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A.

Summary of the topic


a. Extensive and Intensive listening
Students can improve their listening skill and gain valuable language input by
combining extensive and intensive listening material procedure. Listening to both
kind listening types are important since it provides the perfect opportunity to hear
voices other than the teacher. It enables students to acquire good speaking habits
as a result of the spoken English, they absorb and help improving their
pronunciation. As Carter and Nunan (2001: 7) stated that the teaching listening
involves the selection of input sources (which may be live or be recorded on
audio or video).

Extensive listening
When teacher encourage students to choose for themselves what they listen to
and to do so for pleasure and general language improvement, it is what so
called extensive listening. The motivation to do extensive listening increase
when the students make their own choices about what they are going to listen
to. Extensive listening will usually place outside the classroom: in the
students home, car, or in their personal mp3 player. Material for extensive
listening can be obtained from a number of sources. Many simplified reads are
now published with an audio version on cassette or CD. This provide ideal
sources of listening material. Students can also have their copies of course
book CDs or tapes, or recording which accompany other books written
especially at their level. They can download or listen online podcast from a
range of sources. It is important for extensive listening to make a collection of
appropriate tapes, CDs and podcast that clearly marked for the level in order to
work effectively with a group of students. However, John field thinks that it is
very difficult to judge the difficulty of a text and, therefore, difficult to grade
listening (Field 2000a: 195). Some students will want to listen to English
audio material outside the classroom anyway and will need little
encouragement to do so. Many others, however, will profit from having the
teacher give them reason to make use of the resource available. In order to
encourage extensive listening we can have students perform a number of tasks.

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They can record their response to what they heard into a personal journal,
make a report or comments on it.

Intensive Listening: Using audio material


Many teachers use audio material on tape, CD or hard disk when they want
their students to practice listening skills. However, using this type of material
has a number of advantage and disadvantage.
Advantage
Recorded materials allow student to hear variety of voice apart from
their own teacher. It gives them an opportunity to meet a range of
different characters, especially where real people are talking. Audio
material is portable and readily available. Now that so much audio
material is offered in digital form, teacher can play recorded tracks in

class directly from computer.


Disadvantage
In big classroom with poor acoustics, the audibility of the recorded
material often gives cause for concern. It is sometimes difficult to
ensure that all students in the room can hear equally well. Another
problem with recorded material is that everyone has to listen at the
same speed, a speed dictated by the recording, not by listeners. Finally
having a group of people sit round listening to a tape recorder or CD
player is not an entirely natural occupation.
In spite of the disadvantage, however, we will still want to use recorded
material at various stages in a sequence of the lessons for the
advantages that already mentioned. In order to counteract some of the
potential problems we can do some prevention by checking the
audibility before it used. Second issue that also need to be addressed is
how often we are going to play the audio tracks we ask students to
listen to. It is true that extracting general information from one
listening is an important skill, so it is urge to train the students how to
listen effectively. However, if the students are to get maximum benefit
from a listening, then we should replay it two or more times, since with
each listening they may feel more secure and get more understanding.
Furthermore, to cope with students have to listen in the same speed, we
can do something about this; it is by having students work in a

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language laboratory or listening center with their personal listening


machines on their table which allows them to freely control when to
start, replay, or to stop.
The crucial part of listening practice is the lead in we involve students
in before they listen to recorded material. Giving students background
knowledge before they listened was more successful than either letting
them preview questions or teaching them some key vocabulary before
they listened.

Intensive listening: live listening


A popular way of ensuring genuine communication is live listening, where the
teacher and/ or visitor to the class and talk to the students. Moreover, listening
can take the following forms: Reading aloud, storytelling, Interviews and
conversations

Intensive listening: the roles of the teacher


As with all activities, we need to create students engagement through the way
we set up listening tasks, we need to build up students confidence by helping
them listen better, rather than by testing their listening abilities. Furthermore,
the role of teacher in listening are: Organizer, Machine operator, Feedback
organizer and prompter.

b. Film and video


Besides listening to a song, we can ask students to listen from film and video
where they can have visualization while they hear. There are good reasons for
encouraging students to watch while they listen. In the first place they get to
see language in use. This allows them to see a whole lot of paralinguistic
gestures accompany certain phrases. Film also allows students to entry into a
whole range of communication world.

Viewing techniques
All of the following techniques are designed to awaken students curiosity
through prediction so that when they finally watch the film sequence in its
entirety, they will have some expectations about it, they are: fast forward,

silent viewing, freeze frame, partial viewing.


Listening (and mixed techniques)

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Based on the same principle as those for viewing, listening are similarly
designed to provoke engagement and expectations, they are: pictures listening
for language, music and sound effect, picture of speech and subtitles.
c. Listening (and film) lesson sequences
Skills will not exists in isolation. Listening as one of the basic skills can occur
at a number of points in a teaching sequence. Sometimes it forms the jumpingoff point of the activity which follow. Sometimes, it may be the first stage of a
listening and acting out sequence where students role play the situation they
have heard on the recording. Sometimes live listening may be a prelude to a
piece of writing which is the main focus of the lesson. However, much we
planned a lesson, we need to be flexible in what we do.
d. The sound of music
Music is the powerful stimulus for students engagement precisely because it
speaks directly to our motions. A piece of music can change the atmosphere in
a classroom or prepare students for a new activity. It can amuse and entertain
and at the same time connect the world of leisure and learning in the
classroom.
B. Related theories from other books

Changing perspective of listening


Listening term is used in language teaching to refer to a complex
process that allows us to understand spoken language (Rost, 2001). It is one of
English skills that need to be mastered in order to have goo English ability.
However, listening has been become Cinderella in English skill (Nunan,
2002), it is become step child in mastering English language. For many years,
listening did not received priority in language teaching. The teaching and
learning of English language emphasizing on productive skill which is
speaking and writing without understanding the tight relationship between
receptive and productive skill (Richard and Renandya, 2002). Listening has
often been called a passive skill which is misleading because listening
demands active involvement from the hearer (Littlewood, 1981: 66). From the
late 1960s, practitioners recognized the importance of listening and began to
set aside time from practicing the skill (Field, 2002: 243). Nowadays, listening

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has been assumed as central role in language learning (Rost, 2001) and a
primary vehicle for language learning (Richard 1985; Ricards and Rogers
1986; Rost 1990 in Carter and Nunan, 2001) since it provide language input
for learner. By listening, listener are able to grasp English spoken structure,
learn how to pronounce, and the most important is learners know how to use
English. Receiving greater and greater important assumption in language
classroom (Richard and Renandya, 2002), the development of effective
teaching listening is growing. It involves careful selection of input sources
which is appropriately authentic, interesting, varied and challenging; creative
design of task; assistance to help learners enact effective learning strategies;
integration of listening with other listening purposes. Field proposes a
relatively standard format for the listening developed at this time is prelistening, listening and post- listening.

Understanding the nature of spoken language


In order to gain better comprehension, it is important for teacher to
develop teaching listening technique based on top- down processing and
bottom- up and for students to understand how meaning being transferred in
spoken language.
Top down processing
The first characteristic is top-down processing, it suggest the listeners are
actively construct the original meaning of the speaker using in coming sounds
as a clues (Nunan, 2001). In this technique, listener use the of background
knowledge -pragmatic knowledge, cultural knowledge and discourse
knowledge- in understanding the meaning of a message (Carter and Nunan,
2001; Richard, 2008; Goh and Vandergrift, 2012). Richard (2008) states that in
doing exercises in top-down processing require the learners ability to do the
following: (1) Use key words to construct the schema of a discourse, (2) Infer
the setting for a text and (3) Infer the role of the participants and their goals.

Bottom up processing
Second characteristic is Bottom-up processing, it refers to the segmentation of
the sound stream into meaningful units to interpret the message (Richard,
2008; Goh and Vandergrift, 2012). Further Richard (2008: 4) explain
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comprehension begins with the received data that is analyzed as successive


levels of organization sounds, words, clauses, sentences, texts until
meaning is derived. He further claimed that in teaching using bottom-up
processing, learners need a large vocabulary and a good working knowledge of
sentence structure to process texts bottom-up (Richards, 2008). However,
many traditional classroom listening activities focus primarily on bottom-up
processing, with exercises such as dictation, cloze listening, and the use of
multiple- choice questions after a text, and similar activities that require close
and detailed recognition, and processing of the input. They assume that
everything the listener needs to understand is contained in the input.
Furthermore, Lynch (2006) argue that in teaching listening skills, teachers
should not regard the approaches as mutually exclusive but as essentially
complementary, and should create listening tasks in which language learners
make conscious use of both top and bottom as they try to understand what a
speaker is saying. In line with her argument- as mention previously- current
teaching listening suggested by Field (2002) involves three part sequence; prelistening phase prepares students for both top-down and bottom-up processing
through activities involving activating prior knowledge, making predictions,
and reviewing key vocabulary. The while-listening phase focuses on
comprehension through exercises that require selective listening, gist listening,
sequencing, etc. The post-listening phase typically involves a response to
comprehension and may require students to give opinions about a topic. (Field,
2008).

Listening strategies
According to Rost (2001:7) listening strategies are conscious plan to deal with
incoming speech, particularly when the listener knows that he or she must
compensate for incomplete input or partial understanding.
Chamot (1995) in Field (2008), learning strategies are classified into three
main types: metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective strategies. He
defines as follows:

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Metacognitive strategies are executive processes associated with the regulation and
management of learning, and include strategies used to plan for a task, to monitor a
task in progress, and to evaluate the success of a task after its completion. Cognitive
strategies are used during the execution of a task to facilitate comprehension or
production. Examples of cognitive strategies are elaboration or use of prior
knowledge, grouping or classifying items to be learned, making inferences while
listening or reading, and taking notes of information to remember. Both
metacognitive and cognitive strategies are important in classroom learning tasks of all
kinds, and they are also used by learners outside the classroom for interactive
encounters in the target language. The third category in this classification system is
social and affective strategies, which includes strategies such as questioning for
clarification, cooperating with peers on a language learning task, and using affective
controls such as positive self-talk to lower anxiety.

In line with Chamot (1995), Buck in Richard (2001:104) identifies two kinds
of strategies in listening; cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Cognitive
strategies is mental activities related to comprehending and storing input in
working memory or long-term memory for later retrieval. Meanwhile,
Metacognitive strategies are those conscious or unconscious mental activities
that perform an executive function in the management of cognitive strategies.
(1) Assessing the situation: Taking stock of conditions surrounding a language
task by assessing ones own knowledge, ones available internal and external
resources, and the constraints of the situation before engaging in a task, (2)
Monitoring: Determining the effectiveness of ones own or anothers
performance while engaged in a task, (3) Self-evaluating: Determining the
effectiveness of ones own or anothers performance after engaging in the
activity, (4) Self-testing: Testing oneself to determine the effectiveness of ones
own language use or the lack them.

Listening sequence
The common sequence for listening are pre listening, whilst listening and post
listening. In pre- listening phase students learn about key vocabulary and
context developing. In whilst phase, focus on listening guided by the questions
given. The last phase which is post listening, the students need to respond on
what they already hear. Field (2008) argue that the listening lesson that one
encounters in good ELT practice today has a rather different, it has been
modied. He further proposed the format of a good listening lesson:

Pre Listening
Establish context

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Create motivation for listening


Pre-teach only critical vocabulary

Whilst Listening
Extensive listening: General questions on context and attitude of
speakers
Intensive listening Pre-set questions
Intensive listening
Checking answers to questions

Post Listening
Functional language in listening passage
Learners infer the meaning of unknown words from the sentences in
which they appear
Final play; learners look at transcript

C. Related Research Reports


Some research has been conducted on the teaching listening area especially
the used of several media in order to make listening easier to comprehend. Hidayat
(2012) found out that the use of song as a media in teaching students listening ability
gave a significant improvement in student score after applying song in his teaching. In
line with him, Zahra (2012) also found out the use of sequence of picture also
improve students ability in listening.
Moreover, Yarlisman (2008) describes the process of teaching listening in an
EFL classroom, he found that in the process of teaching listening the teacher applied
several steps in teaching listening and it was found that there are three main activities;
pre listening, whilst listening and post listening as suggested by Field (2008) - .
However, during the listening process the teacher never used any authentic material in
teaching. Furthermore, he also found some problems related to listening
comprehension; poor vocabulary and poor listening activities. He further suggests that
the teacher enrich the listening activity and spend sufficient time to introduce
important vocabulary in the listening session.
Another study of listening in EFL context was done by Li and Renandya
(2012). They examine the approaches considered effective by EFL teachers in solving
their learners major listening difficulties. The data were collected through interview
and observation. The result of this study found that there are different opinions among
teacher on the degree of importance attached to the teaching of listening strategies.

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However, the English teachers in China share a preference for a bottom-up approach
to teach L2 listening.
D. Critical Analysis
As mention previously, there are language strategies that cope by the learner such as
metacognitive area, cognitive area and sociolinguistic area that suggested by Chamot
as cited in Field (2008: 294). It have been applied by some listening researcher such
as Gog, Vandergrift and Graham. Moreover, Goh and Vandergrift had successfully
applied this listening strategy to plan a listening lesson. In contrast, Field (2008) argue
not to adopt those strategies into listening in the classroom. He has a notion that the
strategy is not really transparent both for listening instructor or the learner since the
distinction between cognitive and metacognitive is fuzzy. The strategies that are
metacognitive in one context may turn out to be cognitive in another (Field,
2008:294). For instance, when the learner planning to listen for taking the general
context of aural text, the strategy qualies as metacognitive; but if when they just do
it, it becomes cognitive. Indeed, in my own perspective, the learner will not realize
whether they use metacognitive, cognitive or sosiolinguistic strategies. It clearer to
applied listening sequence that proposed by Field (2008), since it is clearer for the
learner and the teacher. Teacher can applied the lesson sequence that proposed by
Field (2008) together with bottom up or top down listening process being mixed or
use it differently.

E. Conclusion
To conclude, listening is one of English skill that need to be acquired in order to
master English. Listening process; bottom up and top down, authentic materials,
listening sequence, teaching listening strategies have been developed in order to have
more effective teaching listening. Indeed, the teacher plays important role in choosing
the best of all of them based on students needs.
References
Carter, Ronald & David Nunan (eds). (2001). Teaching English to speaker of other
Languages.UK: CUP

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Field, J. (2001) The changing face of listening. In J. C. Richards and W. A. Renandya


(eds.), Methodology in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, pp. 2427.
Hidayat, Apin. (2007).The use of songs in teaching students listening ability. UPI
Unpublished paper
Li and Renandya (2012). Effective Approaches to teaching listening: Chinese EFL
teachers perspective. International Journal of Asia TEFL. 9(4). 79-111.
Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/
Littlewood, William. (1981). Communicative Language Teaching. UK: CUP
Lynch, Tony. (2006). Academic listening: Marrying top and bottom. In Uso -Juan,
Esther and Alicia Mart nez-Flor (eds), Trends in the Development and Teaching
of the Four Language Skills. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyte, pp. 91
Nunan, D. (2001) Listening of language learning. In J. C. Richards and W. A.
Renandya (eds.), Methodology in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, pp. 2387.
Richards, Jack C. (2008). Teaching speaking and listening: from theory to practice.
United States: CUP
Rost, M. (2001). Listening. In Carter, Ronald & David Nunan (eds). Teaching English
to speaker of other Languages.UK: CUP. pp. 7
Vandergrift, Larry and Christine C. M. Goh. (2012). Teaching and learning second
language listening. New York: Taylor & Francis
Yarlisman. (2008).The process of teaching Listening in an EFL Classroom. UPI
Unpublished thesis
Zahra, Riana Siti. (2007).The use of sequences of pictures in teaching listening. UPI
Unpublished paper

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