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Answer the following questions.

1. Most carnivorous plants use their prey as a primary source of


A) nitrogen. B) energy. C) carbon. D) magnesium. E) potassium.
2. Organisms that use light energy to assemble their own organic molecules from water and
elements that they absorb from their environment are which of the following?
A) heterotrophs B) detritivores C) autotrophs D) decomposers E) omnivores
3. Nutrients that an organism needs in fairly large amounts are referred to as
A) total nutrients. B) macronutrients. C) micronutrients. D) solid nutrients.
E) essential nutrients.
4. "K" is the chemical symbol for
A) phosphorus. B) potassium. C) nickel. D) krypton. E) copper.
5. "P" is the chemical symbol for
A) nickel. B) potassium. C) plutonium. D) phosphorus. E) copper.
6. "N" is the chemical symbol for
A) nickel. B) neon. C) nitrogen. D) magnesium. E) copper.
7. A chemically complex, hard-to-digest, spongy organic substance, containing carbon found in
soil is
A) humus. B) creosote.

C) silt.

D) topsoil.

E) clay.

8. Carbon dioxide enters a plant from the atmosphere through pores called
A) guard cells. B) companion cells. C) sieve tubes. D) plasmodesmata. E) stomata.
9. Which of the following is not an element taken in primarily by the roots of the plant?
A) nitrogen B) magnesium C) carbon D) phosphorus E) zinc
10. Nitrogen is made available to plants through their
A) stomata. B) leaves. C) roots. D) roots and leaves. E) stomata and leaves.
11. Nitrogen is needed in plants to manufacture
A) amino acids. B) proteins. C) nucleic acids. D) chlorophyll. E) All of the answer
choices are correct.
12. The bacterium Rhizobium

A) triggers the development of root nodules in legumes.


B) enters plants through the root hairs.
C) lives symbiotically within plant cells.
D) breaks the triple covalent bond in N2. E) All of the answer
choices are correct.
13. Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in growths called ______________ on the plant's roots.
A) sieve tubes B) nodules C) nodes D) root hairs E) internodes
12. Which of the following is not a legume?
A) corn

B) peas C) beans D) soybeans

E) alfalfa

13. Commercial fertilizer labels prominently display three numbers which indicate the content of
three elements needed by most plants as macronutrients. These elements in number sequence
are
A) zinc, magnesium, and potassium. B) nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
C) copper, nitrogen, and phosphorus. D) carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen.
E) nitrogen, zinc, and copper.
14. Using organic matter such as manure or compost for fertilizer,
A) improves fertility. B) aerates the soil. C) increases the water holding capacity of the
soil. D) provides food for beneficial soil microorganisms. E) All of the answer choices
are correct.
15. The evaporation of water from the leaf of a plant is
A) totally prevented by the leaf's cuticle. B) hydrolysis.
transpiration.
E) sublimation.

C) condensation. D)

16. The products of photosynthesis move from the leaf to other parts of the plant via
A) xylem. B) phloem. C) cortex. D) xylem and cortex. E) phloem and cortex.
17. The pressure placed on the inside of a cell membrane of a plant by water is called
A) turgor. B) adhesion.

C) cohesion.

D) osmosis. E) hydrolysis.

18. The tendency of water molecules to "cling" together is


A) cohesion. B) adhesion. C) hydrolysis. D) condensation. E) evaporation.
19. The attraction of a molecule to another type of substance is
A) adhesion.

B) hydrolysis. C) condensation. D) cohesion.

20. The water absorption rate of a plant's roots is greatly increased by

E) evaporation.

fungi.

A) presence of many stomata. B) presence of root hairs.


C) presence of many stomata and root hairs. D) association with mycorrhizal
E) association with mycorrhizal fungi and presence of root hairs.

21. The waxy _____ ensures that all of the water coming into a root moves into the xylem.
A) cuticle B) epidermis C) companion cells

D) sieve tubes E) Casparian strip

22. Water and minerals can move through a root's intracellular pathway from one cell to another
through the
A) stomata. B) plasmodesmata. C) guard cells. D) companion cells. E) Casparian
strip.
23. The innermost layer of the cortex of a plant root is the
A) epidermis. B) ectoderm. C) mesoderm. D) endodermis. E) protoderm.
24. The _____ and _____ of a plant's leaf help conserve water in a plant.
A) root hairs; stomata B) Casparian strip; endodermis C) stomata; cuticle
D) Casparian strip; cuticle E) None of the answer choices are correct.
25. During drought stress, a plant hormone called _____________________ causes the
stomata of a plant's leaf to close.
A) abscisic acid B) estrogen C) ethylene D) malic acid E) cuprous oxide
26. In the pressure flow theory, any part of a plant that does not carry out photosynthesis is a
A) source. B) sink. C) reservoir. D) aqueduct.

E) companion cell.

27. A farmer decides to use a crop rotation plan that plants corn one year, peanuts the next
year, and soy beans the next year, and then starts over with corn the following year. The most
likely reason for this type of crop rotation is to replace the soil's _____ content.
A) water

B) nitrogen

C) phosphorus

D) potassium E) calcium

28. Which of the following will not increase the rate of transpiration in a plant?
A) high humidity B) low humidity C) high wind speeds D) high temperature
E) All of the answer choices are correct.
29. Throughout a growing season, a plant uses up to 1000 liters (or kg) of water to produce just
1 kilogram of tissue. What happens to most of the remaining 999 kg of water?
A) It is used in the cytoplasm. B) It is used in photosynthesis.
C) It is used in hydrolysis reactions. D) It evaporates.
E) It passes back through the roots into the soil.

30 The concentration of solutes in most soil is lower than the concentration of solutes in root
cells, so water enters the roots by
A) hydrostatic pressure. B) cohesion.

C) adhesion. D) hydrolysis. E) osmosis.

31. If water is abundant, a plant's guard cells will ______________ and the stomata will
_________________.
A) swell; close B) swell; open C) collapse; close D) collapse; open E) none of the
above
32. If water is scarce, a plant's guard cells will ______________ and the stomata will
_________________.
A) swell; close B) collapse; open C) collapse; close D) swell; open E) none of the
above
33. If water were being pushed from below, air bubbles in the xylem stream would not pose a
problem. However, the observation that air bubbles can interrupt xylem function provides
important evidence supporting the _______ theory of water movement.
A) gravity-suction B) active transport C) pressure-flow D) osmotic E) cohesiontension
34. During dry conditions, abscisic acid binds to guard cell membranes and indirectly triggers
them to lose potassium ions. What will this do to the plant?
A) decrease water loss by opening the stomata B) decrease water loss by closing the
stomata
C) increase water loss by closing the stomata D) increase water loss by
opening the stomata
35. When a plant does not get enough water, it will wilt. This is due to which of the following?
A) a decrease in turgor in the stem B) a decrease in osmosis in the stomata
C) an increase in transpiration by the leaves D) an increase in sap moving
through the xylem
E) a decrease in sap moving through the phloem
36. During photosynthesis in a leaf, sugars are loaded into the sieve tube by _____, followed by
______ to increase the pressure.
A) osmosis; facilitated diffusion B) facilitated diffusion; osmosis C) gravity; active
transport
D) active transport; osmosis E) osmosis; gravity
37. How does sap move from the sieve tube into a sink?
A) a pump

B) pressure C) gravity D) osmosis E) active transport

38. Soybeans will have several hundred Rhizobium nodules per plant and may divert 20-30
percent of its energy generated by photosynthesis to the nodule instead of to other plant

functions when the nodule is actively fixing nitrogen. Which of the following best describes
Rhizobium?
A) soil fungus that invades the root B) parasitic plant that invades the root
C) soil bacterium that invades the root D) virus that invades the root
E) mycelium that invades the root
39. Soybeans will have several hundred Rhizobium nodules per plant and may divert 20-30
percent of its energy generated by photosynthesis to the nodule instead of to other plant
functions when the nodule is actively fixing nitrogen. Why would the plant divert so much energy
to Rhizobium?
A) Rhizobium produces NH4. B) Rhizobium produces N2. C) Rhizobium produces
sugars.
D) Rhizobium protects the plants from predators. E) Rhizobium protects the
plants from parasites.
40. Soybeans will have several hundred Rhizobium nodules. A study in Minnesota found that
soybeans grown without ammonium sulfate fertilizer produced 52.4 bushels per acre, while
adding 75 lbs of ammonium sulfate per acre gave a yield of 54.2 bushels per acre. What is the
best explanation for this observation?
A) Rhizobium produces PO4 and NH4, so you don't need any fertilizer.
B) Rhizobium produces NH4, so you don't need nitrogen-containing fertilizer.
C) Rhizobium produces PO4, so you don't need phosphorus-containing
fertilizer.
D) Rhizobium cannot produce NH4, so you need to add nitrogencontaining fertilizer.
E) Rhizobium cannot produce PO4, so you need to add
phosphorus-containing fertilizer.
41. Soybeans will have several hundred Rhizobium nodules. A study in Minnesota found that
soybeans grown without P2O5 fertilizer produced 23.0 bushels per acre, while adding 23 lbs of
P2O5 per acre gave a yield of 37 bushels per acre. What is the best explanation for this
observation?
A) Rhizobium cannot produce PO4, so you need to add phosphorus-containing fertilizer.
B) Rhizobium produces NH4, so you do not need nitrogen-containing fertilizer.
C) Rhizobium produces PO4 and NH4, so you do not need any fertilizer.
D) Rhizobium produces PO4, so you do not need phosphorus-containing
fertilizer.
E) Rhizobium cannot produce NH4, so you need to add N containing
fertilizer.
42. Carnivorous plants like Sarracenia purpurea are which of the following?
A) producers B) consumers C) detritivores D) producers and consumers
E) producers and detritivores
44. What is the cost of being a carnivorous plant?

A) reduced photosynthesis B) reduced respiration C) reduced mobility D) reduced


nutrients
reduced water
45. How would a noncarnivorous plant obtain nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus?
A) from the soil through its roots B) from animals through its pitcher
C) from the air through its leaves D) from the sun through photosynthesis
E) from the rain through its leaves
Use the following figure to answer question 46.

46. A normal pitcher has a narrow keel and a wide pitcher opening, maximizing the potential for
trapping prey. On the other hand, a leaf optimized for photosynthesis has a wide keel and a
small pitcher opening. Based on this observation and the figure above, what conclusion can be
drawn?
A) high phosphorus correlated with increased photosynthetic ability
B) high nitrogen correlated with increased photosynthetic ability
C) high nitrogen correlated with increased trapping ability

D) high phosphorus correlated with increased trapping ability E) all of


the above
47. Nitrogen is used in plant cells to produce which of the following?
A) sugars and nucleic acids B) proteins C) proteins and nucleic acids D) sugars E)
nucleic acids
48. Carnivorous plants exist only in science fiction.
A) True

B) False

49. Chemicals that are vital to the metabolism, growth, and reproduction of plants are called
essential elements.
A) True B) False
50. Which below is true of osmosis?
A) Uses ATP
B)
Water moves from a lower concentration of water to a higher concentration of water C)
Water moves from a lower concentration of solutes to a higher concentration of solutes
D)Active Transport E) all are true
51. You work in an exotic greenhouse selling pitcher plants. You know that plants with big
pitchers sell best. What nutrient solution will you use on your pitcher plants?
A) Micronutrients only B) Low N C) High P D) High N E) Low P and High N