
1. T-type Transmission Line Network .......................................................................................................... 175
2. SPICE Transmission Line Circuit Model .................................................................................................... 176
3. SPICE Subcircuit Macromodel ................................................................................................................ 176
4. |Y11| from SPICE TL Model and Equivalent Circuit Macromodel ................................................................ 182
5. Transient Analysis of SPICE Transmission Line Model ............................................................................... 183
6. Transient Analysis of SPICE Subcircuit Macromodel ................................................................................. 183
1. Two Segment Rectangular Waveguide ................................................................................................... 185
2. Electric Field Contour of Waveguide ....................................................................................................... 187
1. Y-junction Waveguide Circulator with Central Ferrite Cylindrical Post ...................................................... 189
2. S11 Parameter of Y-junction Waveguide Circulator ................................................................................. 192
3. Insertion Loss of Y-junction Waveguide Circulator .................................................................................. 192
4. Isolation Loss of Y-junction Waveguide Circulator ................................................................................... 193
5. Electric Field Contour at 10GHz .............................................................................................................. 193
1. TDR and TDT Waveforms ........................................................................................................................ 202
2. Total Waveform ...................................................................................................................................... 203
1. Frequency-Dependent Dielectric Loaded Waveguide ............................................................................. 205
1. Geometry and FEA Model of Dielectric Resonator ................................................................................... 209
2. The Electric Field of TM01 Mode in a DR with a Metallic Enclosure ........................................................... 211
3. The Electric Field of HEM Mode in a DR with a Metallic Enclosure ............................................................ 212
4. The Electric Field of TE01 Mode in a DR with a Metallic Enclosure ............................................................ 213
1. Geometry and FEA Model of the Microstrip Line ..................................................................................... 215
2. Propagating Constant of Microstrip Line ................................................................................................ 217
3. Characteristic Impedance of Microstrip Line ........................................................................................... 217
4. Effective Dielectric Constant of Microstrip Line ....................................................................................... 218
5. Electric field of the Fundamental Mode in the Microstrip Line at 20 GHz .................................................. 218
1. Microstrip Structure ............................................................................................................................... 219
2. Electric Field of Mode 1 .......................................................................................................................... 222
3. Electric Field of Mode 2 .......................................................................................................................... 222
4. Electric Field of Mode 3 .......................................................................................................................... 223
1. FEA Model for Scattering Analysis of a Lossy Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere ....................................... 228
2. Scattering Electric Field Contour of the Lossy Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere ...................................... 230
3. Normalized RCS of the Lossy Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere on E-plane and H-plane .......................... 230
1. FEA Model for Scattering Analysis of a Dielectric Sphere ......................................................................... 232
2. RCS of the Dielectric Sphere ................................................................................................................... 234
3. Contour of the Scattering Electric Field from a Dielectric Sphere ............................................................. 234
1. Scattering Electric Field Contour from the Metallic Cube ......................................................................... 238
2. Normalized RCS of the Metallic Cube on E-Plane and H-Plane ................................................................. 238
1. FEA Model for Scattering Analysis of a Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere ................................................ 240
2. Scattering Electric Field Contour of The Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere .............................................. 242
3. Normalized RCS of the Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere on E-Plane ....................................................... 242
1. Unit Cell ................................................................................................................................................ 243
1. Dielectric Grating .................................................................................................................................. 247
2. Reflection Coefficient of Dielectric Grating ............................................................................................. 249
1. Unit Cell ................................................................................................................................................ 251
2. Power Reflection Coefficient .................................................................................................................. 254
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High-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide

List of Tables
2.1. Physical and Model Features ................................................................................................................... 6
3.1. High-Frequency Elements ....................................................................................................................... 9
4.1. Element DOFs ....................................................................................................................................... 14
4.2. Material Guidelines ............................................................................................................................... 16
4.3. High-Frequency Boundary Conditions ................................................................................................... 19
4.4. Surface Impedance Boundary Conditions .............................................................................................. 21
4.5. High-Frequency Excitation Sources ....................................................................................................... 30
4.6. Port Types ............................................................................................................................................. 31
4.7. Postprocessing Commands ................................................................................................................... 45
4.8. Plotting Commands ............................................................................................................................. 45

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Chapter 1: Overview of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis


The ANSYS program supports high-frequency electromagnetic analysis. This type of analysis calculates the
propagation properties of electromagnetic fields and waves in a given structure. The ANSYS program supports
both time-harmonic and modal high-frequency analysis.
Except in a few cases, most-high-frequency devices use electromagnetic waves to carry information. For this
reason, frequency plays a vital role in the design of such devices. High-frequency electromagnetic field
analysis simulates the electromagnetic phenomena in a structure when the wavelength of the signal is of
the same order of magnitude or smaller than the dimensions of the model. The high-frequency band ranges
from hundreds of MHz to hundreds of GHz.
In general, you use high-frequency electromagnetic field analysis to solve interior problems or exterior
problems. For interior problems, an electromagnetic field propagates or oscillates in a closed structure such
as an accelerator chamber, a microwave filter, or a high-speed electronic package. The oscillating frequencies
and scattering matrix parameter (S-parameter) are usually investigated. For exterior problems, an electromagnetic wave radiates into open space or it is scattered by an object in the open domain. Examples are phased
antenna arrays and radar reflection from a metallic object. The radiation pattern, directive gain, or radar
cross section (RCS) is usually investigated.

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Chapter 2: Finite Element Analysis of High-Frequency


Electromagnetic Fields
In practice, finite element analysis (FEA) is one of the most successful frequency domain computational
methods for electromagnetic field simulation. It provides the capabilities you need to model any geometry
and any materials of composition. This material capability is particularly important in electromagnetic field
engineering since most applications dealing with antennas, microwave circuits, scattering devices, motors,
generators, etc. require simulation of nonmetal composite materials. Throughout the frequency spectrum,
FEA enjoys wide popularity. It plays a major role in electromagnetic engineering applications such as:

Microwave circuits and devices

High-speed digital electronic circuits

Antennas

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) / Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

Biomedical applications

The ANSYS high-frequency electromagnetic simulator (ANSYS Emag - High Frequency) uses tangential vector
finite element technology. It provides 3-D elements to perform harmonic analyses (see Chapter 4, Performing
a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis (p. 13)) and 2-D and 3-D elements to perform modal analyses (see
Chapter 5, Performing a Modal High-Frequency Analysis (p. 57)) analyses, with an exp (jt) dependence assumed.
ANSYS Emag - High Frequency has a preprocessor, a solver, and a postprocessor. The preprocessor provides
facilities for describing the high-frequency structure to be simulated, the excitation to be applied, and the
boundary conditions or other constraints to be imposed. It includes the following:
Geometry Tool

Solid Model using Built in Modeler and APDL

CAD File Input via Connection Capability

Meshing Tool

Automatic Meshing

Manual Meshing

Adaptive Meshing

Tangential Vector Based Element Library

1st & 2nd Order Tetrahedral, Quadrilateral, and Wedge Elements

1st Order Pyramid Elements

1st & 2nd Order Quad and Triangle Elements

Material Model

Lossy/Lossless Isotropic Material


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Chapter 2: Finite Element Analysis of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

Lossy/Lossless Anisotropic Material

Boundary Conditions

Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC)

Standard Impedance Boundary Conditions (SIBC)

Matched Waveguide Port

Perfectly Matched Layers (PML)

Periodic Boundary Conditions

Excitation Sources

Waveguide Modal Source

Volume, Surface, Line, and Point Current Density Source

Plane Wave Source

Surface and Line Electric Field Source

Surface Magnetic Field Source

The solver generates the element descriptions, assembles the element matrices into global finite element
matrices, imposes the appropriate boundary conditions, constraints, and excitation sources, and then solves
the equations. It consists of the following:
Modal Analysis

Lanczos Eigenvalue Solver

Harmonic Analysis

Sparse Direct Solver

Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) Solver

Fast Frequency Sweep Solver

The postprocessor provides facilities to calculate parameters and visualize results. This includes the following:

Electromagnetic Field Vectors and Contour Patterns

Cut-off Frequency, Propagating Constant, and Resonant Frequency

Quality Factor (Q-Factor)

S-parameters and Touchstone File

Voltage, Current, and Characteristic Impedance

Conducting Current Density Distribution

Near and Far Electromagnetic Field Extension

Radar Cross Section (RCS)

Antenna Parameters (Radiation Pattern, Directive Gain, Directivity, Radiation Power, Radiation Gain, Radiation Efficiency)

Time-Averaged Power

Joule Heat

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Chapter 2: Finite Element Analysis of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields


ANSYS Emag - High Frequency is a frequency domain simulator that can analyze a large class of high-frequency
devices and systems. This includes uniform wave-guiding structures, cavity resonators, antennas, and antenna
arrays. A high-frequency electromagnetic analysis can be coupled with another field analysis to simulate
complicated physical phenomena, such as RF heating.
To solve the full set of Maxwell's differential equations that govern high-frequency electromagnetic fields,
the finite element method discretizes the infinite continuous wave propagating space into a finite element
model. Boundary conditions and excitations are applied to the solid model or finite element entities.
A typical electromagnetic configuration simulated by FEA is shown in Figure 2.1: Computational Domain for
a FEM Analysis (p. 5).

Figure 2.1: Computational Domain for a FEM Analysis

Plane wave E inc

Finite element mesh

Surface 0 enclosing
FEA
Perfect electric
conductor or perfect
magnetic conductor

Feed aperture, f
Current volume, s

Dielectric volume
(enclosed by d )

Resistive or impedance
surface, r

The high-frequency FEA procedure uses a weak integral form of the electric field vector Helmholtz equation
as the basis. For improved accuracy for scattering applications, the scattered field is investigated instead of
the total electric field. Refer to High-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Simulation in the Theory Reference for
the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for more information on the pure scattering field formulation.
The ANSYS high-frequency elements use the tangential vector finite element method. The vector electric
field consists of the linear combination of the vector basis functions. The associated coefficients are the degree
of freedom (DOF) of the final matrix equation. The DOFs of the tangential vector method are the projections
of the vector electric field on the edges and faces of the element. For example, for the first order tetrahedral
element, its DOFs are the projection of the electric field along the edge of the element at the middle of the
edge:
DOF = t

at middle of edge

where t is the unit tangential vector of the edge.


Refer to the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for details on this method.

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Chapter 2: Finite Element Analysis of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields


As in any other type of ANSYS analysis, you must build a finite element model that correctly represents the
system. The following table shows how physical features of an electromagnetic system correspond with
model features.

Table 2.1 Physical and Model Features


Physical Features

Model Features

Electromagnetic Structures and Space

Finite Element Mesh

Lossless Metallic Surface

Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC) Boundary Condition

Non-perfect Electric Conductor, Air-Dielectric Interface, Standard Impedance Boundary Condition (SIBC)
Dielectric Coating on PEC
EM Field Symmetry

Perfect Magnetic Conductor (PMC) Boundary


Condition or PEC

EM Field at Infinity, Matching Load

Absorbing Boundary Condition

Current Source, Metallic Wire with Conducting Current, Excitation Gap

Impressed Current Density

Matched Voltage Source

Modal Field

For an enclosed structure, you must mesh the entire structure. For propagation, radiation, and scattering
problems, the electromagnetic field extends to infinity. You must trunicate the infinite space using absorbing
boundary conditions. Usually, the inside of an electric conductor is not meshed because a high-frequency
electromagnetic wave can only penetrate the surface a short distance.
If the ohmic loss does not play a significant role or is not a major concern in the design, a perfect electric
conductor (PEC) is a very good approximation for metallic objects. The tangential electric field vanishes on
the surface of a PEC. It leads to a constraint condition DOF = 0 on the surface.
Often, meshing the skin of a non-perfect electric conductor or a dielectric coating on a PEC leads to extremely
small elements inside of those layers. Instead of meshing those very small layers, apply a standard impedance
boundary condition on those surfaces to obtain a good approximation.
You can reduce the size of your model by taking symmetry of the electromagnetic field into account. If the
tangential electric field is zero (that is, only the normal electric field exists on the symmetry plane), apply a
PEC boundary condition to the symmetry plane. If the tangential magnetic field is zero (that is, only the
normal magnetic field exists on the symmetry plane), apply a PMC boundary condition to the symmetry
plane. In a ANSYS high-frequency analysis, a PMC boundary condition is a natural boundary condition. You
do not need to apply a constraint condition to a PMC symmetry plane.
If an electromagnetic wave radiates into infinity, you must use an absorbing boundary condition to truncate
the finite computational domain. If an electromagnetic wave in a propagating system is absorbed by a
matching load, you must replace that matching load with an absorbing boundary condition.
The following example of an open microstrip structure with a capacitance gap shows you how to create a
model.

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Chapter 2: Finite Element Analysis of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

Figure 2.2: Open Microstrip Structure

The equivalent circuit including a matched source, s-parameter extractor, and matching load is shown in
Figure 2.3: Equivalent Circuit (p. 7).

Figure 2.3: Equivalent Circuit


s-parameter extraction

ZL

ls

Z0

Z0

ZL

To create the model, you need to make use of the characteristics of electromagnetic fields and simplify the
model as follows:

The thickness of the microstrip is assumed to be small compared to the other dimensions and is ignored.
The ohmic loss of the microstrip is also assumed to be small and is ignored. These assumptions lead to
a PEC microstrip with zero thickness.

For the fundamental mode, the electric field is assumed to be symmetric about a vertical center line
on the cross section. Accordingly, the analysis can be done on a half model. A PMC boundary is applied
to the symmetry plane.

Since the electromagnetic field decays rapidly in the transverse direction with the distance from a microstrip, PEC boundaries are added to enclose the open space at a proper separation distance. The
distance from the microstrip to the top PEC boundary should be at least equal to two times the height
of the substrate. The distance from the microstrip to the side PEC boundary should be at least two times
the width of the microstrip.

The wave source is assumed to be a matched electric current source and the output of the two-port
network is terminated by a matching load (see Figure 2.3: Equivalent Circuit (p. 7)). Absorbing boundary
conditions are added to represent the matching loads.

The real current source will be equivalent to the impressed current density. Considering the electric
field distribution on the transverse cross section, the line current density pointing from the microstrip
to the ground will excite the fundamental mode in the microstrip. Since the line current density source
launches a bidirectional electromagnetic wave, an absorber must be located behind the line current
density source to prevent a reflected wave.

These electromagnetic field characteristics and assumptions yield the following unmeshed model for the
open microstrip structure.

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Chapter 2: Finite Element Analysis of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

Figure 2.4: Open Microstrip Structure Model


PEC
PEC microstrip
Absorber
Symmetric plane
Line current
S-parameter extraction plane
PEC
Substrate
Absorber

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Chapter 3: Elements and Commands Available in High-Frequency


Electromagnetic Analysis
3.1. Available Elements
Three elements are available for high-frequency analysis: HF118, HF119, and HF120. HF118 is a 2-D element
that applies only to modal analyses. You can use it to compute dispersion characteristics of high-frequency
transmission lines, including the cutoff frequencies and the propagating constants for multiple modes. HF119
and HF120 are 3-D elements. You can perform harmonic analyses or modal analyses with them.

Table 3.1 High-Frequency Elements


Element

2-D or
3-D

Number of Nodes and


Shape

DOFs

HF118

2-D

8-Node Quadrilateral with


triangular degeneracy

Projection of the electric field E (ANSYS degree of freedom "AX")

HF119

3-D

10-Node Tetrahedral

Projection of the electric field E (ANSYS degree of freedom "AX")

HF120

3-D

20-Node Hexahedral with


Projection of the electric field E (ANSYS depyramid and prism degener- gree of freedom "AX")
acy

You can use one element shape (hexahedral, wedge, pyramid, or tetrahedral) or any combination of shapes
in your 3-D model. Figure 3.1: Mixed Elements (p. 9) (a) shows a mix of hexahedral and wedge elements and
(b) shows a mix of hexahedral, pyramid, and tetrahedral elements. The pyramid elements are transitional
elements between the hexahedral and tetrahedral elements.

Figure 3.1: Mixed Elements

As an example, the following command input listing creates mixed hexahedral and wedge elements:
/prep7
et,1,120
et,11,200,5
et,12,200,7
rect,0,1,0,1
rect,1,2,0,1
aglue,all
esize,0.25
asel,s,loc,x,0,1

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

define hexahedral element


define 2-D 6-node triangle mesh element
define 2-D 8-node quadrilateral mesh element
create area 1
create area 2
glue areas together
define the element size
select area 1

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Chapter 3: Elements and Commands Available in High-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis


type,11
mshape,1
amesh,all
asel,s,loc,x,1,2
type,12
mshape,0
amesh,all
alls
esize,,4
type,1
asel,s,loc,z,0
vext,all,,,0,0,1
fini

!
!
!
!
!
!
!

select triangle element type


define the triangle element shape
mesh area 1 with triangle mesh element
select area 2
select quadrilateral mesh element type
define the element quadrilateral shape
mesh area 2 with quadrilateral mesh element

!
!
!
!

define
select
select
create

element operation
hexahedral element
2-D element
3-D elements by extruding 2-D elements

As an example, the following command input listing creates mixed hexahedral, pyramid, and tetrahedral
elements:
/prep7
ch=10.16e-3
cw=22.86e-3
cl=2.e-2
h=2.e-3
et,1,hf120,1
et,2,hf119,1
block,-cw/2,0,-ch/2,ch/2,0,cl/2
block,-cw/2,0,-ch/2,ch/2,cl/2,cl
vglue,all
esize,h
type,1
mshape,0,3d
mshkey,1
vmesh,1
mshape,1,3d
mshkey,0
vmesh,3
tchg,120,119,2
fini

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

define hexahedral element


define tet element
create volume 1
create volume 2
glue volumes together
define element size
select hexahedral element type
define hexahedral mesh
use mapped mesh
mesh first volume
define tetrahedral element
use free meshing
mesh second mesh
covert degen. hexahedral element into tetrahedral element

Although a geometrically complex structure can be meshed with tetrahedral elements, it may require many
elements and that may lead to simulation failure because of computer resources. Even a regular shaped
volume may require many tetrahedral elements if it has a very large aspect ratio. Here, hexahedral or wedge
elements would be a better choice. Figure 3.2: Object with a Large Aspect Ratio (p. 10) illustrates this difference.
It shows that the number of tetrahedral elements (a) is much larger than the number of hexahedral elements
(b), if a similar mesh density is maintained on the transverse cross section.

Figure 3.2: Object with a Large Aspect Ratio

You can automatically refine a model meshed with HF119 elements. To decrease discretization error, the
HFEREFINE macro refines elements that exceed a specified error limit. Moreover, based on the error indicated
by HFEREFINE, you can manually refine a model meshed with HF120 elements. For more information on
this capability, see Chapter 6, Adaptive Meshing (p. 63) in this guide and HFEREFINE in the Command Reference.
See HF118, HF119, and HF120 in the Element Reference for more details on these elements. Refer to HighFrequency Electromagnetic Field Simulation in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical

10

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3.2. High-Frequency Commands


Applications for additional information on the tangential vector finite element method and vector basis
functions.
You cannot use other ANSYS Emag electromagnetic elements in a high-frequency analysis. They are not
based on a full-wave formulation. They do not account for displacement current.

3.2. High-Frequency Commands


The following commands are helpful in conducting your high-frequency analysis:
High-Frequency Commands
HARFRQ

Defines the frequency range in the harmonic response analysis.

HFADP

Turns a high-frequency adaptive error calculation on or off.

HFANG

Defines or displays spatial angles of a spherical radiation surface for antenna


parameter calculations.

HFARRAY

Defines phased array antenna characteristics.

HFDEEM

Calibrates S-parameter phase shift.

HFEIGOPT

Specifies high frequency electromagnetic modal analysis options.

HFEREFINE

Automatically refines high-frequency tetrahedral elements (HF119) or lists


high-frequency brick elements (HF120) with the largest error.

HFMODPRT

Calculates electromagnetic field distribution for a modal port.

HFPA

Specifies a radiation scan angle for a phased array antenna analysis.

HFPCSWP

Calculates propagating constants and characteristic impedance of a transmission line or waveguide over a frequency range.

HFPORT

Specifies input data for waveguide, modal, lumped gap, or plane wave ports.

HFPOWER

Calculates power terms of a multi-port network.

HFSCAT

Specifies a high-frequency scattering analysis.

HFSYM

Indicates the presence of symmetry planes for the computation of high-frequency electromagnetic fields in the near and far field domains (beyond the
finite element region).

LPRT

Defines impedance and calibration lines for excitation eigenfield.

PLFAR

Plots electric far fields and far field parameters.

PLFSS

Plots reflection and transmission parameters of a frequency selective surface


solution.

PLNEAR

Plots the electric field in the near zone exterior to the equivalent source surface.

PLSCH

Converts and plots scattering, admittance, or impedance parameters on a


Smith chart.

PLSYZ

Converts and plots network parameters versus frequency or plots losses versus
frequency.

PLTD

Displays TDR/TDT waveforms, an impedance profile, or a total waveform.

PLTLINE

Plots port transmission line data generated by the HFPCSWP or SPSWP macros.

PLWAVE

Specifies a free-space time-harmonic incident plane electromagnetic wave.

PMLOPT

Defines perfectly matched layers (PMLs) for a high-frequency analysis.

PMLSIZE

Determines number of PML layers.


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11

Chapter 3: Elements and Commands Available in High-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis


High-Frequency Commands
PRFAR

Prints electric far fields and far field parameters.

PRNEAR

Prints the electric field in the near zone exterior to the equivalent source surface.

PRNSOL

Prints the solution results for elements.

PRSYZ

Converts and lists scattering, admittance, or impedance parameters.

QFACT

Calculates the quality factor for high-frequency electromagnetic resonators.

SPADP

Automatically refines a HF119 tetrahedral element mesh based on S-parameter


convergence.

SPFSS

Performs frequency sweep or angle sweep calculations to determine reflection


and transmission parameters of a frequency selective surface.

SPARM

Calculates scattering (S) parameters between ports of a network system.

SPSWP

Computes S-parameters over a frequency range and writes them to a file.

SPICE

Generates a SPICE subcircuit model using S-parameters from a Touchstone


file.

12

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Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


As in any other type of ANSYS analysis, a harmonic high-frequency electromagnetic analysis consists of these
steps:

Create a physics environment.

Build a model.

Assign regional attributes to the model and mesh it.

Apply boundary conditions and excitations (loads).

Obtain a solution.

Review the results.

The following flowchart illustrates these steps.

Figure 4.1: Flow Chart for a Harmonic Analysis

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13

Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


The following harmonic analysis topics are available:
4.1. Creating the Physics Environment
4.2. Building the Model, Assigning Region Attributes, and Meshing
4.3. Applying Boundary Conditions and Excitations (Loads)
4.4. Solving Harmonic High-Frequency Analyses
4.5. Postprocessing Harmonic High-Frequency Analyses

4.1. Creating the Physics Environment


To begin, specify a jobname and a title for your analysis. If you are using the ANSYS Graphical User Interface
(GUI) and you wish to perform high-frequency electromagnetic analysis, one of the first things you should
do upon entering the GUI is choose the following path: Main Menu> Preferences and select High Frequency
under Electromagnetic. Doing this ensures that all of the GUI options you need for this type of analysis will
be available to you.

4.1.1. Specifying Element Types


Use either of the following to specify element type numbers and key options for HF119 and HF120:
Command(s): ET,ITYPE,Ename,KEYOPT(1),KEYOPT(2),KEYOPT(3),KEYOPT(4),KEYOPT(5)
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete
KEYOPT(1) defines the polynomial order of the elements. KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 1 defines a first order element
with a 0.5 order polynomial vector basis function. KEYOPT(1) = 2 defines a second order element with a 1.5
order polynomial vector basis function. Greater accuracy is obtained using higher order elements (KEYOPT(1)
= 2) at the expense of additional degrees of freedom internally generated by the element. The second order
elements are not available for pure scattering or periodic boundary condition problems. The following table
shows the number of DOFs per element.

Table 4.1 Element DOFs


Element Shape

Number of DOFs Per Element


1st Order

2nd Order

Quadrilateral

12

Triangle

Tetrahedral

20

Hexahedral

12

54

Wedge

36

Pyramid

Not available

You cannot mix first and second order elements in a model. Both first and second order elements have
midside nodes to follow the curvature of a model. If you use MESH200 elements to generate 3-D high-frequency electromagnetic elements (HF119 or HF120) choose one of the MESH200 options for midside nodes,
KEYOPT(1) = 5 for 3-D triangle elements or KEYOPT(1) = 7 for quadrilateral elements.
KEYOPT(4) allows you to specify element types for special high-frequency electromagnetic applications.
KEYOPT(4) = 0 defines the normal element (default). KEYOPT(4) = 1 defines an electromagnetic wave absorbing
element referred to as a perfectly matched layer (PML) element. KEYOPT(4) = 2 defines a special scattering
element. You need to specify KEYOPT(4) = 2 for the region of the domain receiving the reflected wave when
you are using a soft magnetic field excitation source that propagates in one direction (BF,,H option). For
example, the following command input listing defines first order normal and PML elements:
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4.1.3. Specifying Material Properties


et,1,119,1,,,0
et,1,119,1,,,1

! define normal tetrahedral element


! define PML tetrahedral element

See Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) (p. 24) for information on the PML element. See Surface Magnetic Field
Source (p. 36) for information on the scattering element and soft source magnetic field excitation.
The HF118 element applies only to modal analyses. Chapter 5, Performing a Modal High-Frequency Analysis (p. 57) describes this type of analysis in detail.

4.1.2. Specifying the System of Units


ANSYS Emag - High Frequency always uses the MKS system. In the MKS system of units, free-space permeability is set to 4 x 10-7 henries/meter and free-space permittivity is set to 8.85 x 10-12 F/m.
See the EMUNIT command in the Command Reference for more details. The EMUNIT command defaults to
the MKS system of units. See System of Units in the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide for details on MKS units.

4.1.3. Specifying Material Properties


You can specify material properties using either of the following:
Command(s): MP,LAB,MAT,C0,C1,C2,C3,C4
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models
High-frequency analyses often require the following material properties: relative permeability diagonal tensor
(MURX, MURY, MURZ), relative permittivity diagonal tensor (PERX, PERY, PERZ), and resistivity (inverse of
conductivity) diagonal tensor (RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ). For isotropic materials, MURY and MURZ default to MURX;
likewise, PERY and PERZ default to PERX and RSVY and RSVZ default to RSVX. X, Y, and Z refer to the orthogonal coordinates in the element coordinate system specified by the ESYS command. The permeability and
permittivity must be relative values with respect to their free-space definitions. Permeability of the material
is equal to the product of the free-space permeability and the relative permeability constant (MURX, MURY,
MURZ). Permittivity of the material is equal to the product of the free-space permittivity and the relative
permittivity constant (PERX, PERY, PERZ).
For an isotropic lossy material, you can define the lossy characteristics of the material by either the electric
loss tangent (LSST) or the magnetic loss tangent (LSSM). Electric loss tangent (tan e) is defined by:
tan e = e/(2f o r)
where:
f = frequency (Hz)
e = electric current conductivity (S/m)
o = free-space permittivity (F/m)
r = relative permittivity
If a complex permittivity is defined as:
r

= r' - j r

the electric loss tangent is defined by:


tan e = r/ r'
If a complex permittivity is defined as:
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15

Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


r

= r' + j r

the electric loss tangent is defined by:


tan e = - r/ r'
The magnetic loss tangent (tan m) is defined by:
tan m = e/(2for)
where:
f = frequency (Hz)
m = magnetic current conductivity (/m)
o = free-space permeability (H/m)
r = relative permeability
If a complex permeability is defined as:
r = r' - jr
the magnetic loss tangent is defined by:
tan m = r/ r'
The following table gives some guidelines for specifying material properties.

Table 4.2 Material Guidelines


Material

Guideline

Air

Specify a relative permeability and a relative permittivity of 1.0.

Lossless Dielectric

Specify a relative permeability r and a relative permittivity r, which


can be either isotropic or anisotropic (i.e., a diagonal tensor in the
predefined element coordinate system).

Lossy Dielectric with


a known Conductivity

Specify a relative permeability r, a relative permittivity r, and a


resistivity (1/conductivity), which can be either isotropic or anisotropic (i.e., a diagonal tensor in the predefined element coordinate
system).

Lossy Dielectric with


a known Loss Tangent

Specify a relative permeability r, a relative permittivity r, and a


loss tangent. If you specify both a resistivity and a loss tangent,
only the loss tangent will be used.

For example, the following command input listing defines two isotropic lossy materials:
mp,perx,1,2.5
mp,murx,1,1.0
mp,rsvx,1,1.E-4
mp,perx,2,9.8
mp,murx,1,2.0
mp,lsst,2,0.5

!
!
!
!
!
!

the
the
the
the
the
the

relative permittivity of material


relative permeability of material
resistivity of material is 1.E-4
relative permittivity of material
relative permeability of material
loss tangent of material 2 is 0.5

1 is 2.5
1 is 1.0
2 is 9.8
2 is 2.0

If you want to calculate the specific adsorption rate (SAR) of a lossy material, you must specify the mass
density of the material (Lab = DENS on the MP command).
You can use a TB table to define the following material properties:

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4.2. Building the Model, Assigning Region Attributes, and Meshing

TB, CNDE anisotropic electric current conductivity tensor (mhos/m)(1/m)

TB, CNDM anisotropic magnetic current conductivity tensor (ohms/m)

TB, DPER anisotropic relative permittivity tensor

TB, MUR anisotropic relative permeability tensor

TB, LSEM anisotropic electric and magnetic loss tangent tensors

TB, HFFDLD frequency-dependent lossy dielectric

Tensors are in the element coordinate system specified by the ESYS command. For detailed information on
how to define material properties using a TB table, see High-Frequency Electromagnetic Material Models in
the Element Reference.
For B-H nonlinear material, use the Opt field (TB, MUR,Mat,,,Opt) to specify a uniform (Opt = 1) or non-uniform
dc magnetic field (Opt = 2). You can perform a magneto static analysis using a SOLID96, SOLID97, or SOLID117
element model to determine a non-uniform dc magnetic field. You can then apply that field to a high-frequency model using the LDREAD,H command. The following is an example command input listing.
/batch, list
! perform a magneto static analysis
/prep7
et,1,96
! 8-node brick magneto static element
mp,murx,1,1
! define free space permeability
mp,mgxx,1,10000
! define magnetic coercive forces
block,0,1,0,0.1,0,0.1 ! define the geometry
esize,0.05
! define mesh size
vmesh,1
! meshing
nsel,s,loc,x,0
d,all,mag,0
! define scalar magnetic potential
nsel,all
fini
/solu
! solve
solve
fini
! perform a high frequency electromagnetic analysis
/prep7
et,1,120
! 20-node brick HF element
modmsh,deta
! release all associativity between solid and finite element models
emid,add
! add mid nodes (from 8-node brick to 20-node brick)
mp,perx,1,1
! define permittivity
tb,MUR,1,,,2
! define B-H nonlinear material with non-uniform dc magnetic field
tbdata,1,1000,2,100,,2,0,0 ! define the parameters of B-H nonlinear material
nsel,s,loc,x,0
! set up excitation source
bf,all,js,1,2,3
nsel,all
asel,all
nsla,s
d,all,ax,0
! set up boundary condition
alls
fini
/solu
ldread,h,,, ,,file,rmg
antype,harmic
harfrq,1.e6
solve
fini

! perform high frequency electromagnetic solution


! read dc magnetic field from static solution and apply to HF model

! solve

4.2. Building the Model, Assigning Region Attributes, and Meshing


Use the ANSYS preprocessor (PREP7) to create the model geometry. This model building process is common
to most analyses. See the Modeling and Meshing Guide for details.

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17

Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis

4.2.1. Defining Model Region Attributes


Attributes assigned to a model prior to meshing include element type and material number. You assign
these to the region using the VATT command for volumes to be meshed with 3-D elements (HF119 and
HF120). Use different material numbers to distinguish different material regions.

4.2.2. Meshing the Model


Use the ANSYS preprocessor (PREP7) to mesh the solid model geometry. This meshing is common to most
analyses. See the Modeling and Meshing Guide for details.
For a full-wave FEA formulation, the mesh must be fine enough to minimize numerical dispersion effects
from finite discretization. In general, it should have at least 10 elements per propagating or resonant
wavelength for the material.

Note
If the propagating wavelength is 1 cm in free space, the wavelength is 0.5 cm in a dielectric with
relative permittivity r = 4.
To obtain accurate S-parameters, the elements located at the ports should have as close to a 1:1 aspect ratio
as possible in the direction of the wave propagation.
You should also employ your knowledge of electromagnetic fields to determine an appropriate mesh
density. For example, consider the following electromagnetic fields shown in Figure 4.2: Electric Field Distributions (p. 18) :

(a) a TE10 mode on the transverse cross section of a rectangular waveguide

(b) a fundamental mode on the transverse cross section of a microstrip structure

Since the electric field of a TE10 mode varies sinusoidally along the wide side of a rectangular waveguide
and is uniform along the narrow side, there should be at least five elements along the wide side. Since the
electromagnetic field concentrates under the metallic microstrip, to obtain the acceptable results, there
should be at least four elements along the thickness of the substrate and at least five elements along the
width of the microstrip.

Figure 4.2: Electric Field Distributions

(a)

(b)

4.3. Applying Boundary Conditions and Excitations (Loads)


You can apply most boundary conditions and excitations to a harmonic high-frequency analysis either on
the solid model entities or on the finite element model entities. Applying boundary conditions to the solid
model is advantageous in that they are independent of the underlying finite element mesh. Subsequent
mesh refinement does not require reapplying the boundary conditions and excitation if adaptive meshing
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4.3.1. Applying Boundary Conditions


is used. For more information, see Chapter 6, Adaptive Meshing (p. 63) in this guide and HFEREFINE in the
Command Reference.

Figure 4.3: Solid and Finite Element Models

4.3.1. Applying Boundary Conditions


Table 4.3: High-Frequency Boundary Conditions (p. 19) shows the available boundary conditions for a highfrequency analysis. See the detailed explanations of these boundary conditions below. For general information
on applying boundary conditions see "Loading" in the Basic Analysis Guide.

Table 4.3 High-Frequency Boundary Conditions


Boundary Condition

Solid Model Entities

Finite Element
Model Entities

Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC)

Lines or Areas

Nodes

Perfect Magnetic Conductor (PMC)

None required [1]

None required [1]

Standard Impedance Boundary Condition (SIBC)

Areas

Nodes

Perfectly Matched Layers (PML)

Not Applicable

Elements

Periodic Boundary Condition (PBC)

Areas

Nodes

1.

You do not need to specify a PMC boundary condition because it is a natural boundary condition.

4.3.1.1. Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC)


A perfect electric conductor (PEC) boundary (also called Electric Wall) is a surface on which the tangential
r
component of the vector electric field ( E t) vanishes. Use boundary (DOF) constraints to define PEC boundary
conditions on the solid model or finite element model entities. You can remove a neighboring conductor
from the model and replace it with a PEC boundary condition, if the losses of the metallic conductor can
be ignored. In many applications, a thin metallic object (for example, a metallic strip of a microstrip structure)
simplifies to an infinitesimally thin metallic sheet with a PEC boundary condition.

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19

Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis

Figure 4.4: PEC Boundary Condition


PEC
,

Symmetric Plane Et = 0

,
Et distribution

To reduce your model size, you can also apply PEC boundary conditions to symmetry planes that have a
zero tangential component of the vector electric field. You must know the electric field distribution before
you can take advantage of the symmetry.
To specify PEC boundary conditions, you can use the DL or DA command to set the AX DOFs to zero on
the surface of the model or you can use the D command to set the AX DOFs to zero on the nodes of the
finite element model. Alternatively, you can specify a PEC boundary condition from the GUI, which will impose
AX = 0.
Command(s): D, DL, or DA
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Electric Wall>
On Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Electric Wall> On
Lines
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Electric Wall> On
Areas

4.3.1.2. Perfect Magnetic Conductor (PMC)


A perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) boundary (also called Magnetic Wall) is a surface on which the tangential
r
component of the vector magnetic field ( H t) vanishes. You can remove a highly permeable magnetic medium
from the model and replace it with a PMC, if the losses of the magnetic medium can be ignored.

Figure 4.5: PMC Boundary Condition


PMC
,

Symmetric Plane Ht = 0

,
Et distribution

To reduce your model size, you can also apply PMC boundary conditions to symmetry planes that have a
zero tangential component of the vector magnetic field. You must know the magnetic field distribution
before you can take advantage of the symmetry.

20

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4.3.1. Applying Boundary Conditions

Note
You do not need to specify a PMC boundary condition because it is the natural boundary condition
in ANSYS Emag - High Frequency. Any exterior surface without a specified boundary condition
assumes a PMC boundary condition.

4.3.1.3. Surface Impedance and Impedance Loads


Table 4.4: Surface Impedance Boundary Conditions (p. 21) shows surface impedance boundary conditions
available for a high-frequency electromagnetic analysis. You can use surface impedance boundary conditions
to approximate a radiation boundary and an electrically small lossy/dielectric layer where a very fine mesh
would usually be required. See the detailed explanations of these impedance boundary conditions below.

Table 4.4 Surface Impedance Boundary Conditions


Boundary Condition

SIBC Approximations

Far-Field Radiation Boundary


Free space

SF or SFA Command Label

o
o

INF

Z=

IMPD

Z=

SIBC

Air-dielectric Interface
Dielectric

Equation [1] [2]

SIBC

Dielectric Coating on PEC

Z=j

tan (2 f )

IMPD

SIBC

PEC
Non-perfect
Electric Conductor

Z =

Non-PEC

o r
( 1+ j )
2

SIBC

1.

Enter the Z value calculated by this equation in the VALUE field of SF or SFA.

2.

o and

SHLD

are the free-space permeability and free-space permittivity, respectively.

and are the permeability and permittivity, respectively.


r is the relative permeability.
is the thickness of the dielectric layer coating on the PEC.
f is the frequency.
is the conductivity of the non-perfect electric conductor.
= 2f

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21

Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


You can apply surface impedance to the nodes of the finite element model or the areas of a solid model
using the following commands and GUI menu paths with Lab = IMPD, SHLD or INF:
Command(s): SF,Nlist,IMPD,VALUE,VALUE2 SFA,AREA,LKEY,IMPD,VALUE,VALUE2
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Impedance>
On Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Impedance> On
Areas
For the impedance surface load label (Lab = IMPD), VALUE and VALUE2 are the real and imaginary components of the impedance, respectively.
When explicit values of impedance are not known or when a harmonic solution over a wide frequency range
is required, it is more convenient to specify the surface impedance in terms of the conductivity (COND) and
relative permeability (MUR) of the non-perfect conductor. You can apply surface shielding properties using
one of the following commands or menu paths (Lab = SHLD):
Command(s): SF,Nlist, SHLD,COND,MUR SFA,AREA,LKEY,SHLD,COND,MUR
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Shield> On
Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Shield> On Areas

Note
Be sure to specify conductivity in MKS units (Siemens/meter). The default for relative permeability
is 1.0.
You can flag any exterior boundary and assign it as an infinite boundary using one of the following commands
or menu paths (Lab = INF):
Command(s): SF,Nlist,INF,VALUE,VALUE2 SFA,AREA,LKEY,INF,VALUE,VALUE2
SFL,LINE,INF,VALUE,VALUE2
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Flag> Infinite Surface>
On Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Flag> Infinite Surface> On
Areas
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Flag> Infinite Surface> On
Lines
For modeling a far-field radiating boundary, you need to flag the exterior nodes or exterior areas where the
propagating wave is treated as a plane wave. When such an infinite far-field radiation boundary is close to
the objects and the scattering wave is not a plane wave or a spherical wave, numerical error will occur. Using
perfectly matched layers (PML) is a more accurate method for modeling the far-field radiation boundary (see
the next section).
Applying boundary conditions to the solid model offers the advantage that they are independent of the
underlying finite element mesh. This allows you to make mesh modifications without having to reapply the
loads.
Meshing very thin conductive layers can lead to extremely small elements within those layers. Instead of
meshing those layers, you can use an impedance sheet to obtain a good approximation. An impedance
sheet is an interior surface.

22

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4.3.1. Applying Boundary Conditions


The sheet impedance Zs is related to the circuit impedance, Z, measured between the edges of a square
sheet of material.
The general condition existing on a conductive sheet is:
n^ n^ E = ZsJs
where E is the electric field and Js is the current density.
If E has only a tangential component on the surface, then E = ZsJs, where E and Js have the same direction.

Figure 4.6: Impedance Sheet


L

Current (I)

Impedance (Z)

Voltage (V)

Since E = V/L and I = JsW, Z = V/I = EL/JsW.


Thus, the circuit impedance and sheet impedance relationship is: Z = Zs(L/W).
For a square sheet, L = W and the sheet impedance Zs is equal to the circuit impedance Z. Hence, the sheet
impedance has units of ohms per square. Strictly speaking, since L/W is unitless, the unit for sheet impedance
is the ohm. However, to avoid confusion between Zs and Z, the sheet impedance is specified in units of
ohms per square. The L/W ratio indicates the number of unit squares of material (with any size) in the
impedance. When defining the sheet impedance (surface impedance), enter the impedance with the units
of ohms per square. If a thin layer has a thickness t and resistivity , the resistance of the equivalent impedance
sheet is Rs = /t (ohms per square). The resistance of a dielectric layer can be determined by considering
the equivalent polarization current, Rs = -j/[t o( r - 1)]. For an impedance sheet, use the BF or BFA command
to assign a surface impedance value. For an impedance line, use the BF or BFL command to assign a line
impedance value. The circuit impedance and sheet impedance relationship is: Z = Zs (L/W) and W = 1.
Command(s): BF,Node,IMPD,VAL1,VAL2 BFL,LINE,IMPD,VAL1,VAL2 BFA,AREA,IMPD,VAL1,VAL2
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Loads> AppImpdSheet>
On Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Loads>AppImpdSheet> On
Areas
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Loads>AppImpdSheet> On
Lines
You can also apply a shunt RCL lumped circuit as an impedance load. Use the following commands or GUI
menu paths to apply it to an interior or exterior surface or to interior lines (W = 1 in the figure below).
Command(s): BF,Node,LUMP,VAL1,VAL2 BFL,LINE,LUMP,VAL1,VAL2 BFA,AREA,LUMP,VAL1,VAL2

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23

Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Loads> AppShuntRCL>
On Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Loads> AppShuntRCL> On
Areas
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Loads> AppShuntRCL> On
Lines

Figure 4.7: Shunt RCL Lumped Circuit on a Surface

4.3.1.4. Perfectly Matched Layers (PML)


The purpose of an absorbing boundary condition is to absorb the outgoing electromagnetic wave so that
there are no reflections back into the FEA computational domain. Perfectly matched layers (PML) are the
layers of electromagnetic wave absorbing elements designed for the mesh truncation of an open FEA domain
in a harmonic or modal analysis. It is an artificial anisotropic material that is transparent and heavily lossy
to incoming electromagnetic waves. PML can reduce the size of the computational domain significantly with
very small numerical reflections. A PML region is backed by a PEC boundary condition.
If the electromagnetic wave needs to be absorbed in only one direction, as in the case of a traditional
waveguide port, you construct a 1-D PML region in the global Cartesian coordinate system or a local Cartesian
coordinate system as shown in the following figure.

Figure 4.8: Microstrip Structure with PML Regions

Excitation plane
Strip
Eexcit
Erefl
1-D PML Region

Extraction plane

Discontinuity
Eexcit
Substrate

Etrans
1-D PML Region

A 3-D PML region consists of layers of elements extending from the interior volume towards the open domain
as shown in the following figure. You construct a block about the origin of the global Cartesian coordinate
system or a local Cartesian coordinate system. You align the edges of the 3-D PML region with the axes of
the Cartesian coordinate system.

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4.3.1. Applying Boundary Conditions

Figure 4.9: PML Region Attached to Interior Region


PEC

PML (grayed layer)


z

Symmetric Plane
Interior Computational Domain

Radiator
Symmetric Plane
To optimize the absorbing efficiency of the PML, you must properly construct the PML regions and appropriately choose the following PML parameters:

Thickness of the PML Region

Number of PML Elements

Attenuation Parameters

Number of Normal Elements between the PML Region and Objects or Discontinuities

Use the ET command to define PML elements. Set KEYOPT(4) = 1 for HF119 or HF120 and then mesh the
PML region. Use any element shape to mesh the PML block.
More than one 1-D PML region may exist in a finite element model. The element coordinate system (ESYS
command) uniquely identifies each PML region. Use the LOCAL command to define a Cartesian coordinate
system, and then assign this coordinate system to the elements in the PML region (VATT or ESYS command
prior to meshing or the EMODIF command after meshing).
The attenuation from the PML interface to the PML exterior surface is a parabolic distribution that minimizes
numerical reflections from the PML elements. The numerical reflections are caused by the discretization of
a continuous distribution of material from element to element. To obtain satisfactory numerical accuracy,
you should use at least four layers of PML elements. At lower operating frequencies (< 1 GHz), the PML
thickness may need to be greater than a quarter wavelength.

Figure 4.10: Attenuation Distribution

PML Elements
PML/Interior Domain Interface
Numerical PML Step Distribution

Backed PEC

Ideal PML Continuous Distribution

Since PML acts as an infinite open domain, any boundary conditions and material properties need to be
carried over into the PML region. Material properties such as permittivity, permeability, and conductivity in
the PML region must be the same as the adjacent interior region. For example, in the model of a microstrip
structure with PML regions, you should carry over the dielectric and air properties to the adjacent PML layers
(see Figure 4.8: Microstrip Structure with PML Regions (p. 24)).
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25

Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


A PEC boundary condition must back all exterior surfaces of the PML region, except for symmetric surfaces
with a PMC boundary condition. To specify a PEC boundary condition on the outer surfaces of the PML region,
use the D command for a finite element model or the DL or DA command for a solid model. PEC or PMC
boundary conditions can be applied on the symmetric surfaces of a PML region. For a high frequency
structure that has a matching load, rather than an open domain, the PML region plays the role of the
matching load.
You should include some buffer elements (at least four) between the PML region and a discontinuity or
object in the interior domain. The PML will then absorb the outgoing wave effectively and minimize numerical reflections.

Figure 4.11: Buffer Elements in Interior Domain

Object/Discontinuity

Buffer Elements
PML

Since PML is an artificial anisotropic material, excitation sources are prohibited in the PML region.
The attenuation of the electromagnetic wave in a PML region may be controlled. You can specify the normal
reflection coefficient (harmonic) for propagating waves by using one of the following:
Command(s): PMLOPT,ESYS,Lab,Xminus,Xplus,Yminus,Yplus,Zminus,Zplus
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Shield> On
Nodes
The direction designations are Xminus, Yminus, Zminus, Xplus, Yplus, and Zplus. The minus and plus refer
to the negative and positive directions along the Cartesian coordinate axes, respectively. If the propagating
wave is only absorbed in one direction, you define a 1-D PML region (Lab = ONE). You only need to specify
the Xminus argument for a 1-D PML region. For a 3-D PML region, you can define a different normal reflection
coefficient for each direction (Xminus, Yminus, Zminus, Xplus, Yplus, and Zplus). The normal reflection
coefficients default to 1.E-3 (-60 dB) for a harmonic analysis. Normal reflection coefficients should be less
than 1.0. If only a few PML layers are used (for example, four layers), specifying a very small normal reflection
coefficient (such as -100 dB) may lead to significant numerical reflection. Increase the number of layers before
specifying a very small reflection coefficient. Repeat the PMLOPT command for additional PML regions. Refer
to the PMLOPT and PMLSIZE commands in the Command Reference and Perfectly Matched Layers in the
Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for more information.
The number of PML layers dominates the absorbing efficiency of PML. However, an excessive number of
PML elements will significantly increase the computational requirements. The number of PML layers (n) for
acceptable numerical accuracy can be determined by one of the following:
Command(s): PMLSIZE,FREQB,FREQE,DMIN,DMAX,THICK,ANGLE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> PML
where: DMIN, DMAX, and THICK are shown in the following figure.

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4.3.1. Applying Boundary Conditions

Figure 4.12: Distance between Source/Objects and PML Region


THICK

DMIN

DMAX
Radiator/Object

If n is less than 5, the number of layers is set to 5 in order to reduce the numerical reflection. If n is greater
than 20, the number of layers is set to 20 to avoid having an excessive number of PML elements.
The PMLSIZE macro must be issued before you mesh your model. If the thickness of the PML region is known,
it specifies an element edge length. If the thickness of the PML region is unknown, it species the number
of layers (n).
Refer to the PMLOPT and PMLSIZE commands in the Command Reference and Perfectly Matched Layers in
the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for more information.

4.3.1.5. Periodic Boundary Conditions


Periodic boundary conditions enable you to model time-harmonic electromagnetic scattering, radiation, and
absorption characteristics of doubly periodic array structures. A periodic array is assumed to extend infinitely
as shown in the following figure. The direction normal to the periodic plane is selected as the Z direction
of the global Cartesian coordinate system.

Figure 4.13: Arbitrary Infinite Periodic Structure


S2

S1
Ds2
Ds1
For scattering problems, an arbitrarily polarized plane wave impinges on the periodic structure at some arbitrary oblique arrival angle with respect to the Z direction. The reflection, transmission, absorption, and
polarization characteristics of the periodic structure are simulated. For most scattering problems, the periodic
structure will not include internal excitation sources. For radiation problems, an electromagnetic current
source or other excitation source will exist inside the periodic structure.
The infinite extension assumption allows you to investigate a single periodic unit cell as shown in the following figure. The electromagnetic fields on the cell sidewalls exhibit a dependency described by the theorem
of Floquet. Refer to High-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Simulation in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for more information on this theorem.

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27

Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis

Figure 4.14: Unit Cell


PML
Slave Surface
Master Surface
PML or Matched Port
The cell sidewalls are assigned as master and slave boundaries, and they are bound together by the periodic
boundary conditions. The electromagnetic wave in the periodic volume radiates into infinity or is absorbed
in the z direction. You must use PML to truncate the open space because Floquet's electromagnetic wave
propagates in the periodic structure. You should also use PML or a matched impedance port to terminate
a traditional waveguide port, if it exists inside the periodic structure.
To impose periodic boundary conditions, the mesh pattern on the master boundary must be identical to
the mesh pattern on the slave boundary. You must mesh the master boundary using the AMESH command.
You then use the AGEN or MSHCOPY command to generate the mesh on the slave boundary prior to
meshing the cell volume. Matching the nodes on the master boundary to the nodes on the slave boundary
imposes the periodic boundary conditions. You use the CPCYC or CP command to generate the coupled
nodes.
As an example, the following command input listing creates periodic boundary conditions for a unit cell of
a infinite rectangular waveguide periodic array:
/batch,list
/title, S11 of JRM Array, E plane scan, 9.25 GHz
/com, Problem: Compute S11 of JRM Array for E-Plane scan at 9.25 GHz
/com, Numerical Model: Waveguide + Radiation Space + PML
/com,
Waveguide: 0.9"x0.4"x0.75"
/com,
Radiation Space: 1.0"x0.5"x0.75"
/com,
PML: 1.0"x0.5"x0.75"
/com,
/nopr
/prep7
freq=9.25e9
lamda=3.e8/freq
scal=25.4e-3
a1=scal*0.9/2.
b1=scal*0.4/2.
a2=scal*1.0/2.
b2=scal*0.5/2
c1=scal*0.75
c2=scal*0.5
c3=scal*0.75
c4=scal*1.5
rmin=c3
rmax=sqrt(2.)*c3
dpml=c4-c3
h=lamda/5
tiny=1.e-5
ang=30
angmax=60.
et,11,200,5
et,1,119,1,,,0
et,2,119,1,,,1
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.

! cycle element

local,11
wpcsys,,11

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4.3.1. Applying Boundary Conditions


block,-a1,a1,-b1,b1,0,-c1
!block,-a2,a2,-b2,b2,0,c2
block,-a2,a2,-b2,b2,0,c3
block,-a2,a2,-b2,b2,c3,c4
vglue,all
type,11
esize,h
asel,s,loc,x,-a2
asel,a,loc,y,-b2
asel,r,loc,z,0,c3
amesh,all
PMLSIZE,9e9,9.5e9,rmin,rmax,dpml,angmax
asel,s,loc,x,-a2
asel,a,loc,y,-b2
asel,r,loc,z,c3,c4
amesh,all
alls
asel,s,loc,x,-a2
agen,2,all,,,2*a2
asel,s,loc,y,-b2
agen,2,all,,,0,2*b2
alls
nummrg,all
mat,1
type,1
vsel,s,loc,z,-c1,c3
esize,h
vmesh,all
type,2
PMLSIZE,9e9,9.5e9,rmin,rmax,dpml,angmax
vsel,s,loc,z,c3,c4
vmesh,all
alls
aclear,all
etdel,11
alls

! create normal element

! create PML element

nsel,s,loc,x,-a2
nsel,a,loc,x,a2
cpcyc,ax,,,2*a2,0,0,1
nsel,s,loc,y,-b2
nsel,a,loc,y,b2
cpcyc,ax,,,0,2*b2,0,1
alls
finish

The finite element models created are shown in the following figure.

Figure 4.15: Periodic Array Models

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29

Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


The SPSCAN macro can perform a harmonic analysis of the unit cell and extract the S-parameter at the port
over a specified scanning angle range. You can then use the PLSYZ command to plot the S-parameter over
the scanning angle range.
You can use the HFPA command to specify the scan angle for a harmonic analysis. In POST1, you can issue
the HFARRAY command to define the antenna array. You can then use PRFAR or PLFAR to obtain the radiation parameters of the phased array antenna, based on the solution for the unit cell.

4.3.2. Applying Excitation Sources


Table 4.5: High-Frequency Excitation Sources (p. 30) shows all excitation sources available for a high-frequency
analysis. You can apply excitation sources on the listed solid model entities or finite element model entities.
See the detailed explanations of these excitation sources below. For general information on applying loads
see "Loading" in the Basic Analysis Guide.

Table 4.5 High-Frequency Excitation Sources


Excitation Sources

Solid Model Entities

Finite Element Model Entities

Excitation Port

Areas

Nodes

Current Density Volume

Volumes

Nodes or Elements

Current Density Area

Area

Nodes or Elements

Current Density Line

Lines

Nodes

Current Density Point

Keypoints

Nodes

Plane Wave

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Surface Magnetic Field

Areas

Nodes

Electric Field

Lines or Areas

Nodes

4.3.2.1. Excitation Ports


Excitation port refers to a plane where an excitation source is defined by the HFPORT command. Excitation
ports include traditional waveguide ports, arbitrary modal ports, uniform lumped gap ports, modal lumped
gap ports, and plane wave ports. The port plane can be an interior surface that is inside the computational
domain or an exterior surface that truncates the computational domain. For traditional waveguides, you
may launch a modal electromagnetic field for a coaxial waveguide, rectangular waveguide, circular waveguide
or parallel plate waveguide. A waveguide port can be either interior or exterior with respect to the matching
condition. A local Cartesian coordinate system needs to be defined to specify input data and the local Zaxis must be in the direction of wave propagation. A modal port (Porttype = MODAL) automatically uses
the electromagnetic field of an ANSYS Emag - High Frequency modal analysis for the excitation. A local
Cartesian coordinate system does not need to be defined for a modal port. The modal port can be either
an interior port or an exterior port. The lumped gap port (Porttype = LGAP) is a simplified interior port
with an assumed uniform electromagnetic field. A lumped gap port requires a rectangular cross section and
the local Y-axis must be aligned across the conducting plates. The modal lumped gap port (Porttype =
MGAP) is an interior port with an internal matching load, which is similar to a matched voltage source. This
port differs from a modal port (Porttype = MODAL) in that the port load consumes the power. The eigen
solution is automatically applied to the port. A local Cartesian coordinate system does not need to be defined
for a modal lumped gap port. A plane wave port is an interior port that is only used for a scattering analysis
of a periodic structure.

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4.3.2. Applying Excitation Sources


Specifying the excitation port option is a two-step process. First you select the solid model area (or nodes)
to define the port location and assign a port number. The port number assigned must be between 1 and
50. For an exterior port, you choose the areas or nodes and then use one of the following to assign a port
number and apply a surface load:
Command(s): SF, SFA
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Port> Exterior>
On Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Port> Exterior>
On Areas
For an interior port, you would use one of the following to assign a port number and apply a body load:
Command(s): BF, BFA
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Port> Interior>
On Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Port> Interior> On
Areas
Next, you need to identify the port type: coaxial waveguide, rectangular waveguide, circular waveguide,
parallel-plate waveguide, modal, lumped gap, or plane wave. You also need to specify the attributes of the
port (geometric properties and excitation conditions). You may define geometric properties of a waveguide
with respect to a local coordinate system. For a waveguide port, the origin of the local coordinate system
must be centered about the face of the port without considering symmetry. For waveguide, modal, and
lumped gap ports, the z direction must correspond with the wave propagation direction. For a plane wave
port, the z direction of either the global Cartesian or a local coordinate system must be perpendicular to
the periodic plane (see Figure 4.13: Arbitrary Infinite Periodic Structure (p. 27)).
To define a local coordinate system, use one of the following:
Command(s): LOCAL
GUI: Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Local Coordinate Systems> Create Local CS> At Specified Loc
To identify the port, use the command or menu path shown below.
Command(s): HFPORT,Portnum,Porttype,Local,Opt1,Opt2,VAL1, ... ,VAL11
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Port> Exterior>
On Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Port> Exterior>
On Areas
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Port> Interior> On
Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Port> Interior> On
Areas
The Porttype argument defines the port type. The Opt1 argument defines the mode type for a waveguide
port or the required mode number for a modal port. To view the electromagnetic field at a modal port, issue
/PSF for an exterior port or /PBF for an interior port after you have issued HFMODPRT or SPSWP.

Table 4.6 Port Types


Port Type (Porttype)
Coaxial Waveguide (COAX)

Mode Type or Number of Modes (Opt1)


Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) Mode

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31

Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


Port Type (Porttype)
Rectangular Waveguide (RECT)

Mode Type or Number of Modes (Opt1)


Transverse Electric (TEmn) Mode [1 (p. 32)]
Transverse Magnetic (TMmn) Mode [1 (p. 32)]

Circular Waveguide (CIRC)

Transverse Electric (TEmn) Mode [2 (p. 32)]


Transverse Magnetic (TMmn) Mode [2 (p. 32)]

Parallel Plate Waveguide (PARA)

Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM)


Transverse Electric (TEon) Mode [3 (p. 32)]
Transverse Magnetic (TMon) Mode [3 (p. 32)]

Plane Wave (PLAN)

Extracted harmonic component:


Transverse Electric (TE) Mode
Transverse Magnetic (TM) Mode

Lumped Gap (LGAP)

Not Used

Modal (MODAL)

Required Number of Modes

Modal Lumped Gap (MGAP)

1 and also defaults to 1.

1.

The subscripts m and n mean the variation of the field along the wide side and narrow side of the
waveguide, respectively.

2.

The subscripts m and n mean the variation of the field along the angular and radial directions of the
waveguide, respectively.

3.

The subscript zero means no field variation and the subscript n means the variation of the field between
the plates.

The VAL1 - VAL11 arguments define the other port inputs. See the HFPORT command for additional information.
As shown in the following figure, a port may exist on the exterior surface or interior surface of a modeled
domain. An exterior port allows you to launch an incident wave and the port absorbs the reflected wave
for the launched mode. An interior port allows you to launch a bidirectional incident wave. All reflected
modes will pass through the interior port and will be absorbed by a PML absorbing boundary condition if
the interior port is assigned as a matched port. The Opt2 argument controls the ability to launch a wave
and to pass reflected waves.

Figure 4.16: Exterior and Interior Ports


Eexcit

Etrans

Erefl
exterior port

Eexcit

Eexcit

Etrans

Erefl
discontinuity

interior port

discontinuity

When launching a fundamental mode using the exterior port option (Opt2 = EXT), you should locate the
port at least half of a wavelength away from any discontinuity or structure to ensure that other reflected
higher order modes are damped out. You may extract S-parameters at this port for the single mode.

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4.3.2. Applying Excitation Sources


An interior port (Opt2 = INT) has the advantage that it supports launching of a wave and passing of all reflected waves. Hence, you can place an interior port very close to a structure or discontinuity with no loss
in accuracy. An interior port can only be defined in the normal element region (KEYOPT(4) = 0), and not at
the interface between the normal region and the PML region or in the PML region.
A PML region can be located behind the interior port to absorb the reflected and incident waves as shown
in the following figure. If higher order modes are a concern, you can use interior ports and PML absorption.
The S-parameters of the specified single mode can be extracted at the ports.

Figure 4.17: Interior Ports


Interior Ports
Eexcit

Eexcit

Erefl
PML

Etrans

Discontinuity

Buffer Element

Buffer Element

PML

The plane wave source port (Porttype = PLAN, Opt2 = INT) launches a plane wave for a scattering analysis of a periodic structure. The plane wave port must be an interior soft port as illustrated in the following
figure. You need to define the coupled master and slave surfaces of the solid model or nodes of the finite
element model. You must use PML to truncate the open space because Floquet's electromagnetic wave
propagates in the periodic structure. The specified harmonic component of the reflected and transmitted
Floquet wave is extractable. You should define an output plane wave port when transmission parameters
are required. For information on how to define a plane wave, see Plane Wave Source (p. 35).

Figure 4.18: Model for Scattering Analysis of Periodic Structure


Plane Wave Port (PLAN)
Master Surface
PML of Matching Port

Slave Surface
PML

Output Port (INT)

1.

If time-averaged power is input, it overrides the applied voltage or field input. See the HFPORT command for more information on the VAL1 -VAL8 arguments.

2.

VAL3 is a RMS value.

4.3.2.2. Current Source


You can use a current source to excite electromagnetic fields in a high-frequency structure. Current density
is input by defining up to three components of a vector quantity (JSX, JSY, and JSZ) and a phase angle. If
the current density vector is not aligned with the global Cartesian coordinate system, you may take advantage
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Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


of either a rotated nodal coordinate system (NROTAT command) or an element coordinate system (ESYS
command). If current density is specified at nodes (BF command) or transferred to nodes from a solid
model entity (BFA, BFL, or BFK), you can use a rotated nodal coordinate system to align the current density
vector. If current density is specified on elements (BFE command) or transferred to elements from a solid
model volume (BFV command), you can use an element coordinate system to align the current density
vector. To view the current density vectors, use the /PBC,JS,,2 command option.
To define a current density volume source, use one of the following:
Command(s): BF, BFV, BFE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Curr
Density> On Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Curr Density>
On Volumes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Curr Density>
On Elements
For a surface current source, you should specify the current density on at least three nodes on an element
face. The surface current source must coincide with the element faces. You can define a current density
surface source using one of the following:
Command(s): BF, BFA
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Curr
Density> On Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Curr Density>
On Areas
For a line current source, you should specify the current density at two nodes connected by an element
edge. The line current source must coincide with the element edges. To define a current density line source,
use one of the following:
Command(s): BF, BFL
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Curr
Density> On Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Curr Density>
On Lines
A point current source must be at the element nodes. You can define a current density point source using
one of the following:
Command(s): BF, BFK
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Curr
Density> On Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Curr Density>
On Keypoints
In general, a current density source launches the electromagnetic wave in all directions. For a propagating
or resonant system, you can use a current density source to excite the propagating modes or resonant
modes of the structure. Only proper modes can exist in the structure. In order to reduce the parasitic modes,
you should choose the distribution of the current density based on the electric field distribution of the excited
mode.
The following guidelines apply when a current density source is used to excite a high-frequency propagating
structure:
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4.3.2. Applying Excitation Sources

To avoid the parasitic modes around the excitation source, locate parameter extraction planes at least
1/4 wavelength away from the excitation position.

Use PML to terminate the computational domain along the wave propagating direction.

You can also define a radiation source using a current density distribution in terms of a conducting current
distribution on the radiator. For example, you can choose a sinusoidal current distribution to model a very
thin half-wavelength dipole antenna.

4.3.2.3. Plane Wave Source


A incident plane wave source is available. You can define a plane wave by component values of an electric
polarization vector and the incident angles in a global Cartesian coordinate system:
jk o ( xcos sin + ysin sin + zcos )

E = E0

If a plane wave port is assigned, you can define a plane wave in a local Cartesian coordinate system.
Define a external plane wave (a free-space harmonic incident plane electromagnetic wave) using one of the
following:
Command(s): PLWAVE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Plane Wave>
Define Wave
You need to specify the following plane wave attributes:

Electric field amplitude in the X, Y, and Z directions.

Angle between the X-axis and the projection of the incident plane wave vector on the X-Y plane ().

Angle between the Z-axis and the incident plane wave vector.

Figure 4.19: Spherical Coordinates

Incident Plane Wave

y
x

Note
As shown in Figure 4.19: Spherical Coordinates (p. 35), the wave vector points to the origin of the
Cartesian coordinate system.
When used together with an unbounded domain model (using PML as an absorber), the scattering effects
of an incident field on a body can be simulated using the scattering analysis command HFSCAT.
You cannot use the PLWAVE command to define an incident plane wave for a scattering analysis of a periodic structure. Here, a plane wave port must be specified using the HFPORT command. The scattering
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35

Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


analysis command HFSCAT is not valid because a total field formulation is used for the scattering analysis
of a periodic structure.

4.3.2.4. Surface Magnetic Field Source


You can apply a fixed magnetic field (hard) excitation source on an exterior surface using one of the following:
Command(s): BF, BFA
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Magnetic
Field> On Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Magnetic Field>
On Areas
You should impose a hard surface magnetic field excitation source on the exterior nodes of a computational
domain as shown in Figure 4.20: Exterior Hard Surface Magnetic Field Excitation (p. 36). Specify a soft excitation
source if the surface magnetic field source is on the interior nodes of a computational domain as shown in
Figure 4.21: Soft Interior Surface Magnetic Field Excitation (p. 36).

Figure 4.20: Exterior Hard Surface Magnetic Field Excitation


Hinc
Hrefl

Discontinuity
Htrans

Exterior Surface H Source

Matched Output

For a surface magnetic field source, you should specify the magnetic field at three nodes on an element
face, at least. The surface magnetic field source must coincide with the element faces. The magnetic field is
input by defining up to three components of a vector quantity (HX, HY, HZ) and a phase angle. If the magnetic field vector does not align with the global Cartesian coordinate system, you may take advantage of a
rotated nodal coordinate system (NROTAT command). The magnetic field specified at nodes (BF command)
or transferred to nodes from a solid model entity (BFA, BFL, or BFK) may use a rotated nodal coordinate
system to align the magnetic field vector. To view the magnetic field vectors, use the /PBC,H,,2 command
option.
You can also apply a soft excitation source as shown in the following figure. It allows reflection waves to go
through the source surface without any reflection. To do so, you define an interior surface magnetic field
source using the BF or BFA command. The HF119 or HF120 elements in the region that the reflection wave
propagates into must be scattering elements (KEYOPT(4) = 2). However, you still define the elements in the
PML region by a KEYOPT(4) = 1 setting.

Figure 4.21: Soft Interior Surface Magnetic Field Excitation


KEYOPT(4)=1

KEYOPT(4)=2
Hexcit
Hrefl

KEYOPT(4)=0
Htrans

PML Interior Surface H Source Discontinuity

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4.3.2. Applying Excitation Sources

4.3.2.5. Electric Field Source


You can apply a fixed electric field source on an external surface using one of the following:
Command(s): BF, BFL, BFA
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Electric Field>
On Nodes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Electric Field> On
Lines
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Electric Field> On
Areas
For a line electric field source, you should specify the electric field at two nodes connected by an element
edge. For a surface electric field source, you should at least specify the electric field at three nodes on an
element face. The surface electric field source must coincide with the element faces. The line electric field
source must coincide with the element edges.
The electric field is input by defining up to three components of a vector quantity (EFX, EFY, and EFZ) and
a phase angle. If the electric field vector does not align with the global Cartesian coordinate system, you
may take advantage of a rotated nodal coordinate system (NROTAT command). The electric field specified
at nodes (BF command) or transferred to nodes from a solid model entity (BFA, BFL, or BFK) may use a rotated
nodal coordinate system to align the electric field vector. To view the electric field vectors, use the /PBC,EF,,2
command option.
The electric field source is a fixed hard excitation source, which is equivalent to an unmatched voltage
source. The AX DOF updates automatically after the excitation electric field is imposed on the element nodes.
Only the first order HF119 and HF120 elements are available for this excitation.

4.3.2.6. Equivalent Source Surface


The near and far fields beyond the FEA domain are of importance in high-frequency electromagnetics. Many
design parameters (for example, radar cross-section, antenna pattern, directive gain, and radiation power)
are based on the far field values.
The surface equivalence principle enables you to calculate the electromagnetic fields beyond the FEA domain.
It states that the electromagnetic field exterior to a given surface can be exactly represented by an equivalent
electric and magnetic current placed on that surface and allowed to radiate into the region external to that
surface. Refer to the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for more information
on this principle.
For problems requiring near-field and far-field computations (for example, antenna parameters, radar cross
section, and electromagnetic field values) you must first define an equivalent source surface in the preprocessor as shown in the following figure. The surface must enclose the radiator or scatter, except for symmetry
planes. The equivalent electric and magnetic current are computed and stored on the surface. This enables
you to quickly calculate near-field and far-field information in the postprocessor.

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Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis

Figure 4.22: Equivalent Source Surface


PEC

PML

x-z Symmetric Plane

y
Radiator
y-z Symmetric Plane

Equivalent Surface

For radiation and scattering problems, you must use an absorbing boundary condition, either PML or farfield radiation boundary (INF). Since the ideal radiation or scattering plane wave leads to a very large
spherical computational domain for an acceptable numerical accuracy, you should use PML to truncate the
computational domain. The equivalent source surface should be between the radiator or scatter and the
PML region. In principle, the equivalent source surface should be close to the radiator or scatter to obtain
good near-field and far-field results. However, because of the lower order element discretization of the
computational domain and the numerical integration on the equivalent source surface, you should use half
a wavelength or greater separation between the radiator or scatter and the equivalent source surface. You
should also place some buffer elements between the equivalent source surface and the PML region.
You define an equivalent source surface using a surface boundary condition with the Maxwell flag MXWF.
Exercise care when applying a MXWF surface load to define an equivalent source surface. Do not flag any
surface on a symmetry plane (for example, the y-z and x-z planes in Figure 4.22: Equivalent Source Surface (p. 38)). The following is one way to flag an equivalent source surface:
1.

Select the elements interior to the equivalent source surface (ESEL).

2.

Select all the nodes of these elements (NSLE,S).

3.

Reselect just the exterior nodes to work with only the surface nodes (NSEL,R,EXT).

4.

Apply the surface flag (SF,ALL,MXWF).

The following is another way you can flag an equivalent source surface:
1.

Select the nodes interior to the equivalent source surface (NSEL).

2.

Select the elements attached to the selected nodes, only if all of its nodes are in the selected nodal
set (ESLN, S, 1, ALL).

3.

Select the nodes on the "MXWF" surface.

4.

Apply the surface flag (SF, ALL, MXWF).

Caution
Do not apply the surface flag using the SFA command. This option will transfer the surface flag
to adjacent elements on either side of the equivalent source surface and may lead to erroneous
results.
You do not need to define an equivalent source surface when performing a scattering analysis of a periodic
structure. The interior plane wave port surface serves as the equivalent source surface.

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4.4.3. Setting the Analysis Frequencies

4.4. Solving Harmonic High-Frequency Analyses


The ANSYS program simulates electromagnetic wave propagation, radiation and scattering phenomena in
a 3-D harmonic analysis.
To enter the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): /SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution

4.4.1. Defining the Analysis Type


To specify the analysis type, use either of the following:
Command(s): ANTYPE,HARMIC
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Harmonic Analysis
You cannot restart a harmonic analysis. If you want to apply a different set of harmonic loads, do a new
analysis each time.

4.4.2. Defining Analysis Options and Estimating Computer Resources


For a full harmonic analysis, you can choose the sparse direct solver (SPARSE) (default), the Quasi-Minimal
Residual (QMR) solver, or the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver using one of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
When choosing an iterative solver, use the QMR solver for symmetric linear equations (excluding periodic
structures) and the ICCG solver for unsymmetric matrices.
For a relatively small-size problem (50,000 DOFs or less), the sparse solver is recommended. For larger
problems, you can also use the QMR or ICCG solver. If the QMR or ICCG solver does not converge, you must
switch to the sparse solver. In general, if a FEA model has 1 million DOFs, it requires 2 GB RAM and 10-15
GB disk space for the SPARSE solver. For the number of DOFs per element, see Table 4.1: Element DOFs (p. 14)
in this chapter.
If Ne is the total number of HF119 tetrahedral elements and M is defined by M=(Ne/5)1/3, the number of
DOFs for 1st order and 2nd order elements are 3M(M+1)(2M+1) and 6M(M+1)(4M+1)+8M3, respectively. If
Ne is the total number of HF120 hexahedral elements and M is defined by M=Ne1/3, the number of DOFs
for 1st order and 2nd order elements are 3M(M+1)2 and 6M(M+1)(3M+1)+6M3, respectively.

4.4.3. Setting the Analysis Frequencies


Set the frequency (in Hz), using the command or GUI path shown below:
Command(s): HARFRQ
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substps
If you specify the frequency range on the HARFRQ command to perform a frequency sweep, you have to
store each load step of data and manually process each result.

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Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis

4.4.4. Defining a Scattering Analysis


To specify a pure vector scattering field analysis, use one of the following:
Command(s): HFSCAT
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
Use the HFSCAT command to specify a scattering analysis and the type of electromagnetic field output:

Use the scattering formulation and store the scattering field Esc(Lab = SCAT).

Use the scattering formulation and store the total electromagnetic field Etotal = Einc + Esc (Lab = TOTAL)

Turn off scattering formulation analysis (Lab = OFF)

If a Radar Cross Section (RCS) is required at postprocessing, you must specify Lab = SCAT. You must also
flag the virtual equivalent current source surface that encloses the scatter using the SF command (Lab =
MXWF).

Note

Only first order HF119 or HF120 elements are available for a scattering analysis.

The HFSCAT command is not applicable to a scattering analysis of a periodic structure.

4.4.5. Defining a Radiation Analysis for a Phased Array Antenna


For a radiation analysis of a phased array antenna, you must also define master/slave coupling pairs on the
boundaries of a unit cell of the periodic structure (see the CP and CPCYC commands). You must also specify
the scan angles. If a far-field computation is required at postprocessing, you must flag the virtual equivalent
current source surface using the SF command (Lab = MXWF). The equivalent current source surface must
not include the master/slave surface of the unit cell.
Only first order HF119 or HF120 elements are available for a radiation analysis of a phased array antenna.
To specify a radiation scan angle for a phased array antenna analysis, use one of the following:
Command(s): HFPA
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options

4.4.6. Defining a Modal Port Solution


To specify a electromagnetic field at a modal port, use the HFMODPRT command. You must use HFMODPRT
when a modal port is defined and the SPSWP command is not used for a solution.

4.4.7. Characteristic Impedance


Transmission line characteristic impedances can be automatically obtained from a 2-D eigenvalue solution.
Likewise, port surface characteristic impedances can be automatically obtained from a 3-D modal port
solution.
Characteristic impedance can be defined in the following three ways:

40

2
Power-Current (PI) definition: ZPI = P / I
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4.4.8. Starting the Solution

2
Power-Voltage (PV) definition: ZPV = V / P

Voltage-Current (VI) definition:

Z VI = V / I =

ZPIZPV

where:
P = power passing through a port:

P = s E H ds

I = current computed by applying Ampere's law to a path around the port:


V = c E dl
V = voltage:

I = c H dl

A voltage line is referred to as an impedance line and it is defined by the maximum voltage between two
points when the ports are set up. You can define an impedance line using the LPRT command.
The three definitions of characteristic impedance may give significantly different values because of wave
dispersion. For quasi-TEM waves, the ZPV and ZPI values are the upper and lower impedance boundaries,
respectively. Therefore, the value of ZVI approaches the actual impedance for quasi-TEM waves.
For a multi-conductor port, current and voltage are vectors, i.e. {I} and {V}. The vector {I} contains the current
on each conductor. The vector {V} represents the voltage defined on each conductor. The number of voltage
lines must be identical to the number of conductors on the port section. There are N modes in a N+1 conductor system, where N is the number of inner conductors.
To obtain the characteristic impedances for a 2-D eigenvalue model of a transmission line, you can use the
HFPCSWP command. For a 3-dimensional model, you can obtain the port surface characteristic impedances
by issuing the HFPORT command with Porttype = MODAL and specify a characteristic impedance definition (VAL2 = PI, PV, or VI). The impedance multiplier (VAL1) is the ratio of the whole structure to the numerical model. For example, the impedance multiplier for a half symmetry model is 2.
You do not have to define the inner conductor if there is only one inner conductor in the model. If there
are multiple inner conductors in the model, you must define the inner conductors using BF, BFL , or BFA
with Lab = CHRGD. Each impedance line should connect the inner and outer conductors and have the same
line number as the connected inner conductor (see the LPRT command). That is, the impedance line N will
connect the inner conductor N with the outer conductor.

4.4.8. Starting the Solution


To initiate a single solution, use either of the following:
Command(s): SOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS
To solve the analysis over a range of frequencies, you can specify a frequency range using the HARFRQ
command or you can execute the SPSWP macro or, for a frequency selective surface analysis, you can execute
the SPFSS macro. The SPSWP and SPFSS macros save you some steps by automatically solving the analysis
and executing macros that calculate S-parameters and other circuit coefficients (SPARM and FSSPARM). If
you specify the frequency range by HARFRQ to perform a frequency sweep, you need to store the data for
each load step and manually process each result set to obtain S-parameters and other circuit parameters.
For a frequency selective surface analysis over a range of angles, you can employ the SPFSS macro. For a
phased array antenna analysis over a range of angles, you can employ the SPSCAN macro that solves the
analysis and executes the SPARM macro. For detailed information on SPARM, FSSPARM, and other circuit
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41

Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


parameter macros, see Calculating Circuit Parameters for High-Frequency Devices (p. 50) in this guide. Information on these macros can also be found in the Command Reference.
The SPSWP macro automatically performs harmonic analyses over a frequency range and executes the
SPARM macro to calculate S-parameters. It outputs a Touchstone file of S-parameters, filename.snp, where
n is the number of ports. The SwpOpt argument specifies the solution method: Full, Variational Technology,
or Variational Technology using a perfect absorber. The full method uses the direct or iterative solver to
perform solutions at every frequency between the beginning and ending frequencies (FREQB and FREQE
arguments) as determined by the frequency increment (FREQINC argument). For more information on this
method, see the information under Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters). The separately licensed VT Accelerator add-on product's harmonic sweep capability performs a factorization solution of the linear equations
at the mid-frequency of the specified range. It then performs good approximations of the results over the
frequency range. Variational Technology can be much faster than the full method. For more information on
that method, see Harmonic Sweep Using VT Accelerator in the Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide.
To execute the SPSWP macro, use either of the following:
Command(s): SPSWP
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> S-Par Freq Sweep
It is recommended that you perform an initial solution at a single frequency to ensure that all input arguments
are properly set before you run a frequency sweep. To run a single frequency, set FREQB to FREQE.
SPSWP performs a sequence of solutions whereby for each solution, one port is excited and the other
ports are matched. Each solution represents one column of a S-parameter matrix (i.e., if Port 1 is excited
for a three-port system, the resulting column represents the S11, S21 and S31 S-parameters). A full S-parameter matrix for a n-port system at one frequency requires n solutions alternating excited and matched
port boundary conditions at each port. SPSWP will solve a column of the S-parameter matrix for each port
that has a defined excitation. If all ports have a defined excitation, then the full S-parameter matrix will be
computed.
To use this function, you must flag the ports. Use the SF or SFA commands for exterior ports, and use the
BFA or BF commands for interior ports. Number the ports sequentially from 1 with no gaps in the numbering.
To prepare the ports for SPSWP, you must define the port excitations using the HFPORT command.
For each solution, SPSWP computes S-parameters with the excitation on all ports nullified except for one.
It restores all excitation loads after the sequence of solutions is completed.
Postprocessing is limited to the solution with the last port excited and the other ports matched. The OutPut
argument controls the results file output. The minimal size results file (OutPut = 0) only contains information
on elements attached to the flagged ports. It is recommended if you have a large number of frequencies.
S-parameters results are written to a Touchstone format file jobname.snp, where n is the number of ports.
The first line is a general description of the output data and starts with an exclamation point (!). The second
line contains the following information:

starts with a #

frequency unit (GHz, MHz, KHz, Hz)

parameter type: S = scattering parameters, Y = admittance parameters, and Z = impedance parameters

data format: magnitude-angle (MA), dB-angle (DB), or real-imaginary (RI)

normalizing impedance: R n, where n = ohms

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4.4.9. Finishing the Solution

Note
The following is an example of the first two lines.
! 2-port S-parameter file, 3 frequency points
# GHz S MA R 50. 50.
The output then lists the S-parameters in row format for each frequency. Up to four ports are listed in a row.
Rows are repeated for each frequency until all port data is listed. The following examples demonstrate the
format. Frequency appears as f and magnitude and phase appear as m and p, respectively.
Two port data appears in one row as follows:
f m(S11) p(S11) m(S21) p(S21) m(S12) p(S12) m(S22) p(S22)
Three port data appears in three rows as follows:
f m(S11) p(S11) m(S12) p(S12) m(S13) p(S13)
m(S21) p(S21) m(S22) p(S22) m(S23) p(S23)
m(S31) p(S31) m(S32) p(S32) m(S33) p(S33)
Six port data for one frequency appears in 12 rows as follows:
f m(S11) p(S11) m(S12) p(S12) m(S13) p(S13) m(S14) p(S14)
m(S15) p(S15) m(S16) p(S16)
m(S21) p(S21) m(S22) p(S22) m(S23) p(S23) m(S24) p(S24)
m(S25) p(S25) m(S26) p(S26)
.
.
.
m(S61) p(S61) m(S62) p(S62) m(S63) p(S63) m(S64) p(S64)
m(S65) p(S65) m(S66) p(S66)
The SPSCAN macro automatically performs harmonic analyses over a range of angles and executes the
SPARM macro to calculate S-parameters at the input port of a phased array antenna. It outputs a Touchstonelike file of S-parameters, filename.snp. The Variational Technology solution method is not available in SPSCAN.
To execute the SPSCAN macro, use either of the following:
Command(s): SPSCAN
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> S-Par Ang Sweep
The SPFSS macro automatically performs harmonic analyses over a range of frequencies or angles and executes the FSSPARM macro to calculate reflection and transmission parameters for a frequency selective
surface. It outputs a results file (filename.fnp where n is equal to 1 or 2) which contains reflection and
transmission coefficients, power reflection and transmission coefficients, and insert and return losses. The
Variational Technology solution method is only available for a frequency sweep in SPFSS. An interior plane
wave port must be flagged by the BF or BFA command and defined by the HFPORT command.

4.4.9. Finishing the Solution


To leave the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:

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Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


Command(s): FINISH
GUI: Main Menu> Finish

4.5. Postprocessing Harmonic High-Frequency Analyses


4.5.1. Reviewing Results
The ANSYS program writes results from a harmonic high-frequency electromagnetic analysis to the magnetics
results file, Jobname.RMG. Results include the data listed below, many of which vary harmonically at the
operating frequency (or frequencies) for which the measurable quantities can be computed as the real
solution times cosine (t) minus the imaginary solution times sine (t). is the angular frequency. For more
details, see Harmonic Analysis Using Complex Formalism in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL
and Mechanical Applications.
Primary data: Nodal DOFs (AX)
Derived data:

Nodal electric field (EX, EY, EZ, ESUM)

Nodal magnetic field intensity (HX, HY, HZ, HSUM)

Nodal conducting current density (JCX, JCY, JCZ, JSUM)

Joule heat rate per unit volume (JHEAT)

Element Poynting vector (PX, PY, PZ)

Element dissipated power Pd (if it exists)

Element stored time-average energy

Element specific absorption rate (SAR) (if it exists)

and so on

Additional data are available. See the Element Reference for details.
You can review analysis results in POST1, the general postprocessor. In general, the results are out-of-phase
with the input loads. The solution is calculated and stored in terms of real and imaginary components as
detailed above.
Use POST1 to review results over the entire model at specific frequencies. For viewing results over a range
of frequencies, use the time-history postprocessor, POST26.
To choose a postprocessor, use one of the following:
Command(s): /POST1 or /POST26
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc
Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro

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4.5.2. Commands to Help You in Postprocessing

4.5.2. Commands to Help You in Postprocessing


You will find the following commands (listed below) helpful in postprocessing analysis results:

Table 4.7 Postprocessing Commands


Task

Command(s)

Select the real solution

SET,1,1,,0

Select the imaginary solution

SET,1,1,,1

Print electric or magnetic field at corner nodes [1,3]

PRNSOL,EF (or H or JC)

Print electric field at corner nodes[1,3]

PRVECT,EF

Print Poynting vector at element centroid[1,3]

PRVECT,P

Print magnetic field at corner nodes[1,3]

PRVECT,H

Print conducting current at corner nodes[1,3]

PRVECT,JC

Print electric or magnetic field at element nodes[3]

PRESOL,EF (or H or JC)

Print Joule heat density[2,4]

PRESOL,JHEAT

Create element table item for centroid electric field[3], X component. (Issue similar commands for Y, Z, and SUM components.)

ETABLE,Lab,EF,X

Create element table item for centroid magnetic field[3], X compon- ETABLE,Lab,H,X
ent. (Issue similar commands for Y, Z, and SUM components.)
Create element table item for centroid conducting current[3], X
component. (Issue similar commands for Y, Z, and SUM components.)

ETABLE,Lab,JC,X

Create element table item for Joule heat density[2,4]

ETABLE,Lab,JHEAT

Print the indicated element table item(s)

PRETAB,Lab,...

1.

Average of selected elements adjacent to nodes.

2.

To obtain power loss, multiply by element volume.

3.

Instantaneous value (real/imaginary, at t = 0 and t = -90) in case of a harmonic analysis.

4.

RMS value: measurable values are the sum of real and imaginary parts.

See the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for more information on the
notation. The ETABLE command lets you view less frequently-used items. The HF119 and HF120 descriptions
in the Element Reference discuss these items.
You can view most of these items graphically. To do so, substitute plotting commands or GUI paths (see
the individual commands for the appropriate GUI paths) for the commands whose names begin with "PL"
(for example, use PLNSOL instead of PRNSOL, as illustrated below):

Table 4.8 Plotting Commands


For this command...

Substitute this command...

PRNSOL

PLNSOL

PRVECT

PLVECT

PRESOL

PLESOL

PRETAB

PLETAB
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Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


You also can plot element table items. See the Basic Analysis Guide for more information.
The ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) also contains commands that may be useful in postprocessing,
and results processing purposes. For more information about the APDL, see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features.
The following two sections discuss some typical POST1 operations for calculating the near and far-fields and
parameters for high-frequency devices. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions, see the
Basic Analysis Guide.

4.5.3. Calculating Near Fields, Far Fields, and Far Field Parameters
Postprocessing commands are available for calculating the near or far electromagnetic fields beyond the
FEA computational domain. The commands PRNEAR, PLNEAR, PRFAR, and PLFAR use the surface equivalence
principle to determine the fields. The surface equivalence principle states that equivalent currents can exactly
represent the electromagnetic fields exterior to the surface. Refer to Surface Equivalence Principle in the
Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for more information.
Use of near and far-field commands requires that an equivalent source surface be defined in the preprocessor.
See Equivalent Source Surface (p. 37) for details.

4.5.3.1. Near Fields


You can print or plot the maximum total E-field or components of the maximum total E-field beyond the
FEA computational domain. You can also print or plot the maximum left-hand and right-hand circularly polarized components and the maximum dominant components for a polarized aperture with Ludwigs third
definition of cross-polarization.
To print the near electric field, use one on the following:
Command(s): PRNEAR
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Field Extension> Near Field
Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> Map onto Path> HF Near Field
You can print the near electric field at a point (X, Y, Z) in a coordinate system, along a path, or on a spherical
surface. When determining the field at a point, you specify the coordinate values in the global or a local
coordinate system and you specify a total E-field or a component output. When determining the field along
a path, you define a path using the PATH command and you set VAL to PATH. All previous path items are
cleared before PRNEAR executes.
To plot the near electric field on a spherical surface, use one of the following:
Command(s): PLNEAR
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Field Extension> Near Field
For the electric field along a path, you first define a path using the PATH and PPATH commands. You then
use one of the following to map the electric field onto the path.
Command(s): PLNEAR
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> Map onto Path> HF Near Field
You then use PLPAGM or PLPATH to plot the electric field on the path.

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4.5.3. Calculating Near Fields, Far Fields, and Far Field Parameters
To use PRNEAR or PLNEAR, you must first define an equivalent current source surface in the preprocessor.
You must issue the HFSYM command to account for symmetry planes in the modeled region.

4.5.3.2. Far Fields and Far Field Parameters


Far fields and far field parameters are essential for scattering analysis and antenna design. This section describes some useful POST1 operations for these analyses.
Far Electromagnetic Field
You can print or plot the maximum total E-field or components of the maximum total E-field beyond the
FEA computational domain. You can also print or plot the maximum left-hand and right-hand circularly polarized components and the maximum dominant components for a polarized aperture with Ludwigs third
definition of cross-polarization.
To print the far electric field, use one of the following:
Command(s): PRFAR
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Field Extension> Far Field
To plot the far electric field, use one of the following:
Command(s): PLFAR
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Field Extension> Far Field
Radar Cross Section (RCS) and Normalized Radar Cross Section (RCSN)
The bistatic scattering cross section (radar cross section), measures the scattering characteristics of a target
for an incident plane wave. The radar cross section (RCS) depends on the dimensions and material properties
of the object and the wavelength and incident angle of the plane wave. It is also a function of the polarization
of the incident wave. You can calculate the RCS for the pth component of the scattered field for a q-polarized
incident plane wave where p and q represent the and spherical components, respectively.

Figure 4.23: Spherical Coordinates

Incident Plane Wave

y
x

The RCS can be normalized by the wavelength in a 2-D analysis and the wavelength squared in a 3-D analysis.
To print RCS or RCSN, use one of the following:
Command(s): PRFAR
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Field Extension> RCS (or RCS Normalized)
To plot RCS or RCSN, use one of the following:
Command(s): PLFAR
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Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Field Extension> RCS (or RCS Normalized)
Using PRFAR or PLFAR, you can print or plot a 3-D RCS for radar echo area, - polarization, - polarization,
- polarization, - polarization, H-H polarization, H-V polarization, H-V polarization, V-H polarization or VV polarization. You can calculate a 2-D RCS using a 3-D computational model. You extrude a 2-D model a
distance z in the z direction to generate a 3-D numerical model. You can use PRFAR or PLFAR to print or
plot a 2-D RCS for a TE or TM incident plane wave.
Refer to High-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Simulation in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL
and Mechanical Applications for more information on RCS.
Antenna Parameters
You can obtain various antenna design parameters (for example, radiation pattern, maximum radiation intensity, directivity, peak directivity, gain, peak gain, realized gain, peak realized gain, radiated power, and
radiation efficiency) based on the far field results. Refer to High-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Simulation
in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for definitions of these parameters.
To print antenna parameters, use one of the following:
Command(s): PRFAR
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Field Extension> Antenna Param
To plot antenna parameters, use one of the following:
Command(s): PLFAR
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Field Extension> Antenna Param
Before issuing PLFAR or PRFAR, you need to flag a virtual equivalent current source surface using Lab =
MXWF on the SF command in the preprocessor before solution. See Equivalent Source Surface (p. 37) for
details. You must issue the HFSYM command if there is a symmetry plane in the modeled region. When
calculating antenna parameters, use the HFANG command to define the spatial angles if the radiation space
is not the entire spherical domain.
Phased Array Antenna
Before calculating far field or antenna parameters, you need to define the characteristics of a phased array
antenna using one of the following:
Command(s): HFARRAY
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Field Extension> Far Field
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Field Extension> Antenna Param
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Field Extension> Far Field
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Field Extension> Antenna Para
The total field of a phased array antenna is equal to the product of an array factor and the unit cell field.
Etotal = AF (Eunit cell)
Refer to High-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Simulation in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL
and Mechanical Applications for the definition of Array Factor.

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4.5.3. Calculating Near Fields, Far Fields, and Far Field Parameters

4.5.3.3. Symmetry
You must account for symmetry planes in the modeled domain for postprocessing near or far electromagnetic fields beyond the computational domain. To do so, use one of the following:
Command(s): HFSYM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Field Extension> Near Field
Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> Map onto Path> HF Near Field
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Field Extension> Near Field
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Field Extension> Far Field
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Field Extension> RCS (RCS Norm)
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Field Extension> Antenna Param
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Field Extension> Far Field
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Field Extension> RCS (RCS Norm)
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Field Extension> Antenna Para
The HFSYM command accounts for PEC or PMC symmetry planes that coincide with the X-Y, Y-Z or Z-X
planes of the global or a local Cartesian coordinate system. It applies the image principle on the symmetric
part of the computational domain to represent the radiation effect of the partial equivalent current source
beyond the modeled domain. HFSYM accounts for the radiation that would be present if the entire structure
was modeled. If there is a PEC or PMC symmetry plane, you must issue the HFSYM command before issuing
PRNEAR, PLNEAR, PRFAR, or PLFAR. Although a PMC symmetry plane is a natural boundary condition in
a finite element analysis, it must be defined by the HFSYM command.

4.5.3.4. Radiation Solid Angle


You can specify the radiation space when calculating antenna parameters. To do so, use one of the following:
Command(s): HFANG
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Field Extension> Antenna Para
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Field Extension> Antenna Para
The HFANG command defines the radiation space of an antenna in terms of the type of antenna. For example,
the solid angle of a dipole antenna is determined by [ 0,360] and [ 0,180] and (Figure 4.24: Solid Angle
- Dipole Antenna (p. 49)), while the solid angle of a monopole antenna above ground plane is associated
with [ 0,360] and [ 0,90] (Figure 4.25: Solid Angle - Monopole Antenna above Ground Plane (p. 50)). If the
electromagnetic wave is not radiated into the entire space, you must issue the HFANG command before
issuing PLFAR or PRFAR.

Figure 4.24: Solid Angle - Dipole Antenna

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Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis

Figure 4.25: Solid Angle - Monopole Antenna above Ground Plane

A phased array antenna is approximated by an infinite array of unit cells with periodic boundary conditions.
When you calculate the antenna parameters of the entire array based on the solution of the unit cell , only
half a radiation space should be defined (that is, [ 0,360] and [ 0,90]).

4.5.4. Calculating Circuit Parameters for High-Frequency Devices


After you have solved a high-frequency problem, you often need to calculate some circuit parameters for
the underlying device. You can calculate the following parameters:

Scattering matrix parameters (S-parameters) of the equivalent network

Input power, reflected power, dissipated power, and transmitted power

Voltage, current and characteristic impedance of the equivalent network

You can do this in POST1 by first reading in the solution for a given frequency and then performing certain
postprocessing tasks based on the corresponding definition of a parameter.
This section illustrates the basic steps you need to do to calculate parameters for high-frequency devices.

4.5.4.1. Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)


You can calculate scattering parameters between a driven port (Port i) and a matched port (Port j) using
one of the following:
Command(s): SPARM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> S-Parameters
SPARM returns two S-parameters: Sii and Sji, where i represents the driven port and j is the matched port.
For a multi-port network, the S-parameters are defined as follows where a and b are the normalized incoming
voltage wave and the normalized outgoing voltage wave, respectively.

Figure 4.26: Multi-port Network

ai
[S]
bi

50

aj
bj

b
Sii = i
ai a j = 0

S ji =

bj
ai a j = 0

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4.5.4. Calculating Circuit Parameters for High-Frequency Devices


The condition aj = 0 indicates a matched port. In your model, you should use an absorbing boundary condition,
such as PML or a port with the IMPD option, to truncate the computational domain. It represents the matched
ports of the equivalent network.
When the distance from the extraction plane to the reference plane is defined by the HFPORT command,
the S-parameter phase shift is calibrated automatically. To de-embed the existing S-parameter data with
Touchstone format, use the HFDEEM command.
For a multi-port device, you issue multiple commands to retrieve the required S-parameter matrix terms.
The SPARM macro will output the magnitude and phase angle of the S-parameters.

4.5.4.2. Power and Frequency Selective Surface Parameters


To calculate the input power, reflected power, return loss, and power reflection coefficient for a driven port,
use one of the following:
Command(s): HFPOWER
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Element Based> Power
If you define a matching output port, the HFPOWER macro can also calculate the transmitted power, insertion
loss, and power transmission coefficient. For lossy materials and conducting surfaces, you can also use it to
calculate the time-averaged dissipated power (from surface impedance or shielding boundary conditions).
To calculate dissipated power in a region, you must select the elements that are associated with the lossy
material or the conducting surfaces.
For a periodic structure that is used as a frequency selective surface, you need to specify input and output
ports. You can then calculate the reflection and transmission coefficients, power reflection and transmission
coefficients, and return and insertion loss using one of the following:
Command(s): FSSPARM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Port> FSS Parameters
Refer to High-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Simulation in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL
and Mechanical Applications for parameter definitions.

4.5.4.3. Voltage, Current, and Impedance


Voltage is defined as the line integral of the projection of electric field along the path.
b

Vba = - E dl

To calculate it you need to define a path from the central conductor to the ground as shown in the following
figure for a coaxial waveguide (a), a microstrip line (b), and a coplanar waveguide (c).

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Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis

Figure 4.27: Voltage Paths for Transmission Lines


Inner Conductor

Central Conductor
Strip

Voltage Path

Voltage Path

Voltage Path
Ground

Outer Conductor
(a) Coaxial Waveguide

Ground

(b) Microstrip Line

(c) Coplanar Waveguide

You first define the path using the following commands or GUI paths:
Command(s): PATH, PPATH
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> Define Path> Path Status> Defined Paths
Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> Define Path> By Nodes (or By Location)
You then calculate the voltage using one of the following:
Command(s): EMF
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Path Based> EMF
The EMF command macro stores the results as the EMF parameter. All path items clear after EMF executes.
Current is defined as the line integral of the magnetic field H along a closed path containing the inner
conductor:

I = H dl

To calculate it you need to define a closed current path contain the central conductor as shown in the following figure for a coaxial waveguide (a), a microstrip line (b), and a coplanar waveguide (c).

Figure 4.28: Current Paths for Transmission Lines


Inner Conductor

Strip

Current Path

Current Path

Central Conductor

Current Path
Ground

Ground

Outer Conductor
(a) Coaxial Waveguide

(b) Microstrip Line

(c) Coplanar Waveguide

After defining the current path using PATH or PPATH, you calculate the current using one of the following:
Command(s): MMF
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Path Based> MMF
A counter clockwise ordering of points on the PPATH command will yield the correct sign for MMF. The
MMF command macro stores the results as the MMF parameter. All path items clear after MMF executes.

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4.5.4. Calculating Circuit Parameters for High-Frequency Devices


Characteristic impedance is defined as:

Z =

V
I

To calculate the impedance, you calculate both the EMF (voltage drop) and the MMF (current). The IMPD
macro calculates the complex impedance at the specified location. You must define the voltage and current
paths before issuing IMPD. The impedance calculation can work with a symmetry sector of a model. For
example, if you model only 10 degrees of a coax cable, you can supply a multiplier term on the MMF (current)
calculation to account for a full model.

Figure 4.29: Ten-Degree Symmetry Model of a Coaxial Waveguide

To invoke the IMPD macro, use one of the following:


Command(s): IMPD
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Path Based> Impedance

4.5.4.4. Displaying Network Parameters and Losses


You can plot scattering, admittance, or impedance parameters on a Smith chart. A Touchstone file provides
the input parameters and their type.
To convert and plot any input parameter type to a specified output parameter type, use one of the following:
Command(s): PLSCH
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Smith Chart
You can use one of the following to convert and list scattering, admittance, or impedance parameters input
by a Touchstone file:
Command(s): PRSYZ
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> SYZ conversion
PRSYZ generates a new Touchstone file jobname_SYZ.snp for the network parameters.
You can also employ the PRSYZ command to renormalize S-parameters based on a new port characteristic
impedance. The renormalized S-parameters are output to a new Touchstone file jobname_Sparm.snp.
You can use of the following to convert and plot scattering, admittance, or impedance parameters as a
function of frequency.
Command(s): PLSYZ
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> SYZ parameters
You can also employ the PLSYZ command to plot reflection loss, insertion loss, isolation loss, and voltage
standing wave ratio.

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Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


For more information on Touchstone files, see Starting the Solution (p. 41). For an example problem, see
Postprocessing Scattering, Admittance, and Impedance Parameters.
You can use the PLTLINE command to plot the propagating constant, the characteristic impedance, and
the effective dielectric constant obtained by the HFPCSWP macro or the SPSWP macro with modal ports.
HFPCSWP stores results in the file HFPCSWP.OUT. SPSWP stores results in the file jobname.prtn.
To plot reflection or transmission coefficients, power reflection or transmission coefficients, or return or insertion losses obtained by the SPFSS macro, use the PLFSS command. You should define an output plane
wave port when transmission coefficient, power transmission coefficient, and insertion loss are plotted.

4.5.4.5. SPICE Macromodels


Macromodels are essential for efficient subsystem and system level simulation and the prediction of complex
system performance. They can be generated in terms of equivalent circuits that are compatible with system
level simulators such as SPICE. The electromagnetic behavior of a multiport component can be approximated
by terms of rational functions and the equivalent circuits can be subsequently synthesized. A system level
simulation can then be performed by inserting the macromodel into the system level simulator as illustrated
in the following flowchart.

Figure 4.30: Signal Integrity Design Flow


Geometry

HF Emag

Design Rules

S-parameter

Transient Waveforms

SPICE Model

SPICE

To create a SPICE macromodel, you first generate a Touchstone file from either a high-frequency full-wave
electromagnetic solution or the measurement of a high-frequency structure. You can use the SPSWP command
to generate the Touchstone file. You then generate the macromodel using the SPICE command.
The following are important points to remember when you are creating a SPICE macromodel.

Selecting Bandwidth of Validity


If all components in the system are linear and the objective is to perform a frequency-domain sweep
for the overall system over a specified bandwidth, then the bandwidth of validity should be greater
than the specified bandwidth of interest. However, if a transient simulation is of interest (either linear
or nonlinear), the effective frequency bandwidth is controlled by both the bandwidth of the excitation

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4.5.4. Calculating Circuit Parameters for High-Frequency Devices


waveform and the time step used for the numerical integration in SPICE. You should then use the attributes of the excitation waveform to define the bandwidth of validity for the synthesized equivalent
circuit. For example, assume a trapezoidal pulse waveform and let Tmin denote the shortest time feature
in the waveform. The shorter of the rise and fall times of the pulse would then correspond to Tmin. Anticipating that the transient simulator will attempt to sample accurately Tmin, the recommended bandwidth of validity would be fBWV = 5/Tmin.

Selecting Number of Frequencies for the Electromagnetic Response Calculation


Simulation cost is increased by the spatial over sampling necessary to ensure model fidelity and accurate
resolution of the spatial distribution of the field. This is especially true when the structure exhibits strong
resonance behavior. Thus, it is highly desirable to keep the number of sampling frequency points reasonably small. The rational interpolation algorithm for subsequent enhancement of the data set makes
a coarse frequency sampling possible in the full-wave simulation of a component. A maximum of 501
frequency points can be generated by the rational interpolation algorithm using sampling frequency
points obtained from the full-wave solver. Instead of the rational interpolation algorithm, you may use
Variational Technology to perform a frequency sweep with the required sampling frequency points.

Selecting Convergence Criteria of the Synthesized Equivalent Circuit


Starting with order 2, the number of poles is increased adaptively by 10 until the convergence criteria
are reached or the convergence procedure becomes ripple. Because of the coupling between ports, the
synthesis procedure may not always converge to the desired criteria by increasing the number of poles.
Futhermore, the admittance response generated by the synthesized passive equivalent circuit may not
be accurate if the variations in magnitude are small over the frequency range. If the convergence criteria
are not reached, it is strongly recommended that you check the admittance response of the synthesized
passive equivalent circuit before performing a transient analysis. You should run SPICE over the frequency
range and compare your results with those in the file filename_pade_Y.snp. The touchstone file filename_pade_Y.snp contains admittance parameters generated by rational interpolation over the frequency
range, based on sampling data.

The generated equivalent circuit is a subcircuit (SUBCKT in SPICE nomenclature) consisting of a set of nested
SUBCKTs. The main SUBCKT, and the only one called, is named NPORT 1 2 3 4 Nodes 1 and 2 define port
1, nodes 3 and 4 define port 2, etc. Hence, there are 2M nodes for an M-port component. All elements in a
synthesized subcircuit are standard elements in SPICE. Therefore, total compatibility is expected with most
SPICE based circuit simulators.
For more information, refer to RLCG Synthesized Equivalent Circuit of an M-port Full Wave Electromagnetic
Structure in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications. For example problems,
see SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna and SPICE Synthesized
Equivalent Circuit for a T-type Transmission Line Network

4.5.4.6. TDR/TDT Display


You can apply the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) to frequency domain S-parameters to obtain time
domain reflection (TDR) and time domain transmission (TDT) waveforms and an impedance profile. The
PLTD command performs these transformations and displays the time domain results. You can also use the
PLTD command to display the total waveform. The total waveform at an input port is equal to the sum of
the incident wave and reflected waves.
Step and impulse input signal options are available (PLTD command, Lab = STEP or IMPU). The signal
propagates through a transmission line at a velocity vp and arrives at the far end at a time TD = d/vp, where
d is the transmission line length. A reflected signal arrives at the TDR output port at t = 2TD. The maximum
frequency of the frequency domain S-parameter data determines the time step of the Fast Fourier Transform
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55

Chapter 4: Performing a High-Frequency Harmonic Analysis


(FFT). To capture the transient signal variations, at least 5 time steps are required for the signal rise time. It
should be noted that the impulse signal behaves as a periodic signal after using the FFT.
See TDR Display of Shorted Single-Ended Uniform Transmission Line for an example problem.

56

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Chapter 5: Performing a Modal High-Frequency Analysis


You can use the ANSYS program to perform modal high-frequency analyses. Using a high-frequency modal
analysis in 3-D, you can perform tasks such as finding the resonant frequencies and modal shapes for the
electromagnetic field in a structure, as well as the quality factor if dielectric and surface losses are present.
Figure 5.1: Flow Chart for a Modal Analysis (p. 58) shows the flow of an ANSYS modal analysis.
For a 3D modal analysis, the program uses the tetrahedral element HF119 or the hexahedral or triangular
prism element HF120 to calculate the resonant frequencies of multiple modes of a resonant cavity. The eigenvalue solution does not consider any damping effects from lossy dielectric materials or surface losses.
Input excitation is ignored, and the port is treated as an open circuit condition. Infinite surfaces (SF command,
INF option (or GUI equivalent)) are treated as a Magnetic Wall boundary. Electric Wall conditions are accounted
for properly. Specified lossy materials or surface impedance will be used in postprocessing to calculate a
quality factor, but again will have no bearing on the eigenvalue solution.
For a 2D modal analysis, the ANSYS program uses the mixed nodal-edge element HF118 to determine the
cutoff frequencies and propagating constants of multiple modes in a guided wave structure. Only a first
order element is available for determining the propagating constant for a fixed frequency.
For a modal high-frequency electromagnetic analysis you begin with the same steps as a harmonic highfrequency analysis as described in Creating the Physics Environment (p. 14) and Building the Model, Assigning
Region Attributes, and Meshing (p. 17). You then follow the procedures illustrated in the following figure and
described in the next few sections.

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57

Chapter 5: Performing a Modal High-Frequency Analysis

Figure 5.1: Flow Chart for a Modal Analysis

Create Physics Environment


Define Element Types and Options
Set Real Constants and Define a System of Units (MKS)
Define Material Properties (Permittivity, Permeability, and Resistivity)
Geometric Model
Solid Model
CAD Model
Assign Region Attributes
Mesh the Model

PEC

Apply Boundary Conditions


Impedance
PMC
Solution
Block Lanczos Eigen Solver

Field
E, D, H, B Contour
E, D, H, B Vector

Postprocessor

Parameter
Resonant Frequencies
Propagating Constants
Q-Factor

The following modal analysis topics are available:


5.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor and Specifying the Modal Analysis Type
5.2. Setting Options for Modal Analysis
5.3. Specifying Modes to Expand
5.4. Applying Boundary Conditions
5.5. Solving a Modal High-Frequency Analysis
5.6. Calculating Propagating Constants, Characteristic Impedances, and Effective Dielectric Constants
5.7. Reviewing Modal High-Frequency Results

5.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor and Specifying the Modal Analysis
Type
To enter the SOLUTION processor, use one of the following:
Command(s): /SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution

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5.4. Applying Boundary Conditions


To define the analysis as modal, use one of the following:
Command(s): ANTYPE,MODAL
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Modal Analysis

5.2. Setting Options for Modal Analysis


To specify the type of high-frequency analysis, use one of the following:
Command(s): HFEIGOPT,Lab,Val1
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
Use the HFEIGOPT command to specify one of the following modal analysis types:

A 3-D eigenvalue analysis using HF119 or HF120.

A 2-D modal analysis using HF118 to solve for cutoff frequencies.

A 2-D modal analysis using HF118 to solve for propagating constants.

For a 2-D propagating constant analysis, only the first order HF118 element option (KEYOPT(1) = 1) is available.
To obtain propagating constants over a frequency range, you have to execute a separate solution for each
frequency and manually process each result. See the HFEIGOPT command for details.
To specify solver options for your modal analysis, use one of the following:
Command(s): MODOPT
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
For a modal analysis, the Block Lanczos solver (MODOPT,LANB) should be selected.
Specifying a proper frequency range will make eigenvalue calculations more efficient and accurate. Input a
lower-end frequency just below the anticipated frequency, using the FREQB argument on the MODOPT
command. In addition, specify an upper-end frequency using the FREQC argument. Use the NMODE argument
to request the number of modes to extract. Normalizing the mode shapes to unity (via the Nrmkey argument)
is recommended.

5.3. Specifying Modes to Expand


To enable viewing of the modal solution and to perform other postprocessing options, you need to specify
the number of modes to expand (i.e., calculate and write the element solution to the results file). This is required if you intend to postprocess the element data (plotting electric or magnetic fields, calculating the
Quality factor, etc.). To specify the number of modes to expand, use one of the following:
Command(s): MXPAND
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Expand Modes
The MXPAND command is valid only within the first load step.

5.4. Applying Boundary Conditions


For a modal analysis, only the perfect electric conductor (PEC) boundary condition is required at appropriate
boundaries. Specify this boundary condition using the methods described for a harmonic analysis in Perfect
Electric Conductor (PEC) (p. 19).

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59

Chapter 5: Performing a Modal High-Frequency Analysis


For a Quality factor computation, you may include effects from dielectric losses. To do so, specify a material
resistivity (RSVX) or loss tangent property (LSST) in the preprocessor. To include effects from surface losses,
specify a surface impedance or shield properties using the SF or SFA command or their GUI paths. Specify
these surface quantities using the methods described for a harmonic analysis in Applying Boundary Conditions (p. 19). During the solution, the PEC boundary conditions are conventionally applied to the surfaces
or nodes that have surface impedance or shield properties defined for the modal analysis.

5.5. Solving a Modal High-Frequency Analysis


To solve modal high-frequency analysis, use one of the following:
Command(s): SOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS
Once the solution process completes, use one of the following to leave the SOLUTION processor:
Command(s): FINISH
GUI: Main Menu> Finish

5.6. Calculating Propagating Constants, Characteristic Impedances, and


Effective Dielectric Constants
The first priority in transmission line design is to obtain the propagating constant at a fixed frequency (the
dispersion of a guided wave structure). The propagating constant will determine the characteristic impedance
and phase wavelength of the transmission line. These parameters are the basic data for the design of RF
and Microwave systems and components.
The non-zero propagating constant will be calculated. The lower bound for a propagating constant search
is 0.15 (rad/m). If a propagating constant smaller than the lower bound is of interest, you can solve for the
cut-off frequency instead. To ensure the accuracy of the propagating constant solution, the modal analysis
is performed twice and the eigenvalue searching interval is changed adaptively before the second solution,
based on the result of the first solution.
TheHFPCSWP macro calculates the propagating constants, characteristic impedances, and effective dielectric
constants of a transmission line or waveguide over a frequency range. It displays them as a function of frequency in tabular form. HFPCSWP writes results to the file HFPCSWP.OUT .
The HFPCSWP.OUT file contains results for the given frequencies in the following Touchstone like format.
# GHz 1 2.
! Freq
Beta (rad/m)
! Mode Number:
1.
10.0000
0.669143E+03
11.0000
0.741125E+03

Zpi (ohms)
0.583970E+02
0.612517E+02

Effective Epsilon_r
0.102075E+02
0.103486E+02

You can use the PLTLINE command to display the results graphically.
To invoke HFPCSWP, use one of the following:
Command(s): HFPCSWP
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> HF Emag> 2D Freq Sweep
It is strongly recommended that you perform an initial solution at a single frequency to ensure that all input
arguments are properly posed before you run a frequency sweep. To run a single frequency, set the beginning

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5.7. Reviewing Modal High-Frequency Results


and ending frequencies to the same value. HFPCSWP can only be used with HF118 elements. See the
HFPCSWP macro for details.

5.7. Reviewing Modal High-Frequency Results


The eigenfrequencies are printed in the solution phase to the output file. In the postprocessor, reviewing
the solution of a high-frequency modal analysis involves only a few tasks. Begin by issuing the SET command
or one of its equivalent GUI paths to choose the mode to be read from the results file. (Issue the SET,LIST
command or its GUI path to review the mode data sets on the results file.) Then, display the values of the
electric field (E), the magnetic field (H), and the Pointing vector (P) as needed. Finally, calculate the Quality
factor.
You can use the ANSYS macro QFACT to calculate the Quality factor of the resonance. It takes into account
dielectric losses (Qd) and surface losses (Qs):

1
1
1
=
+
Q
Qs Qd
Use one of the following to execute QFACT:
Command(s): QFACT
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Cavity> Q-Factor
Average radiation pressure over the lossy surfaces is given by:

P=

1 2

|
H
|

|
E
|2

You can use it to calculate frequency shift after a thermal analysis. Radiation pressures are available as SMISC
records for HF119 and HF120.

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61

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Chapter 6: Adaptive Meshing


Among the electromagnetic field boundary conditions, the normal electric flux should be continuous at the
element interfaces. However, discretization of the computational domain and numerical error lead to differences at the element interfaces. Refining the mesh reduces these differences so that numerical accuracy is
improved. For tetrahedral elements, you can use the HFEREFINE macro to automatically refine the mesh. It
refines the elements with a difference value greater than the mean difference value. For a periodic structure,
you cannot perform adaptive tetrahedral element meshing because identical mesh patterns are required on
the master and slave surface.
To refine the elements, use one of the following:
Command(s): HFEREFINE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Modify Mesh> HF Refine
HFEREFINE removes all boundary conditions, excitation sources, and loads on the finite element model.
You must reapply them. If you apply them to the solid model, they transfer automatically to the finite element
model.
The number of elements may increase very quickly with the number of refinements. Therefore, it is necessary
to start with a reasonable initial mesh and only perform a few refinements. You can adjust the HFEREFINE
refinement factor to reduce the number of elements refined. You can always start with a reasonable coarse
mesh (for example, a mesh size of about 1/5 wavelength). See the macro for details.
HFADP,ON turns on an adaptive error calculation. In order to use HFEREFINE after solution, you must issue
HFADP before the SOLVE command.
You can use APDL *do-loop to perform the refinement iterations. The following command input listing implements two refinements:
...
et,1,HF119,1
...
_n=3
*do, i, 1, _n
*if, _i, gt, 1, then
/prep7
hferefine
fini
*endif
/solu
...
fini
/post1
...
fini
*enddo

! define tetrahedral element


! two refinements are performed
! _i=1 skip refinement

For tetrahedral elements, you can also perform S-parameter adaptive meshing. The SPADP macro automatically refines a mesh until an S-parameter convergence criteria is met or a maximum number of iterations
is reached. You input a convergence criteria, a maximum number of refinement iterations, and beginning
and ending refinement factors. The refinement factor varies linearly between the beginning and ending refinement factors to avoid a very quick increase in the number of elements. Start with a reasonable coarse
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63

Chapter 6: Adaptive Meshing


mesh (for example, a mesh size of about 1/5 wavelength) and only perform a few refinements. You must
apply boundary conditions, excitation sources, and loads to the solid model. For a periodic structure, you
cannot perform adaptive meshing because identical mesh patterns are required on the master and slave
surface.
For example problems using adaptive meshing see the following:

Harmonic Analysis of a Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric Post Using Adaptive Meshing (Command
Method)

Harmonic Analysis of a Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric Post Using S-Parameter Adaptive
Meshing (Command Method)

Adaptive meshing is not available for the hexahedral element. However, HFEREFINE will list the elements
with the largest errors. You can then manually refine the local meshes by adjusting the mesh size on the
associated solid model.

64

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Part I, Basic Wave Radiation Examples

Harmonic Analysis for a Point Current Radiation Source (Command


Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the near and far electric fields of a point current source using
ANSYS commands.
In this example, you calculate the near and far electric fields of a point current source with a current density
Jo = 0.00125 A/m2. You use a PML region and reflective symmetry.

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, Near- and Far-field of Point Source with 4-Layer PML
/nopr
/prep7
a1=0.3 $b1=0.3 $c1=0.3
! normal element region
a2=0.4 $b2=0.4 $c2=0.4
! PML exterior boundary
l1=c2-c1
! thickness of PML
nx=12 $ny=12 $nz=12
! division in normal element region
npml=4
! layers pf PML
freq=300e6
! working frequency
curr=1.25e-3
! current density of point current
et,11,200,7
! Temporary element
et,1,120,1
! 1st-order BRICK element
et,2,120,1,,,1
! PML element
mp,murx,1,1.
! air relative permeability
mp,perx,1,1.
! air relative permittivity
local,11
! set up local coordinate system
wpcsys,,11
rect,0,a1,0,b1
! set up 2-D solid model
rect,0,a2,0,b2
asba,2,1,,delete,keep
aglue,1,3
type,11
! meshing 2-D model
eshape,0
lesize,1,,,nx
lesize,2,,,ny
lesize,3,,,nx
lesize,4,,,ny
amesh,1
lesize,9,,,npml
lesize,6,,,ny+npml
lesize,7,,,nx+npml
lesize,10,,,npml
amesh,3
esys,11
! set up element coordinate system
type,1
! meshing normal element region
mat,1
esize,,nz
asel,s,area,,1
vext,all,,,0,0,c1
type,2
! meshing PML region
esize,,nz

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67

Harmonic Analysis for a Point Current Radiation Source (Command Method)


asel,s,area,,3
vext,all,,,0,0,c1
esize,,npml
asel,s,loc,z,c1
vext,all,,,0,0,l1
allsel,all,all
nummrg,all
! merge nodes
asel,s,loc,z,0
! delete 2-D element
aclear,all
nsel,s,loc,x,0,0.51*a1
! flag equivalence source surface
nsel,r,loc,y,0,0.51*b1
nsel,r,loc,z,0,0.51*c1
esln,s,1,all
nsel,s,loc,x,0.49*a1,0.51*a1
nsel,a,loc,y,0.49*b1,0.51*b1
nsel,a,loc,z,0.49*c1,0.51*c1
sf,all,mxwf
nsel,all
esel,all
nsel,s,loc,x,a2
! set up PEC on PML exterior surface
nsel,a,loc,y,b2
nsel,a,loc,z,c2
nsel,a,loc,z,0
! set up PEC on z=0 symmetric plane
d,all,ax,0.
nsel,all
nsel,s,loc,x,0
! set up point current source at (0,0,0)
nsel,r,loc,y,0
nsel,r,loc,z,0
bf,all,js,0,0,curr
! J=Jz
nsel,all
finish
/solu
antype,harmic
! harmonic analysis
harfrq,freq
! frequency for analysis
eqslv,sparse
! sparse solver
solve
finish
/post1
set,1,1
hfsym,11,pmc,pmc,pec
! set up image symmetric plane
prnear,point,sum,11,1.,0.,0.
! print out near-field at (1,0,0)
/com,
/com,***** Target Results *****
/com, ** Near-Field at (1,0,0) **
/com,
Magnitude = 1.862
/com,
prfar,ef,sum,0,360,6,90,90,,
! print out far-field: r*|E|
/com,
/com,***** Target Results *****
/com, ** Far-Field r*|E| at R = 10 **
/com,
Magnitude = 1.89
/com,
prfar,ant,epct,0,360,6,90,90
! print out antenna pattern
/com,
/com,***** Target Results *****
/com, ** Radiation Pattern **
/com, Normalized Field = 0 (dB)
/com,
finish

Target Results
The target results for this example problem are as follows:
Near-field at point (1,0,0): |E| = 1.862 V/m
Far-field at r = 10 m: r*|E| = 1.89 V/m
Radiation pattern: Normalized electric field = 0 dB
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Part II, Basic Wave Propagation Examples

Harmonic Analysis of a Coaxial Waveguide (Command Method)


Problem Description
This example describes how to do a simple harmonic high-frequency electromagnetic analysis of a coaxial
waveguide by issuing ANSYS commands, either manually during a session or in batch mode. You can also
perform the analysis through the ANSYS GUI menus, using the procedures described in the next example.
This example calculates the scattering parameters (S-parameters), impedance, and reflection coefficients for
a coax waveguide terminated in a matched port. Due to symmetry, the problem models only a 5 circumferential angle.

Material Properties Used


r = 1.0
r

= 1.0

Figure 1: Symmetry Model of a Coax Waveguide

Note
Nodes nbo, nbi, and nba are shown on the sketch for clarity. (These nodes are used in postprocessing.)

Geometric Properties Used


ri = .025 m
ro = .075 m
l = .375 m

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71

Harmonic Analysis of a Coaxial Waveguide (Command Method)

Loading Used
Port voltage = 1.0
= 0.8 GHz

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/prep7
/show
/title, Harmonic Response Analysis of a Coaxial Cable
/com
et,1,HF120,2
! High-frequency solid brick element, 2nd order
mp,murx,1,1.
! Relative permeability
mp,perx,1,1.
! Relative permittivity
cylind,.025,.075,0,.375,0,5
! Create wedge model
/view,1,1,1,1
/replot
csys,1
lsel,s,loc,z,.375/2
lesize,all,,,15
! 15 elements along length of coax
lsel,s,loc,x,.05
lesize,all,,,8
! 8 elements along the radius
lsel,s,loc,y,2.5
lesize,all,,,1
! 1 element around the circumference
vmesh,1
! Mesh the volume
asel,s,loc,x,.025
asel,a,loc,x,.075
da,all,ax,0
! Set elec. wall boundary cond. (tangential E = 0)
local,11,1
csys,0
asel,s,loc,z,0
! Select area at port 1
sfa,all,,port,1
! Define as port 1
hfport,1,coax,11,tem,ext,0.025,0.075,1,0
! Specify port options
asel,s,loc,z,.375
! Select area at port 2
sfa,all,,port,2
! Define port 2
hfport,2,coax,11,tem,ext,0.025,0.075,0,0
! Specify port options (matching port)
asel,all
finish
/solu
antype,harmic
! harmonic analysis
harfrq,8e8
solve
finish
/post1
sparm,1,2
! Calculate S-parameters
set,1,1
plvect,h,,,h,vect,node
! Display H field
plvect,ef,,,ef,vect,node
! Display E field
csys,1
nbi=node(.025,0,.375)
! Retrieve node at inner radius
nbo=node(.075,0,.375)
! Retrieve node at outer radius
nba=node(.075,5,.375)
! Retrieve node at outer radius, angle 5 degrees
path,vltg,2
! Create path for voltage
ppath,1,nbi
! Define path points via nodes
ppath,2,nbo
path,curr,2
! Crete current path for current
ppath,1,nbo
! Define path points via nodes
ppath,2,nba
impd,'vltg','curr',1,72
! Calculate impedance (current symm factor=72)
sparm,1,1,1
! Compute reflection coefficient and VSWR
finish

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Harmonic Analysis of a Coaxial Waveguide (GUI Method)


Problem Description
This example shows how to use the ANSYS GUI to perform the same harmonic coaxial cable analysis done
by the command stream in the previous example.

Step 1: Start the Analysis


To begin the example analysis, do the following:
1.

Activate the ANSYS GUI. When the GUI is fully active, choose Utility Menu> File> Change Title. A
dialog box appears.

2.

Enter the title text, Harmonic response analysis of a coaxial cable.

3.

Click OK.

4.

Choose Main Menu> Preferences. The Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box appears.

5.

Select High Frequency, located under Electromagnetic.

6.

Click OK.

Step 2: Define Element Types


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. The Element Types dialog box
appears.

2.

Click Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears.

3.

In the scrollable lists, choose (highlight) HF Electromagnet and 3D Brick 120 (HF120).

4.

Check that the element type reference number is set to 1, then click OK.

5.

Click Options. For "Element polynomial order K1, choose "Second order elm." Then click OK.

6.

Click Close in the Element Types dialog box.

Step 3: Define Material Properties


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. The Define Material Model
Behavior dialog box appears.

2.

In the Material Models Available window, double-click on the following options: Electromagnetics,
Relative Permeability, Constant. A dialog box appears.

3.

Enter 1 for MURX (Relative permeability), and click on OK. Material Model Number 1 appears in the
Material Models Defined window on the left.

4.

In the Material Models Available window, double-click on the following options: Relative Permittivity,
Constant. A dialog box appears.

5.

Enter 1 for PERX (Relative permittivity), and click on OK.

6.

Click on menu path Material>Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box.
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73

Harmonic Analysis of a Coaxial Waveguide (GUI Method)

Step 4: Build the Model Geometry


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Volumes> Cylinder> By Dimensions. The
Create Cylinder by Dimensions dialog box appears.

2.

Enter the following values:


RAD1 field: .025

Z1 field: 0

THETA1 field: 0

RAD2 field: .075

Z2 field: .375

THETA2 field: 5

3.

Click OK. The ANSYS Graphics Window will show a wedge shape.

4.

Choose Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan, Zoom, Rotate. Click Iso. Click Close.

Step 5: Set Element Spacing and Mesh the Volume


1.

Choose Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Change Active CS to> Global Cylindrical.

2.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

3.

Change the setting of the top button on the menu from Nodes to Lines.

4.

Change the setting of the button below it to By Location.

5.

Click the Z coordinates radio button on.

6.

Check that the From Full radio button is on.

7.

In the "Min, Max" field, enter .375/2.

8.

Click OK.

9.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Lines> All Lines. The Element Sizes on
All Selected Lines dialog box appears.

10. Set the "No. of element divisions" field to 15.


11. Click OK.
12. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.
13. The top button on the menu should be set to Lines and the next button should be set to By Location.
14. Click the X coordinates radio button on.
15. Check that the From Full radio button is on.
16. In the "Min, Max" field, enter .05.
17. Click OK.
18. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Lines> All Lines. The Element Sizes on
All Selected Lines dialog box appears.
19. Set the "No. of element divisions" field to 8.
20. Click OK.
21. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.
22. The top button on the menu should be set to Lines and the next button should be set to By Location.
23. Click the Y coordinates radio button on.
24. In the "Min, Max" field, enter 2.5.
25. Click OK.
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Harmonic Analysis of a Coaxial Waveguide (GUI Method)


26. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Lines> All Lines. The Element Sizes on
All Selected Lines dialog box appears.
27. Set the "No. of element divisions" field to 1.
28. Click OK.
29. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Volumes> Mapped> 4 to 6 Sided. A picking
menu appears.
30. Click Pick All.
31. Click SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

Step 6: Apply the Electric Wall Condition


1.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

2.

Reset the top button to Areas and leave the next button set to By Location.

3.

Click the X coordinates radio button on.

4.

In the "Min, Max" field, enter .025.

5.

Click Apply.

6.

Click the Also Sele button on.

7.

In the "Min, Max" field, enter .075.

8.

Click OK.

9.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Electric
Wall> On Areas. A picking menu appears.

10. Click Pick All.


11. Type local,11,1 in the ANSYS input window to define local coordinate system 11 (global cylindrical)
and press ENTER.
12. Choose Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Change Active CS to> Global Cartesian.

Step 7: Define the Waveguide Ports


1.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

2.

Reset the top button to Areas and leave the next button set to By Location.

3.

Click the Z coordinates radio button on.

4.

In the "Min, Max" field, enter 0.

5.

Click the From Full button on, then click OK.

6.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Port>
Exterior> On Areas. A picking menu appears.

7.

Click the Pick All button. The Define Waveguide Port on Areas dialog box appears.

8.

Set the port number to 1 and click OK. The Define Waveguide PORT Options dialog box appears.

9.

Verify the port type is set to Coaxial.

10. In the Local CSYS number field, enter 11.


11. Select Hard Source under the Applied BC/Excitation option menu.
12. In the "Inner radius or width" field, enter .025.
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Harmonic Analysis of a Coaxial Waveguide (GUI Method)


13. In the "Outer radius or height field, enter .075.
14. In the "Field Amplitude" field, enter 1. Click OK.
15. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.
16. Reset the top button to Areas and leave the next button set to By Location.
17. Click the Z coordinates radio button on.
18. In the "Min, Max" field, enter 0.375, then click OK.
19. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Port>
Exterior> On Areas. A picking menu appears.
20. Click Pick All button. The Define Waveguide Port on Areas dialog box appears.
21. Set the port number to 2 and click OK. The Define Waveguide Port Options dialog box appears.
22. Verify the port type is set to Coaxial.
23. In the Local CSYS number field, enter 11. Set the Applied BC/Excitation type to Impedance. Click
OK.
24. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Everything.

Step 8: Solve the Harmonic Analysis


1.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. The New Analysis dialog box appears.

2.

Choose Harmonic as the analysis type.

3.

Click OK.

4.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substps. The Harmonic
Frequency and Substep Options dialog box appears.

5.

In the first "Harmonic frequency range" field, enter 8e8.

6.

Click OK.

7.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> Solve >Current LS. A pop-up window displays the solution options
you have defined. Review this information and click Close when you have finished reading it.

8.

In the Solve Current Load Step dialog box, click OK to start the solution. A pop-up message notifies
you when the solution is done. Click Close to close the message window.

9.

Choose Main Menu> Finish.

Step 9: Calculate Scattering (S) Parameters


1.

Choose Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Port> S-Parameters. The Calculate SParameters dialog box appears.

2.

In the "Porti Source port number" field, enter 1.

3.

In the "Portj Matched port number" field, enter .

4.

Click OK. A pop-up window displays the scattering (s) parameters and their values. When you have
read this information, click Close.

Step 10: Display Vector Plots of the Magnetic and Electric Fields
1.

76

Choose Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> By Load Step. The Read Results by Load
Step Number dialog box appears.

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Harmonic Analysis of a Coaxial Waveguide (GUI Method)


2.

For both the "Load step number" and "Substep number" fields, enter 1.

3.

Click OK.

4.

Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Vector Plot. The Vector Plot of Predefined Vectors dialog box
appears.

5.

In the "Vector item to be plotted" scrollable lists, highlight Flux & Gradient and Mag Field H.

6.

In the "Mode" field, click vector mode on.

7.

In the "Vector location for results" field, click Elem Nodes on.

8.

Click OK. The image in the Graphics Window becomes a vector plot of the magnetic field (H).

9.

Again, choose Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Vector Plot. The Vector Plot of Predefined Vectors dialog
box appears.

10. In the "Vector item to be plotted" scrollable lists, highlight Flux & Gradient and Elec Field EF.
11. In the "Mode" field, click vector mode on.
12. In the "Vector location for results" field, click Elem Nodes on.
13. Click OK. The Graphics Window now displays a vector plot of the electric field (EF).
14. Click SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

Step 11: Define Paths for EMF (Voltage Drop) and MMF (Current)
1.

Choose Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Change Active CS to> Global Cylindrical.

2.

Choose Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears.

3.

Enter the values shown below:


nbi = node (.025,0,.375)
nbo = node (.075,0,.375)
nba = node (.075,5,.375)
After typing each parameter value, click Accept. If you make a mistake typing a parameter value,
backspace and retype it. To erase an incorrect parameter after you have entered it, click on that parameter then click Delete.

4.

Click Close.

5.

Choose Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> Define Path> By Nodes. The picking
menu appears. At this point you may use the mouse to pick the nodes defining a path from the inner
coax radius to the outer coax radius identified as "nbi" and "nbo" in Figure 1: Symmetry Model of a Coax
Waveguide (p. 71). Alternatively, since we have captured the node numbers at those locations as
parameters, you can input the parameter values in the picker command line. We will detail this last
procedure here (although the former procedure is simpler).

6.

In the picker, enter NBI and press the ENTER key.

7.

In the picker, enter NBO and press the ENTER key.

8.

Click OK. Another dialog box appears.

9.

In the "Define Path Name" field, enter VLTG.

10. Click OK. Close the PDEF window.


11. Choose Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> Define Path> By Nodes. The picking
menu appears.

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77

Harmonic Analysis of a Coaxial Waveguide (GUI Method)


12. In the picker, enter NBO and press the ENTER key.
13. In the picker, enter NBA and press the ENTER key.
14. Click OK. Another dialog box appears.
15. In the "Define Path Name" field, enter CURR.
16. Click OK. Close the PDEF window.

Step 12: Calculate Impedance


1.

Choose Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Path Based> Impedance. The Calculate
Impedance dialog box appears.

2.

Check that the "Voltage drop path name" is VLTG and the "Current calc path name" is CURR. (VLTG
and CURR should be highlighted.)

3.

Set the "Vsymm Voltage symmetry factor" field to 1.

4.

Set the "Isymm Current symmetry factor" field to 72.

5.

Click OK. A pop-up window displays impedance results. Click Close to close the results pop-up.

Step 13: Calculate Reflection Coefficients, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio, and
Insert Loss, and Finish the Analysis
1.

Type the following command on the command line: SPARM,1,2,1

2.

A pop-up window appears, showing you the reflection coefficient, voltage standing wave ratio, return
loss, and insertion loss.

3.

Click Close to close the pop-up window.

4.

Choose Main Menu> Finish.

5.

Click on QUIT on the ANSYS Toolbar. Choose an exit option and click OK.

Calculated results: (see commands SPARM and IMPD for parameter definitions): S11 = 4.683E-06, S21 = 1.00,
ZRe = 65.11 , Zim = -0.16 , REFLC = 4.683E-06, VSWR = 1.000, RL = 106.59 (dB), IL = 0 dB.

Figure 1: Magnetic Field in Coax

78

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Harmonic Analysis of a Coaxial Waveguide (GUI Method)

Figure 2: Electric Field in Coax

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80

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Part III, Basic Wave Resonance Examples

Modal Analysis of a Cavity (Command Method)


Problem Description
This example describes how to do a modal high-frequency analysis of a cavity using ANSYS commands. You
can also perform the analysis through the ANSYS GUI menus, using the procedures described in the next
example.
This example analysis calculates the TE101 mode eigenfrequency and quality factor in a Teflon filled cavity
with copper walls. The example assumes that the dielectric and surface losses are small and do not affect
the eigenfrequency solution.

Material Properties Used


r = 1.0
r

= 2.05

= 1.0361x105

Figure 1: Teflon Filled Cavity

Geometric Properties Used


d = 1.0 m, w = 0.4 m, h = 0.3 m

Shielding Surface Properties Used


= .58x108 S/m
r = 1.0

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83

Modal Analysis of a Cavity (Command Method)

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/prep7
/show
/title, Eigenvalue analysis of a dielectric-filled cavity
/com, Calculate the TE101 mode eigenfrequency and Quality
/com, factor in a Teflon-filled cavity with copper walls
/com,
_length=1.0
_width=0.4
_height=0.3
epsr=2.05
rvsigma=1.0361e5
cond=0.58e8
et,1,hf120,2
! HF solid brick element, 2nd order
mp,murx,1,1.
! Relative permeability - teflon
mp,perx,1,epsr
! Relative permittivity - teflon
mp,rsvx,1,rvsigma
! Resistivity - teflon
_h=0.08
block,0,_length,0,_width,0,_height
! Create cavity
/view,1,1,1,1
/replot
esize,_h
mshape,0,3d
! Hex elements
mshkey,1
! Mapped mesh
vmesh,1
! Mesh volume
da,all,ax,0
! Set electric wall boundary cond. (tangential E=0)
sfa,all,,shld,cond,1.0
! specify surface shielding properties
finish
/solu
antype,modal
! Modal analysis
modopt,lanb,1,2.2e8,4.0e8,,on
! Block Lanczos solver (the default)
mxpand,,,,yes
! Expand mode
solve
finish
/post1
set,last
/view,,.75,.5,.6
/vup,1,z
plvect,h,,,,vect,node,on
! display H field
plvect,ef,,,,vect,node,on
! display E field
qfact
finish

84

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Modal Analysis of a Cavity (GUI Method)


Problem Description
Calculated Quality Factor = 3006.1
This example describes how to use the ANSYS GUI doing the same modal high-frequency analysis done using
ANSYS commands in the previous example.

Step 1: Start the Analysis


To begin the example analysis, do the following:
1.

Activate the ANSYS GUI. When the GUI is fully active, choose Utility Menu> File> Change Title. A
dialog box appears.

2.

Enter the title text, Eigenvalue analysis of a dielectric filled cavity.

3.

Click OK.

4.

Choose Main Menu> Preferences. The Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box appears.

5.

Select High Frequency under Electromagnetic and click OK.

Step 2: Define Element Types


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. The Element Types dialog box
appears.

2.

Click Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears.

3.

In the scrollable lists, choose (highlight) HF Electromagnet and 3D Brick 120 (HF120).

4.

Check that the element type reference number is set to 1, then click OK.

5.

Click Options. For "Element polynomial order K1," choose "Second order elm." Then click OK.

6.

Click Close in Element Types dialog box.

Step 3: Define Material Properties


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. The Define Material Model
Behavior dialog box appears.

2.

In the Material Models Available window, double-click on the following options: Electromagnetics,
Relative Permeability, Constant. A dialog box appears.

3.

Enter 1 for MURX (Relative permeability). Click on OK. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left.

4.

In the Material Models Available window, double-click on the following options: Resistivity, Constant.
A dialog box appears.

5.

Enter 1.0361e5 for RSVX (Electrical resistivity). Click on OK.

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85

Modal Analysis of a Cavity (GUI Method)


6.

In the Material Models Available window, double-click on the icons next to the following options: Relative Permittivity, Constant. A dialog box appears.

7.

Enter 2.05 for PERX (Relative permittivity). Click on OK.

8.

Choose menu path Material>Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box.

Step 4: Create the Cavity


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Volumes> Block> By Dimensions. The
Create Block By Dimensions dialog box appears.

2.

Enter the values shown below in the appropriate fields. (Use the Tab key to move between fields.)
X1 field: 0

Y1 field: 0

Z1 field: 0

X2 field: 1

Y2 field: .4

Z2 field: .3

3.

Click OK. The Graphics Window displays the new block.

4.

Choose Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan, Zoom, Rotate. Click Iso. Click Close.

Step 5: Mesh the Cavity


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool. The MeshTool appears.

2.

Under the Size Controls section of the MeshTool, click the Set button beside "Globl." The Global Element
Sizes dialog box appears.

3.

In the "SIZE Element edge length" field, enter .08.

4.

Click OK to return to the MeshTool.

5.

Click Hex and Map.

6.

Click the MESH button. A picking menu appears.

7.

Click Pick All.

8.

When meshing is complete, click Close in the MeshTool.

9.

Click SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

Step 6: Apply the Electric Wall Condition and Specify Surface Shielding Properties
1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Electric
Wall> On Areas. The Apply Electric Wall picking menu appears.

2.

Click Pick All. The Graphics Window displays the electric wall boundary condition

3.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Shield>
On Areas. The Apply SHLD on Areas picking menu appears.

4.

Click Pick All. The Apply SHLD on Areas dialog box appears.

5.

Set COND = .58e8 and MUR = 1.0

6.

Click OK.

7.

Choose Main Menu> Finish.

86

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Modal Analysis of a Cavity (GUI Method)

Step 7: Solve the Analysis


1.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. The New Analysis dialog box appears.

2.

Make sure that the Modal radio button is selected.

3.

Click OK.

4.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. The Modal Analysis dialog box
appears.

5.

Make sure that Block Lanczos is selected.

6.

Specify the number of modes to extract (1).

7.

Set the Expand mode shapes button to Yes.

8.

Specify the number of modes to expand (1).

9.

Set the Calculate elem results button to Yes.

10. Click OK. The Block Lanczos Method dialog box appears.
11. In the "FREQB Start Freq" field, enter 2.2e8.
12. In the "FREQE End Frequency" field, enter 4.0e8.
13. Set the Nrmkey Normalize mode shapes button to To Unity.
14. Click OK.
15. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. A pop-up window displays the analysis options
you specified. Review the window contents and then click Close.
16. In the Solve Current Load Step dialog box, click OK. A pop-up message notifies you when solution is
complete. Click Close to close it.
17. Choose Main Menu> Finish.

Step 8: Display Vector Plots of the Magnetic and Electric Fields


1.

Choose Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> Last Set.

2.

Choose Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Settings> Viewing Direction. The Viewing Direction dialog
box appears.

3.

Enter the values shown below in the appropriate fields:


XV field: .75
YV field: .5
ZV field: .6

4.

Set the Coord axis orientation field to Z-axis Up.

5.

Click OK.

6.

Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Vector Plot. The Vector Plot of Predefined Vectors dialog box
appears.

7.

In the "Vector item to be plotted" scrollable lists, highlight Flux & gradient on the left and Mag field
H on the right.

8.

For "Mode," click vector mode on.

9.

For "Vector location for results," click Elem Nodes on.


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87

Modal Analysis of a Cavity (GUI Method)


10. Turn Edge element edges on (Displayed).
11. Click OK. The image in the Graphics Window becomes a vector plot of the magnetic field intensity (H).
12. Again, choose Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Vector Plot. The Vector Plot of Predefined Vectors dialog
box appears.
13. In the "Vector item to be plotted" scrollable lists, highlight Flux & gradient on the left and Elec field
EF on the right.
14. For "Mode," click vector mode on.
15. For "Vector location for results," click Elem Nodes on.
16. Verify that Edge element edges is set to Displayed.
17. Click OK. The Graphics Window now displays a vector plot of the electric field (EF).

Step 9: Calculate the Quality Factor and Finish the Analysis


1.

Choose Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Cavity> Q-Factor. A dialog box appears.
Click OK. The ANSYS program displays the results of the quality factor calculation in a pop-up window.

2.

Review the results, then click Close to close the pop-up window.

3.

Choose Main Menu> Finish.

4.

Click Quit on the ANSYS Toolbar. Choose an exit option and click OK.

Figure 1: Magnetic Field Vector Display of TE101 Mode

88

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Modal Analysis of a Cavity (GUI Method)

Figure 2: Electric Field Vector Display of TE101 Mode

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89

90

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Modal Analysis for a Circular Waveguide (Command Method)


Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the dispersion characteristics of a waveguide using ANSYS
commands.
In this example, you calculate the propagating constants and cutoff frequencies for a circular waveguide
with a radius of 1 meter.

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch, list
/title, Cutoff Freq. & Prop. Const. for Circular Waveguide
/com, radius = 1 m
/prep7
a=1.
et,1,118,1
! 1st order element
type,1
emunit,mks
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
cyl4,,,a
mshkey,0
mshape,1
! tri element
esize,0.1*a
amesh,1
!
! set up PEC boundary condition
!
dl,all,,ax,0.
finish
! Solve propagating constants
! Target result: Gamma = 10.309, 10.309, 10.193
/solu
antype,modal
hfeig,gamma,500.e6
modopt,lanb,3,1.e6,1.e9,,on
mxpand,,,,yes
solve
fini
! Solve cutoff frequency
! Target result: Freq. = 87.911 MHz, 87.911 MHz, 114.82 MHz
/solu
antype,modal
hfeig,cutoff
modopt,lanb,3,,1.e12,,on
mxpand,,,,yes
solve
finish

Target Results
The target results for this example problem are as follows:
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91

Modal Analysis for a Circular Waveguide (Command Method)


Propagating constant ()

10.309

10.309

10.193

Frequency (f )

87.911 MHz

87.911 MHz

114.82 MHz

92

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Part IV, Basic Wave Scattering Examples

Harmonic Analysis for Plane Wave Scattering from a Metallic Plate


(Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the radar cross section (RCS) of a metallic plate using ANSYS
commands.
In this example, you calculate the RCS of a PEC plate (1o x 1o). You use a PML region and reflective symmetry.

Target Results
The target results for this example problem are as follows:
Method of Moment (MoM) Results:
Angle (Degrees)

RCS (dB)
E-plane ( = 0)

H-plane ( = 90)

10.5

10.5

10

9.9

9.9

20

8.5

9.0

30

6.2

7.5

40

3.0

5.0

50

0.0

1.9

60

-2.0

-1.8

70

-2.1

-6.2

80

-2.05

-12.5

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, RCS from a Metallic Plate
/com, Problem: RCS from a Metallic Plate with
/com,
Incident Wave: +y polarization
/com,
THETA = 0 (degree)
/com,
Field Symmetry: 1/4 Structure,
/nopr
/prep7
freq=300e6 $lambda=3.e8/freq
a=0.5*lambda $b=0.5*lambda
!
a1=0.8*lambda $b1=0.8*lambda $c1=0.3*lambda !
a2=1.2*lambda $b2=1.2*lambda $c2=0.7*lambda !
l1=c2-c1 $la=a/a1 $lb=b/b1

1 wavelength x 1 wavelength
with PHI = 90 (degree)
x-z plane & y-z plane

1/4 metallic plate


PML interior boundary
PML exterior boundary

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95

Harmonic Analysis for Plane Wave Scattering from a Metallic Plate (Command Method)
nx=8 $ny=8 $nz=3
npml=4
et,11,200,7
et,1,120,1
et,2,120,1,,,1
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
rect,0,a1,0,b1
rect,0,a2,0,b2
asba,2,1,,delete,keep
aglue,1,3
type,11
lesize,1,,,nx
lesize,2,,,ny
lesize,3,,,nx
lesize,4,,,ny
amesh,1
lesize,9,,,npml
lesize,6,,,ny+npml
lesize,7,,,nx+npml
lesize,10,,,npml
amesh,3
type,1
mat,1
esize,,nz
asel,s,area,,1
vext,all,,,0,0,-c1
asel,s,area,,1
vext,all,,,0,0,c1
type,2
esize,,nz
asel,s,area,,3
vext,all,,,0,0,-c1
asel,s,area,,3
vext,all,,,0,0,c1
esize,,npml
asel,s,loc,z,-c1
vext,all,,,0,0,-l1
asel,s,loc,z,c1
vext,all,,,0,0,l1
asel,s,loc,z,0
aclear,all
allsel,all,all
nummrg,all
nsel,s,loc,x,0,a+1.01*a1/nx
nsel,r,loc,y,0,b+1.01*b1/ny
nsel,r,loc,z,-1.01*c1/nz,1.01*c1/nz
esln,s,1,all
nsel,s,loc,x,0.99*(a+a1/nx),1.01*(a+a1/nx)
nsel,a,loc,y,0.99*(b+b1/ny),1.01*(b+b1/ny)
nsel,a,loc,z,-1.01*c1/nz,-0.99*c1/nz
nsel,a,loc,z,0.99*c1/nz,1.01*c1/nz
sf,all,mxwf
nsel,all
esel,all
nsel,s,loc,x,a2
nsel,a,loc,y,b2
nsel,a,loc,z,-c2
nsel,a,loc,z,c2
nsel,a,loc,y,0
d,all,ax,0.
nsel,all
nsel,s,loc,z,-0.001,0.001
nsel,r,loc,x,-0.001,1.001*a
nsel,r,loc,y,-0.001,1.001*b
d,all,ax,0.
nsel,all
plwave,0,1,0,90,0
finish
/solu
antype,harmic
harfrq,freq

96

!
!
!
!
!
!
!

number of PML layers


temporary element
1st order Brick element
PML element
relative permeability
relative permittivity
build up geometric model

! 2-D meshing

! create normal element

! create PML element

! delete temporary element

! flag equivalence source surface

! set PEC on exterior surface of PML

! set PEC on field symmetric plane

! set PEC on metallic plate

! incident plane wave

! harmonic analysis
! working frequency

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Harmonic Analysis for Plane Wave Scattering from a Metallic Plate (Command Method)
eqslv,sparse
hfscat,scat
solve
finish
/post1
set,1,1
hfsym,,pmc,pec
prfar,rcs,total,90,90,,0,90,18
prfar,rcs,total,0,0,,0,90,18
finish

! SPARSE solver
! define a scattering solution

! define image symmetric plane


! RCS on H-plane
! RCS on E-plane

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97

98

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Part V, Advanced Wave Radiation Examples

Harmonic Analysis for a JRM Array Antenna (Command Method)


Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the S-parameter and antenna parameters of a 2525 JRM
array antenna using ANSYS commands.
The JRM array consists of 0.9" 0.4" rectangular waveguides in a 1.0" 0.5" rectangular lattice, as shown
on the left in the following figure. Only one radiation unit is modeled. The FEA model consists of a waveguide
of 0.9" 0.4" 0.75" and an air box of 1.0" 0.5" 0.75" as shown on the right. The air box is covered by
Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) of absorbing material, 0.75" thick. An E-plane (=90) scan is performed at
9.25 GHz.

Figure 1: 34 JRM Array and FEA Model of Unit Cell

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, S11 and antenna directive gains of JRM Array, E plane scan, 9.25 GHz
/com, Problem: Compute S11 of JRM Array for E-Plane scan at 9.25 GHz
/com, Numerical Model: Waveguide + Radiation Space + PML
/com,
Waveguide: 0.9"x0.4"x0.75"
/com,
Radiation Space: 1.0"x0.5"x0.75"
/com,
PML: 1.0"x0.5"x0.75"
/com,
Refined meshes near the aperture
/com,
/nopr
/prep7
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101

Harmonic Analysis for a JRM Array Antenna (Command Method)


freq=9.25e9
lamda=3.e8/freq
scal=25.4e-3
px=1.*scal
py=0.5*scal
a1=scal*0.9/2.
b1=scal*0.4/2.
a2=scal*1.0/2.
b2=scal*0.5/2
c1=0
c2=c1+scal*0.5
c3=c2+scal*0.25
c4=c3+scal*0.25
c5=c4+scal*0.5
c6=c5+scal*0.75
! --- Mesh definition --h1=lamda/10
h2=0.5*h1
tiny=1.e-5
ang=43
! --- Define elements and material
et,11,200,5
et,1,119,1,,,0
et,2,119,1,,,1
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
! --- Numerical model --local,11
wpcsys,,11
block,-a1,a1,-b1,b1,c1,c2
block,-a1,a1,-b1,b1,c2,c3
block,-a2,a2,-b2,b2,c3,c4
block,-a2,a2,-b2,b2,c4,c5
block,-a2,a2,-b2,b2,c5,c6
vglue,all
type,11
esize,h2
asel,s,loc,x,-a2
asel,a,loc,y,-b2
asel,r,loc,z,c3,c4
amesh,all
esize,h1
asel,s,loc,x,-a2
asel,a,loc,y,-b2
asel,r,loc,z,c4,c5
amesh,all
asel,s,loc,x,-a2
asel,a,loc,y,-b2
asel,r,loc,z,c5,c6
amesh,all
alls
asel,s,loc,x,-a2
agen,2,all,,,2*a2
asel,s,loc,y,-b2
agen,2,all,,,0,2*b2
alls
nummrg,all
mat,1
type,1
vsel,s,loc,z,c1,c2
esize,h1
vmesh,all
vsel,s,loc,z,c2,c4
esize,h2
vmesh,all
vsel,s,loc,z,c4,c5
esize,h1
vmesh,all
! --- PML element --type,2
vsel,s,loc,z,c5,c6
vmesh,all

102

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Harmonic Analysis for a JRM Array Antenna (Command Method)


alls
aclear,all
etdel,11
alls
nsel,s,loc,z,c3
nsel,r,loc,x,-a1+tiny,a1-tiny
nsel,r,loc,y,-b1+tiny,b1-tiny
cm,ndapt,node
! --- Define master/slave coupling --nsel,s,loc,x,-a2
nsel,a,loc,x,a2
cpcyc,ax,,,2*a2,0,0,1
nsel,s,loc,y,-b2
nsel,a,loc,y,b2
cpcyc,ax,,,0,2*b2,0,1
alls
! --- Set PEC on waveguide & PML wall --nsel,s,loc,x,-a1
nsel,a,loc,x,a1
nsel,a,loc,y,-b1
nsel,a,loc,y,b1
nsel,r,loc,z,c1,c3
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,z,c3
nsel,u,,,ndapt
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,z,c6
d,all,ax,0
nsel,all
! --- Flag equivalent source surface with MXWF --nsel,s,loc,z,c3,c4
esln,s,1,all
nsel,s,loc,z,c4
sf,all,mxwf
alls
! --- Define waveguide port --hfport,1,rect,11,TE10,ext,2*a1,2*b1,1.
nsel,s,loc,z,c1
sf,all,PORT,1
alls
save
fini
/solu
! --- Perform angle scanning for S-parameter calculation --spscan,freq,,90,90,,10,80,2.5,1
fini
/post1
/yrange,-55,0
plsyz,file,s1p,s,db,1,1
fini
/solu
! --- Perform an analysis at 43 degree
antype,harmic
hfpa,scan,,90,ang
harfrq,freq
eqslv,sparse
solve
fini
/post1
hfang,angle,0,360,0,90
! define the radiation space (semi-space)
/thra,0,360
! range of theta angle (undocumented)
plfar,ant,dgpl,90,90,,-70,85,155
! plot directivity of unit cell
hfarray,25,25,px,py
! define a 2525 array
plfar,ant,dgpl,90,90,,-70,85,155
! plot directivity of 2525 array
fini

The Target Results


Figure 2: S-Parameter of JRM Array with E-Plane Scan at 9.25 GHz (p. 104) depicts the S-parameter at the
waveguide port over a range of angles, from 10 to 80. Figure 3: Directive Gain of Unit Cell with E-Plane Scan
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103

Harmonic Analysis for a JRM Array Antenna (Command Method)


at 9.25 GHz (p. 104) shows the directive gain of single radiation element at scan angle 43. The directive gain
of a 2525 JRM array at scan angle 43 is shown in Figure 4: Directive Gain of a 2525 JRM Array with E-Plane
Scan at 9.25 GHz (p. 105).

Figure 2: S-Parameter of JRM Array with E-Plane Scan at 9.25 GHz

Figure 3: Directive Gain of Unit Cell with E-Plane Scan at 9.25 GHz

104

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Harmonic Analysis for a JRM Array Antenna (Command Method)

Figure 4: Directive Gain of a 2525 JRM Array with E-Plane Scan at 9.25 GHz

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Harmonic Analysis for a Lee-Jones Array Antenna (Command


Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the S-parameter of a Lee-Jones array antenna with a triangular
lattice using ANSYS commands.
The Lee-Jones array consists of 1.122" 0.497" rectangular waveguides in a 1.25" 0.625" triangular lattice,
as shown on the left in Figure 1: 55 Lee-Jones Array and FEA Model of Unit Cell (p. 107). Only one radiation
unit is modeled. The FEA model shown on the right consists of a waveguide of 1.122" 0.497" 1.0" and
an air box of 1.25" 0.625" 1.0". The air box is covered by Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) of absorbing
material, 0.5" thick. An H-plane (=0) scan is performed at 9.5 GHz. The periodic boundary conditions are
shown in Figure 2: Periodic Boundary Condition for Lee-Jones Array (p. 108).

Figure 1: 55 Lee-Jones Array and FEA Model of Unit Cell

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107

Harmonic Analysis for a Lee-Jones Array Antenna (Command Method)

Figure 2: Periodic Boundary Condition for Lee-Jones Array


Master boundary
Pair 1

Master boundary
Pair 2

Master boundary
Pair 3

Slave boundary
Pair 3

Slave boundary
Pair 2

Slave boundary
Pair 1

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, S11 of Lee-Jones Array with the triangular lattice
/com, Numerical Model: Waveguide + Radiation Space + PML
/com,
Waveguide: 1.122"x0.497"1.0"
/com,
Radiation Space: 1.25"x0.625"x1.0"
/com,
PML: 1.25"x0.625"x0.5"
/com,
Refined meshes near the aperture
/nopr
/prep7
! --- Geometric and operating conditions --freq=9.5e9
lamda=3.e8/freq
scal=25.4e-3
a1=scal*1.122/2.
b1=scal*0.497/2.
a2=scal*1.25/2.
b2=scal*0.625/2.
c1=0
c2=c1+scal*0.75
c3=c2+scal*0.25
c4=c3+scal*0.25
c5=c4+scal*0.75
c6=c5+scal*0.5
! --- Mesh definition --h1=lamda/12
h2=0.5*h1
! --- Define elements and material
et,11,200,5
et,1,119,1,,,0
et,2,119,1,,,1
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
! --- Numerical model --local,11
wpcsys,,11
block,-a1,0,-b1,b1,c1,c2
block,-a1,0,-b1,b1,c2,c3
block,0,a1,-b1,b1,c1,c2
block,0,a1,-b1,b1,c2,c3
block,-a2,0,-b2,b2,c3,c4
block,-a2,0,-b2,b2,c4,c5
block,0,a2,-b2,b2,c3,c4
block,0,a2,-b2,b2,c4,c5
block,-a2,0,-b2,b2,c5,c6

108

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Harmonic Analysis for a Lee-Jones Array Antenna (Command Method)


block,0,a2,-b2,b2,c5,c6
vglue,all
type,11
esize,h2
asel,s,loc,x,-a2
asel,a,loc,y,b2
asel,r,loc,z,c3,c4
amesh,all
esize,h1
asel,s,loc,x,-a2
asel,a,loc,y,b2
asel,r,loc,z,c4,c5
amesh,all
asel,s,loc,x,-a2
asel,a,loc,y,b2
asel,r,loc,z,c5,c6
amesh,all
alls
asel,s,loc,x,-a2
agen,2,all,,,2*a2
asel,s,loc,y,b2
asel,r,loc,x,-a2,0
agen,2,all,,,a2,-2*b2
asel,s,loc,y,b2
asel,r,loc,x,0,a2
agen,2,all,,,-a2,-2*b2
alls
nummrg,all
mat,1
type,1
esize,h1
vsel,s,loc,z,c1,c2
vsel,a,loc,z,c4,c5
vmesh,all
esize,h2
vsel,s,loc,z,c2,c4
vmesh,all
! --- PML element --type,2
esize,h1
vsel,s,loc,z,c5,c6
vmesh,all
alls
aclear,all
etdel,11
alls
! --- Define master/slave coupling --nsel,s,loc,y,b2
nsel,r,loc,x,-a2,0
cm,edge11,node
nsel,s,loc,y,b2
nsel,r,loc,x,0,a2
cm,edge21,node
nsel,s,loc,y,-b2
nsel,r,loc,x,-a2,0
cm,edge22,node
nsel,s,loc,y,-b2
nsel,r,loc,x,0,a2
cm,edge12,node
nsel,s,loc,z,c3
nsel,r,loc,x,-a1,a1
nsel,r,loc,y,-b1,b1
cm,ndapt,node
nsel,s,loc,x,-a2
nsel,a,loc,x,a2
cpcyc,ax,,,2*a2,0,0,1
nsel,s,,,edge11
nsel,a,,,edge12
cpcyc,ax,,,a2,-2*b2,0,1
nsel,s,,,edge21
nsel,a,,,edge22
cpcyc,ax,,,-a2,-2*b2,0,1

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109

Harmonic Analysis for a Lee-Jones Array Antenna (Command Method)


alls
! --- Set PEC on waveguide wall & PML wall --nsel,s,loc,x,-a1
nsel,a,loc,x,a1
nsel,a,loc,y,-b1
nsel,a,loc,y,b1
nsel,r,loc,z,c1,c3
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,z,c3
nsel,u,,,ndapt
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,z,c6
d,all,ax,0
nsel,all
! --- Define waveguide port --hfport,1,rect,11,TE10,ext,2*a1,2*b1,1.
nsel,s,loc,z,c1
sf,all,PORT,1
alls
save
fini
/solu
! --- Perform angle scanning for S-parameter calculation --spscan,freq,,0,0,,0,55,5,0
fini
/post1
/yrange,0,1
plsyz,file,s1p,s,mag,1,1
fini

Target Results
The figure below depicts the S-parameter at the waveguide port over a range of angles, from 0 to 55.

Figure 3: S-Parameter of Lee-Jones Array with E-Plane Scan at 9.5 GHz

110

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Harmonic Analysis for Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna (Command


Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the S-parameter of a line-fed microstrip patch antenna using
ANSYS commands.
The line-fed microstrip patch antenna consists of a 16 mm 12.45 mm metallic rectangular patch on the
substrate with the thickness of 0.794 mm and r = 2.2. The width of the microstrip is 2.46 mm and the characteristic impedance is assumed to be 50 Ohms. The distance from the edge of the microstrip to the edge
of the patch is 2.09 mm, as shown on the top in the figure below. The structure is enclosed by Perfectly
Matched Layers (PML) of absorbing material, excepting the ground plane, as shown on the bottom.

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111

Harmonic Analysis for Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna (Command Method)

Figure 1: Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna Geometry and FEA Model

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, Microstrip Rectangular Patch Antenna
/com, Problem: Compute S-Parameter of Microstrip Rectangular Patch
/com, Microstrip: Width=2.46 mm, Substrate thickness=0.794 mm, er=2.2
/com, Patch: 16x12.45 mm^2; Distance from microstrip edge to patch
/com, edge: 2.09 mm
/nopr
/prep7
! --- define elements and material --epsr=2.2
et,11,200,7
et,1,120,1,,,0
et,2,120,1,,,1

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Harmonic Analysis for Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna (Command Method)


mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,epsr
mp,murx,2,1.
mp,perx,2,1.
! --- define geometry --ws=2.46
wp1=2.09
wp2=7.9
hp=16.
hm=4.
hs=0.794
scal=1.e-3
*dim,a,array,8
*dim,b,array,5
a(4)=0
a(3)=a(4)-wp1
a(2)=a(3)-ws
a(1)=a(2)-ws
a(5)=a(4)+ws
a(6)=a(5)+wp2
a(7)=a(6)+ws
a(8)=a(7)+ws
b(2)=0
b(1)=b(2)-hm
b(3)=b(2)+hp
b(4)=b(3)+hm
b(5)=b(4)+1.25*hm
*do,i,1,7
*do,j,1,4
rect,a(i),a(i+1),b(j),b(j+1)
*enddo
*enddo
aglue,all
! --- define mesh size --nx1=8
nx2=4
nx3=5
ny1=4
ny2=16
nz1=5
nz2=4
hx1=(a(3)-a(1))/nx1
hx2=(a(4)-a(3))/nx2
hx3=(a(5)-a(4))/nx3
hy1=(b(2)-b(1))/ny1
hy2=(b(3)-b(2))/ny2
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(1)+a(2))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(2)+a(3))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(6)+a(7))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(7)+a(8))/2
cm,lx1,line
lesize,lx1,hx1
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(3)+a(4))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(5)+a(6))/2
cm,lx2,line
lesize,lx2,hx2
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(4)+a(5))/2
cm,lx3,line
lesize,lx3,hx3
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(1)+b(2))/2
lsel,a,loc,y,(b(3)+b(4))/2
lsel,a,loc,y,(b(4)+b(5))/2
cm,ly1,line
lesize,ly1,hy1
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(2)+b(3))/2
cm,ly2,line
lesize,ly2,hy2
alls
type,11
asel,all
amesh,all
alls

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113

Harmonic Analysis for Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna (Command Method)


asel,s,loc,z,0
asel,r,loc,x,a(2),a(7)
asel,r,loc,y,b(1),b(4)
cm,agr1,area
! --- 3d meshing --type,1
mat,1
esize,,nz1
asel,s,area,,agr1
vext,all,,,0,0,-hs
alls
mat,2
esize,,nz1
asel,s,area,,agr1
vext,all,,,0,0,hs
alls
! --- PML element --type,2
mat,1
esize,,nz1
asel,s,loc,z,0
asel,u,area,,agr1
vext,all,,,0,0,-hs
mat,2
esize,,nz1
asel,s,loc,z,0
asel,u,area,,agr1
vext,all,,,0,0,hs
esize,,nz2
asel,s,loc,z,hs
vext,all,,,0,0,hs
asel,s,loc,z,0
aclear,all
alls
nummrg,all
! --- PEC for microstrip and PML wall --nsel,s,loc,z,0
nsel,r,loc,x,a(4),a(5)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(1),b(2)
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,z,0
nsel,r,loc,x,a(3),a(6)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(2),b(3)
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,y,b(1)
nsel,r,loc,x,a(2)+1.e-3,a(7)-1.e-3
nsel,r,loc,z,-hs+1.e-3,hs-1.e-3
cm,nprt,node
nsel,s,ext
nsel,u,node,,nprt
d,all,ax,0
! --- define port --nsel,s,loc,y,b(1)
nsel,r,loc,x,a(2),a(7)
nsel,r,loc,z,-hs,hs
sf,all,port,1
hfport,1,modal,,1,ext,1.,pi,,,1
alls
vlscale,all,,,scal,scal,scal,,,1
fini
/solu
! --- perform a frequency sweep for s-parameter from 1GHz to 20 GHz --spswp,1e9,20e9,0.5e9,1,,2,1
fini

Target Results
Figure 2: S-Parameter of Line-Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna (p. 115) depicts the S-parameter at the microstrip
line feeding port from 1 GHz to 20 GHz. The pattern of the electric field at 7.5 GHz is shown in Figure 3: Contour
of Electric Field Magnitude at 7.5 GHz (p. 115).
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Harmonic Analysis for Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna (Command Method)

Figure 2: S-Parameter of Line-Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna

Figure 3: Contour of Electric Field Magnitude at 7.5 GHz

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115

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Harmonic Analysis for Radiation of a Waveguide Antenna with No


Flare (Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the radiation pattern of a waveguide antenna with no flare
using ANSYS commands.
The geometry of the modeled three-dimension PEC waveguide radiator with no flare is as follows: width =
20/3, height = 0/3 and length = 20. A sinusoidal source is excited on a wide-side-directed monopole feed
centered in the waveguide wide side and 0/3 from the closed end. One half of the structure is used for
numerical modeling, because of the symmetry of the fields and geometry. A uniform current density is used
to model the excitation source. The PML absorbing material encloses the modeled domain except on the
symmetric plane.

Figure 1: Waveguide Radiator with No Flare

0/3

0/3

20
20/3

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, Radiation Pattern of a Rectangular Waveguide Horn Antenna
/com, Horn Antenna: 2/3 x 1/3 x 2 wavelength^3
/com, Model: 1/2 structure and line current source from closed end
/com,
Antenna is enclosed by PML except symmetric plane
/com,
The equivalent source surface is flagged between waveguide and PML
/nopr
/prep7
! set-up working frequency
freq=1.e9
lambda=3.e8/freq
! define the computational structure
*dim,a,array,5
*dim,b,array,8
*dim,c,array,9
*dim,nnz,array,8
a(1)=0
a(2)=a(1)-lambda/3
a(3)=a(2)-lambda/8
a(4)=a(3)-lambda/8
a(5)=a(4)-lambda/4

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117

Harmonic Analysis for Radiation of a Waveguide Antenna with No Flare (Command Method)
b(4)=-lambda/6
b(3)=b(4)-lambda/8
b(2)=b(3)-lambda/8
b(1)=b(2)-lambda/4
b(5)=lambda/6
b(6)=b(5)+lambda/8
b(7)=b(6)+lambda/8
b(8)=b(7)+lambda/4
c(6)=0
c(5)=c(6)-5*lambda/3
c(4)=c(5)-lambda/3
c(3)=c(4)-lambda/8
c(2)=c(3)-lambda/8
c(1)=c(2)-lambda/4
c(7)=c(6)+lambda/8
c(8)=c(7)+lambda/6
c(9)=c(8)+lambda/2
et,11,200,7
! temporary element
et,1,120,1
et,2,120,1,,,1
! PML element
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
h1=lambda/15
h2=lambda/12
*do,i,1,8
nnz(i)=nint((c(i+1)-c(i))/h2)
*enddo
*do,i,1,4
*do,j,1,7
rect,a(i),a(i+1),b(j),b(j+1)
*enddo
*enddo
aglue,all
agen,2,all,,,0,0,-(c(6)-c(2))
asel,s,loc,z,c(6)
adel,all
asel,s,loc,z,c(2)
asel,s,loc,x,a(1),(a(3)+a(4))/2
asel,r,loc,y,(b(2)+b(3))/2,(b(6)+b(7))/2
cm,airs,area
asel,all
! 2-d meshing
type,11
esize,h1
amesh,all
! 3-d meshing
mat,1
! PML element
type,2
asel,s,loc,z,c(2)
esize,,nnz(1)
vext,all,,,0,0,-(c(2)-c(1))
*do,i,2,7
asel,s,loc,z,c(i)
*if,i,eq,2,then
asel,u,,,airs
*endif
esize,,nnz(i)
vext,all,,,0,0,c(i+1)-c(i)
*enddo
! normal element
type,1
*do,i,2,7
asel,s,loc,z,c(i)
asel,r,loc,x,a(1),(a(3)+a(4))/2
asel,r,loc,y,(b(2)+b(3))/2,(b(6)+b(7))/2
esize,,nnz(i)
vext,all,,,0,0,c(i+1)-c(i)
*enddo
! PML element
type,2
asel,s,loc,z,c(8)

118

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Harmonic Analysis for Radiation of a Waveguide Antenna with No Flare (Command Method)
esize,,nnz(8)
vext,all,,,0,0,(c(9)-c(8))
asel,s,loc,z,c(2)
aclear,all
alls
nummrg,all
! flag equivalent source surface
nsel,s,loc,x,a(1),a(3)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(3),b(6)
nsel,r,loc,z,c(3),c(7)
esln,s,1,all
nsel,s,loc,x,a(3)
nsel,a,loc,y,b(3)
nsel,a,loc,y,b(6)
nsel,a,loc,z,c(3)
nsel,a,loc,z,c(7)
sf,all,mxwf
alls
! define PEC
nsel,s,loc,x,a(2)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(4),b(5)
nsel,r,loc,z,c(4),c(6)
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,y,b(4)
nsel,r,loc,x,a(1),a(2)
nsel,r,loc,z,c(4),c(6)
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,y,b(5)
nsel,r,loc,x,a(1),a(2)
nsel,r,loc,z,c(4),c(6)
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,z,c(4)
nsel,r,loc,x,a(1),a(2)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(4),b(5)
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,x,a(5)
nsel,a,loc,y,b(1)
nsel,a,loc,y,b(8)
nsel,a,loc,z,c(1)
nsel,a,loc,z,c(9)
d,all,ax,0
alls
! set up excitation line current
nsel,s,loc,z,c(5)
nsel,r,loc,x,a(1)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(4),b(5)
bf,all,js,0,1.e-3,0
alls
fini
! perform solution
/solu
antype,harmic
harfrq,freq
eqslv,sparse
solve
finish
! post-processing
/post1
set,1,1
hfsym,,pmc
prfar,ant,epct,0,0,,0,360,360
/yrange,-35,0
plfar,ant,epct,0,0,,0,360,360
fini

! define image symmetric plane


! print out radiation pattern
! plot out radiation pattern

Target Results
Figure 2: Radiation Pattern of Waveguide Radiator Without Flare on E-Plane (p. 120) depicts the radiation pattern
of the waveguide antenna on the E-plane (=0). Figure 3: Electric Field Contour of Waveguide Radiator Without
Flare (p. 120) shows the electric field contour in the computational domain.
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119

Harmonic Analysis for Radiation of a Waveguide Antenna with No Flare (Command Method)

Figure 2: Radiation Pattern of Waveguide Radiator Without Flare on E-Plane

Figure 3: Electric Field Contour of Waveguide Radiator Without Flare

120

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Harmonic Analysis for a Half Wavelength Dipole Antenna (Command


Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the radiation far field and antenna parameters of a half
wavelength dipole antenna using ANSYS commands.
Assume that the distribution of current density along the wire is J = 0.08 sin (h-|z|) z A/m2, where is the
vacuum wave number and h is the half-length of the dipole antenna. Only 1/8 structure is used for the numerical simulation, because of the symmetry of the electromagnetic field. PML is used to truncate the open
domain. PEC is imposed on the symmetrical plane perpendicular to the current density vector. The analytic
directivity and radiation power of the antenna are 2.156 dB and 0.058 watt, respectively.

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, Half Wavelength Dipole Antenna
/nopr
/prep7
! structure dimensions
freq=300e6
wavel=3.e8/freq
beta=2.*3.1415926535/wavel
curr=1.e-2
! 1/8 of total current density
l=wavel/2
d=0.5*wavel
! define elements and material
et,11,200,7
et,1,120,1
et,2,120,1,,,1
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
! define mesh size
h=wavel/20
n1=4
nz1=nint((l/2)/h)+1
nz2=4
nz3=4
npml=6
! set up computational domain
*dim,a,array,4
a(1)=0
a(2)=a(1)+d
a(3)=a(2)+n1*h
a(4)=a(3)+npml*h
c1=0
c2=c1+l/2
c3=c2+nz2*h
c4=c3+nz3*h
c5=c4+npml*h
*do,i,1,3
*do,j,1,3
rect,a(i),a(i+1),a(j),a(j+1)
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121

Harmonic Analysis for a Half Wavelength Dipole Antenna (Command Method)


*enddo
*enddo
aglue,all
esize,h
amesh,all
asel,s,loc,x,a(1),a(3)
asel,r,loc,y,a(1),a(3)
cm,area1,area
type,1
mat,1
esize,,nz1
asel,s,area,,area1
vext,all,,,0,0,(c2-c1)
esize,,nz2
asel,s,loc,z,c2
vext,all,,,0,0,(c3-c2)
asel,s,loc,z,c3
vext,all,,,0,0,(c4-c3)
type,2
esize,,nz1
asel,s,loc,z,0
asel,u,,,area1
vext,all,,,0,0,(c2-c1)
esize,,nz2
asel,s,loc,z,c2
asel,r,loc,x,a(1),a(3)
asel,r,loc,y,a(1),a(3)
cm,area1,area
asel,s,loc,z,c2
asel,u,,,area1
vext,all,,,0,0,(c3-c2)
esize,,nz3
asel,s,loc,z,c3
asel,r,loc,x,a(1),a(3)
asel,r,loc,y,a(1),a(3)
cm,area1,area
asel,s,loc,z,c3
asel,u,,,area1
vext,all,,,0,0,(c4-c3)
esize,,npml
asel,s,loc,z,c4
vext,all,,,0,0,(c5-c4)
asel,a,loc,z,c1
aclear,all
esel,s,type,,11
edel,all
alls
nummrg,all
! define equivalent source surface
nsel,s,loc,x,a(1),a(2)
nsel,r,loc,y,a(1),a(2)
nsel,r,loc,z,c1,c3
esln,s,1,all
nsel,s,loc,x,a(2)
nsel,a,loc,y,a(2)
nsel,a,loc,z,c3
sf,all,mxwf
nsel,all
esel,all
! define boundary condition
nsel,s,loc,x,a(4)
nsel,a,loc,y,a(4)
nsel,a,loc,z,c1
nsel,a,loc,z,c5
d,all,ax,0.
allsel,all
ll=c2-c1
hz=ll/nz1
*do,i,0,nz1
nsel,s,loc,x,0
nsel,r,loc,y,0
nsel,r,loc,z,i*hz

122

!define sinusoid line current source

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Harmonic Analysis for a Half Wavelength Dipole Antenna (Command Method)


cc= sin(beta*(ll-i*hz))*curr
*if,cc,eq,0,then
cc=1.e-9
*endif
bf,all,js,0,0,cc
*enddo
alls
fini
! perform solution
/solu
eqslv,sparse
antype,harmic
harfrq,freq
solve
fini
/post1
set,1,1
hfsys,,pmc,pmc,pec
hfang,,0,360,0,180
plfar,ef,sum,0,0,,0,180,18
plfar,ant,eppl,0,0,,0,360,180
plfar,ant,dgpl,0,0,,0,360,180
prfar,ant,dgmx
prfar,ant,prad
fini

!current density distribution

!set up symmetry
!set up radiation solid angle
!plot far field r*|E|
!plot radiation pattern
!plot directivity
!print out maximum directivity
!print out radiation power

The Target Results


The contour of the radiated electric field in the numerical domain is shown in Figure 1: Contour of the Radiated
Electric Field of a Half Wavelength Dipole (p. 123). The far electric field on E-plane at r = 10 m is depicted in
Figure 2: Far Electric Field of a Half Wavelength Dipole on E-Plane at r = 10 m (p. 124). Figure 3: Radiation Pattern
of a Half Wavelength Dipole on E-Plane (p. 124) shows the radiation pattern of a half wavelength dipole, and
the directive gain is given in Figure 4: Directive Gain of a Half Wavelength Dipole on E-Plane (p. 125). The calculated directivity and radiation power are 2.13 dB and 0.054 watt, respectively.

Figure 1: Contour of the Radiated Electric Field of a Half Wavelength Dipole

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123

Harmonic Analysis for a Half Wavelength Dipole Antenna (Command Method)

Figure 2: Far Electric Field of a Half Wavelength Dipole on E-Plane at r = 10 m

Figure 3: Radiation Pattern of a Half Wavelength Dipole on E-Plane

124

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Harmonic Analysis for a Half Wavelength Dipole Antenna (Command Method)

Figure 4: Directive Gain of a Half Wavelength Dipole on E-Plane

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125

126

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Part VI, Advanced Wave Propagation Examples

Harmonic Analysis for a Microstrip Low-Pass Filter (Command


Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the S-parameter of a microstrip low-pass filter using ANSYS
commands.
The microstrip low-pass filter is distributed on a dielectric substrate backed by a PEC ground plane. The
width of the input and output microstrip lines are 2.413 mm. The width of the stub is 2.54 mm. The strip is
assumed to be perfectly conducting of thickness 0 m. The substrate material is a lossless dielectric of relative
permittivity 2.2. The thickness of the substrate is 0.794 mm. The top and side views of the structure are
shown in the figure below. Modal ports are applied to the input and output of the microstrip line.

Figure 1: Top and Side views of Low-Pass Filter


2.413 mm
2.413 mm

5.65 mm
2.54 mm
5.65 mm

0.794 mm

r=2.2

12.257 mm

2.413 mm
(a) Top view

(b) Side view

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, Microstrip Filter
/nopr
/prep7
! --- set up elements and materials --epsr=2.3
et,11,200,7
et,1,120,1,,,0
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,epsr
mp,murx,2,1.
mp,perx,2,1.
! --- set up structure --w1=2.413
w2=2.54
s1=5.65
s2=4.194
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129

Harmonic Analysis for a Microstrip Low-Pass Filter (Command Method)


c=0.794
local,11,0,0,0,0,0,90,0
csys,0
*dim,a,array,8
*dim,b,array,4
a(1)=0
a(2)=a(1)+s1
a(3)=a(2)+s1
a(4)=a(3)+w1
a(5)=a(4)+s2
a(6)=a(5)+w1
a(7)=a(6)+s1
a(8)=a(7)+s1
b(1)=0
b(2)=b(1)+s1
b(3)=b(2)+w2
b(4)=b(3)+s1
h1=s1/8
h2=w1/5
h3=w2/5
h4=s2/7
nz1=6
nz2=4
scal=1.e-3
*do,i,1,7
*do,j,1,3
rect,a(i),a(i+1),b(j),b(j+1)
*enddo
*enddo
aglue,all
! --- 2d meshing --type,11
esize,h1
asel,all
asel,u,loc,x,a(3),a(6)
asel,u,loc,y,b(2),b(3)
amesh,all
alls
asel,s,loc,x,a(3),a(4)
asel,a,loc,x,a(5),a(6)
asel,u,loc,y,b(2),b(3)
lsel,s,loc,y,b(1),b(4)
cm,lgr1,line
lesize,lgr1,h1
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(3)+a(4))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(5)+a(6))/2
cm,lgr2,line
lesize,lgr2,h2
amesh,all
alls
asel,s,loc,x,a(4),a(5)
asel,u,loc,y,b(2),b(3)
lsel,s,loc,y,b(1),b(4)
cm,lgr3,line
lesize,lgr3,h1
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(4)+a(5))/2
cm,lgr4,line
lesize,lgr4,h4
amesh,all
alls
asel,s,loc,y,b(2),b(3)
asel,u,loc,x,a(3),a(6)
lsel,s,loc,x,a(1),a(8)
cm,lgr4,line
lesize,lgr4,h1
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(2)+b(3))/2
cm,lgr5,line
lesize,lgr5,h3
amesh,all
alls
asel,s,loc,x,a(3),a(6)
asel,r,loc,y,b(2),b(3)

130

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Harmonic Analysis for a Microstrip Low-Pass Filter (Command Method)


asel,u,loc,x,a(4),a(5)
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(3)+a(4))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(5)+a(6))/2
cm,lgr6,line
lesize,lgr6,h2
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(2)+b(3))/2
cm,lgr7,line
lesize,lgr7,h3
amesh,all
alls
asel,s,loc,x,a(4),a(5)
asel,r,loc,y,b(2),b(3)
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(4)+a(5))/2
cm,lgr8,line
lesize,lgr8,h4
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(2)+b(3))/2
cm,lgr9,line
lesize,lgr9,h3
amesh,all
alls
! --- 3d meshing --type,1
mat,1
esize,,nz1
asel,s,loc,z,0
vext,all,,,0,0,-c
alls
mat,2
esize,,3*nz2
asel,s,loc,z,0
vext,all,,,0,0,3*c
alls
asel,s,loc,z,0
aclear,all
alls
nummrg,all
alls
alls
! --- PEC for strip, ground plane --nsel,s,loc,z,0
nsel,r,loc,x,a(3),a(4)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(1),b(2)
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,z,0
nsel,r,loc,x,a(5),a(6)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(3),b(4)
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,z,0
nsel,r,loc,x,a(2),a(7)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(2),b(3)
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,x,a(1)
nsel,a,loc,x,a(8)
nsel,a,loc,z,-c
nsel,a,loc,z,3*c
d,all,ax,0
alls
! --- define the ports --hfport,1,modal,11,1,impd,,,1
nsel,s,loc,y,b(1)
sf,all,port,1
hfport,2,modal,11,1,impd
nsel,s,loc,y,b(4)
sf,all,port,2
vlscale,all,,,scal,scal,scal,,,1
alls
save
fini
! --- launch the full-method frequency sweep solution --/solu
spswp,10e9,20e9,0.5e9,1,,2,1
fini

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131

Harmonic Analysis for a Microstrip Low-Pass Filter (Command Method)

Target Results
Figure 2: S11 of microstrip low-pass filter (p. 132) and Figure 3: S21 of microstrip low-pass filter (p. 132) depict the
S11 and S21 of the microstrip low-pass filter from 0.5 GHz to 20 GHz, respectively.

Figure 2: S11 of microstrip low-pass filter

Figure 3: S21 of microstrip low-pass filter

132

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Harmonic Analysis for a Three-Stub Rectangular Waveguide Filter


(Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the S-parameter of a three-stub rectangular waveguide filter
using ANSYS commands.
The waveguide filter consists of a straight rectangular metallic hollow waveguide with a cross-section 19.05
x 9.252 mm2 and three tuning stubs. The side view of the structure is shown on the left in the figure below,
and the FEA model is shown on the right. Due to the symmetry of the geometry and of the TE10 waveguide
excitation to be analyzed, only one-half of the filter needs to be modeled. The perfect electric condition is
applied to the metallic surfaces of the waveguide and the impedance matching condition of TE10 mode is
imposed at the input and output ports.

Figure 1: Side View and FEA Model of Filter (Dimensions are in mm)

18.9

19.05

17.23

2.86

17.23

2.01

2.86

19.05

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133

Harmonic Analysis for a Three-Stub Rectangular Waveguide Filter (Command Method)

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, Three-Stub Waveguide Filter
/nopr
/prep7
! define elements and materials
et,11,200,7
et,1,120,1,,,0
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
! define dimensions of the geometry
scal=1.e-3
cw=19.05
ch=9.525
s1=cw
s2=17.23
gap1=2.86
gap2=2.01
stub=18.9
xg1=gap1
xg2=gap2
yg1=0.25*ch
! set up 2d numerical domain
*dim,a,array,14
*dim,b,array,5
a(1)=0
a(2)=a(1)+(s1-xg1)
a(3)=a(2)+xg1
a(4)=a(3)+gap1
a(5)=a(4)+xg1
a(6)=a(5)+(s2-xg1-xg2)
a(7)=a(6)+xg2
a(8)=a(7)+gap2
a(9)=a(8)+xg2
a(10)=a(9)+(s2-xg2-xg1)
a(11)=a(10)+xg1
a(12)=a(11)+gap1
a(13)=a(12)+xg1
a(14)=a(13)+(s1-xg1)
b(1)=-ch/2
b(2)=b(1)+ch-yg1
b(3)=b(2)+yg1
b(4)=b(3)+yg1
b(5)=b(4)+(stub-yg1)
*do,i,1,13
*do,j,1,2
rect,a(i),a(i+1),b(j),b(j+1)
*enddo
*enddo
*do,j,3,4
rect,a(3),a(4),b(j),b(j+1)
rect,a(7),a(8),b(j),b(j+1)
rect,a(11),a(12),b(j),b(j+1)
*enddo
aglue,all
! 2d meshing
nx1=20
nx2=8
nx3=12
nx4=18
nx5=8
nx6=12
hx1=(a(2)-a(1))/nx1
hx2=(a(3)-a(2))/nx2
hx3=(a(4)-a(3))/nx3
hx4=(a(6)-a(5))/nx4
hx5=(a(7)-a(6))/nx5

134

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Harmonic Analysis for a Three-Stub Rectangular Waveguide Filter (Command Method)


hx6=(a(8)-a(7))/nx6
ny1=8
ny2=6
ny3=15
hy1=(b(2)-b(1))/ny1
hy2=(b(3)-b(2))/ny2
hy3=(b(5)-b(4))/ny3
nz=10
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(1)+b(2))/2
cm,ly1,line
lesize,ly1,hy1
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(2)+b(3))/2
lsel,a,loc,y,(b(3)+b(4))/2
cm,ly2,line
lesize,ly2,hy2
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(4)+b(5))/2
cm,ly3,line
lesize,ly3,hy3
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(1)+a(2))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(13)+a(14))/2
cm,lx1,line
lesize,lx1,hx1
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(2)+a(3))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(4)+a(5))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(10)+a(11))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(12)+a(13))/2
cm,lx2,line
lesize,lx2,hx2
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(3)+a(4))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(11)+a(12))/2
cm,lx3,line
lesize,lx3,hx3
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(5)+a(6))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(9)+a(10))/2
cm,lx4,line
lesize,lx4,hx4
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(6)+a(7))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(8)+a(9))/2
cm,lx5,line
lesize,lx5,hx5
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(7)+a(8))/2
cm,lx6,line
lesize,lx6,hx6
alls
type,11
amesh,all
nummrg,all
alls
! 3d meshing
type,1
mat,1
esize,,nz
asel,s,loc,z,0
vext,all,,,0,0,cw/2
asel,s,loc,z,0
aclear,all
etdele,11
alls
nummrg,all
! PEC on waveguide wall
nsel,s,loc,z,cw/2
nsel,a,loc,y,b(1)
nsel,a,loc,y,b(5)
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,x,a(1),a(3)
nsel,a,loc,x,a(4),a(7)
nsel,a,loc,x,a(8),a(11)
nsel,a,loc,x,a(12),a(14)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(3)
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,x,a(3)
nsel,a,loc,x,a(4)

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135

Harmonic Analysis for a Three-Stub Rectangular Waveguide Filter (Command Method)


nsel,a,loc,x,a(7)
nsel,a,loc,x,a(8)
nsel,a,loc,x,a(11)
nsel,a,loc,x,a(12)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(3),b(5)
d,all,ax,0
vlscale,all,,,scal,scal,scal,,,1
! define a local coordinates for waveguide ports
local,11,,,,,,,90
csys,0
! define port
hfport,1,rect,11,TE10,EXT,scal*cw,scal*ch,1.
nsel,s,loc,x,a(1)*scal
sf,all,port,1
hfport,2,rect,11,TE10,EXT,cw*scal,ch*scal
nsel,s,loc,x,a(14)*scal
sf,all,port,2
alls
save
fini
! perform solution
/solu
spswp,10.e9,15.e9,0.25e9,1,,2,1
fini
/post1
/yrange,-40,0
plsyz,file,s2p,s,db,1,1
fini

Target Results
Figure 2: |S11| of Three-Stub Waveguide Filter (p. 136) depicts the S11 of simulated 3-stub waveguide filter from
10 GHz to 15 GHz. Figure 3: Electric Field Contour of Three-Stub Waveguide Filter at 15 GHz (p. 137) shows the
electric field contour at 15 GHz.

Figure 2: |S11| of Three-Stub Waveguide Filter

136

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Harmonic Analysis for a Three-Stub Rectangular Waveguide Filter (Command Method)

Figure 3: Electric Field Contour of Three-Stub Waveguide Filter at 15 GHz

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137

138

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Harmonic Analysis for Multi-layer Microstrip Interconnect


(Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the S-parameter of a multi-layer microstrip interconnect using
ANSYS commands.
The multi-layer microstrip interconnect is distributed over three signal layers. The input and output ports
are at the uppermost layer. The distance to the second signal layer is 0.4 mm. The distance between the
second and third signal layer is 0.4 mm. The third (bottom) layer is 0.8 mm above a perfectly conducting
plane. The substrate material is a lossless dielectric of relative permittivity of 9.8. The entire structure is
placed inside a perfectly conducting box of length 20 mm, width 10 mm and height 6.6 mm. Hence, the
uppermost interconnect is 5.0 mm below the top of the box. The graphic on the left in the figure below
depicts the structure without showing the substrate and enclosing box. The graphic on the right shows the
geometry of the three-layer interconnect (top view). The microstrip is taken to be infinitesimally thin, perfectly
conducting, of width 1.2 mm. The layers are connected by perfectly conducting squares with a side length
of 1.2 mm. Modal ports are applied to the input and output of the microstrip line.

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139

Harmonic Analysis for Multi-layer Microstrip Interconnect (Command Method)

Figure 1: Three-layer Interconnect

1.2 mm

5.6 mm 1.2 mm
1.2 mm

6.0 mm

2.2 mm

6.0 mm

1.2 mm

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, Multilayer Microstrip Interconnect
/nopr
/prep7
! --- define elements and material --epsr=9.8
et,11,200,7
et,1,120,1,,,0
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,epsr
mp,murx,2,1.
mp,perx,2,1.
! --- define geometry --w=1.2
s=2.2
l=6.0
ls=5.6
c1=0.4
c2=0.4
c3=0.8
bw=2.7
bh=5.0

140

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Harmonic Analysis for Multi-layer Microstrip Interconnect (Command Method)


local,11,0,0,0,0,0,90,0
csys,0
*dim,a,array,6
*dim,b,array,6
a(1)=0
a(2)=a(1)+bw
a(3)=a(2)+w
a(4)=a(3)+s
a(5)=a(4)+w
a(6)=a(5)+bw
b(1)=0
b(2)=b(1)+l
b(3)=b(2)+w
b(4)=b(3)+ls
b(5)=b(4)+w
b(6)=b(5)+l
*do,i,1,5
*do,j,1,5
rect,a(i),a(i+1),b(j),b(j+1)
*enddo
*enddo
aglue,all
! --- choose mesh size --hx1=w/4
hx2=s/6
hx3=(a(2)-a(1))/5
hy1=hx1
hy2=(b(4)-b(3))/10
hy3=(b(2)-b(1))/10
nz1=4
nz2=7
nz3=12
scal=1.e-3
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(1)+a(2))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(5)+a(6))/2
cm,lxblnk,line
lesize,lxblnk,hx3
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(2)+a(3))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(4)+a(5))/2
cm,lxstrip,line
lesize,lxstrip,hx1
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(3)+a(4))/2
cm,lxstub,line
lesize,lxstub,hx2
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(1)+b(2))/2
lsel,a,loc,y,(b(5)+b(6))/2
cm,lyprp,line
lesize,lyprp,hy3
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(2)+b(3))/2
lsel,a,loc,y,(b(4)+b(5))/2
cm,lystrip,line
lesize,lystrip,hy1
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(3)+b(4))/2
cm,lystub,line
lesize,lystub,hy2
alls
! --- 2-d meshing --type,11
asel,all
amesh,all
alls
! --- 3-d meshing --type,1
mat,1
esize,,nz1
asel,s,loc,z,0
vext,all,,,0,0,-c1
asel,s,loc,z,-c1
vext,all,,,0,0,-c2
esize,,nz2
asel,s,loc,z,-(c1+c2)
vext,all,,,0,0,-c3

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141

Harmonic Analysis for Multi-layer Microstrip Interconnect (Command Method)


mat,2
esize,,nz3
asel,s,loc,z,0
vext,all,,,0,0,bh
alls
! --- clean up 2-d element --asel,s,loc,z,0
aclear,all
esel,s,type,,11
edel,all
alls
nummrg,all
alls
! --- set up PEC for microstrip, vias, ground plane
nsel,s,loc,z,0
nsel,r,loc,x,a(2),a(3)
nsel,u,loc,y,b(3),b(4)
d,all,ax,0
cm,npec1,node
nsel,s,loc,z,-c1
nsel,r,loc,x,a(2),a(5)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(2),b(5)
nsel,u,loc,y,b(3),b(4)
d,all,ax,0
cm,npec2,node
nsel,s,loc,z,-(c1+c2)
nsel,r,loc,x,a(4),a(5)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(3),b(4)
d,all,ax,0
cm,npec3,node
nsel,s,loc,x,a(2),a(3)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(2),b(5)
nsel,u,loc,y,b(3),b(4)
nsel,r,loc,z,0,-c1
d,all,ax,0
cm,npec4,node
nsel,s,loc,x,a(4),a(5)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(2),b(5)
nsel,u,loc,y,b(3),b(4)
nsel,r,loc,z,-c1,-(c1+c2)
d,all,ax,0
cm,npec5,node
nsel,s,,,npec1
nsel,a,,,npec2
nsel,a,,,npec3
nsel,a,,,npec4
nsel,a,,,npec5
cm,npec,node
nsel,s,loc,x,a(1)
nsel,a,loc,x,a(6)
nsel,a,loc,z,-(c1+c2+c3)
nsel,a,loc,z,bh
d,all,ax,0
alls
! --- define ports --hfport,1,MODAL,11,1,impd,,,1
nsel,s,loc,y,b(1)
sf,all,port,1
hfport,2,MODAL,11,1,impd
nsel,s,loc,y,b(6)
sf,all,port,2
alls
vlscale,all,,,scal,scal,scal,,,1
alls
save
fini
/solu
! --- perform solution over the frequency range --spswp,0.5e9,10e9,0.25e9,1,,2,1
fini

142

---

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Harmonic Analysis for Multi-layer Microstrip Interconnect (Command Method)

Target Results
Figure 2: S11 of the Multi-Layer Microstrip Interconnect (p. 143) and Figure 3: S21 of the Multi-Layer Microstrip Interconnect (p. 143) depict the magnitude of S11 and S21 fro 0.55 GHz to 10 GHz, respectively. The pattern of
electric field at 6.5 GHz is shown in Figure 4: Electric Field Contour of Multi-Layer Microstrip Interconnect at 6.5
GHz (p. 143).

Figure 2: S11 of the Multi-Layer Microstrip Interconnect

Figure 3: S21 of the Multi-Layer Microstrip Interconnect

Figure 4: Electric Field Contour of Multi-Layer Microstrip Interconnect at 6.5 GHz

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143

Harmonic Analysis for Multi-layer Microstrip Interconnect (Command Method)


The Touchstone file is listed as follow
!

ANSYS S-parameter Data for 2 Ports (Waveguide).

# GHz S DB R 0.
! Freq
|S11|
<S11
0.5000 -16.016 -130.002
0.7500 -12.968 -153.539
1.0000 -11.459 -175.546
1.2500
-9.660 163.686
1.5000
-8.762 142.838
1.7500
-8.249 122.327
2.0000
-8.038 102.236
2.2500
-8.090
82.522
2.5000
-8.311
63.738
2.7500
-9.047
43.007
3.0000
-9.969
22.466
3.2500 -12.312
-0.330
3.5000 -15.817 -22.767
3.7500 -22.744 -45.071
4.0000 -35.038 106.666
4.2500 -19.850
86.793
4.5000 -15.252
64.153
4.7500 -12.947
41.800
5.0000 -11.814
19.653
5.2500 -11.520
-2.503
5.5000 -12.009 -24.932
1.0000 -11.459 -175.546
1.2500
-9.660 163.686
1.5000
-8.762 142.838
1.7500
-8.249 122.327
2.0000
-8.038 102.236
2.2500
-8.090
82.522
2.5000
-8.311
63.738
2.7500
-9.047
43.007
3.0000
-9.969
22.466
3.2500 -12.312
-0.330
3.5000 -15.817 -22.767
3.7500 -22.744 -45.071
4.0000 -35.038 106.666
4.2500 -19.850
86.793
4.5000 -15.252
64.153
4.7500 -12.947
41.800
5.0000 -11.814
19.653
5.2500 -11.520
-2.503
5.5000 -12.009 -24.932
5.7500 -13.430 -47.857
6.0000 -16.301 -71.056
6.2500 -22.515 -93.428
6.5000 -37.070
30.743
6.7500 -20.415
26.604
7.0000 -15.965
2.022
7.2500 -14.553 -23.624
7.5000 -15.730 -49.455
7.7500 -23.252 -67.160
8.0000 -17.686
47.506
8.2500
-8.079
16.762
8.5000
-3.980 -19.479
8.7500
-2.232 -51.600
9.0000
-1.515 -78.516
9.2500
-1.212 -101.549
9.5000
-1.080 -122.002
9.7500
-1.020 -140.775
10.0000
-0.992 -158.414

144

|S21|
-0.646
-0.789
-0.764
-1.148
-1.340
-1.461
-1.490
-1.437
-1.329
-1.194
-1.046
-0.802
-0.622
-0.514
-0.493
-0.549
-0.656
-0.773
-0.861
-0.896
-0.856
-0.764
-1.148
-1.340
-1.461
-1.490
-1.437
-1.329
-1.194
-1.046
-0.802
-0.622
-0.514
-0.493
-0.549
-0.656
-0.773
-0.861
-0.896
-0.856
-0.762
-0.645
-0.549
-0.514
-0.553
-0.637
-0.697
-0.668
-0.570
-0.647
-1.454
-3.388
-6.062
-8.849
-11.437
-13.696
-15.606
-17.125

<S21
-43.440
-64.678
-85.543
-106.101
-126.158
-145.940
-165.749
174.154
153.303
132.837
111.565
90.020
67.502
44.425
21.066
-2.279
-25.400
-48.252
-70.918
-93.597
-116.603
-85.543
-106.101
-126.158
-145.940
-165.749
174.154
153.303
132.837
111.565
90.020
67.502
44.425
21.066
-2.279
-25.400
-48.252
-70.918
-93.597
-116.603
-140.202
-164.609
170.080
143.972
117.334
90.356
62.949
34.455
3.560
-31.340
-70.052
-108.292
-141.480
-169.145
167.221
146.135
126.689
108.334

|S12|
-0.646
-0.789
-0.764
-1.148
-1.340
-1.461
-1.490
-1.437
-1.329
-1.194
-1.046
-0.802
-0.622
-0.514
-0.493
-0.549
-0.656
-0.773
-0.861
-0.896
-0.856
-0.764
-1.148
-1.340
-1.461
-1.490
-1.437
-1.329
-1.194
-1.046
-0.802
-0.622
-0.514
-0.493
-0.549
-0.656
-0.773
-0.861
-0.896
-0.856
-0.762
-0.645
-0.549
-0.514
-0.553
-0.637
-0.697
-0.668
-0.570
-0.647
-1.454
-3.388
-6.062
-8.849
-11.437
-13.696
-15.606
-17.125

<S12
-43.440
-64.678
-85.543
-106.101
-126.158
-145.940
-165.749
174.154
153.303
132.837
111.565
90.020
67.502
44.425
21.066
-2.279
-25.400
-48.252
-70.918
-93.597
-116.603
-85.543
-106.101
-126.158
-145.940
-165.749
174.154
153.303
132.837
111.565
90.020
67.502
44.425
21.066
-2.279
-25.400
-48.252
-70.918
-93.597
-116.603
-140.202
-164.609
170.080
143.972
117.334
90.356
62.949
34.455
3.560
-31.340
-70.052
-108.292
-141.480
-169.145
167.221
146.135
126.689
108.334

|S22|
-16.016
-12.968
-11.459
-9.660
-8.762
-8.249
-8.038
-8.090
-8.311
-9.047
-9.969
-12.312
-15.817
-22.744
-35.038
-19.850
-15.252
-12.947
-11.814
-11.520
-12.009
-11.459
-9.660
-8.762
-8.249
-8.038
-8.090
-8.311
-9.047
-9.969
-12.312
-15.817
-22.744
-35.038
-19.850
-15.252
-12.947
-11.814
-11.520
-12.009
-13.430
-16.301
-22.515
-37.070
-20.415
-15.965
-14.553
-15.730
-23.252
-17.686
-8.079
-3.980
-2.232
-1.515
-1.212
-1.080
-1.020
-0.992

<S22
-130.002
-153.539
-175.546
163.686
142.838
122.327
102.236
82.522
63.738
43.007
22.466
-0.330
-22.767
-45.071
106.666
86.793
64.153
41.800
19.653
-2.503
-24.932
-175.546
163.686
142.838
122.327
102.236
82.522
63.738
43.007
22.466
-0.330
-22.767
-45.071
106.666
86.793
64.153
41.800
19.653
-2.503
-24.932
-47.857
-71.056
-93.428
30.743
26.604
2.022
-23.624
-49.455
-67.160
47.506
16.762
-19.479
-51.600
-78.516
-101.549
-122.002
-140.775
-158.414

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Harmonic Analysis for Microstrip Meander Line (Command Method)


Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the S-parameter of a microstrip meander line using ANSYS
commands.
Microstrip meander lines are used to introduce delay (or phase shift in the case of time-harmonic excitations).
The figure below depicts the top view of the meander line. The strip is assumed to be perfectly conducting
of thickness 0 mm and width 0.4 mm. The microstrip meander line is embedded in a lossless substrate of
relative permittivity 9.8. The meander line is placed 0.5 mm above a perfectly conducting plane. The entire
structure is placed inside a perfectly conducting box of width 5 mm and height 2.5 mm. Hence the top wall
of the box is 2.0 mm above the meander line. For these dimensions, the characteristic impedance of the
buried microstrip is about 45 Ohm.

Figure 1: Microstrip Meander Line (Top View)


0.6 mm

0.8 mm

5.0 mm

1.2 mm

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, Microstrip meander line
/nopr
/prep7
! --- define elements and materials --epsr=9.8
et,11,200,7
et,1,120,1,,,0
et,2,120,1,,,1
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,epsr
! --- set up geometry --w=0.4
gap=0.6
lz1=5.0
lz2=5.6
stub=2.2
xleft=0.8
xright=1.2
blow=0.5
bup=2.0
local,11,0,0,0,0,0,90,0
csys,0
*dim,a,array,6
*dim,b,array,22

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145

Harmonic Analysis for Microstrip Meander Line (Command Method)


a(1)=0
a(2)=a(1)+xleft
a(3)=a(2)+w
a(4)=a(3)+stub
a(5)=a(4)+w
a(6)=a(5)+xright
b(1)=0
b(2)=b(1)+lz1
*do,i,3,19,2
b(i)=b(i-1)+w
b(i+1)=b(i)+gap
*enddo
b(21)=b(20)+w
b(22)=b(21)+lz2
*do,i,1,5
*do,j,1,21
rect,a(i),a(i+1),b(j),b(j+1)
*enddo
*enddo
aglue,all
asel,all
asel,s,loc,x,a(2),a(3)
asel,u,loc,y,b(1),b(2)
*do,i,5,17,4
asel,u,loc,y,b(i),b(i+1)
*enddo
asel,u,loc,y,b(21),b(22)
cm,strip1,area
asel,all
asel,s,loc,x,a(3),a(4)
asel,u,loc,y,b(1),b(2)
*do,i,3,19,2
asel,u,loc,y,b(i),b(i+1)
*enddo
asel,u,loc,y,b(21),b(22)
cm,strip2,area
asel,all
asel,s,loc,x,a(4),a(5)
*do,i,3,19,4
asel,u,loc,y,b(i),b(i+1)
*enddo
cm,strip3,area
asel,all
asel,s,,,strip1
asel,a,,,strip2
asel,a,,,strip3
cm,strip,area
asel,all
! --- set up element size --hx1=w/5
hx2=stub/14
hx3=(a(2)-a(1))/4
hy1=hx1
hy2=gap/6
hy3=(b(2)-b(1))/6
nz1=4
nz2=16
scal=1.e-3
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(1)+b(2))/2
lsel,a,loc,y,(b(21)+b(22))/2
cm,ly3,line
lesize,ly3,hy3
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(2)+b(3))/2
*do,i,4,20,2
lsel,a,loc,y,(b(i)+b(i+1))/2
*enddo
cm,ly1,line
lesize,ly1,hy1
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(3)+b(4))/2
*do,i,5,19,2
lsel,a,loc,y,(b(i)+b(i+1))/2
*enddo

146

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Harmonic Analysis for Microstrip Meander Line (Command Method)


cm,ly2,line
lesize,ly2,hy2
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(1)+a(2))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(5)+a(6))/2
cm,lx3,line
lesize,lx3,hx3
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(2)+a(3))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(a(4)+a(5))/2
cm,lx1,line
lesize,lx1,hx1
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(3)+a(4))/2
cm,lx2,line
lesize,lx2,hx2
alls
! --- meshing the model --type,11
amesh,all
alls
type,1
mat,1
esize,,nz1
asel,s,loc,z,0
vext,all,,,0,0,-blow
esize,,nz2
asel,s,loc,z,0
vext,all,,,0,0,bup
alls
! --- clean up 2-d element --asel,s,loc,z,0
aclear,all
esel,s,type,,11
edel,all
alls
nummrg,all
alls
! --- PEC for microstrip and exterior walls except ports
asel,s,,,strip
da,all,ax,0.
alls
nsel,s,loc,x,a(1)
nsel,a,loc,x,a(6)
nsel,a,loc,z,-blow
nsel,a,loc,z,bup
d,all,ax,0
! --- modal port --hfport,1,modal,11,1,ext,,,1.
nsel,s,loc,y,b(1)
sf,all,port,1
hfport,2,modal,11,1,ext
nsel,s,loc,y,b(22)
sf,all,port,2
vlscale,all,,,scal,scal,scal,,,1
alls
save
fini
! --- launch the solution --/solu
spswp,100e6,10.1e9,200e6,1,,2,1
fini
/post1
/yrange,-50,0
plsyz,file,s2p,s,db,1,1
fini

Target Results
Figure 2: S11 of the Microstrip Meander Line (p. 148) depicts the S11 of the microstrip meander line from 0.5
GHz to 10 GHz. Figure 3: The Contour of Electric Field Magnitude (p. 148) shows the contour of electric field
magnitude.

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147

Harmonic Analysis for Microstrip Meander Line (Command Method)

Figure 2: S11 of the Microstrip Meander Line

Figure 3: The Contour of Electric Field Magnitude

148

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Harmonic Analysis for a Rectangular Waveguide with a Ridge


Discontinuity (Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the S-parameter of a rectangular waveguide with a ridge
discontinuity using ANSYS commands.
The metallic ridge discontinuity is located at the center of the rectangular waveguide, shown in the figure
below. Due to the symmetry of the geometry and of the TE10 waveguide excitation to be analyzed, only
one-half of the structure needs to be modeled. The perfect electric condition is applied to the metallic surfaces
of the waveguide and perfectly matched layers (PML) terminate the input and output ports.

Figure 1: Waveguide with Ridge Discontinuity (Dimensions are in mm)


5.08

7.619
9.524
1.016
19.05

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, Rectangular Waveguide with a ridge discontinuity
/nopr
/prep7
! define elements and materials
et,11,200,7
et,1,120,1,,,0
et,2,120,1,,,1
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
! define the geometry and numerical domain
scal=1.e-3
cw=19.05
ch=9.524
l=5.08
w=1.016
h=7.619
dp=cw/8
dw=2*cw/3
ds=l/4
dpml=cw/5
*dim,a,array,4
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149

Harmonic Analysis for a Rectangular Waveguide with a Ridge Discontinuity (Command Method)
*dim,b,array,3
a(1)=0
a(2)=a(1)+w/2
a(3)=a(2)+w
a(4)=cw/2
b(1)=-ch/2
b(2)=b(1)+h
b(3)=ch/2
c3=0
c2=c3-dp
c1=c2-dpml
c4=c3+dw
c5=c4+ds
c6=c5+l
c7=c6+ds
c8=c7+dw
c9=c8+dp
c10=c9+dpml
*do,i,1,3
*do,j,1,2
rect,a(i),a(i+1),b(j),b(j+1)
*enddo
*enddo
aglue,all
! set up the mesh
nx1=4
nx2=8
nx3=18
ny1=18
ny2=8
nz1=2
nz2=14
nz3=3
nz4=15
nzpml=4
hx1=(a(2)-a(1))/nx1
hx2=(a(3)-a(2))/nx2
hx3=(a(4)-a(3))/nx3
hy1=(b(2)-b(1))/ny1
hy2=(b(3)-b(2))/ny2
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(1)+b(2))/2
cm,ly1,line
lesize,ly1,hy1,,ny1,1.0
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(2)+b(3))/2
cm,ly2,line
lesize,ly2,hy2,,ny2,1.0
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(1)+a(2))/2
cm,lx1,line
lesize,lx1,hx1
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(2)+a(3))/2
cm,lx2,line
lesize,lx2,hx2
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(3)+a(4))/2
cm,lx3,line
lesize,lx3,hx3
alls
! 2d mshing
type,11
amesh,all
alls
! 3d meshing
type,1
mat,1
esize,,nz1
asel,s,loc,z,c3
vext,all,,,0,0,-(c3-c2)
esize,,nz2
asel,s,loc,z,c3
vext,all,,,0,0,c4-c3
esize,,nz3
asel,s,loc,z,c4
vext,all,,,0,0,c5-c4

150

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Harmonic Analysis for a Rectangular Waveguide with a Ridge Discontinuity (Command Method)
esize,,nz4
asel,s,loc,z,c5
vext,all,,,0,0,c6-c5
esize,,nz3
asel,s,loc,z,c6
vext,all,,,0,0,c7-c6
esize,,nz2
asel,s,loc,z,c7
vext,all,,,0,0,c8-c7
esize,,nz1
asel,s,loc,z,c8
vext,all,,,0,0,c9-c8
type,2
esize,,nzpml
asel,s,loc,z,c2
vext,all,,,0,0,-(c2-c1)
asel,s,loc,z,c9
vext,all,,,0,0,c10-c9
asel,s,loc,z,0
aclear,all
etdele,11
alls
nummrg,all
! PEC on waveguide wall
nsel,s,loc,x,cw/2
nsel,a,loc,y,-ch/2
nsel,a,loc,y,ch/2
nsel,a,loc,z,c1
nsel,a,loc,z,c10
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,x,a(1),a(2)
nsel,r,loc,y,b(1),b(2)
nsel,r,loc,z,c5,c6
d,all,ax,0
alls
vlscale,all,,,scal,scal,scal,,,1
! define input and output port
hfport,1,rect,,TE10,INT,cw*scal,ch*scal,1.
nsel,s,loc,z,scal*c3
bf,all,port,1
hfport,2,rect,,TE10,INT,cw*scal,ch*scal
nsel,s,loc,z,c8*scal
bf,all,port,2
alls
save
fini
! perform the solution
/solu
spswp,10e9,15e9,0.25e9,1,,2,1
fini
/post1
/yrange,-45,0
plsyz,file,s2p,s,db,2,1
fini

Target Results
Figure 2: |S21| of the Rectangular Waveguide with a Ridge Discontinuity (p. 152) depicts the |S21| of the simulated
structure from 10 GHz to 15 GHz. Figure 3: Electric Field Contour of the Waveguide with a Ridge at 15 GHz (p. 152)
shows the electric field contour at 15 GHz.

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151

Harmonic Analysis for a Rectangular Waveguide with a Ridge Discontinuity (Command Method)

Figure 2: |S21| of the Rectangular Waveguide with a Ridge Discontinuity

Figure 3: Electric Field Contour of the Waveguide with a Ridge at 15 GHz

152

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Harmonic Analysis of a Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric


Post Using Adaptive Meshing (Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the S-parameter of a rectangular waveguide with a dielectric
post by adaptive meshing using ANSYS commands.
The dielectric post (12 10.16 6 mm3, r = 8.2) is located at the center of the rectangular waveguide (22.86
10.16 mm2), shown in Figure 1: Waveguide with Dielectric Post (Dimensions are in mm) (p. 153). The perfect
electric condition is applied to the metallic surfaces of the waveguide and the impedance matching
boundary condition of TE10 mode is used at the input and output ports. Adaptive meshing is used to approach
an accurate solution for the S-parameter at 10 GHz. Then, the S-parameters are calculated on the refined
mesh from 8 GHz to 12 GHz.

Figure 1: Waveguide with Dielectric Post (Dimensions are in mm)

6.0
10.16
10.16
12.0
22.86

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/title, Dielectric Post in a Rectangular Waveguide
/com, Waveguide Dimension: 22.86x10.16 mm^2 (Cutoff Frequency: 6.56 GHz)
/com, Dielectric Post: 12 x 10.16 x 6 mm^3 at the center of waveguide, epsr = 8.2
/com, Frequency Range: 8 - 12 GHz for TE10 mode
/nopr
/prep7
! define the structure
ch=10.16e-3
cw=22.86e-3
c=12e-3
d=6e-3
epsr=8.2
freq=10e9
cl=5*d
! define the elements and materials
et,1,HF119,1
mp,murx,1,1.

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153

Harmonic Analysis of a Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric Post Using Adaptive Meshing (Command
Method)
mp,perx,1,1.
mp,murx,2,1.
mp,perx,2,epsr
block,-cw/2,cw/2,-ch/2,ch/2,-cl/2,cl/2
block,-c/2,c/2,-ch/2,ch/2,-d/2,d/2
vsbv,1,2,,delete,keep
vglue,all
! 3-d meshing
h1=cw/5
esize,h1
type,1
mat,1
vmesh,3
mat,2
vmesh,2
! Tangential E is zero on all side walls
asel,s,loc,y,-ch/2
asel,a,loc,y,ch/2
asel,a,loc,x,-cw/2
asel,a,loc,x,cw/2
da,all,ax,0.
! define waveguide ports
asel,s,loc,z,-cl/2
sfa,all,,port,1
hfport,1,rect,,te10,ext,cw,ch,1
asel,s,loc,z,cl/2
sfa,all,,port,2
hfport,2,rect,,te10,ext,cw,ch
alls
fini
! set up adaptive loop and perform solution at 10 GHz
n=3
*do,i,1,n
*if,i,gt,1,then
/prep7
hferefine,i-1
fini
*endif
/solu
ANTYPE,harmic
harfre,10e9
HFADP,on
eqslv,sparse
solve
fini
/post1
sparm,1,1
fini
*enddo
! perform final solution on refined mesh over frequency band
/solu
spswp,8e9,12e9,0.25e9,1,,2,1
fini
/post1
/yrange,0,1
plsyz,file,s2p,s,mag,1,1
fini

The Target Results


The first two figures below show the initial mesh density and the mesh density after two iterations of mesh
refinement. The results for |S11| on the initial mesh and the two refinements are 0.248, 0.228, and 0.238, respectively. Figure 4: |S11| of Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric Post from 8 GHz to 12 GHz (p. 156) depicts
the |S11| of the simulated structure from 8 GHz to 12 GHz on the final refined mesh.

154

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Harmonic Analysis of a Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric Post Using Adaptive Meshing (Command
Method)

Figure 2: Initial Mesh Density

Figure 3: Mesh Density after Second Mesh Refinement Iteration

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155

Harmonic Analysis of a Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric Post Using Adaptive Meshing (Command
Method)

Figure 4: |S11| of Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric Post from 8 GHz to 12 GHz

156

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Harmonic Analysis of a Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric


Post Using S-Parameter Adaptive Meshing (Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to perform an adaptive meshing solution based on S-parameter convergence.
The waveguide is the same as described in the previous example, Harmonic Analysis of a Rectangular Waveguide
with a Dielectric Post Using Adaptive Meshing (Command Method) (p. 153). The S-parameter root mean square
(RMS) error criteria is set to 0.01 and the maximum number of refinement iterations is set to 4 (SPADP
command). Beginning and ending refinement factors are set to 0.1 and 0.5, respectively. The mesh is refined
adaptively at 10 GHz. Then, the S-parameters are calculated on the refined mesh from 8 GHz to 12 GHz.

Figure 1: Waveguide with Dielectric Post (Dimensions are in mm)

6.0
10.16
10.16
12.0
22.86

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/title, Dielectric Post in a Rectangular Waveguide
/com, Waveguide Dimension: 22.86x10.16 mm^2 (Cutoff Frequency: 6.56 GHz)
/com, Dielectric Post: 12 x 10.16 x 6 mm^3 at the center of waveguide, epsr = 8.2
/com, Frequency Range: 8 - 12 GHz for TE10 mode
/nopr
/prep7
! define the structure
ch=10.16e-3
cw=22.86e-3
c=12e-3
d=6e-3
epsr=8.2
freq=10e9
cl=5*d
! define the elements and materials
et,1,HF119,1
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
mp,murx,2,1.
mp,perx,2,epsr
block,-cw/2,cw/2,-ch/2,ch/2,-cl/2,cl/2

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157

Harmonic Analysis of a Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric Post Using S-Parameter Adaptive Meshing
(Command Method)
block,-c/2,c/2,-ch/2,ch/2,-d/2,d/2
vsbv,1,2,,delete,keep
vglue,all
! 3-d meshing
h1=cw/5
esize,h1
type,1
mat,1
vmesh,3
mat,2
vmesh,2
! Tangential E is zero on all side walls
asel,s,loc,y,-ch/2
asel,a,loc,y,ch/2
asel,a,loc,x,-cw/2
asel,a,loc,x,cw/2
da,all,ax,0.
! define waveguide ports
asel,s,loc,z,-cl/2
sfa,all,,port,1
hfport,1,rect,,te10,impd,cw,ch,1
asel,s,loc,z,cl/2
sfa,all,,port,2
hfport,2,rect,,te10,impd,cw,ch
alls
fini
/solu
! adaptively refine mesh at 10 GHz
spadp,10e9,4,1.e-2,0.1,0.5
! perform final solution on refined mesh over frequency band
spswp,8e9,12e9,0.25e9,1,,2,1
fini
/post1
/yrange,0,1
! plot magnitude of s11
plsyz,file,s2p,s,mag,1,1

The Target Results


After 2 refinements, the RMS error of |S| converges to 0.005 at 10 GHz. Figure 2: |S11| of Rectangular Waveguide
with a Dielectric Post from 8 GHz to 12 GHz (p. 159) depicts |S11| from 8 GHz to 12 GHz for the final refined
mesh.

158

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Harmonic Analysis of a Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric Post Using S-Parameter Adaptive Meshing
(Command Method)

Figure 2: |S11| of Rectangular Waveguide with a Dielectric Post from 8 GHz to 12 GHz

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159

160

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Harmonic Analysis of a Parallel-Plate Waveguide with a Lumped


Circuit Load (Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the s-parameter of a parallel-plate waveguide with a lumped
circuit load using ANSYS commands.
The finite element model is shown in Figure 1: 3-D Parallel-plate Waveguide Model (p. 161). The waveguide is
15 mm high by 5 mm wide. A perfect electric conductor boundary condition is applied to the top and bottom
walls of the waveguide. The impedance matching boundary condition of TEM mode is used at the input
and output ports. The lumped circuit load is shown in Figure 2: 1-D Transmission Line Impedance Load (p. 161).
The calculations are performed at a frequency of 5 GHz.

Figure 1: 3-D Parallel-plate Waveguide Model

Figure 2: 1-D Transmission Line Impedance Load

Zo

Zo

The circuit loads applied are equivalent to the circuit load for the 1-D transmission line. As shown in Figure 3: Lumped Circuit Loads (p. 162), since there are three elements on a cross section and the lumped loads
are applied at the vertical edges of the hexahedral elements, 2Z/3 is applied at the mid-nodes of the edges
using the BF command with Lab = LUMP. ANSYS Emag - High Frequency imposes the lumped circuit loads
on the end nodes of the element edges as well as the mid-nodes. Impedance Z represents a shunt RCL circuit
as shown in Figure 4: Shunt RCL Circuit (p. 162).

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161

Harmonic Analysis of a Parallel-Plate Waveguide with a Lumped Circuit Load (Command Method)

Figure 3: Lumped Circuit Loads


PEC
2Z/3

2Z/3

2Z/3

2Z/3

2Z/3

2Z/3

PEC

Figure 4: Shunt RCL Circuit


C
R
L

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, Lumped Circuit in Parallel-plate Waveguide
/com,
/nopr
/prep7
ch=0.015
! height of the parallel-plate waveguide
cw=0.005
! width of the parallel-plate waveguide
freq=5.e9
! frequency
lamda=0.06
_omega=2.*3.1415926535*freq
h=lamda/10
! mesh size
cl=0.5*lamda
Zc=(ch/cw)*377.0
! wave impedance of parallel-plate waveguide
_R=Zc/3
! resistance
_C=1.0d0/(_R*_omega)
! capacitance
_L=_R/(_omega)
! inductance
! define element and material
et,1,120,1
! 1st order hex element
mp,murx,1,1.
! permeability
mp,perx,1,1.
! permittivity
local,11
wpcsys,,11
! define structure
block,-cw/2,cw/2,-ch/2,ch/2,0,cl
block,-cw/2,cw/2,-ch/2,ch/2,0,-cl
vglue,all
! meshing the structure
esize,h
type,1
mat,1
vmesh,all
! PEC on top and bottom wall
nsel,s,loc,y,-ch/2
nsel,a,loc,y,ch/2
d,all,ax,0.
! define input and output port
hfport,1,para,11,tem,impd,cw,ch,1

162

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Harmonic Analysis of a Parallel-Plate Waveguide with a Lumped Circuit Load (Command Method)
hfport,2,para,11,tem,impd,cw,ch
nsel,s,loc,z,cl
sf,all,port,1
nsel,s,loc,z,-cl
sf,all,port,2
! define shunt RCL circuit at vertical edges
nsel,s,loc,x,-cw/2
nsel,a,loc,x,cw/2
nsel,r,loc,z,0
bf,all,lump,1,_R,_C,_L
alls
save
fini
! perform solution
/solu
eqslv,sparse
antype,harmic
harfrq,freq
solve
fini
! extract s-parameter
/post1
sparm,1,1
fini

Target Results
A S11 value of 0.5002 is calculated for 5 GHz. Transmission line theory gives value of 0.5.

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163

164

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Postprocessing Scattering, Admittance, and Impedance Parameters


Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to convert, list, and plot S (scattering), Y (admittance), and Z (impedance)
parameters of a T-type transmission line using the ANSYS postprocessor. The T-type transmission line network
is shown in the following figure.

Figure 1: T-type Transmission Line Network

Z1

Z2

Z01

Z03

Z02

where:
Z1 = 1/jC, Z2 = jL; Z3 = R + j(L -1/C)
R = 10
C = 10-11 F
L = 7 x 10-9 H
Z01 = 50 ; Z02 = 75
= angular frequency
The Touchstone file T_network.s2p of S-parameters for the T-type network follows:
# GHz S MA R 50. 75.
1.000 0.6297 169.6
2.000 0.6470 100.7
3.000 0.7459 73.82
4.000 0.8192 58.46
5.000 0.8681 48.31

0.5316
0.6755
0.6105
0.5315
0.4622

26.08
-9.873
-28.45
-40.29
-48.53

0.5316
0.6755
0.6105
0.5315
0.4622

26.08
-9.873
-28.45
-40.29
-48.53

0.7363
0.7126
0.7846
0.8442
0.8855

99.68
65.89
51.31
41.82
35.09

Smith Charts
To plot network parameters on a Smith chart, the following commands are issued in interactive mode:
/post1
PLSCH,T_network,s2p,S,1
PLSCH,T_network,s2p,Y,1
fini

! plot S11 on Smith Chart


! plot Y11 on Smith Chart

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165

Postprocessing Scattering, Admittance, and Impedance Parameters


S11 and Y11 plots are shown in the following figures. PLSCH,T_network,s2p,Y,1 converts the S-parameters
to Y-parameters and plots them.

Figure 2: S11 on Smith Chart

Figure 3: Y11 on Smith Chart

Network Parameters vs. Frequency Plots


To plot S11, S21, Z11, and Z21 parameters versus frequency, the following commands are issued in interactive
mode:
/post1
PLSYZ,T_network,s2p,S,MAG,1,1,2,1
PLSYZ,T_network,s2p,Z,MAG,1,1,2,1
fini

166

! plot S11 and S21 versus frequency


! plot Z11 and Z21 versus frequency

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Postprocessing Scattering, Admittance, and Impedance Parameters


PLSYZ,T_network,s2p,Z,1 converts the S-parameters to Z-parameters and plots them.

Figure 4: S11 and S21 Magnitude vs. Frequency

Figure 5: Z11 and Z21 Magnitude vs. Frequency

Touchstone File Conversion


To generate a Touchstone file of Y-parameters, the following commands are issued in interactive mode:
/post1
PRSYZ,T_network,s2p,Y,MA
fini

PLSYZ T_network,s2p,Y,MA converts the S-parameters to Y-parameters and creates the following Touchstone
file with the name T_network_SYZ.s2p.
! 2-port Y-parameter file,
# GHz Y MA R 50. 75.
!freq
magY11
angY11
1.00000 0.24744 -25.2489
2.00000 0.02924 -85.4203
3.00000 0.01681 -87.4959

5 frequency points
magY21
0.10135
0.01401
0.00826

angY21
143.034
90.8503
90.1989

magY12
0.10135
0.01401
0.00826

angY12
143.034
90.8503
90.1989

magY22
angY22
0.05352 -56.8150
0.01264 -89.9250
0.00791 -89.9931

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

167

Postprocessing Scattering, Admittance, and Impedance Parameters


4.00000
5.00000

168

0.01203 -88.2378
0.00943 -88.6262

0.00596
0.00468

90.0865
90.0374

0.00596
0.00468

90.0865
90.0374

0.00582 -89.9947
0.00461 -90.0011

Release 12.1 - 2009 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a Line-fed Microstrip Patch


Antenna (Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to extract a SPICE synthesized equivalent circuit for a line-fed microstrip
patch antenna using ANSYS commands.
The line-fed microstrip patch antenna consists of a 16 mm 12.45 mm metallic rectangular patch on a
substrate with a thickness of 0.794 mm and r = 2.2. The width of the microstrip is 2.46 mm and the characteristic impedance is assumed to be 50 Ohms. The distance from the edge of the microstrip to the edge of
the patch is 2.09 mm.
The following S-parameters were determined from 500 MHz to 20 GHz and stored in a Touchstone file called
Ant_patch.s1p. They were determined by the ANSYS FEM full-wave solver as shown in Harmonic Analysis
for Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna (Command Method).
!

ANSYS S-parameter Data for 1 Ports (Transmission Line).


# GHz S DB R 50.
! Freq
|S11|
<S11
0.5000
-0.177
90.453
0.7500
-0.162 116.187
1.0000
-0.100 130.103
1.2500
-0.081 -144.568
1.5000
-0.025 189.995
1.7500
-0.009 176.424
2.0000
-0.497
-8.017
2.2500
-0.143 -80.637
2.5000
-0.082
99.940
2.7500
-0.077 105.972
3.0000
-0.100
98.818
3.2500
-0.110
97.751
3.5000
-0.132
91.737
3.7500
-0.161
82.902
4.0000
-0.189
74.436
4.2500
-0.209
69.735
4.5000
-0.247
59.790
4.7500
-0.287
51.083
5.0000
-0.344
40.256
5.2500
-0.437
25.926
5.5000
-0.611
6.098
5.7500
-0.942 -25.495
6.0000
-1.444 -72.328
6.2500
-1.787 -136.096
6.5000
-1.389 162.554
6.7500
-1.376 116.024
7.0000
-1.891
78.014
7.2500
-4.473
34.634
7.5000 -20.109 -113.347
7.7500
-4.247 122.374
8.0000
-1.693
87.472
8.2500
-0.964
65.145
8.5000
-0.688
47.353
8.7500
-0.590
30.617
9.0000
-0.610
13.546
9.2500
-0.794
-6.866
9.5000
-1.376 -35.909
9.7500
-3.194 -87.170

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

169

SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna (Command Method)
10.0000
10.2500
10.5000
10.7500
11.0000
11.2500
11.5000
11.7500
12.0000
12.2500
12.5000
12.7500
13.0000
13.2500
13.5000
13.7500
14.0000
14.2500
14.5000
14.7500
15.0000
15.2500
15.5000
15.7500
16.0000
16.2500
16.5000
16.7500
17.0000
17.2500
17.5000
17.7500
18.0000
18.2500
18.5000
18.7500
19.0000
19.2500
19.5000
19.7500
20.0000

-5.468
-3.512
-2.135
-1.687
-1.673
-2.010
-2.847
-4.537
-6.290
-5.803
-4.261
-2.943
-2.210
-1.860
-1.792
-2.046
-2.890
-4.954
-6.454
-4.642
-2.763
-1.857
-1.423
-1.248
-1.297
-1.663
-1.785
-1.707
-2.023
-2.868
-4.565
-7.199
-13.982
-14.135
-8.219
-5.874
-5.127
-5.418
-6.816
-10.218
-8.570

172.718
84.728
41.498
14.074
-8.677
-31.650
-59.220
-97.795
200.465
135.734
82.991
48.028
22.310
0.587
-20.442
-43.880
-74.822
234.848
153.034
74.115
32.483
7.164
-11.444
-26.945
-41.040
-53.607
-63.174
284.730
269.535
251.069
225.756
190.492
139.169
13.143
-37.094
291.005
260.781
225.077
188.096
127.458
42.037

The S-parameters are shown in the figure below.

Figure 1: S-parameters of Line-Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna

170

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SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna (Command Method)

Command Input
The command input stream to extract a SPICE synthesized RLCG equivalent circuit is shown below. Text
preceded by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/post1
SPICE, Ant_patch, s1p
fini

! issue ANSYS SPICE command

Generated Subcircuit
The SPICE subcircuit is shown below. It was extracted on a SGI 64-bit machine.
.SUBCKT Y001001P 1 2
R001
1
3
L001
3
4
RG001
4
2
C001
4
2
R002
1
5
L002
5
6
RG002
6
2
C002
6
2
R003
1
7
L003
7
8
RG003
8
2
C003
8
2
R004
1
9
L004
9
10
RG004
10
2
C004
10
2
R005
1
11
L005
11
12
RG005
12
2
C005
12
2
R006
1
13
L006
13
14
RG006
14
2
C006
14
2
R007
1
15
L007
15
16
RG007
16
2
C007
16
2
R008
1
17
L008
17
18
RG008
18
2
C008
18
2
R009
1
19
L009
19
20
RG009
20
2
C009
20
2
R010
1
21
L010
21
22
RG010
22
2
C010
22
2
R011
1
23
L011
23
24
RG011
24
2
C011
24
2
R012
1
25
L012
25
26
RG012
26
2
C012
26
2
R013
1
27
L013
27
28
RG013
28
2
C013
28
2
R014
1
29
L014
29
30
RG014
30
2

96.9845249338
65.6672620707N
2699.8095910351
0.2507917989P
0.0918336874
3.2009617547N
12978.2584621903
2.6857281016P
33.1266297413
24.8776551283N
4073.0874052012
0.1843777282P
58.1328688897
9.8798032570N
100000000.0000000000
0.4485850398P
53.6142954630
5.0666820393N
226.2020914054
0.4177788322P
3.1254832709
10.3517458587N
55776.7511050745
0.0593804123P
11.5984048822
40.8363247219N
100000000.0000000000
0.0149651164P
13.9703417167
17.5827795885N
50812.6448875777
0.0247690130P
15.3999268610
15.2359869069N
100000000.0000000000
0.0166838797P
17.7632242713
9.0966720285N
100000000.0000000000
0.0190913008P
3270.0028918347
2481.0581882219N
10966250.4167895820
0.0000691880P
17.6235836965
11.6144382252N
100000000.0000000000
0.0104976323P
21.6774154176
7.3031098938N
100000000.0000000000
0.0110327605P
163.8302009054
68.2561028602N
381025.4428528495

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

171

SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna (Command Method)
C014
30
2
R015
1
31
L015
31
32
RG015
32
2
C015
32
2
R016
1
33
L016
33
34
RG016
34
2
C016
34
2
.ENDS Y001001P
*
*
.SUBCKT NPORT 1 2
E001001P
3
0
V001001P
3
4
X001001P
4
0
F001001P
1
2
RGND002
2
0
.ENDS NPORT

0.0010934365P
9.7981746604
6.5640819762N
66151.4153415732
0.0101272068P
12.6111902503
1.1302953551N
100000000.0000000000
0.0461187343P

1
2
DC 0
Y001001P
V001001P

1.00

1.00
100.0000000000MEG

Verification
The SPICE3 simulation tool is used to perform a harmonic analysis of the synthesized equivalent circuit.

Note
For information on SPICE3, go to http://infopad.eecs.berkeley.edu/~icdesign/SPICE/.
The SPICE3 control deck is shown below.
* Synthesized Equivalent Subcircuit for Line-fed Patch Antenna AC Analysis
*
*copy subcircuit here or use SPICE .include command to include the subcircuit
*
V1 vin 0 DC 0 AC 1.0
R1 vin 1 50
xnport 1 0 NPORT
.AC LIN 201 500Meg 20G
.END

The admittance parameters generated by SPICE3 using the synthesized equivalent circuit are shown in Figure 2: |Y11| Generated by SPICE3 Using Synthesized Equivalent Circuit (p. 173). For comparison, admittance
parameters generated by an ANSYS full-wave solution are shown in Figure 3: |Y11| Generated by ANSYS FullWave Solution (p. 173).

172

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a Line-fed Microstrip Patch Antenna (Command Method)

Figure 2: |Y11| Generated by SPICE3 Using Synthesized Equivalent Circuit

Figure 3: |Y11| Generated by ANSYS Full-Wave Solution

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

173

174

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a T-type Transmission Line


Network (Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to extract a SPICE synthesized equivalent circuit for a T-type transmission
line network using ANSYS commands.
The T-type transmission line network consists of two uniform transmission segments and a uniform transmission line shunt branch as shown in the following figure. The wavelength () is based on a transmission
line frequency of 1.5 GHz. The shunt transmission line is terminated by a 1 F impedance. To perform a
SPICE subcircuit synthesis, the admittance parameters are sampled at fifty frequency points from 50 MHz to
5 GHz.

Figure 1: T-type Transmission Line Network

/4
Z
Zo = 50

Zo = 50

Zo = 50

Figure 2: SPICE Transmission Line Circuit Model (p. 176) shows the model used to verify the synthesized SPICE
model shown in Figure 3: SPICE Subcircuit Macromodel (p. 176).

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

175

SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a T-type Transmission Line Network (Command Method)

Figure 2: SPICE Transmission Line Circuit Model

/4
Z
Zo = 50

Port1
50

Zo = 50

Port2

Zo = 50

ZL

To calculate the admittance parameters in the SPICE model, ZL is set to zero and a shorted independent
voltage source is used to extract the current at port 2 (load). The admittance parameters are extracted from
50 MHz to 5 GHz.
For a transient analysis, a 0-1 volt trapezoidal pulse is launched with a 250 ps rise and fall time, 1 ns pulse
width, and 6 ns period. ZL is set to 50 to match the network.

Figure 3: SPICE Subcircuit Macromodel

50

SUBCIRCUIT
[Y]

ZL

The following admittance parameters were determined and stored in a Touchstone file T_network.s2p.
! 2-port Y Parameter file using 50 frequency points
# GHz Y MA R 50. 50.
!freq
magy11
angy11
magy21
angy21
magy12
angy12
magy22
angy22
0.05000 0.07787 -90.00000 0.01623
90.00000 0.01623
90.00000 0.07787 -90.00000
0.15102 0.02092 -90.00000 0.00636
90.00000 0.00636
90.00000 0.02092 -90.00000
0.25204 0.00586 -90.00000 0.00546
90.00000 0.00546
90.00000 0.00586 -90.00000
0.35306 0.00545
90.00000 0.00730
90.00000 0.00730
90.00000 0.00545
90.00000
0.45408 0.02471
90.00000 0.01783
90.00000 0.01783
90.00000 0.02471
90.00000
0.55510 0.08650 -90.00000 0.10530 -90.00000 0.10530 -90.00000 0.08650 -90.00000
0.65612 0.01040
90.00000 0.03781 -90.00000 0.03781 -90.00000 0.01040
90.00000
0.75714 0.33868 -90.00000 0.32957
90.00000 0.32957
90.00000 0.33868 -90.00000
0.85816 0.01979 -90.00000 0.02129
90.00000 0.02129
90.00000 0.01979 -90.00000
0.95918 0.00194 -90.00000 0.01472
90.00000 0.01472
90.00000 0.00194 -90.00000
1.06020 0.01490
90.00000 0.02047
90.00000 0.02047
90.00000 0.01490
90.00000
1.16122 0.31981
90.00000 0.31676
90.00000 0.31676
90.00000 0.31981
90.00000
1.26225 0.01431 -90.00000 0.02726 -90.00000 0.02726 -90.00000 0.01431 -90.00000
1.36327 0.00799
90.00000 0.02303 -90.00000 0.02303 -90.00000 0.00799
90.00000
1.46429 0.06465
90.00000 0.06804 -90.00000 0.06804 -90.00000 0.06465
90.00000
1.56531 0.03246 -90.00000 0.03882
90.00000 0.03882
90.00000 0.03246 -90.00000
1.66633 0.00197 -90.00000 0.02193
90.00000 0.02193
90.00000 0.00197 -90.00000
1.76735 0.02658
90.00000 0.03626
90.00000 0.03626
90.00000 0.02658
90.00000
1.86837 0.05766 -90.00000 0.05710 -90.00000 0.05710 -90.00000 0.05766 -90.00000
1.96939 0.00879 -90.00000 0.01714 -90.00000 0.01714 -90.00000 0.00879 -90.00000
2.07041 0.00617
90.00000 0.01520 -90.00000 0.01520 -90.00000 0.00617
90.00000
2.17143 0.03000
90.00000 0.02856 -90.00000 0.02856 -90.00000 0.03000
90.00000
2.27245 0.09953 -90.00000 0.11254
90.00000 0.11254
90.00000 0.09953 -90.00000
2.37347 0.00174
90.00000 0.03690
90.00000 0.03690
90.00000 0.00174
90.00000

176

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a T-type Transmission Line Network (Command Method)
2.47449
2.57551
2.67653
2.77755
2.87857
2.97959
3.08061
3.18163
3.28265
3.38367
3.48469
3.58571
3.68674
3.78776
3.88878
3.98980
4.09082
4.19184
4.29286
4.39388
4.49490
4.59592
4.69694
4.79796
4.89898
5.00000

0.19462
0.01665
0.00201
0.00941
0.02848
0.19426
0.04656
0.01524
0.00245
0.00951
0.04069
0.02468
0.02688
0.06552
0.01293
0.00236
0.02451
0.08423
0.00635
0.01553
0.46760
0.01868
0.00415
0.05754
0.02928
0.00385

-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000

0.18003
0.01244
0.00640
0.00544
0.00739
0.03913
0.01040
0.00577
0.00570
0.00878
0.03080
0.04901
0.04682
0.05989
0.01751
0.01507
0.02740
0.08998
0.02330
0.02646
0.46808
0.02839
0.02262
0.06422
0.03130
0.01540

-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000

0.18003
0.01244
0.00640
0.00544
0.00739
0.03913
0.01040
0.00577
0.00570
0.00878
0.03080
0.04901
0.04682
0.05989
0.01751
0.01507
0.02740
0.08998
0.02330
0.02646
0.46808
0.02839
0.02262
0.06422
0.03130
0.01540

-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000

0.19462
0.01665
0.00201
0.00941
0.02848
0.19426
0.04656
0.01524
0.00245
0.00951
0.04069
0.02468
0.02688
0.06552
0.01293
0.00236
0.02451
0.08423
0.00635
0.01553
0.46760
0.01868
0.00415
0.05754
0.02928
0.00385

-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
90.00000
90.00000
-90.00000
-90.00000

Command Input
The command input stream to extract a SPICE synthesized RLCG equivalent circuit is shown below. Text
preceded by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/post1
SPICE,T_Network,s2p,1.e-2
fini

! issue ANSYS SPICE command

Generated Subcircuit
The SPICE subcircuit is shown below. It was extracted on a SGI 64-bit machine.
.SUBCKT Y001001P 1 2
R001
1
3
L001
3
4
RG001
4
2
C001
4
2
R002
1
5
L002
5
6
RG002
6
2
C002
6
2
R003
1
7
L003
7
8
RG003
8
2
C003
8
2
R004
1
9
L004
9
10
RG004
10
2
C004
10
2
R005
1
11
L005
11
12
RG005
12
2
C005
12
2
R006
1
13
L006
13
14
RG006
14
2
C006
14
2
R007
1
15
L007
15
16
RG007
16
2

0.0150048754
40.0033298758N
65.2024314190
40888.3851403803P
0.0000000952
42.3185277341N
100000000.0000000000
2.0871833267P
0.0000000975
33.3245147177N
100000000.0000000000
1.3513184594P
18.4975834679
186167.9612417941N
100000000.0000000000
0.0001048725P
0.0000086851
37.8777839679N
100000000.0000000000
0.4903493267P
0.0000032535
33.2399620549N
100000000.0000000000
0.3386807085P
0.1646519917
1570.1110474562N
100000000.0000000000

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

177

SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a T-type Transmission Line Network (Command Method)
C007
16
2
R008
1
17
L008
17
18
RG008
18
2
C008
18
2
R009
1
19
L009
19
20
RG009
20
2
C009
20
2
R010
1
21
L010
21
22
RG010
22
2
C010
22
2
R011
1
23
L011
23
24
RG011
24
2
C011
24
2
R012
1
25
L012
25
26
RG012
26
2
C012
26
2
R013
1
27
L013
27
28
RG013
28
2
C013
28
2
R014
1
29
L014
29
30
RG014
30
2
C014
30
2
R015
1
31
L015
31
32
RG015
32
2
C015
32
2
R016
1
33
L016
33
34
RG016
34
2
C016
34
2
R017
1
35
L017
35
36
RG017
36
2
C017
36
2
R018
1
37
L018
37
38
RG018
38
2
C018
38
2
R019
1
39
L019
39
40
RG019
40
2
C019
40
2
.ENDS Y001001P
*
*
.SUBCKT Y001002P 1 2
R002
1
5
L002
5
6
RG002
6
2
C002
6
2
R005
1
11
L005
11
12
RG005
12
2
C005
12
2
R008
1
17
L008
17
18
RG008
18
2
C008
18
2
R010
1
21
L010
21
22
RG010
22
2
C010
22
2
R011
1
23
L011
23
24
RG011
24
2

178

0.0048178684P
0.0000031499
38.1931508030N
100000000.0000000000
0.1975680542P
0.0000016372
33.3165728856N
100000000.0000000000
0.1501806066P
0.0000237446
42.1932369664N
100000000.0000000000
0.0988430646P
3346.1727463665
420890.2572277713N
100000000.0000000000
0.0000085849P
0.0000053583
19.9995323793N
100000000.0000000000
0.1407270378P
0.0000581869
42.3568273272N
100000000.0000000000
0.0478421267P
0.0001049889
28.8274690500N
100000000.0000000000
0.0624841093P
0.0000411199
37.8753868212N
100000000.0000000000
0.0385002620P
0.0000150009
33.3319608365N
100000000.0000000000
0.0375279561P
0.0001425211
37.7767449743N
100000000.0000000000
0.0287156893P
1.3528312325
39.0970866933N
100000000.0000000000
0.0245422581P
0.4391635276
0.8688198736N
100000000.0000000000
0.3891304420P

0.0000000953
42.3919181494N
100000000.0000000000
2.0835699198P
0.0000086851
37.8777843467N
100000000.0000000000
0.4903493218P
0.0000031499
38.1931511785N
100000000.0000000000
0.1975680522P
0.0000238905
42.4523898026N
100000000.0000000000
0.0982396720P
41560.2973904034
5227561.6308523873N
100000000.0000000000

Release 12.1 - 2009 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a T-type Transmission Line Network (Command Method)
C011
24
2
R013
1
27
L013
27
28
RG013
28
2
C013
28
2
R015
1
31
L015
31
32
RG015
32
2
C015
32
2
R017
1
35
L017
35
36
RG017
36
2
C017
36
2
.ENDS Y001002P
*
*
.SUBCKT Y001002M 1 2
R001
1
3
L001
3
4
RG001
4
2
C001
4
2
R003
1
7
L003
7
8
RG003
8
2
C003
8
2
R004
1
9
L004
9
10
RG004
10
2
C004
10
2
R006
1
13
L006
13
14
RG006
14
2
C006
14
2
R007
1
15
L007
15
16
RG007
16
2
C007
16
2
R009
1
19
L009
19
20
RG009
20
2
C009
20
2
R012
1
25
L012
25
26
RG012
26
2
C012
26
2
R014
1
29
L014
29
30
RG014
30
2
C014
30
2
R016
1
33
L016
33
34
RG016
34
2
C016
34
2
R018
1
37
L018
37
38
RG018
38
2
C018
38
2
R019
1
39
L019
39
40
RG019
40
2
C019
40
2
.ENDS Y001002M
*
*
.SUBCKT Y002002P 1 2
R001
1
3
L001
3
4
RG001
4
2
C001
4
2
R002
1
5
L002
5
6
RG002
6
2

0.0000006912P
0.0000581869
42.3568277507N
100000000.0000000000
0.0478421263P
0.0000411824
37.9329324547N
100000000.0000000000
0.0384418557P
0.0001426327
37.8063134164N
100000000.0000000000
0.0286932306P

0.0751558986
200.3672887424N
326.5836729945
8163.3662317089P
0.0000000975
33.3296717523N
100000000.0000000000
1.3511093726P
6138.7849808623
61783480.3325333223N
100000000.0000000000
0.0000003160P
0.0000032709
33.4185319809N
100000000.0000000000
0.3368709884P
0.4604252233
4390.5860008040N
100000000.0000000000
0.0017229109P
0.0000016381
33.3344605587N
100000000.0000000000
0.1501000179P
0.0000267867
99.9792401951N
100000000.0000000000
0.0281505935P
0.0001269338
34.8529954425N
100000000.0000000000
0.0516816045P
0.0000150009
33.3319611697N
100000000.0000000000
0.0375279557P
3.2818813553
94.8470117986N
100000000.0000000000
0.0101166160P
100.6820616896
199.1845192460N
100000000.0000000000
0.0016973421P

0.0150048754
40.0033298758N
65.2024314190
40888.3851403803P
0.0000000952
42.3185277341N
100000000.0000000000

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179

SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a T-type Transmission Line Network (Command Method)
C002
6
R003
1
L003
7
RG003
8
C003
8
R004
1
L004
9
RG004
10
C004
10
R005
1
L005
11
RG005
12
C005
12
R006
1
L006
13
RG006
14
C006
14
R007
1
L007
15
RG007
16
C007
16
R008
1
L008
17
RG008
18
C008
18
R009
1
L009
19
RG009
20
C009
20
R010
1
L010
21
RG010
22
C010
22
R011
1
L011
23
RG011
24
C011
24
R012
1
L012
25
RG012
26
C012
26
R013
1
L013
27
RG013
28
C013
28
R014
1
L014
29
RG014
30
C014
30
R015
1
L015
31
RG015
32
C015
32
R016
1
L016
33
RG016
34
C016
34
R017
1
L017
35
RG017
36
C017
36
R018
1
L018
37
RG018
38
C018
38
R019
1
L019
39
RG019
40
C019
40
.ENDS Y002002P
*
*

180

2
7
8
2
2
9
10
2
2
11
12
2
2
13
14
2
2
15
16
2
2
17
18
2
2
19
20
2
2
21
22
2
2
23
24
2
2
25
26
2
2
27
28
2
2
29
30
2
2
31
32
2
2
33
34
2
2
35
36
2
2
37
38
2
2
39
40
2
2

2.0871833267P
0.0000000975
33.3245147177N
100000000.0000000000
1.3513184594P
18.4975834679
186167.9612417941N
100000000.0000000000
0.0001048725P
0.0000086851
37.8777839679N
100000000.0000000000
0.4903493267P
0.0000032535
33.2399620549N
100000000.0000000000
0.3386807085P
0.1646519917
1570.1110474562N
100000000.0000000000
0.0048178684P
0.0000031499
38.1931508030N
100000000.0000000000
0.1975680542P
0.0000016372
33.3165728856N
100000000.0000000000
0.1501806066P
0.0000237446
42.1932369664N
100000000.0000000000
0.0988430646P
3346.1727463665
420890.2572277713N
100000000.0000000000
0.0000085849P
0.0000053583
19.9995323793N
100000000.0000000000
0.1407270378P
0.0000581869
42.3568273272N
100000000.0000000000
0.0478421267P
0.0001049889
28.8274690500N
100000000.0000000000
0.0624841093P
0.0000411199
37.8753868212N
100000000.0000000000
0.0385002620P
0.0000150009
33.3319608365N
100000000.0000000000
0.0375279561P
0.0001425211
37.7767449743N
100000000.0000000000
0.0287156893P
1.3528312325
39.0970866933N
100000000.0000000000
0.0245422581P
0.4391635276
0.8688198736N
100000000.0000000000
0.3891304420P

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a T-type Transmission Line Network (Command Method)
.SUBCKT NPORT 1 2 3 4
E001001P
5
0
1
2
V001001P
5
6
DC 0
X001001P
6
0 Y001001P
E001002P
9
0
3
4
V001002P
9
10
DC 0
X001002P 10
0 Y001002P
E001002M 11
0
3
4
V001002M 11
12
DC 0
X001002M 12
0 Y001002M
E002001P 13
0
1
2
V002001P 13
14
DC 0
X002001P 14
0 Y001002P
E002001M 15
0
1
2
V002001M 15
16
DC 0
X002001M 16
0 Y001002M
E002002P 17
0
3
4
V002002P 17
18
DC 0
X002002P 18
0 Y002002P
F001001P
1
2 V001001P
F001002P
1
2 V001002P
F001002M
1
2 V001002M
F002001P
3
4 V002001P
F002001M
3
4 V002001M
F002002P
3
4 V002002P
RGND002
2
0
RGND004
4
0
.ENDS NPORT

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00
1.00
-1.00
1.00
-1.00
1.00
100.0000000000MEG
100.0000000000MEG

Verification
The SPICE3 simulation tool is used to verify the extracted subcircuit macromodel.

Note
For information on SPICE3, go to http://infopad.eecs.berkeley.edu/~icdesign/SPICE/.
The SPICE3 control decks for the transmission line model and the subcircuit macromodel are shown below
for a harmonic analysis.
SPICE3 Transmission Line Model Control Deck (Harmonic Analysis)
* T-type Transmission Line Model for AC Analysis
*
v1 vin 0 dc 0 ac 1.0
rsource vin 1 50
vport1 1 2 dc 0 ac 0
t1 2 0 3 0 z0=50 f=1.5g nl=1
t2 3 0 4 0 z0=50 f=1.5g nl=0.25
t3 3 0 5 0 z0=50 f=1.5g nl=1
ct 4 0 1u
vport2 0 5 dc 0 ac 0
*
.ac lin 50 50meg 5g
.end

SPICE3 Synthesized Equivalent Subcircuit Control Deck (Harmonic Analysis)


* Synthesized Equivalent Subcircuit for T-type Transmission AC Analysis
*
*copy subcircuit here or use SPICE .include command to include the subcircuit
*
v1 vin 0 dc 0 ac 1.0
rsource vin 1 50
vport1 1 2 dc 0 ac 0
xnport 2 0 3 0 nport
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181

SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a T-type Transmission Line Network (Command Method)
vport2 0 3 dc 0 ac 0
*
.ac lin 50 50meg 5g
.end

The SPICE3 control decks for the transmission line model and the subcircuit macromodel are shown below
for a transient analysis.
SPICE3 Transmission Line Model Control Deck (Transient Analysis)
* T-type Transmission Line Model for Transient Analysis
v1 vin 0 dc 0 pulse(0 1 0ns 0.25ns 0.25ns 1ns 6ns)
rsource vin 1 50
vport1 1 2 dc 0 ac 0
t1 2 0 3 0 z0=50 f=1.5g nl=1
t2 3 0 4 0 z0=50 f=1.5g nl=0.25
t3 3 0 5 0 z0=50 f=1.5g nl=1
ct 4 0 1u
vport2 6 5 dc 0 ac 0
rload 6 0 50
*
.tran 30ps 6ns
.end

SPICE3 Synthesized Equivalent Subcircuit Control Deck (Transient Analysis)


* Synthesized Equivalent Subcircuit for T-type Transmission Transient Analysis
*
*copy subcircuit here or use SPICE .include command to include the subcircuit
*
v1 vin 0 dc 0 pulse(0 1 0ns 0.25ns 0.25ns 1ns 6ns)
rsource vin 1 50
vport1 1 2 dc 0 ac 0
xnport 2 0 3 0 nport
vport2 4 3 dc 0 ac 0
rload 4 0 50
*
.tran 30ps 6ns
.end

The harmonic analysis results for the SPICE transmission line model and the SPICE subcircuit macromodel
are identical as shown in the figure below.

Note
You can use the PLSYZ command to plot the admittance parameters in a Touchstone file.

Figure 4: |Y11| from SPICE TL Model and Equivalent Circuit Macromodel

182

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SPICE Synthesized Equivalent Circuit for a T-type Transmission Line Network (Command Method)
The transient analysis results for the SPICE transmission line model and the SPICE subcircuit macromodel
are shown below.

Figure 5: Transient Analysis of SPICE Transmission Line Model

Figure 6: Transient Analysis of SPICE Subcircuit Macromodel

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183

184

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Harmonic Analysis for Rectangular Waveguide Filled with Two


Dielectric Materials (Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the S-parameters of a rectangular waveguide filled with two
dielectric materials. The waveguide has air and dielectric material segments as shown in following figure.
Exterior modal ports are used to terminate the waveguide.

Figure 1: Two Segment Rectangular Waveguide

Relative Permittivity = 4

Relative Permittivity = 1

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title,Rectangular Waveguide with exterior MODAL port
/com, Problem: S-paramter in two-segment rectangular waveguide
/com,
with dimensions 3x1.5 cm^2 cross section.
/com,
/nopr
/prep7
freq4=7.e9
epsr=4.
ch=0.015
cw=0.03
cl=0.01
h=cw/8
h0=2.0
! Magnitude
ang=0
! Phase angle
et,1,HF120,1,,,0
! Brick 1st order
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
mp,murx,2,1.
mp,perx,2,epsr
local,11,0,0.02,0.05,0.09,30,-60,120
wpcsys,,11
block,-cw/2,cw/2,-ch/2,ch/2,-cl
block,-cw/2,cw/2,-ch/2,ch/2,cl
type,1
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185

Harmonic Analysis for Rectangular Waveguide Filled with Two Dielectric Materials (Command Method)
mat,1
esize,h
vmesh,1
mat,2
vmesh,2
nummgr,all
alls
!
! Tangential E is zero on all side walls
!
nsel,s,loc,y,-ch/2
nsel,a,loc,y,ch/2
nsel,a,loc,x,cw/2
nsel,a,loc,x,-cw/2
d,all,ax,0.
!
! port definitions
!
hfport,1,MODAL,11,1,impd,,,h0,ang,0,cl
! hfport,1,MODAL,11,1,impd,,, 0,0,0,cl
nsel,s,loc,z,-cl
sf,all,PORT,1
hfport,2,MODAL,11,1,impd,,,0,0,0,cl
! hfport,2,MODAL,11,1,impd,,,h0,ang,0,cl
nsel,s,loc,z,cl
sf,all,PORT,2
alls
save
fini
/solu
hfmodprt,freq4
eqslv,sparse
antype,harmic
harfrq,freq4
solve
fini

!input port
!output port

!output port
!input port

/com, Target result: S11=-0.455; S21=0.891


/post1
sparm,1,2
! sparm,2,1
! port 2 is driven port
fini

Target Results
The analytical solution for this example is S11 = -0.455, S22 = 0. 455, and |S21| = |S12| = 0.891. The numerical solution is |S11| = 0.454, <S11 = -178.27, |S22| = 0.454, <S22 = 7.92, and |S21| = |S12| = 0.891.
The contour of the electric field is shown in the following figure.

186

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Harmonic Analysis for Rectangular Waveguide Filled with Two Dielectric Materials (Command Method)

Figure 2: Electric Field Contour of Waveguide

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

187

188

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Harmonic Analysis of Y-Junction Waveguide Circulator (Command


Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the S11 parameter, insertion loss, and isolation loss of a Yjunction waveguide circulator with cylindrical ferrite post using ANSYS commands. Results are in good
agreement with those reported by Masanori Koshiba and Michio Suzuki (Finite-Element analysis of H-Plane
Waveguide Junction with Arbitrarily Shaped Ferrite Post, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and
Techniques, Vol. MTT-34, No. 1, January 1986.)
The Y-junction waveguide circulator is loaded by a cylindrical ferrite post at the center of the junction. The
internal DC magnetic field Ho is 200 Oe. The waveguide cross section is 22.86 mm by 10.16 mm. The ferrite
post radius is 3.5 mm. The TT1109 ferrite has the following properties:
Saturation magnetization (Ms) introduced by dc magnetic field Ho: 4Ms = 1000 G
Relative permittivity

= 11.7.

Resonance line width: H = 135 Oe

Figure 1: Y-junction Waveguide Circulator with Central Ferrite Cylindrical Post

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/nopr
/prep7
!
! define geometric dimensions and ferrite parameters
!
pi=3.1415926535
cw=22.86e-3
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189

Harmonic Analysis of Y-Junction Waveguide Circulator (Command Method)


ch=10.16e-3
r0=3.5e-3
freq=9.e9
cl=(2/3)*cw
rt=0.5*cw/cos(pi/6)
dt=0.5*cw*tan(pi/6)
epsr=11.7
h0=200
ms=1317
landeg=2
dh=135
!
! define HF TET element and materials
!
et,1,119
mp,perx,1,1.
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,2,epsr
TB,MUR,2,,,1
! uniform dc magnetic field
TBDATA,1,ms, landeg,dh,h0
!
! set up structure
!
rpr4,3,0,0,rt,0,ch
cyl4,0,0,0,0,r0,360,ch
vsbv,1,2,,delete,keep
block,-dt,-dt-cl,-cw/2,cw/2,0,ch
wprota,60
block,dt,dt+cl,-cw/2,cw/2,0,ch
wprota,-120
block,dt,dt+cl,-cw/2,cw/2,0,ch
!
! define local coordinate system for waveguide ports
!
wpcsys,-1,0
wpoffs,-dt-cl,0,ch/2
wprota,0,0,90
wprota,-90
cswpla,11,0
!
wpcsys,-1,0
wprota,60
wpoffs,dt+cl,0,ch/2
wprota,0,0,-90
wprota,90
cswpla,12,0
!
wpcsys,-1,0
wprota,-60
wpoffs,dt+cl,0,ch/2
wprota,0,0,-90
wprota,90
cswpla,13,0
!
! mesh the structure
!
size1=cw/10
size2=r0/3
vglue,all
type,1
esize,size2
mat,2
vsel,s,,,2
vmesh,all
esize,size1
mat,1
vsel,all
vsel,u,,,2
vmesh,all
!
! apply boundary condition
csys,0

190

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Harmonic Analysis of Y-Junction Waveguide Circulator (Command Method)


nsel,s,loc,z,0
nsel,a,loc,z,ch
d,all,ax,0
csys,11
nsel,s,loc,x,-cw/2
nsel,a,loc,x,cw/2
nsel,r,loc,z,0,cl
d,all,ax,0
csys,12
nsel,s,loc,x,-cw/2
nsel,a,loc,x,cw/2
nsel,r,loc,z,0,cl
d,all,ax,0
csys,13
nsel,s,loc,x,-cw/2
nsel,a,loc,x,cw/2
nsel,r,loc,z,0,cl
d,all,ax,0
!
! define waveguide ports
!
csys,11
nsel,s,loc,z,0
sf,all,port,1
! input port
hfport,1,rect,11,TE10,IMPD,cw,ch,1
csys,12
nsel,s,loc,z,0
sf,all,port,2
! output port
hfport,2,rect,12,TE10,IMPD,cw,ch
csys,13
nsel,s,loc,z,0
! output port
sf,all,port,3
hfport,3,rect,13,TE10,IMPD,cw,ch
alls
csys,0
save
fini
!
! perform a solution over frequency range from 7.5 to 12.5 GHz.
/solu
spswp,7.5e9,12.5e9,0.5e9,1,,2,1
fini
/post1
plsyz,file,s3p,s,db,1,1
/yrange,0,20
plsyz,file,s3p,insl,db,3,1
plsyz,file,s3p,isol,db,2,1

Target Results
The following three figures depict the S11 parameter, insertion loss, and isolation loss from 7.5 GHz to 12.5
GHz.

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191

Harmonic Analysis of Y-Junction Waveguide Circulator (Command Method)

Figure 2: S11 Parameter of Y-junction Waveguide Circulator

Figure 3: Insertion Loss of Y-junction Waveguide Circulator

192

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Harmonic Analysis of Y-Junction Waveguide Circulator (Command Method)

Figure 4: Isolation Loss of Y-junction Waveguide Circulator

The following figure shows the electric field contour at 10GHz.

Figure 5: Electric Field Contour at 10GHz

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

193

194

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

TDR/TDT Display of Shorted Single-Ended Uniform Transmission


Line (Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to display time domain reflection (TDR) and time domain transmission (TDT)
waveforms using ANSYS commands. A shorted single-ended uniform 50 transmission line has a length of
75 wavelengths () with = 3 cm and a relative dielectric constant of 1.0. The reflection coefficient (S11) is
calculated from 0 to 10 GHz and stored in the Touchstone file ts.s1p shown below.
! Short single-ended transmission line, S-parameter file
# GHz S RI R 50.
0.0000
-1.0000
0.0000
0.20040E-01
0.31261
0.94988
0.40080E-01
0.80455
-0.59388
0.60120E-01 -0.81563
-0.57858
0.80160E-01 -0.29461
0.95562
0.10020
0.99982
-0.18886E-01
0.12024
-0.33049
-0.94381
0.14028
-0.79319
0.60897
0.16032
0.82641
0.56307
0.18036
0.27651
-0.96101
0.20040
-0.99929
0.37766E-01
0.22044
0.34826
0.93740
0.24048
0.78155
-0.62384
0.26052
-0.83689
-0.54736
0.28056
-0.25831
0.96606
0.30060
0.99840
-0.56633E-01
0.32064
-0.36590
-0.93065
0.34068
-0.76963
0.63849
0.36072
0.84708
0.53146
0.38076
0.24002
-0.97077
0.40080
-0.99715
0.75477E-01
0.42084
0.38341
0.92358
0.44088
0.75743
-0.65291
0.46092
-0.85697
-0.51537
0.48096
-0.22164
0.97513
0.50100
0.99554
-0.94297E-01
0.52104
-0.40078
-0.91617
0.54108
-0.74497
0.66710
0.56112
0.86655
0.49909
0.58116
0.20319
-0.97914
0.60120
-0.99359
0.11308
0.62124
0.41802
0.90844
0.64128
0.73224
-0.68105
0.66132
-0.87582
-0.48264
0.68136
-0.18466
0.98280
0.70140
0.99127
-0.13183
0.72144
-0.43510
-0.90038
0.74148
-0.71924
0.69476
0.76152
0.88478
0.46601
0.78156
0.16606
-0.98611
0.80160
-0.98861
0.15052
0.82164
0.45202
0.89201
0.84168
0.70599
-0.70822
0.86172
-0.89342
-0.44922
0.88176
-0.14741
0.98908
0.90180
0.98559
-0.16917
0.92184
-0.46879
-0.88331
0.94188
-0.69249
0.72143

Release 12.1 - 2009 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

195

TDR/TDT Display of Shorted Single-Ended Uniform Transmission Line (Command Method)


0.96192
0.98196
1.0020
1.0220
1.0421
1.0621
1.0822
1.1022
1.1222
1.1423
1.1623
1.1824
1.2024
1.2224
1.2425
1.2625
1.2826
1.3026
1.3226
1.3427
1.3627
1.3828
1.4028
1.4228
1.4429
1.4629
1.4830
1.5030
1.5230
1.5431
1.5631
1.5832
1.6032
1.6232
1.6433
1.6633
1.6834
1.7034
1.7234
1.7435
1.7635
1.7836
1.8036
1.8236
1.8437
1.8637
1.8838
1.9038
1.9238
1.9439
1.9639
1.9840
2.0040
2.0240
2.0441
2.0641
2.0842
2.1042
2.1242
2.1443
2.1643
2.1844
2.2044
2.2244
2.2445
2.2645
2.2846
2.3046
2.3246
2.3447
2.3647
2.3848

196

0.90175
0.12871
-0.98222
0.48539
0.67874
-0.90975
-0.10995
0.97850
-0.50182
-0.66475
0.91743
0.91167E-01
-0.97442
0.51807
0.65052
-0.92478
-0.72339E-01
0.97001
-0.53412
-0.63607
0.93180
0.53485E-01
-0.96524
0.55000
0.62138
-0.93849
-0.34624E-01
0.96014
-0.56567
-0.60647
0.94485
0.15738E-01
-0.95469
0.58114
0.59135
-0.95086
0.31526E-02
0.94889
-0.59641
-0.57601
0.95654
-0.22031E-01
-0.94277
0.61146
0.56046
-0.96188
0.40913E-01
0.93630
-0.62630
-0.54473
0.96687
-0.59768E-01
-0.92950
0.64091
0.52879
-0.97152
0.78614E-01
0.92237
-0.65529
-0.51266
0.97582
-0.97421E-01
-0.91491
0.66945
0.49636
-0.97978
0.11620
0.90712
-0.68335
-0.47987
0.98338
-0.13495

0.43226
-0.99168
0.18775
0.87430
-0.73438
-0.41516
0.99394
-0.20627
-0.86497
0.74706
0.39790
-0.99584
0.22472
0.85534
-0.75949
-0.38050
0.99738
-0.24307
-0.84541
0.77163
0.36296
-0.99857
0.26135
0.83517
-0.78351
-0.34531
0.99940
-0.27953
-0.82463
0.79511
0.32752
-0.99988
0.29762
0.81380
-0.80642
-0.30962
1.0000
-0.31560
-0.80268
0.81744
0.29160
-0.99976
0.33346
0.79128
-0.82818
-0.27348
0.99916
-0.35121
-0.77958
0.83861
0.25527
-0.99821
0.36883
0.76761
-0.84875
-0.23696
0.99691
-0.38631
-0.75538
0.85859
0.21857
-0.99524
0.40367
0.74286
-0.86812
-0.20010
0.99323
-0.42088
-0.73009
0.87734
0.18158
-0.99085

Release 12.1 - 2009 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

TDR/TDT Display of Shorted Single-Ended Uniform Transmission Line (Command Method)


2.4048
2.4248
2.4449
2.4649
2.4850
2.5050
2.5251
2.5451
2.5651
2.5852
2.6052
2.6253
2.6453
2.6653
2.6854
2.7054
2.7255
2.7455
2.7655
2.7856
2.8056
2.8257
2.8457
2.8657
2.8858
2.9058
2.9259
2.9459
2.9659
2.9860
3.0060
3.0261
3.0461
3.0661
3.0862
3.1062
3.1263
3.1463
3.1663
3.1864
3.2064
3.2265
3.2465
3.2665
3.2866
3.3066
3.3267
3.3467
3.3667
3.3868
3.4068
3.4269
3.4469
3.4669
3.4870
3.5070
3.5271
3.5471
3.5671
3.5872
3.6072
3.6273
3.6473
3.6673
3.6874
3.7074
3.7275
3.7475
3.7675
3.7876
3.8076
3.8277

-0.89900
0.69702
0.46322
-0.98663
0.15364
0.89058
-0.71044
-0.44639
0.98953
-0.17228
-0.88183
0.72361
0.42943
-0.99208
0.19083
0.87277
-0.73652
-0.41229
0.99428
-0.20934
-0.86339
0.74915
0.39501
-0.99612
0.22778
0.85370
-0.76153
-0.37758
0.99760
-0.24613
-0.84373
0.77363
0.36002
-0.99873
0.26440
0.83344
-0.78547
-0.34236
0.99950
-0.28257
-0.82285
0.79702
0.32455
-0.99992
0.30061
0.81197
-0.80827
-0.30662
0.99998
-0.31858
-0.80079
0.81925
0.28859
-0.99968
0.33643
0.78934
-0.82993
-0.27045
0.99903
-0.35416
-0.77761
0.84032
0.25224
-0.99802
0.37176
0.76560
-0.85042
-0.23391
0.99665
-0.38921
-0.75331
0.86020

0.43794
0.71705
-0.88625
-0.16297
0.98813
-0.45482
-0.70376
0.89484
0.14430
-0.98505
0.47157
0.69021
-0.90310
-0.12558
0.98162
-0.48814
-0.67642
0.91105
0.10682
-0.97784
0.50454
0.66240
-0.91868
-0.88015E-01
0.97371
-0.52076
-0.64813
0.92598
0.69206E-01
-0.96924
0.53677
0.63363
-0.93294
-0.50349E-01
0.96441
-0.55262
-0.61891
0.93957
0.31473E-01
-0.95925
0.56826
0.60396
-0.94587
-0.12586E-01
0.95375
-0.58370
-0.58881
0.95183
-0.63053E-02
-0.94790
0.59894
0.57344
-0.95745
0.25170E-01
0.94171
-0.61396
-0.55786
0.96273
-0.44050E-01
-0.93519
0.62874
0.54208
-0.96767
0.62915E-01
0.92833
-0.64332
-0.52611
0.97226
-0.81757E-01
-0.92115
0.65767
0.50995

Release 12.1 - 2009 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

197

TDR/TDT Display of Shorted Single-Ended Uniform Transmission Line (Command Method)


3.8477
3.8677
3.8878
3.9078
3.9279
3.9479
3.9679
3.9880
4.0080
4.0281
4.0481
4.0681
4.0882
4.1082
4.1283
4.1483
4.1683
4.1884
4.2084
4.2285
4.2485
4.2685
4.2886
4.3086
4.3287
4.3487
4.3687
4.3888
4.4088
4.4289
4.4489
4.4689
4.4890
4.5090
4.5291
4.5491
4.5691
4.5892
4.6092
4.6293
4.6493
4.6693
4.6894
4.7094
4.7295
4.7495
4.7695
4.7896
4.8096
4.8297
4.8497
4.8697
4.8898
4.9098
4.9299
4.9499
4.9699
4.9900
5.0100
5.0301
5.0501
5.0701
5.0902
5.1102
5.1303
5.1503
5.1703
5.1904
5.2104
5.2305
5.2505
5.2705

198

0.21550
-0.99493
0.40654
0.74075
-0.86967
-0.19702
0.99286
-0.42373
-0.72793
0.87884
0.17846
-0.99042
0.44076
0.71486
-0.88770
-0.15984
0.98764
-0.45764
-0.70152
0.89624
0.14119
-0.98450
0.47435
0.68794
-0.90446
-0.12244
0.98102
-0.49088
-0.67410
0.91235
0.10367
-0.97718
0.50725
0.66003
-0.91992
-0.84911E-01
0.97299
-0.52344
-0.64572
0.92717
0.66073E-01
-0.96846
0.53944
0.63118
-0.93406
-0.47212E-01
0.96358
-0.55525
-0.61642
0.94064
0.28334E-01
-0.95836
0.57086
0.60147
-0.94688
-0.94458E-02
0.95279
-0.58627
-0.58627
0.95279
-0.94457E-02
-0.94688
0.60147
0.57086
-0.95836
0.28334E-01
0.94064
-0.61642
-0.55525
0.96358
-0.47212E-01
-0.93406

-0.97650
0.10057
0.91363
-0.67178
-0.49363
0.98040
-0.11932
-0.90579
0.68565
0.47712
-0.98395
0.13806
0.89762
-0.69927
-0.46043
0.98714
-0.15674
-0.88914
0.71265
0.44358
-0.98998
0.17537
0.88033
-0.72577
-0.42657
0.99248
-0.19391
-0.87123
0.73864
0.40941
-0.99461
0.21241
0.86180
-0.75124
-0.39210
0.99639
-0.23083
-0.85206
0.76357
0.37465
-0.99781
0.24917
0.84202
-0.77564
-0.35711
0.99888
-0.26742
-0.83168
0.78742
0.33941
-0.99960
0.28558
0.82105
-0.79890
-0.32158
0.99996
-0.30363
-0.81011
0.81011
0.30363
-0.99996
0.32158
0.79890
-0.82105
-0.28558
0.99960
-0.33941
-0.78742
0.83168
0.26742
-0.99888
0.35711

Release 12.1 - 2009 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

TDR/TDT Display of Shorted Single-Ended Uniform Transmission Line (Command Method)


5.2906
5.3106
5.3307
5.3507
5.3707
5.3908
5.4108
5.4309
5.4509
5.4709
5.4910
5.5110
5.5311
5.5511
5.5711
5.5912
5.6112
5.6313
5.6513
5.6713
5.6914
5.7114
5.7315
5.7515
5.7715
5.7916
5.8116
5.8317
5.8517
5.8717
5.8918
5.9118
5.9319
5.9519
5.9719
5.9920
6.0120
6.0321
6.0521
6.0721
6.0922
6.1122
6.1323
6.1523
6.1723
6.1924
6.2124
6.2325
6.2525
6.2725
6.2926
6.3126
6.3327
6.3527
6.3727
6.3928
6.4128
6.4329
6.4529
6.4729
6.4930
6.5130
6.5331
6.5531
6.5731
6.5932
6.6132
6.6333
6.6533
6.6733
6.6934
6.7134

0.63118
0.53944
-0.96846
0.66073E-01
0.92717
-0.64572
-0.52344
0.97299
-0.84911E-01
-0.91992
0.66003
0.50725
-0.97718
0.10367
0.91235
-0.67410
-0.49088
0.98102
-0.12244
-0.90446
0.68794
0.47433
-0.98451
0.14117
0.89624
-0.70152
-0.45762
0.98764
-0.15984
-0.88770
0.71486
0.44074
-0.99042
0.17846
0.87884
-0.72794
-0.42375
0.99285
-0.19702
-0.86967
0.74077
0.40656
-0.99493
0.21550
0.86019
-0.75332
-0.38923
0.99665
-0.23391
-0.85040
0.76558
0.37176
-0.99802
0.25224
0.84031
-0.77760
-0.35416
0.99903
-0.27047
-0.82995
0.78934
0.33643
-0.99968
0.28861
0.81926
-0.80079
-0.31858
0.99998
-0.30660
-0.80828
0.81197
0.30061

0.77564
-0.84202
-0.24917
0.99781
-0.37465
-0.76357
0.85206
0.23083
-0.99639
0.39210
0.75124
-0.86180
-0.21241
0.99461
-0.40941
-0.73864
0.87123
0.19391
-0.99248
0.42657
0.72577
-0.88035
-0.17535
0.98999
-0.44358
-0.71265
0.88915
0.15677
-0.98714
0.46043
0.69927
-0.89763
-0.13808
0.98395
-0.47712
-0.68564
0.90578
0.11935
-0.98040
0.49363
0.67176
-0.91362
-0.10057
0.97650
-0.50997
-0.65765
0.92114
0.81757E-01
-0.97226
0.52613
0.64334
-0.92833
-0.62915E-01
0.96767
-0.54210
-0.62876
0.93519
0.44050E-01
-0.96273
0.55784
0.61396
-0.94171
-0.25170E-01
0.95745
-0.57342
-0.59894
0.94790
0.62812E-02
-0.95184
0.58879
0.58370
-0.95375

Release 12.1 - 2009 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

199

TDR/TDT Display of Shorted Single-Ended Uniform Transmission Line (Command Method)


6.7335
6.7535
6.7735
6.7936
6.8136
6.8337
6.8537
6.8737
6.8938
6.9138
6.9339
6.9539
6.9739
6.9940
7.0140
7.0341
7.0541
7.0741
7.0942
7.1142
7.1343
7.1543
7.1743
7.1944
7.2144
7.2345
7.2545
7.2745
7.2946
7.3146
7.3347
7.3547
7.3747
7.3948
7.4148
7.4349
7.4549
7.4750
7.4950
7.5150
7.5351
7.5551
7.5752
7.5952
7.6152
7.6353
7.6553
7.6754
7.6954
7.7154
7.7355
7.7555
7.7756
7.7956
7.8156
7.8357
7.8557
7.8758
7.8958
7.9158
7.9359
7.9559
7.9760
7.9960
8.0160
8.0361
8.0561
8.0762
8.0962
8.1162
8.1363
8.1563

200

-0.99992
0.32453
0.79702
-0.82285
-0.28254
0.99950
-0.34234
-0.78547
0.83344
0.26437
-0.99873
0.36002
0.77363
-0.84373
-0.24611
0.99760
-0.37758
-0.76153
0.85372
0.22780
-0.99612
0.39501
0.74915
-0.86340
-0.20937
0.99428
-0.41229
-0.73650
0.87275
0.19086
-0.99208
0.42943
0.72359
-0.88182
-0.17228
0.98953
-0.44641
-0.71042
0.89057
0.15364
-0.98663
0.46324
0.69703
-0.89900
-0.13495
0.98338
-0.47990
-0.68336
0.90712
0.11620
-0.97977
0.49634
0.66945
-0.91491
-0.97421E-01
0.97582
-0.51265
-0.65530
0.92237
0.78602E-01
-0.97152
0.52878
0.64091
-0.92950
-0.59756E-01
0.96687
-0.54472
-0.62630
0.93630
0.40889E-01
-0.96188
0.56046

0.12610E-01
0.94588
-0.60396
-0.56826
0.95925
-0.31497E-01
-0.93958
0.61891
0.55262
-0.96442
0.50325E-01
0.93294
-0.63363
-0.53677
0.96924
-0.69182E-01
-0.92598
0.64813
0.52074
-0.97371
0.88015E-01
0.91868
-0.66240
-0.50452
0.97784
-0.10682
-0.91105
0.67644
0.48816
-0.98162
0.12558
0.90310
-0.69023
-0.47159
0.98505
-0.14430
-0.89483
0.70378
0.45484
-0.98813
0.16297
0.88623
-0.71704
-0.43794
0.99085
-0.18158
-0.87733
0.73008
0.42088
-0.99323
0.20012
0.86813
-0.74286
-0.40367
0.99524
-0.21859
-0.85860
0.75537
0.38631
-0.99691
0.23694
0.84876
-0.76761
-0.36882
0.99821
-0.25525
-0.83862
0.77958
0.35120
-0.99916
0.27347
0.82818

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TDR/TDT Display of Shorted Single-Ended Uniform Transmission Line (Command Method)


8.1764
8.1964
8.2164
8.2365
8.2565
8.2766
8.2966
8.3166
8.3367
8.3567
8.3768
8.3968
8.4168
8.4369
8.4569
8.4770
8.4970
8.5170
8.5371
8.5571
8.5772
8.5972
8.6172
8.6373
8.6573
8.6774
8.6974
8.7174
8.7375
8.7575
8.7776
8.7976
8.8176
8.8377
8.8577
8.8778
8.8978
8.9178
8.9379
8.9579
8.9780
8.9980
9.0180
9.0381
9.0581
9.0782
9.0982
9.1182
9.1383
9.1583
9.1784
9.1984
9.2184
9.2385
9.2585
9.2786
9.2986
9.3186
9.3387
9.3587
9.3788
9.3988
9.4188
9.4389
9.4589
9.4790
9.4990
9.5190
9.5391
9.5591
9.5792
9.5992

0.61146
-0.94277
-0.22055E-01
0.95654
-0.57601
-0.59640
0.94890
0.31647E-02
-0.95086
0.59135
0.58113
-0.95468
0.15726E-01
0.94485
-0.60648
-0.56566
0.96013
-0.34612E-01
-0.93849
0.62139
0.54998
-0.96525
0.53485E-01
0.93182
-0.63608
-0.53414
0.97002
-0.72339E-01
-0.92479
0.65054
0.51808
-0.97443
0.91167E-01
0.91744
-0.66477
-0.50183
0.97851
-0.10996
-0.90976
0.67877
0.48540
-0.98221
0.12872
0.90176
-0.69252
-0.46879
0.98558
-0.14743
-0.89343
0.70602
0.45202
-0.98860
0.16609
0.88479
-0.71927
-0.43509
0.99127
-0.18469
-0.87583
0.73220
0.41801
-0.99358
0.20322
0.86655
-0.74494
-0.40077
0.99554
-0.22168
-0.85697
0.75741
0.38339
-0.99715

-0.79128
-0.33345
0.99976
-0.29159
-0.81744
0.80269
0.31558
-0.99999
0.30961
0.80642
-0.81381
-0.29764
0.99988
-0.32752
-0.79510
0.82464
0.27955
-0.99940
0.34531
0.78350
-0.83518
-0.26132
0.99857
-0.36293
-0.77162
0.84539
0.24304
-0.99738
0.38047
0.75947
-0.85533
-0.22467
0.99584
-0.39787
-0.74705
0.86497
0.20622
-0.99394
0.41513
0.73435
-0.87429
-0.18780
0.99168
-0.43224
-0.72140
0.88331
0.16921
-0.98907
0.44920
0.70819
-0.89201
-0.15056
0.98611
-0.46600
-0.69473
0.90039
0.13186
-0.98280
0.48263
0.68109
-0.90844
-0.11311
0.97913
-0.49909
-0.66713
0.91618
0.94319E-01
-0.97512
0.51537
0.65294
-0.92359
-0.75495E-01

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201

TDR/TDT Display of Shorted Single-Ended Uniform Transmission Line (Command Method)


9.6192
9.6393
9.6593
9.6794
9.6994
9.7194
9.7395
9.7595
9.7796
9.7996
9.8196
9.8397
9.8597
9.8798
9.8998
9.9198
9.9399
9.9599
9.9800
10.000

0.24006
0.84708
-0.76961
-0.36588
0.99839
-0.25836
-0.83689
0.78153
0.34823
-0.99929
0.27647
0.82640
-0.79318
-0.33046
0.99982
-0.29457
-0.81562
0.80454
0.31257
-1.0000

0.97076
-0.53146
-0.63852
0.93066
0.56645E-01
-0.96605
0.54737
0.62386
-0.93741
-0.37775E-01
0.96102
-0.56308
-0.60899
0.94382
0.18891E-01
-0.95563
0.57859
0.59390
-0.94989
-0.26938E-07

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/post1
pltd,ts,s1p,spar,step,on,512,0,0,1,1
pltd,ts,s1p,tdwf,step,off,512,0,0,1,1
fini

! display TDR/TDT of step source


! display total waveform at input port

Target Results
The waveforms for the shorted single-ended transmission line are shown in the following figures.

Figure 1: TDR and TDT Waveforms

202

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TDR/TDT Display of Shorted Single-Ended Uniform Transmission Line (Command Method)

Figure 2: Total Waveform

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203

204

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Harmonic Analysis of a Frequency-Dependent Dielectric Loaded


Waveguide (Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to perform a harmonic analysis of a frequency-dependent dielectric loaded
waveguide using ANSYS commands.
As shown in the following figure, the dielectric has the same cross section as the parallel plate waveguide
(30 mm x 15 mm). The dielectric has a thickness of 5 mm. Two sets of dielectric material properties are given.
At a lower frequency of 1 MHz, the relative permittivity r1 = 3.98 and the loss tangent tan1 = 0.028. At a
higher frequency of 2.5 GHz, the relative permittivity r2 = 3.74 and the loss tangent tan2 = 0.025. The relative
permittivity at optical frequency is 3.70.

Figure 1: Frequency-Dependent Dielectric Loaded Waveguide

Dielectric material

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list/batch,list
/title, Frequency-dependent dielectric load parallel plate waveguide
/nopr
/prep7
! geometric parameters
ch=0.015
cw=0.03
cl=0.01
d=5.e-3
h=d/5
! define element
et,1,HF120
! define material
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
mp,murx,2,1.
tb,hffdld,2
tbdata,1,1.e6,2.5e9,3.98,3.74,3.7,0.
tbdata,7,0.028,0.025

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205

Harmonic Analysis of a Frequency-Dependent Dielectric Loaded Waveguide (Command Method)


! numerical model
local,11
wpcsys,,11
block,-cw/2,cw/2,-ch/2,ch/2,-cl,0
block,-cw/2,cw/2,-ch/2,ch/2,0,d
block,-cw/2,cw/2,-ch/2,ch/2,d,d+cl
vglue,all
! meshing
type,1
esize,h
mat,1
vsel,s,loc,z,-cl,0
vsel,a,loc,z,d,d+cl
vmesh,all
mat,2
vsel,s,loc,z,0,d
vmesh,all
alls
! Tangential E is zero on bottom and top wall
nsel,s,loc,y,-ch/2
nsel,a,loc,y,ch/2
d,all,ax,0.
! port definitions
hfport,1,para,11,tem,ext,cw,ch,1.
!input port
nsel,s,loc,z,-cl
sf,all,PORT,1
hfport,2,para,11,tem,ext,cw,ch
nsel,s,loc,z,d+cl
sf,all,PORT,2
alls
save
fini
! perform solution
/solu
spswp,1.e9,10.e9,1.e9,1,,2,
fini

Target Results
Reflection coefficient results for 1 GHz to 10 GHz are shown in the following table.
Frequency (GHz)

|| (analytical) [1]

||

0.153

0.153

0.287

0.287

0.392

0.391

0.469

0.468

0.521

0.520

0.554

0.553

0.570

0.568

0.571

0.569

0.556

0.555

10

0.524

0.524

1.

206

Analytical results are based on the equations given in Frequency-Dependent Lossy Dielectric of the
Element Reference and transmission line theory.

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Part VII, Advanced Wave Resonance Examples

Modal Analysis for Resonant Frequencies of a Dielectric Resonator


on Microstrip Substrate (Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the resonant frequencies of a dielectric resonator (DR) on a
microstrip substrate using ANSYS commands.
A cylindrical dielectric resonator is located on the top of a microstrip substrate with metallic enclosure (D =
10 mm, h = 5 mm, r = 36, s = 9.6, Hs = 1 mm, H = 6 mm, R = 15 mm), as shown on the left in the figure
below. Modal analysis is used to find the resonant frequencies in the structure. One quarter of the structure
is used for the numerical model because of the symmetry of the fields and geometry. Since the structure is
open and the fringe fields exist in the space, the metallic enclosure should be placed far enough away from
the resonator in order to minimize the effect of the metallic enclosure that is necessary for modal analysis.
The resonant modes can be obtained by the combination of boundary conditions on two symmetric planes,
in other words, PMC-PEC, PMC-PMC or PEC-PEC. The wedge element is used for analysis as shown on the
right in the figure below.

Figure 1: Geometry and FEA Model of Dielectric Resonator

R
D
H

Hs

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, Dielectric Resonator on Microstrip Substrate
/nopr
/prep7
! define the structure
r1=5.
r2=15
h=5.
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209

Modal Analysis for Resonant Frequencies of a Dielectric Resonator on Microstrip Substrate (Command
Method)
hc=6
hs=1.
eps1=9.6
eps2=36
scal=1.e-3
! set up boundary key: _bc=0 PMC-PMC; _bc=1 PEC-PMC; _bc=2 PEC-PEC
_bc=1
! define elements and materials
et,11,200,5
et,1,120,1
mp,perx,1,1.
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,2,eps1
mp,murx,2,1.
mp,perx,3,eps2
mp,murx,3,1.
! set up computational domain
hsize=r1/8
hz=h/12
_nz1=4
_nz2=nint(h/hz)+1
_nz3=nint((hc-h)/hz)+1
_c1=0
_c2=_c1+hs
_c3=_c2+h
_c4=_c3+(hc-h)
pcirc,r1,0,0,90
pcirc,r2,0,0,90
asba,2,1,,delete,keep
aglue,all
! 2d-meshing
esize,hsize
type,11
amesh,all
! 3d-meshing
mat,2
esize,,_nz1
type,1
asel,s,loc,z,0
vext,all,,,0,0,(_c2-_c1)
csys,1
asel,s,loc,z,_c2
asel,r,loc,x,0,r1
cm,_area1,area
csys,0
esize,,_nz2
mat,3
type,1
asel,s,,,_area1
vext,all,,,0,0,(_c3-_c2)
mat,1
asel,s,loc,z,_c2
asel,u,,,_area1
vext,all,,,0,0,(_c3-_c2)
asel,s,loc,z,_c3
esize,,_nz3
mat,1
vext,all,,,0,0,(_c4-_c3)
alls
asel,s,loc,z,0
aclear,all
esel,s,type,,11
edele,all
alls
nummrg,all
alls
! set up PEC boundary condition
csys,1
nsel,s,loc,x,r2
d,all,ax,0
csys,0

210

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Modal Analysis for Resonant Frequencies of a Dielectric Resonator on Microstrip Substrate (Command
Method)
nsel,s,loc,z,_c1
nsel,a,loc,z,_c4
*if,_bc,eq,1,then
nsel,a,loc,x,0
*elseif,_bc,eq,2,then
nsel,a,loc,x,0
nsel,a,loc,y,0
*endif
d,all,ax,0
vlscale,all,,,scal,scal,scal,,,1
fini
! perform a solution
/solu
antype,modal
modopt,lanb,2,1.e6,10.e9,,on
mxpand,,,,yes
solve
fini

Target Results
The three lowest resonant modes are TM01, HEM and TE01. The corresponding resonant frequencies are
3.98 GHz, 5.18 GHz and 5.94 GHz, respectively. The electric fields of the three lowest modes are shown in
the following three figures.

Figure 2: The Electric Field of TM01 Mode in a DR with a Metallic Enclosure

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211

Modal Analysis for Resonant Frequencies of a Dielectric Resonator on Microstrip Substrate (Command
Method)

Figure 3: The Electric Field of HEM Mode in a DR with a Metallic Enclosure

212

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Modal Analysis for Resonant Frequencies of a Dielectric Resonator on Microstrip Substrate (Command
Method)

Figure 4: The Electric Field of TE01 Mode in a DR with a Metallic Enclosure

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213

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Modal Analysis for Dispersion of a Microstrip Line (Command


Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the dispersion of a microstrip line using ANSYS commands.
Modal analysis is used to find the dispersion of the fundamental mode of the microstrip line, shown on the
left in the figure below. One half of the structure is used for the numerical model because of the symmetry
of the fields and geometry. The metallic enclosure should be placed far enough away from the resonator
to minimize the effect of the metallic enclosure that is necessary for modal analysis. The triangular element
is used for analysis as shown on the right in the figure below.

Figure 1: Geometry and FEA Model of the Microstrip Line

12 mm

11.43 mm
1.27 mm
r = 8.875

1.27 mm

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215

Modal Analysis for Dispersion of a Microstrip Line (Command Method)

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch, list
/title, Dispersion of Isotropic Microstrip Line
/com, Freq = 1-20 GHz
/com, w=h=1.27 mm,er=8.875,X=12.7 mm,Y=12.7 mm
/nopr
/prep7
! set up structure
w=1.27e-3
h=1.27e-3
X=12.7e-3
Y=12.7e-3
er=8.875
! define elements and materials
et,1,118,1
emunit,mks
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
mp,murx,2,1.
mp,perx,2,er
! define numerical model and meshing
rect,0,w/2,0,h
rect,w/2,X/2,0,h
rect,0,w/2,h,Y
rect,w/2,X/2,h,Y
aglue,all
mshkey,0
mshape,1
mat,2
lsel,s,line,,1,3,2
lesize,all,,,4
lsel,s,line,,2,4,2
lesize,all,,,6
amesh,1
lsel,s,line,,17,18
lesize,all,,,20,2
lsel,s,line,,6
lesize,all,,,3
amesh,5
mat,1
lsel,s,line,,11
lesize,all,,,1
lsel,s,line,,19,20
lesize,all,,,25,3
amesh,6
lsel,s,line,,22
lesize,all,,,6
lsel,s,line,,21
lesize,all,,,18,2
amesh,7
lsel,all
! set up PEC
lsel,s,line,,3
lsel,a,loc,y,0,
lsel,a,loc,y,Y
lsel,a,loc,x,X/2
dl,all,,ax,0.
lsel,all
finish
! perform solution
/solu
hfpcswp,1.e9,20.e9,0.5e9,1,2,0
finish
/post1
/yrange,0,1200
pltline,hfpcswp,out,beta,1
/yrange,45,65

216

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Modal Analysis for Dispersion of a Microstrip Line (Command Method)


pltline,hfpcswp,out,zc,1
/yrange,1,10
pltline,hfpcswp,out,ereff,1
fini

The Target Results


HFPCSWP results for propagating constant, characteristic impedance, and effective dielectric constant are
shown in the following figures. The electric field of the fundamental mode at 20 GHz is shown in Figure 5: Electric field of the Fundamental Mode in the Microstrip Line at 20 GHz (p. 218).

Figure 2: Propagating Constant of Microstrip Line

Figure 3: Characteristic Impedance of Microstrip Line

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217

Modal Analysis for Dispersion of a Microstrip Line (Command Method)

Figure 4: Effective Dielectric Constant of Microstrip Line

Figure 5: Electric field of the Fundamental Mode in the Microstrip Line at 20 GHz

218

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Modal Analysis for Propagating Constants and Characteristic


Impedance of Three Coupled Microstrip Lines (Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the propagating constants and characteristic impedance of
three coupled microstrip lines using ANSYS commands.
Modal analysis is used to find the propagating constants and characteristic impedances for three modes of
the microstrip structure at 5 GHz. The analysis uses the high-frequency quadrilateral element HF118. The
structure has the dimensions and material properties shown in the figure below.

Figure 1: Microstrip Structure

/2
2

hs
w1

s1 w2

s2

w3

h = 0.64 mm,

h / = 0.1,

hs / = 0.3,

w1 / = 0.1,

w 2 / = 0.1,

w 3 / = 0.1,

s1 / = 0.02,

s2 / = 0.02,

1 = 10 0

2 = 0

Commands This Example Uses


/title, Dispersion and Characteristic Impedance of Three Coupled Microstrips
/nopr
/prep7
! set up structure
scal=1.e-3
FreqB=5e9
FreqE=5e9
h=0.64*scal
l=10*h
w1=0.1*l
w2=0.1*l
w3=0.1*l
s1=0.02*l
s2=0.02*l
hs=0.3*l
er=10
! define elements and materials
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219

Modal Analysis for Propagating Constants and Characteristic Impedance of Three Coupled Microstrip Lines
(Command Method)
et,1,118
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,er
mp,murx,2,1.
mp,perx,2,1.
! define numerical model and meshing
na=8
nb=3
*dim,a,array,na
*dim,b,array,nb
a(1)=0
a(2)=a(1)+(l/2-w1-s1-w2/2)
a(3)=a(2)+w1
a(4)=a(3)+s1
a(5)=a(4)+w2
a(6)=a(5)+s2
a(7)=a(6)+w3
a(8)=a(7)+(l/2-w3-s2-w2/2)
b(1)=0
b(2)=b(1)+h
b(3)=b(2)+hs
*do,i,1,na-1
*do,j,1,nb-1
rect,a(i),a(i+1),b(j),b(j+1)
*enddo
*enddo
aglue,all
nx2=10
nx1=nint(nx2*(a(2)-a(1))/w1)
nx3=3
nx4=nint(nx2*w2/w1)
nx5=nx3
nx6=nint(nx2*w3/w1)
nx7=nx1
ny1=12
ny2=2*ny1
! meshing
type,1
mat,1
mshape,0
! quad mesh
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(1)+a(2))/2
lesize,all,,,nx1
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(2)+a(3))/2
lesize,all,,,nx2
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(3)+a(4))/2
lesize,all,,,nx3
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(4)+a(5))/2
lesize,all,,,nx4
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(5)+a(6))/2
lesize,all,,,nx5
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(6)+a(7))/2
lesize,all,,,nx6
lsel,s,loc,x,(a(7)+a(8))/2
lesize,all,,,nx7
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(1)+b(2))/2
lesize,all,,,ny1
lsel,s,loc,y,(b(2)+b(3))/2
lesize,all,,,ny2
asel,s,loc,y,b(1),b(2)
amesh,all
mat,2
asel,s,loc,y,b(2),b(3)
amesh,all
alls
! pec on strip and on walls
nsel,s,loc,y,b(2)
nsel,r,loc,x,a(2),a(3)
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,y,b(2)
nsel,r,loc,x,a(4),a(5)
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,y,b(2)

220

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Modal Analysis for Propagating Constants and Characteristic Impedance of Three Coupled Microstrip Lines
(Command Method)
nsel,r,loc,x,a(6),a(7)
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,x,a(1)
nsel,a,loc,x,a(8)
nsel,a,loc,y,b(1)
nsel,a,loc,y,b(3)
d,all,ax,0
! flag central conductors and define impedance lines
nsel,s,loc,y,b(2)
nsel,r,loc,x,a(2),a(3)
bf,all,chrgd,1
lprt,1,1,impd,,0.5*(a(2)+a(3)),b(1),0,0.5*(a(2)+a(3)),b(2),0
nsel,s,loc,y,b(2)
nsel,r,loc,x,a(4),a(5)
bf,all,chrgd,2
lprt,1,2,impd,,0.5*(a(4)+a(5)),b(1),0,0.5*(a(4)+a(5)),b(2),0
nsel,s,loc,y,b(2)
nsel,r,loc,x,a(6),a(7)
bf,all,chrgd,3
lprt,1,3,impd,,0.5*(a(6)+a(7)),b(1),0,0.5*(a(6)+a(7)),b(2),0
alls
save
fini
! perform solution
/solu
! P-I definition solution
hfpcswp,FreqB,FreqE,1e9,3,0,0
! P-V definition solution
hfpcswp,FreqB,FreqE,1e9,3,0,1
! V-I definition solution
hfpcswp,FreqB,FreqE,1e9,3,0,2
fini

Target Results
Propagating constant and characteristic impedance results at 5 GHz are shown in the following table. Corresponding electric field contours are shown in the figures below.
Mode

P-I Characteristic
Impedance

P-V Characteristic
Impedance

V-I Characteristic
Impedance

Propagating Constant

1 (+ + +)

62.7

72.9

67.6

7.39

2 (+ 0 -)

35.3

39.1

37.1

5.96

3 (+ - +)

22.5

24.9

23.7

5.54

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221

Modal Analysis for Propagating Constants and Characteristic Impedance of Three Coupled Microstrip Lines
(Command Method)

Figure 2: Electric Field of Mode 1

Figure 3: Electric Field of Mode 2

222

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Modal Analysis for Propagating Constants and Characteristic Impedance of Three Coupled Microstrip Lines
(Command Method)

Figure 4: Electric Field of Mode 3

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223

224

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Part VIII, Advanced Wave Scattering Examples

Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Sphere Coated by


Lossy Dielectric Layer (Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the radar cross section (RCS) of a metallic sphere coated by
a lossy dielectric layer using ANSYS commands.
The radius of the metallic sphere is 0.8 cm. The relative complex permittivity of the lossy dielectric layer is
r=4-i, with thickness 0.2 cm. To calculate the normalized RCS of the lossy dielectric-coated metallic sphere,
the incident plane wave is taken as -x-polarized with incident angles =0 and =180. One half of the
structure is used for the numerical model, because of the symmetry of the fields and geometry as shown in
Figure 1: FEA Model for Scattering Analysis of a Lossy Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere (p. 228). The PML absorbing
material encloses the modeled domain except on the symmetric planes. To improve the accuracy, a 3-element
buffer is placed between the dielectric sphere and the equivalent source surface. Also, a 3-element buffer
is placed between the equivalent source surface and the PML interface.

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227

Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Sphere Coated by Lossy Dielectric Layer (Command Method)

Figure 1: FEA Model for Scattering Analysis of a Lossy Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, RCS from a Lossy Dielectric-coated Metallic Sphere
/com, Problem: The radius of sphere = 0.8 cm, the thickness of dielectric layer = 0.2 cm
/com,
Incident Wave: +x polirazation with PHI =0, THETA=180 (degree) at 15 GHz
/com,
/nopr
/prep7
! frequency, material and structure dimensions
freq=15.e9
lambda=3.e8/freq
ra=8.e-3
rb=ra+2.e-3
epsr=4.
loss=1./epsr
wave1=3.e8/(sqrt(epsr)*freq)
wave2=3.e8/freq
! define the computational domain
h=wave2/15
a=rb+3*h

228

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Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Sphere Coated by Lossy Dielectric Layer (Command Method)
b=a+3*h
c=b+4*h
! define the elements and materials
et,1,HF119,1
et,2,HF119,1,,,1
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,epsr
mp,lsst,1,loss
mp,murx,2,1.
mp,perx,2,1.
! set up numerical model
sphere,ra,rb,0,180
block,-a,a,0,a,-a,a
block,-b,b,0,b,-b,b
block,-c,c,0,c,-c,c
vsbv,4,3,,delete,keep
vsbv,3,2,,delete,keep
vsbv,2,1,,delete,keep
csys,2
vsel,s,loc,x,0,ra/2
vdel,all
alls
csys,0
vglue,all
! meshing
esize,wave1/10
type,1
mat,1
vmesh,1
esize,h
mat,2
vmesh,4,6,2
type,2
vmesh,5
alls
nummrg,all
! define equivalent source surface
nsel,s,loc,x,-a,a
nsel,r,loc,y,0,a
nsel,r,loc,z,-a,a
esln,s,1,all
nsel,s,loc,x,a
nsel,a,loc,x,-a
nsel,a,loc,y,a
nsel,a,loc,z,-a,
nsel,a,loc,z,a
sf,all,mxwf
alls
! define boundary condition
nsel,s,loc,x,c
nsel,a,loc,x,-c
nsel,a,loc,y,c
nsel,a,loc,z,-c
nsel,a,loc,z, c
d,all,ax,0.
nsel,all
csys,2
nsel,s,loc,x,ra
d,all,ax,0.
csys,0
allsel,all
! define incident plane wave
plwave,1,0,0,0,180
fini
! perform solution
/solu
hfscat,scat
eqslv,sparse
antype,harmic
harfrq,freq
solve
fini

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229

Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Sphere Coated by Lossy Dielectric Layer (Command Method)
! calculate normalized RCS
/post1
set,1,1
hfsym,0,,pmc
plfar,rcsn,total,0,90,1,0,180,180
fini

Target Results
The contour of the scattering electric field from the lossy dielectric-coated metallic sphere is shown in Figure 2: Scattering Electric Field Contour of the Lossy Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere (p. 230). Figure 3: Normalized
RCS of the Lossy Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere on E-plane and H-plane (p. 230) depicts the RCS of the
dielectric-coated metallic sphere on the E-plane (=0) and H-plane (=90), respectively.

Figure 2: Scattering Electric Field Contour of the Lossy Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere

Figure 3: Normalized RCS of the Lossy Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere on E-plane and H-plane

230

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Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Dielectric Sphere (Command


Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the radar cross section (RCS) from the scattering of a dielectric
sphere using ANSYS commands.
The relative permittivity of the dielectric sphere is r = 2.56. To calculate the bistatic RCS of the dielectric
sphere, the incident plane wave is taken as x-polarized with incident angles = 0 and = 0. The electric
size is k0a = 1 (k0 is the wave number in free space). One half of the structure is used for the numerical
model, because of the symmetry of the fields and geometry, as shown in Figure 1: FEA Model for Scattering
Analysis of a Dielectric Sphere (p. 232). The PML absorbing material encloses the modeled domain except on
the symmetric planes. To improve the accuracy, a 4-element buffer is placed between the dielectric sphere
and the equivalent source surface. Also, a 4-element buffer is placed between the equivalent source surface
and the PML interface.

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231

Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Dielectric Sphere (Command Method)

Figure 1: FEA Model for Scattering Analysis of a Dielectric Sphere

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, RCS of a Dielectric Sphere
/com, Problem: Calculate RCS of a Dielectric Sphere
/com, Structure: ka=1 (a - radius of sphere, k - vacuum wavenumber), er=2.56
/com, Numerical Model: 1/2 Structure
/com,
PML enclosure except on symmetric planes
/com,
Plane Wave: +x polarization, Phi=0 (deg), Theta=0 (deg)
/nopr
/prep7
! define structure and frequency
ra=1
freq=4.7746e7
epsr=2.56
! define computational domain
lamda1=3.e8/(sqrt(epsr)*freq)
lamda2=3.e8/freq
h1=lamda1/20
h2=lamda2/20

232

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Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Dielectric Sphere (Command Method)


a=ra+4*h1
b=a+4*h2
c=b+4*h2
! define elements and materials
et,1,HF119,1
et,2,HF119,1,,,1
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,epsr
mp,murx,2,1.
mp,perx,2,1.
! set up numerical domain
sphere,0,ra,0,180
block,-a,a,0,a,-a,a
block,-b,b,0,b,-b,b
block,-c,c,0,c,-c,c
vsbv,4,3,,dele,keep
vsbv,3,2,,dele,keep
vsbv,2,1,,dele,keep
vglue,all
! volume definition: v1 - dielectric sphere; v5 - PML; v3, v4 - air
! meshing
esize,h1
type,1
mat,1
vmesh,1
mat,2
vmesh,3
esize,h2
vmesh,4
type,2
vmesh,5
! define equivalent source surface
nsel,s,loc,x,-a,a
nsel,r,loc,y,0,a
nsel,r,loc,z,-a,a
esln,s,1,all
nsel,s,loc,x,a
nsel,a,loc,x,-a
nsel,a,loc,y,a
nsel,a,loc,z,-a
nsel,a,loc,z,a
sf,all,mxwf
nsel,all
esel,all
! define PEC boundary condition
nsel,s,loc,x,c
nsel,a,loc,x,-c
nsel,a,loc,y,c
nsel,a,loc,z,-c
nsel,a,loc,z, c
d,all,ax,0.
nsel,all
alls
! incident plane wave
plwave,1,0,0,0,0
fini
! perform solution
/solu
hfscat,scat
eqslv,sparse
antype,harmic
harfrq,freq
solve
fini
! RCS calculation
/post1
set,1,1
! set up image symmetric plane
hfsym,,,pmc
prfar,rcs,total,0,90,1,0,180,36
plfar,rcs,total,0,90,1,0,180,180
fini

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233

Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Dielectric Sphere (Command Method)

Target Results
Figure 2: RCS of the Dielectric Sphere (p. 234) depicts the RCS of the dielectric sphere on E-plane (=0) (black
line) and H-plane (=90) (gray line). The contour of the scattering electric field is shown in Figure 3: Contour
of the Scattering Electric Field from a Dielectric Sphere (p. 234).

Figure 2: RCS of the Dielectric Sphere

Figure 3: Contour of the Scattering Electric Field from a Dielectric Sphere

234

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Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Cube (Command


Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the radar cross section (RCS) of a metallic cube using ANSYS
commands.
The edge lengths of the metallic cube are 0.755 wavelength. To calculate the bistatic RCS of the metallic
cube, the incident plane wave is taken as x-polarized with incident angles =90 and =0. One half of the
structure is used for the numerical model, because of the symmetry of the fields and geometry. The PML
absorbing material encloses the modeled domain except on the symmetric planes. To improve the accuracy,
a 4-element buffer is placed between the metallic cube and the equivalent source surface. Also, a 4-element
buffer is placed between the equivalent source surface and the interface of 6-layer PML.

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, RCS of Metallic Cube (0.755x0.755x0.755 wavelength**3)
/com, Incident Wave: +X polirazation with PHI = 90 (deg),
/com,
THETA = 180 (deg)
/nopr
/prep7
! structure dimensions
freq=300e6
wavel=3.e8/freq
da=0.755*wavel
db=da
! define elements and material
et,11,200,7
et,1,120,1
et,2,120,1,,,1
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
! define mesh size
h=wavel/14
n1=4
n2=4
npml=6
! set up computational domain
*dim,a,array,5
*dim,b,array,9
a(1)=0
a(2)=a(1)+da/2
a(3)=a(2)+n1*h
a(4)=a(3)+n2*h
a(5)=a(4)+npml*h
b(5)=0
b(6)=b(5)+db/2
b(7)=b(6)+n1*h
b(8)=b(7)+n2*h
b(9)=b(8)+npml*h
b(4)=b(5)-db/2
b(3)=b(4)-n1*h
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235

Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Cube (Command Method)


b(2)=b(3)-n2*h
b(1)=b(2)-npml*h
c4=-da/2
c5=c4+da
c6=c5+n1*h
c7=c6+n2*h
c8=c7+npml*h
c3=c4-n1*h
c2=c3-n2*h
c1=c2-npml*h
nz=nint((c5-c4)/h)+1
*do,i,1,4
*do,j,1,8
rect,b(j),b(j+1),a(i),a(i+1)
*enddo
*enddo
aglue,all
asel,all
agen,2,all,,,,,-da/2
asel,s,loc,z,c4
asel,r,loc,y,a(1),a(2)
asel,r,loc,x,b(4),b(6)
cm,soli,area
asel,s,loc,z,c4
asel,u,,,soli
cm,air,area
asel,all
lsel,s,loc,y,(a(1)+a(2))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(b(4)+b(5))/2
lsel,a,loc,x,(b(5)+b(6))/2
cm,lxy,line
lesize,lxy,h
lsel,all
lsel,u,,,lxy
cm,lair,line
lesize,lair,h
type,11
asel,s,loc,z,c4
amesh,all
asel,s,area,,soli
agen,2,all,,,,,(c5-c4)
esize,,nz
type,1
mat,1
asel,s,area,,air
vext,all,,,0,0,(c5-c4)
esize,,n1
asel,s,loc,z,c5
vext,all,,,0,0,(c6-c5)
asel,s,loc,z,c4
vext,all,,,0,0,-(c4-c3)
esize,,n2
asel,s,loc,z,c6
vext,all,,,0,0,(c7-c6)
asel,s,loc,z,c3
vext,all,,,0,0,-(c3-c2)
type,2
esize,,npml
asel,s,loc,z,c7
vext,all,,,0,0,(c8-c7)
asel,s,loc,z,c2
vext,all,,,0,0,-(c2-c1)
asel,s,loc,z,c4
asel,a,loc,z,c5
aclear,all
esel,s,type,,11
edel,all
alls
nsel,s,loc,y,a(1),a(4)
nsel,r,loc,x,b(2),b(8)
nsel,r,loc,z,c2,c8
cm,inte,node

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Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Cube (Command Method)


nsel,s,loc,z,c2,c7
nsel,u,,,inte
esln,s,1
emodif,all,type,2
alls
nummrg,all
! define equivalent source surface
nsel,s,loc,x,b(3),b(7)
nsel,r,loc,y,a(1),a(3)
nsel,r,loc,z,c3,c6
esln,s,1,all
nsel,s,loc,x,b(3)
nsel,a,loc,x,b(7)
nsel,a,loc,y,a(3)
nsel,a,loc,z,c3
nsel,a,loc,z,c6
sf,all,mxwf
nsel,all
esel,all
! define boundary condition
nsel,s,loc,x,b(1)
nsel,a,loc,x,b(9)
nsel,a,loc,y,a(5)
nsel,a,loc,z,c1
nsel,a,loc,z,c8
d,all,ax,0.
nsel,s,loc,x,b(4),b(6)
nsel,r,loc,y,a(1),a(2)
nsel,r,loc,z,c4,c5
d,all,ax,0.
allsel,all
! incident plane wave
plwave,1,0,0,90,0
fini
! perform solution
/solu
hfscat,scat
eqslv,sparse
antype,harmic
harfrq,freq
solve
fini
! calculate RCS
/post1
set,1,1
hfsym,,,pmc
prfar,rcsn,total,0,90,1,0,180,36
/yrange,-30,15
plfar,rcsn,total,0,90,1,0,180,180
fini

Target Results
The contour of the scattering electric field from the metallic cube is shown in Figure 1: Scattering Electric Field
Contour from the Metallic Cube (p. 238). Figure 2: Normalized RCS of the Metallic Cube on E-Plane and HPlane (p. 238) depicts the RCS of the metallic cube on E-plane (=0) and H-plane (=90), respectively.

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237

Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Cube (Command Method)

Figure 1: Scattering Electric Field Contour from the Metallic Cube

Figure 2: Normalized RCS of the Metallic Cube on E-Plane and H-Plane

238

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Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Sphere Coated by a


Dielectric Layer (Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the radar cross section (RCS) of a metallic sphere coated by
a dielectric layer using ANSYS commands.
The radius of the metallic sphere is 0.333 wavelength. The relative permittivity of the dielectric layer is r =
4 with thickness 0.067 wave length. To calculate the bistatic RCS of the dielectric-coated dielectric sphere,
the incident plane wave is taken as - x-polarized with incident angles = 0 and = 0. One half of the
structure is used for the numerical model, because of the symmetry of the fields and geometry as shown in
Figure 1: FEA Model for Scattering Analysis of a Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere (p. 240). The PML absorbing
material encloses the modeled domain except on the symmetric planes. To improve the accuracy, a 4-element
buffer is placed between the dielectric-coated metallic sphere and the equivalent source surface. Also, a 3element buffer is placed between the equivalent source surface and the PML interface.

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239

Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Sphere Coated by a Dielectric Layer (Command Method)

Figure 1: FEA Model for Scattering Analysis of a Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, RCS of a Dielectric-coated Metallic Sphere
/com, Problem: A metallic sphere (radiu=0.333 wavelength) coated by dielectric layer
/com,
(thickness=0.067 wavelength, Er=4)
/com,
Incident Wave: -x polirazation with PHI = 0 (degree), THETA = 0 (degree)
/nopr
/prep7
! problem dimensions and set-up
freq=300e6
lambda=3.e8/freq
epsr=4
wave1= lambda /sqrt(epsr)
wave2=lambda
h1=wave1/16
h2=wave2/16
ra=0.333*lambda
s=0.067*lambda
rb=ra+s

240

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Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Sphere Coated by a Dielectric Layer (Command Method)
a=rb+4*h2
b=a+3*h2
c=b+4*h2
! --- define elements and materials --et,1,HF119,1
et,2,HF119,1,,,1
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,epsr
mp,murx,2,1.
mp,perx,2,1.
! --- set up the geometry --sphere,ra,rb,0,180
sphere,rb,a,0,180
vsel,all
cm,vequi,volu
block,-b,b,0,b,-b,b
block,-c,c,0,c,-c,c
vsbv,4,3,,delete,keep
vsbv,3,vequi,,delete,keep
csys,2
vsel,s,loc,x,0,ra/2
vdel,all
alls
csys,0
vglue,all
! --- meshing --csys,0
smrtsize,4
! meshing
esize,h1
type,1
mat,1
vmesh,1
mat,2
esize,h2
vmesh,3
esize,h2
vmesh,6
! --- PML element --type,2
vmesh,5
alls
nummrg,all
! define equivalent source surface
csys,2
nsel,s,loc,x,0,a
esln,s,1,all
nsel,s,loc,x,a
sf,all,mxwf
alls
! define boundary condition
csys,0
nsel,s,loc,x,c
nsel,a,loc,x,-c
nsel,a,loc,y,c
nsel,a,loc,z,-c
nsel,a,loc,z,c
d,all,ax,0.
nsel,all
csys,2
nsel,s,loc,x,ra
d,all,ax,0.
csys,0
allsel,all
! incident plane wave
plwave,-1,0,0,0,0
fini
/solu
hfscat,scat
eqslv,sparse
antype,harmic
harfrq,freq

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241

Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Metallic Sphere Coated by a Dielectric Layer (Command Method)
solve
fini
/post1
set,1,1
hfsym,,,pmc
prfar,rcsn,total,0,0,,0,180,36
/yrange,-35,15
plfar,rcsn,total,0,0,,0,180,180
fini

Target Results
The contour of the scattering electric field from the dielectric-coated metallic sphere is shown in Figure 2: Scattering Electric Field Contour of The Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere (p. 242). Figure 3: Normalized RCS of the
Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere on E-Plane (p. 242) depicts the RCS of the dielectric-coated metallic sphere
on the E-plane (=0).

Figure 2: Scattering Electric Field Contour of The Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere

Figure 3: Normalized RCS of the Dielectric-Coated Metallic Sphere on E-Plane

242

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Harmonic Analysis of a Thick Bandpass Frequency Selective Surface


(Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine the power transmission coefficient for a thick bandpass frequency selective surface using ANSYS commands. The frequency selective surface is a thick perfectly conducting screen perforated with a periodic array of annular apertures. The conducting screen is 0.1 cm thick.
The outer radius of the annular slot is 0.45 cm. The inner radius is 0.40 cm. A square grid is selected with a
periodic spacing of 1 cm.
The FEA model is shown in Figure 1: Unit Cell (p. 243). Perfect electric conductor boundary conditions are
applied to the aperture and PML wall. The calculations are performed at normal incidence and a frequency
of 10 GHz.

Figure 1: Unit Cell

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/com,Thick Annular-Slot Band-pass
/com
/nopr
/prep7
frq=10e9
!
lamda=3.e8/frq
scal=1.e-2
phi=0
!
! define element and geometry
theta=0
!
et,1,119,1
!

FSS

working frequency

incident phi angle


incident theta angle
normal element

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243

Harmonic Analysis of a Thick Bandpass Frequency Selective Surface (Command Method)


et,2,119,1,,,1
! PML element
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
x0=scal*0.5
y0=scal*0.5
rb=scal*0.45
ra=rb/1.125
plateh=scal*0.1
cyl4,0,0,ra,0,rb,360,plateh
h1=lamda/15
h2=0.3*h1
n1=6
n2=4
npml=6
*dim,c,array,10
c(4)=0
c(3)=c(4)-0.05*lamda
c(2)=c(3)-0.25*lamda
c(1)=c(2)-npml*h1
c(5)=c(4)+plateh
c(6)=c(5)+0.05*lamda
c(7)=c(6)+0.25*lamda
c(8)=c(7)+0.25*lamda
c(9)=c(8)+npml*h1
*do,i,5,8
block,-x0,x0,-y0,y0,c(i),c(i+1)
*enddo
*do,i,4,2,-1
block,-x0,x0,-y0,y0,c(i),c(i-1)
*enddo
alls
vglue,all
numcmp,all
/number,1
! meshing master surfaces and copy mesh to slave surfaces
et,3,200,5
type,3
esize,h2
asel,s,loc,x,-x0
asel,a,loc,y,-y0
asel,r,loc,z,c(3),c(6)
amesh,all
esize,h1
asel,s,loc,x,-x0
asel,a,loc,y,-y0
asel,u,loc,z,c(3),c(6)
amesh,all
alls
asel,s,loc,x,-x0
agen,2,all,,,2*x0
asel,s,loc,y,-y0
agen,2,all,,,0,2*y0
alls
nummrg,all
! meshing volumes
type,1
esize,h2
vsel,s,loc,z,c(3),c(6)
vmesh,all
esize,h1
vsel,s,loc,z,c(2),c(3)
vsel,a,loc,z,c(6),c(8)
vmesh,all
! create PML element
type,2
esize,h1
vsel,s,loc,z,c(1),c(2)
vsel,a,loc,z,c(8),c(9)
vmesh,all
alls
aclear,all
etdel,3

244

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Harmonic Analysis of a Thick Bandpass Frequency Selective Surface (Command Method)


alls
! coupling master/slave nodes
nsel,s,loc,x,-x0
nsel,a,loc,x,x0
cpcyc,ax,,,2*x0,0,0,1
nsel,s,loc,y,-y0
nsel,a,loc,y,y0
cpcyc,ax,,,0,2*y0,0,1
alls
! set up PEC on aperture and PML wall
nsel,s,loc,z,c(1)
nsel,a,loc,z,c(9)
d,all,ax,0
csys,1
nsel,s,loc,z,c(4)
nsel,a,loc,z,c(5)
nsel,u,loc,x,ra,rb
d,all,ax,0
nsel,s,loc,x,ra
nsel,a,loc,x,rb
nsel,r,loc,z,c(4),c(5)
d,all,ax,0
alls
csys,0
! port definitions
nsel,s,loc,z,c(7)
bf,all,port,1
hfport,1,PLAN,,,INT,0.,1.,0.,phi,theta
alls
save
fini
! perform a solution
/solu
eqslv,sparse
antype,harmic
harfrq,frq
solve
fini
! calculate power transmission coefficient
/post1
Fssparm,1,1
fini

Target Results
A 0.57 power transmission coefficient is calculated for 10 GHz. The mode matching method presented in
the paper Bandpass Grids with Annular Apertures by Ann Roberts and Ross C. McPhedran, IEEE Transactions
on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 36, No. 5., May 1988, pp. 607611 gives a value of 0.52.

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245

246

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Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Dielectric Grating (Command


Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to determine scattering of a dielectric grating using ANSYS commands.
The dielectric grating has the dimensions and material properties shown in the following figure. Period D
= 11.28 mm, thickness h = 4.37 mm, l1 = l2 = 5.64 mm. The relative permittivities are: 1 = 6.13 (E-glass) and
2 = 3.7 (silica)
The oblique incident wave is a transverse electric polarization (TE) wave, E = Eox, with incident angles =
90o and = 5o. A unit cell is under investigation. PML absorbing elements are used to truncate the model
in the z direction.

Figure 1: Dielectric Grating


z

D
x
1 2
I1 I2

y
h

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/nopr
/prep7
! define structure and numerical model
frq=15.5e9
! central frequency
lamda=3.e8/frq
theta=5
! incident theta angle
phi=90
! incident phi angle
D=11.28e-3
! grating period
h=4.37e-3
! grating thickness
xd=D/4
zpml=lamda/4
! thickness of PML layer
zprt=lamda/2
! distance between port and PML
eps1=6.13
! E-glass (relat. permit.)
eps2=3.7
! silica (relat. permit.)
hgrt=lamda/(12*sqrt(eps1))
! mesh size
! define element and materials
et,1,120,1
! normal element
et,2,120,1,,,1
! PML element
et,3,200,7
! temp. surface mesh
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247

Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Dielectric Grating (Command Method)


mp,murx,2,1.
! E-glass
mp,perx,2,eps1
mp,murx,1,1.
! silica
mp,perx,1,eps2
mp,murx,3,1.
! air
mp,perx,3,1.
! generate volumes for numerical model
*dim,z,array,7
*dim,y,array,4
z(4)=0
z(3)=z(4)-h
z(2)=z(3)-lamda/4
z(1)=z(2)-zpml
z(5)=z(4)+zprt
z(6)=z(5)+lamda/4
z(7)=z(6)+zpml
y(1)=-D/2
y(2)=y(1)+D/4
y(3)=y(2)+D/2
y(4)=y(3)+D/4
*do,i,1,6
*do,j,1,3
block,-xd,xd,y(j),y(j+1),z(i),z(i+1)
*enddo
*enddo
vglue,all
numcmp,all
alls
! mesh master surfaces
type,3
esize,hgrt
asel,s,loc,x,-xd
asel,a,loc,y,y(1)
asel,u,loc,z,z(2),z(6)
amesh,all
asel,s,loc,x,-xd
asel,a,loc,y,y(1)
asel,r,loc,z,z(3),z(4)
amesh,all
asel,s,loc,x,-xd
asel,a,loc,y,y(1)
asel,u,loc,z,z(1),z(2)
asel,u,loc,z,z(3),z(4)
asel,u,loc,z,z(6),z(7)
amesh,all
alls
! copy mesh to slave surfaces
asel,s,loc,x,-xd
agen,2,all,,,2*xd
asel,s,loc,y,-D/2
agen,2,all,,,0,D
alls
nummrg,all
! mesh the volumes
type,1
mat,1
esize,hgrt
vsel,s,loc,z,z(3),z(4)
vsel,u,loc,y,y(2),y(3)
vmesh,all
mat,2
vsel,s,loc,z,z(3),z(4)
vsel,r,loc,y,y(2),y(3)
vmesh,all
mat,3
esize,hgrt
vsel,s,loc,z,z(2),z(3)
vsel,a,loc,z,z(4),z(6)
vmesh,all
! PML meshes
type,2
mat,3

248

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Harmonic Analysis for Scattering of a Dielectric Grating (Command Method)


esize,hgrt
vsel,s,loc,z,z(1),z(2)
vsel,a,loc,z,z(6),z(7)
vmesh,all
alls
! delete surface mesh
aclear,all
alls
! coupling master/slave nodes
nsel,s,loc,x,-xd
nsel,a,loc,x,xd
cpcyc,ax,,,2*xd,0,0,1
nsel,s,loc,y,-D/2
nsel,a,loc,y,D/2
cpcyc,ax,,,0,D,0,1
alls
! define ports
nsel,s,loc,z,z(5)
bf,all,port,1
hfport,1,PLAN,,,INT,1.,0.,0.,phi,theta
alls
! set up PEC
nsel,s,loc,z,z(1)
nsel,a,loc,z,z(7)
d,all,ax,0.0
alls
fini
! perform the solution
/solu
spswp,12.5e9,17.5e9,0.25e9,1,,2,0
fini
! postprocessing
/post1
/yrange,0,1
plsyz,file,s1p,s,mag,1,1
fini

Target Results
The following figure depicts the magnitude of the reflection coefficient |S11| from 12.5 to 17.5 GHz.

Note
Reflectance is equal to the power reflection coefficient and the square of the reflection coefficient.

Figure 2: Reflection Coefficient of Dielectric Grating

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249

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Harmonic Analysis for a Lossy Free-Standing Ohmic Plate Array


(Command Method)
Problem Description
This example demonstrates how to simulate an infinite periodic array of lossy free-standing ohmic plates
using ANSYS commands.
The reflection of an infinite periodic array of lossy free-standing ohmic plates is determined using harmonic
analysis. A unit cell with a square grid and imperfectly conducting plate is shown in the following figure.
An interior plane wave port is defined with incident electric field E = Eoy and normal incident angle (, )
= (0, 0). The numerical model is truncated by PML in the z-direction.

Figure 1: Unit Cell


Slave 1
Slave 2

Ds2

Master 1
Master 2

Ds1
(Ds1 = Ds2, d = 0.5 Ds1, Rs = 10 ohm/square)

Commands This Example Uses


Below is the command input stream used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, Lossy Free-Standing
/nopr
/prep7
! geometric parameters
a=1
b=0.5*a
lamda1=a/0.3
lamda2=a/1.1
lamdai=a/0.05

Ohmic Plate Array

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251

Harmonic Analysis for a Lossy Free-Standing Ohmic Plate Array (Command Method)
r0=10
! Rs = 10 ohms
freq1=3.e8/lamda1
freq2=3.e8/lamda2
freqinc=3.e8/lamdai
phi1=0
phi2=0
phiinc=phi2-phi1
theta1=0
theta2=0
thetainc=theta2-theta1
! define element
et,11,200,5
et,1,119,1
et,2,119,1,,,1
! PML element
! define material
mp,murx,1,1.
mp,perx,1,1.
! numerical model
h1=lamda2/10
n1=4
npml=8
c1=0
c2=c1+npml*h1
c3=c2+n1*h1
c4=c3+0.25*lamda1
c5=c4+0.25*lamda1
c6=c5+n1*h1
c7=c6+npml*h1
tiny=1.e-3*h1
block,-a/2,a/2,-a/2,a/2,c1,c2
block,-a/2,a/2,-a/2,a/2,c2,c3
block,-a/2,a/2,-a/2,a/2,c3,c4
block,-a/2,a/2,-a/2,a/2,c4,c5
block,-a/2,a/2,-a/2,a/2,c5,c6
block,-a/2,a/2,-a/2,a/2,c6,c7
cm,_outv,volu
block,-b/2,b/2,-b/2,b/2,c1,c2
block,-b/2,b/2,-b/2,b/2,c2,c3
block,-b/2,b/2,-b/2,b/2,c3,c4
block,-b/2,b/2,-b/2,b/2,c4,c5
block,-b/2,b/2,-b/2,b/2,c5,c6
block,-b/2,b/2,-b/2,b/2,c6,c7
vsel,all
vsel,u,volu,,_outv
cm,_inv,volu
vsel,all
vsbv,_outv,_inv,,delete,keep
vglue,all
! 2d meshing
type,11
esize,h1
asel,s,loc,x,-a/2
asel,a,loc,y,-a/2
asel,u,loc,z,c3,c5
amesh,all
asel,s,loc,x,-a/2
asel,a,loc,y,-a/2
asel,r,loc,z,c3,c5
amesh,all
alls
asel,s,loc,x,-a/2
agen,2,all,,,a
asel,s,loc,y,-a/2
agen,2,all,,,0,a
alls
nummrg,all
! 3d meshing
type,1
esize,h1
vsel,s,loc,z,c2,c3
vsel,a,loc,z,c5,c6
vmesh,all

252

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Harmonic Analysis for a Lossy Free-Standing Ohmic Plate Array (Command Method)
vsel,s,loc,z,c3,c5
vmesh,all
type,2
! create PML element
vsel,s,loc,z,c1,c2
vsel,a,loc,z,c6,c7
vmesh,all
alls
aclear,all
etdel,11
alls
! group the plate nodes
nsel,s,loc,z,c4
nsel,r,loc,x,-b/2-tiny,b/2+tiny
nsel,r,loc,y,-b/2-tiny,b/2+tiny
cm,ndapt,node
! assign master/slave pairs
nsel,s,loc,x,-a/2
nsel,a,loc,x,a/2
cpcyc,ax,,,a,0,0,1
nsel,s,loc,y,-a/2
nsel,a,loc,y,a/2
cpcyc,ax,,,0,a,0,1
alls
! set PEC on PML wall
nsel,s,loc,z,c1
nsel,a,loc,z,c7
d,all,ax,0
! assign resistive sheet
nsel,s,,,ndapt
bf,all,impd,r0
nsel,all
! define plane wave port
nsel,s,loc,z,c5
bf,all,port,1
hfport,1,PLAN,,TE,INT,0.,1.,0.,phi,theta
alls
save
fini
! perform solution
/solu
spfss,freq1,freq2,freqinc,phi1,phi2,phiinc,theta1,theta2,thetainc,1,0,2,0
fini
/post1
! plot power reflection coefficient
/yrange,0,0.6
plfss,file,f1p,mag,prefl
fini

Target Results
The power reflection coefficient for normal incidence is plotted from = Ds1/0.3 to =
figure.

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Ds1/1.1

in the following

253

Harmonic Analysis for a Lossy Free-Standing Ohmic Plate Array (Command Method)

Figure 2: Power Reflection Coefficient

254

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Index
A
adaptive meshing
high-frequency analysis, 63
analysis
high-frequency electromagnetic, 1
antenna arrays, 27

B
boundary conditions
harmonic high-frequency analysis, 19
perfect electric conductor, 19
perfect magnetic conductor, 20
perfectly matched layers, 24
surface impedance, 21

C
Cutoff frequencies, 91, 149

D
dispersion characteristics, 67, 91, 149

E
elements
high-frequency, 9
EMF command, 51
example problems
high-frequency advanced analysis, 101
high-frequency basic analysis, 67
wave propagation, advanced, 129
wave propagation, basic, 71
wave radiation, advanced, 101
wave radiation, basic, 67
wave resonance, advanced, 209, 219
wave resonance, basic, 83
wave scattering, advanced, 227
wave scattering, basic, 95
excitation ports, 30

HFEREFINE command, 9
HFPORT command, 30
HFSCAT command, 40
HFSYM command, 49
high-frequency analysis, 1
adaptive meshing, 63
advanced example problems, 101
basic example problems, 67
boundary conditions, 19
characteristic impedance, 39
circuit parameters, 50
commands, 11
current source, 33
electric field source, 37
elements, 9
excitation ports, 30
excitation sources, 30
far field results, 46
impedance, 21
material properties, 15
mesh refinement, 9
modal analysis, 57
near field results, 46
physics environment, 14
plane wave source, 35
quality factor, 61
S-parameters, 50
scattering field analysis, 40
surface magnetic field source, 36
units, 15
waveguide modal source, 30

I
IMPD command, 51
Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver,
39

M
MMF command, 51
modal analysis, 57

N
F

network parameter conversion, 53

frequency selective surface, 51

P
H
HF 118 element, 9
HF119 element, 9
HF120 element, 9
HFANG command, 49
HFEIGOPT command, 59

perfect electric conductor, 19


perfect magnetic conductor, 20
perfectly matched layers, 24
attenuation factors, 24
normal reflection coefficients, 24
periodic arrays, 27

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255

Index
periodic boundary conditions, 27
permittivity, 15
physics environment
high-frequency electromagnetic analysis, 14
plane wave source port, 30
PLFAR command, 47
PLSP command, 50
PLWAVE command, 35
postprocessing, 45
power parameters, 51
PRFAR command, 47
PRNEAR command, 46
Propagating constants, 67, 91, 149

basic examples, 83
wave scattering
advanced examples, 227
basic examples, 95
waveguide port, 30

Q
QFACT command, 61
Quasi-Minimal Residual (QMR) solver, 39

R
relative permittivity, 15

S
scattering field analysis, 40
Smith chart, 53
solvers
Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient, 39
Quasi-Minimal Residual, 39
sparse direct, 39
SPARM command, 50
sparse direct solver, 39
specific absorption rate, 44
SPICE macromodel, 54
SPSWP command, 50
surface impedance, 21

T
time domain waveforms, 55

U
units, 15

W
wave propagation
advanced examples, 129
basic examples, 71
wave radiation
advanced examples, 101
wave radition
basic examples, 67
wave resonance
advanced examples, 209, 219
256

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