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ANSWERS FOR CHECKLIST

BASIC MODULE
-B.S.N.SWAMY
01.What is Nuclear Power? What is the basic principle in making nuclear power?
A. The energy released from nuclear reactions i.e. Fission & Fusion is called Nuclear
Energy. The major use of nuclear energy is in the generation of power which is called
'Nuclear Power"
Basic Principle: The energy liberated in nuclear reactions is estimated using the famous energy
equation of Einstein.
2
E
= MC
M
C
E

= Mass of matter disappeared


= Velocity of light
= Energy liberated

02. What are the advantages for making nuclear power?


A. Advantages Of Nuclear Energy
-Generation of power
-It is also used for industrial heating, steam generation, propulsion of ships,
submarines and rockets, production of radioisotopes for industrial and medical
application.
03. Name the Nuclear Power Stations in the country?
A. Nuclear Power Stations In INDIA
TAPS
RAPS
MAPS
NAPS
KAPS
KAIGA

=
=
=
=
=
=

2 X 210 MW
4 X 235 MW
2 X 235 MW
2 X 235 MW
2 X 235 MW
2 X 235 MW

04. What are the hazards involved in making nuclear power?


A. Radiation Hazards, Steam & Electrical.
05. What is atomic reactor?
1

A. An atomic reactor is simply a source of heat. The heat being produced by the nuclear
fission of atoms of certain heavy elements like Uranium atom. The main components of
a nuclear power plant includes nuclear reactor, heat exchanger (steam generator),
condenser and electric generator. The heat generated in the reactor is taken up by the
coolant circulating through the reactor core. Hot coolant then flows through the tubes
of steam generator (boiler) and passes on its heat to the feed water. The steam
produced drives the turbine and produces electricity.
06. What is moderator? What are the various types of moderators?
A.A moderator is one which reduces the speed of fast moving neutrons produced in the
fission reaction to slow neutrons thereby improving the availability of these neutrons for
sustaining nuclear chain reactions in a nuclear reactor.
The important property of a moderator is
'MODERATING RATIO' which is defined below:
Moderating ratio (MR) = <s/<a * ln E1/E2
<s = Scattering cross section of moderator molecule
<a = Absorption cross section of moderator molecule
E1= Energy of neutron before its collision with moderator molecule
E2= Energy of neutron after its collision with moderator molecule.
Types Of Moderators:
MODERATOR

Moderating RATIO

1.

Water

58

2.

Beryllium

130

3.

Graphite

200

4.

Heavy Water

21,000

07.Why is Heavy water preferred as moderator for nuclear reactors?


A.

1) Heavy Water moderating ratio is very high i.e. 21,000


2) It has got high thermal conductivity
3) We can use natural Uranium as fuel if D O is used as moderator.
2

08. Describe the use of Heavy Water in the nuclear reactor?


A. Heavy water is used as moderator in PHWR type of reactor using natural Uranium as
fuel. In this, low pressure Heavy Water is used as moderator and high pressure D O as
2
coolant. The energy heat generated in the fuel bundles as a result of the nuclear fission
is removed by the pressurised Heavy Water used as coolant. This coolant Heavy
Water, in turn transfers its heat to ordinary water in Steam Generators and resulting
steam is used to drive the Turbines and Turbo-Generators to produce electricity.
09. What is the target of nuclear power, which is expected by the year 2000?
A. Indias Nuclear Power Programme envisages generation of 3000MW of electricity by
the end of the century.
10. What is Heavy Water? What are its chemical & physical properties?
A. Heavy Water is nothing but oxide of Deuterium, which is used as moderator in
nuclear reactors.
D O Properties
2
o
1. Boiling pt.( C)
o
2. Melting pt.( C)

101.4
3.98
o

3. Density (9m/a) at 25 C
4. Refractive Index
5. Surface tension (dynes/cm)
6. Moderating ratio (Nuclear property)

1.10
1.28
68
21000

11. What are the natural sources of Heavy Water?


SOURCE OF DEUTERIUM
1. Water
2. Synthesis gas
3. Hydrogen
4. Natural gas (Methane)

CONCENTRATION RANGE (PPM)


145-155
130-145
91-145
110-142

12. What is the availability of heavy water in the natural water?


A. The availability of Deuterium in the natural water varies from 145-155 ppm. The
Deuterium content in Godavari Water at HWP (M) is 152 ppm.
3

13. What is an isotope? Give the names of the isotopes of hydrogen?


A. An Isotope is the one, which has got same atomic number but different atomic
weights.
Isotopes of Hydrogen

1
1H Hydrogen
2
1H Deuterium
3
1H Tritium

14. What are the various processes available for making heavy water?
A. The various processes available for production of Heavy Water etc.
I) DISTILLATION
a) Water b) Ammonia

c) Methane

d) Hydrogen

II) CHEMICAL EXCHANGE:


i) H O + H S
ii) H O + H
2
2
2
2
iii) NH
+ H
iv)
+ H
3
2
2
III) Electrolysis
IV) Diffusion method
V) Gravitational method
VI) Adsorption method
VII) Biological process
VIII) Crystallization process
IX) Laser separation
15. Give the design capacities and the actual production of heavy water in various
heavy water plants in our country?
Name of the Plant
1. HWP - Manuguru
2. HWP - Kota
3. HWP - Talcher
4. HWP - Baroda
5. HWP - Tuticorin
6. HWP - Hazira
7. HWP - Thal

Design
Effective
Cap (MT)/yr Cap (MT)/yr)
200
100
64
67
72
110
110

185
85
45
45
50
90
90

16. Describe the monothermal and bithermal process for making heavy water?

A. In case of mono-thermal NH -H exchange process the exchange reaction is carried


2 2
out at one single temp and a cracker unit is used for phase conversion to provide
gaseous reflux to the exchange tower. The enrichment of deuterium is taking place in
liquid phase and the product is withdrawn from the cracker in gaseous form, which will
be burnt to make Heavy Water.
In Bi-thermal exchange process the enrichment is carried out at two different
o
o
temperatures i.e. cold temp. - 30 C, hot temp 65 C. Here the cracker unit is replaced
by a hot tower for providing enriched gaseous reflux to the cold tower. Product is
withdrawn at the bottom of cold tower. Deuterium from enriched ammonia is transferred
to water, which is distilled in next step to get Heavy Water.
17. What is the justification in locating HWP (M) at Manuguru?
A. The following are the reasons for locating Heavy Water Plant at Manuguru:
i) The requirement of water is met by nearby Godavari river.
ii) The requirement of coal is met by Singareni Collieries for the generation of 54 Mew
power and 400 te/hr HP steam.
iii) Density of population is low.
iv) This area comes under seismic zone-3 and well connected by rail and road.
v) There is no past history about occurrence of any natural calamity in this area.
18.Make a sketch of the plant layout for HWP (M), indicating the important units in the
plant?
A. Please see the Plant Layout Drawing.
19. What is the theory of isotopic exchange?
A. Hydrogen sulphide - water exchange process is based on the chemical exchange of
deuterium from one phase to other phase. The reaction involved is:
HDS (g) + H O (l)
2
5

o
30 C HDO (l) + H S (g)
2
o
130 C

/
Kx (Equilibrium constant) = (HDO)l* (H S)g = 1.01 e233 T
2
(HDS)g *(H O)l
2
This equilibrium constant and hence the relative proportions of the above components
in an equilibrium mixture will vary with the temp. At lower temp the deuterium transfer
will be from gas to liquid whereas at higher temperature it will be from liquid to gas.
This temp effect is basis for separation.
20. What is separation factor? What is the separation factor obtained by HWP (M)?
A. Separation factor (

) = (D/D+H)liq
(D/D+H)gas

o
c (30 C) = 2.2
o
h (130 C) = 1.78
% recovery = c-h x 100 = 2,2-1.77 x 100
c
2.2
= 19%
21. Why is hydrogen sulphide used in the process for making heavy water?
A.H S is used as carrier gas in isotopic exchange of deuterium for the production of
2
Heavy Water using H /H O exchange process. This will be in closed loop circulation
2S 2
in cold and hot towers to facilitate enrichment of deuterium.
22. What are the different operating units in HWP (M) and the different type of hazards
in them?
A. Unit

Hazards (Chemicals used)

1. WTP

Alum, lime, polyelectrolyte and chlorine.

2. DMWP

Na SO , lime, HCl, NaOH


2 3

3. CAP

Electrical/Mechanical hazards

4. NGP
hazards.

Freon-12,

Nitrogen

(Liq/gas),

Electrical

Mechanical

5. CHWP

Freon-11, electrical / Mechanical hazards.

6. FWS

Diesel oil / electrical / Mechanical hazards.

7. DU

Steam, electrical / Mechanical hazards.

8. CWS

Chlorine, Aquat-321, Aquat-351, Aquat-565H, H 2SO4

9. H S Unit
2
10. NaSO Recovery
4
11. XU

Na S, H SO , H S gas, Electrical / Mechanical hazards.


2
2 4 2
Caustic lye, H SO , H S gas
2 4 2
H S gas, steam, SO gas, electrical/ mechanical hazards.
2
2

12. LPG Unit

LPG/ Steam

13. ISG/AB

Steam, Electrical, Mechanical hazards.

14. ETP

Caustic lye, chlorine, H S gas.


2

23. Give a brief account of the major unusual occurrence reported?


A. H S ENTRY INTO DM WATER STORAGE TANK:
2
Hydrogen sulphide smell was observed in DM water plant near DM water storage tank
area. A sample of DM Water was sent to Chemical Lab and was found to be containing
H S. On investigation the following things were observed.
2
1) After the application of M-scram of XU-II all connected equipment was tripped.
2) Feed inlet shut down valve (SDV-1101) took more time for closing
3) As check valve in feed inlet to PT after SDV-1101 was not holding, H S
2
diffused from the system to feed water header line and entered in to DM water storage
tank.
REMEDIES
Process feed water pump tripping logics are changed. Now process feed pumps are
not tripping on M-Scram.
24.What is the maximum number of days worked in the plant without any injury?
7

A. The maximum number of days worked in the plant without any injury till the end of
October, 95 is 203 days (continued)
25. What are the different types of emergencies, which can occur?
A. Types of emergencies:
1) On-Site-Emergency
2) Off-Site-Emergency
3) Personnel emergency: This involves accidents / H S exposure at site in which only
2
one or few personnel but not affecting plant in general
4) On-Site-Emergency standby conditions:
i) Report of major fire/accidents in the plant
ii) Fore cast of severe natural phenomenon i.e. cyclone, storm etc.
iii) Extremely high rain fall in Godavari River.
iv) Failure of class IV power along with DG set
v) Any explosion near the plant
vi) Failure of firewater hydrant system
vii) Non-availability of adequate nitrogen and LPG storage
viii) Non-availability of breathing air supply in emergency shelters.
ix) Increase of H S concentrations in the plant by a factor of 5 of the normal values
2
from leakages or maloperation of process systems.
x) Malfunctioning of H S monitors.
2
26.What is emergency plan - 'On Site and Off Site'? Who declares emergency in the
plant?
A.A well thought out and rehearsed systematic plan to limit the consequences of an
accident and to safeguard the plant personnel, public and environment is called
"Emergency plan".
ON SITE EMERGENCY PLAN:
The circumstances leading to on-site emergency may be due to malfunction of the
system or maloperation resulting H S leak and fire in hazardous area. The action plan
2
during on site emergency is as follows:
-Field staff detecting abnormal condition by sufficient number of field monitors/portable
monitor shall communicate to Shift Supdt at CCR.

-Shift Supdt. will cross check and study the situation.


-If necessary Shift Supdt (Acting on site emergency director) will declare on-site
emergency by sounding siren for two minutes with 15 seconds on and 15 seconds off
from CCR.
-All the employees will go to pre-assigned breathing air shelters by seeing the wind
direction.
-GM shall rush to CCR and take over the charge of site emergency Director (SED)
-Senior most Officer in each BA shelter shall report the Head count to SED.
-Rescue vehicle/ambulance with rescue team will rush to leaky areas for taking the
effected persons to dispensary/hospital.
-Fire tender is kept in alert condition
-Survey team to comprising of production staff is deployed for checking the level of
concentration of hydrogen sulphide and the status of the situation.
-Alerting all vehicles for evacuation, if deemed necessary
-SED shall keep constant touch with off site emergency Director appraising the plant
situation.
-Declaration of termination of on-site emergency by continuous sounding of siren for two
minutes.
OFF SITE EMERGENCY:
-May be due to large quantities of H S gas dumping in the flare with simultaneous
2
failure of flame or it may be allowed by on-site emergency. The action plan is given
below:
-Survey team shall assess the abnormal condition of off-site by use of portable H S
2
monitors/off-site monitors and intimate on-site emergency Director (SED).
-Based on the recommendation of SED, off-site emergency Director (District Collector)
shall declare off-site emergency by sounding siren for 2 minutes with 15 seconds on
and 15 seconds off.
-All the residents shall cover the nose with wet cloth and move at the right angle to the
wind direction to the nearest shelter available.
9

-Close all the doors and windows of the houses, wash face, eyes and nose with water.
Follow survey team instructions:
Off-Site emergency response Co-ordination committee (OERCC) shall liaison with
agencies such as Police, Public Health, Transport etc. for necessary assistance in
coping with emergency situation.
The following intervention levels of H S are taken as basis for carrying out protective
2
measures.
2 ppm for more than 4 hrs.

- Alert

5 ppm for more than 1 hour.

- Proceed to nearest available shelter.

10 ppm
- Cover the mouth and nose with wet cloth and stay indoors.
Declaration & termination of Off-Site emergency by continuous sounding of siren for two
minutes.
27. What are the facilities in the plant to meet an emergency?
A. Breathing air shelter has been provided in the plant. In the event of declaration of
on-site emergency due to uncontrolled leakage of H S, all the operating personnel will
2
be rushed to these shelters where breathing air supply is available for 2 hours period.
Firewater distribution network is available to take care of the any fire accidents in the
plant. A fully equipped fire station with two fire tenders along with various types of fire
extinguishers are existing in the plant.
A fully equipped First Aid Center is available.
Run down facility of H S from exchange unit. In case of major leakage of H S from a
2
2
particular section of the plant, the section can be isolated and H S inventory can be run
2
down to H S bullets.
2
Flaring facility: Two flare stacks one in line other standby are available to take care of
any emergency dumping of H S gas.
2
Rescue and survey teams are available to handle emergency situations.
28. What is the purpose of siren? Where is it located?

A. The main purpose of siren is to indicate declaration or termination of on-site or offsite emergencies in the plant.
ON-SITE-EMERGENCY SIRENS (LOCATIONS):
On distillation unit structure
On RWTP building
On Main Stores (DPS) building
On TG building
On coal handling control room

=
=
=
=
=

1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.

OFF-SITE EMERGENCY SIRENS (LOCATIONS):


5 Number of sirens located one each on CISF Security watchtowers of the plant.
29.What is the purpose of conducting mock-up emergency drills in the plant?
A. The main purpose of conducting mock-up emergency drills is all the operating
personnel working in the plant areas and the site would need to be familiarized with the
action plan that may be called for to tackle to the any sort of emergency situations in the
plant.
30. What is meant by Mutual aid scheme in industry? How is it useful?
A. In the event of occurrence of any emergency situation in a Industry, the neighbouring
industry shall help them by the way of supplying fire tenders, skilled man power etc. to
bring the situation under control. This sort of mutual help is called "Mutual Aid scheme
in the Industry".
31. What is disaster plan? What is its aim?
A. Disaster plan is one, which list out the chronological steps to be followed to cope with
any emergency situations in the plant. Its main aim is to limit the consequences of an
accident and to safe guard the plant personnel, public and environment.
32. Name the different types of valves, which are in use in the plant?
A. Gate valves, Globe valves, double disc gate valves, check valves, safety relief
valves, butterfly valves, diaphragm valve, needle valves, plug valves, ball valves, 3-way
ball valves, excess flow check valves, dome type pressure reducing valves frame
resulting valves (auto adjustment type BAS) Disc type control valves (on cooling tower
hot water distribution lime) combined vac. & press. relief valves (Air Breather of Acid
tanks), float type air breather valves (RW header line).
33.What is Ball valve, Darling valve, safety relief valve, Non-return valves?
A. Ball valve = On and off type valves with an advantage to close or open quickly.
11

Darling valve = Double disc gate valves with a facility for injection of high-pressure
sealant water to contain H S leaks.
2
Safety
= A safety relief valve is a pressure relief device which will pop or open
when internal fluid pressure rises excess of a specified valve (set valve) to protect the
containers.
Non-return valve= Allows flow in one direction only.
34. What are the different parts of a valve?
A. Hand wheel, stem nut, gland packing assembly, Bonnet, seat disk and valve body.
35. What is meant by pressure reduction valve, needle valve?
A. Pressure reduction valve:- Used for reducing pressure.
Needle valve

:- Used for precise control of pressure.

36. What are the different kinds of pumps being used in HWP (M)?
A. Reciprocating pumps & centrifugal pumps screw pumps, Gear pumps, Diaphragm
pumps, ejector pumps, water ring vacuum pumps, canned motor pumps, plunger type
metering pumps, seumergible pumps.
37.What is NPSH?
A. NPSH

= (Total suction pressure head + velocity head)(Vap. press. of liq)


2
= (P + V ) - P
e
2ge e

38. What is priming of a pump? Why is priming done?


A. Priming is removal of air lock up in the impeller of centrifugal pumps by filling with
liquid. It is essential to prime centrifugal pumps otherwise impellers will be damaged.
39. What is an impeller? How many impellers are provided in a pump?
A. An impeller is main component of centrifugal pump, which rotates and imparts energy

to liquid due to the action of centrifugal force. It consists of the following parts. eye of
impeller, a set of vanes and shroud.
Suction of liquid takes place at the eye of impeller and the liquid flows through a set of
vanes and velocity will be increased. The velocity head will be converted in to pressure
lead in the volute. Number of impellers in a pump depends on requirements.
40.Define the terms: capacity of a pump, head developed by a pump, cavitation?
A. CAPACITY OF A PUMP:
It is defined as maximum quantity of liquid it can deliver per unit time.
HEAD DEVELOPED:
It is defined as difference between the total discharge Head developed and suction
head.
(Head = Pressure head + static + velocity Head)
CAVITATION:
It is phenomena of formation of liq bubbles at low-pressure zones of an impeller and
subsequent collapse of the same on reaching high-pressure zones.
41. What are the various steps to be taken for starting a centrifugal pump?
A.
a) Check proper level in the suction sump.
b) Check the bearing oil level in the leveler
c) Ensure the system is ready for start up.
d) Open the suction valve
e) Open, the air vent valve on the pump casing and vent out the air (priming of the
pump).
f) Close the air vent valve when the liquid start coming
g) Start the pump
h) After attaining proper discharge pressure open the discharge valve.
42. What are the different kinds of compressors in HWP (M)?
A. Reciprocating compressors & centrifugal compressors.
43. What is the basic principle of a multi-stage compressor?
A. When the compression ratio requirement is quite high we prefer to go for multi stage
13

compression. The given compression ratio can be achieved in a single stage but the
heat of compression will be so high that it will spoil the internal parts of the compressor
and the work done will be high as the compression is adiabatic. In the multistage
compression with inter-stage coolers the approach is isothermal and the work done is
low. The pressure ratio between two stages will be adjusted such that to satisfy the
following relation:
P = P
1
2
P
P
2
3
Where P = Initial pressure
1
P
= Intermediate press
2
P
= Formal pressure.
3
44. What is the difference in centrifugal and reciprocating type of compressors?
A. CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

1. Meant for high cap.and low heads


2. High installation cost
3. Low vibration
4. Low maintenance cost
5. Discharge head fixed
6. Occupies less area

Meant for low cap and high heads


Installation cost low
High vibration
High maintenance cost
Discharge head pulsating
Occupies more area

7. Capacity control by suction throttling


or by pass.

Capacity control by unloaders

8. Surging occurs

Surging does not take place.

45. What is the purpose of inter-stage cooling for multi-stage compressors?


A. 1) To approach iso-thermal process so as to minimise the work done.
2) To remove heat of compression.
46. What is the purpose of lubrication for the moving parts of the compressor?
A. To avoid power loss due to friction and wear and tear of the moving parts of the
compressor.
47. What is the specification of lubricating oil? What is meant by forced feed
lubrication?
A. SPECIFICATION OF LUBRICATION OIL:
o
Kinematic viscosity (40 C)
= 40-55 centi. stokes

Pour point
Density
Ash content
Water content
Solid contents

o
= 10 C
o
= 200 C
= 0.9. gm/CC(Max.)
= 0.01 wt.% (Max.)
= 0.05 wt.% (max.)

In forced feed lubrication a separate pump is used to force the lube oil through the
bearings.
48. What is meant by adiabatic compression?
A. Compression carried out in a system where neither heat is added nor lost is called
'Adiabatic compression'.
49. What is the difference in the operation of a blower and compressor?
A. The compression ratio is around 1,2 in case of a blower where as for a compressor it
will be more than 1.2.
50. What are the different types of heat exchangers used in HWP (M)?
A. Shell and tube heat exchangers, Vertical Falling film type heat exchangers, Kettle
type heat exchangers, Plate and fin type, Double pipe.
51. What is the basic principle of operation in heat exchangers?
A. Heat exchanger is a system in which a cold fluid is flowing in one side and hot fluid in
otherwise and heat transfer takes place from hot fluid to cold fluid by conduction and
convection.
52. What is the basic principle in distillation operation?
A. The basic principle of distillation is separation of components of a liquid mixture by
the difference in vapour pressures or boiling points of the components.
53. What are reboiler, reflux, and reflux ratio in distillation operation?
A. REBOILER
A reboiler is one, which vaporises partially the bottom liquid of distillation column.
REFLUX:
The vapour reaching the top of the distillation column is cooled and condensed to a
liquid in the overhead condenser. A part of this liquid is returned to the column, which is
15

called reflux.
REFLUX RATIO:
It is the ratio of the quantity of liquid returned to the column as reflux to the total top
product collected.
54. What are the different types of plates or trays used in distillation columns?
A. Sieve trays, bubble cap trays, valve trays and baffle plates.
55. What is the theory of corrosion? How is it different from erosion?
CORROSION:
Corrosion is an electro chemical reaction, which takes places on any metallic surface.
During the corrosion there exists two different spots anode (strained surface) and
cathode (unstrained surface). The following reactions take place during corrosion.
A. Anodic Reaction :
Cathodic Reaction:

Fe------->Fe

++

+ 2e

+
2e + 2H + O ----> 2 OH
2
Fe

++

+ 20H ---->Fe(OH)

Fe (OH) is less soluble in water and get oxidised to


2
Fe (OH) , which decomposed in to Fe O , which is a corrosion product.
2
3
2 3
EROSION:
Erosion, is the destruction of a metal by the combined action of corrosion and abrasion
or attrition caused by the flow of liquid or gas.
56.What are the different measures available to prevent and protect equipments from
corrosion?
A. Cathodic protection, Anodic protection, use of non-metallic coatings and lining in
combination with steel, use of organic coatings, use of cathodic and anodic inhibitors in
the corrosive media and selection of proper materials during construction are important.
Corrosion combating measures available to prevent and protect equipments from
corrosion.

57. What is passivation?


A. PASSIVATION:
Passivation is a chemical treatment of metallic surfaces, which will lead to the formation
of a thin film or coating on the surface to prevent from corrosion.
58.What are hydrogen embrittlement, inter-granular corrosion, and pitting corrosion?
A. HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT:
Loss of ductility of a metal caused by the entrance or absorption of hydrogen in to the
metal is called hydrogen embrittlement.
INTERGRANULAR CORROSION:
Selective corrosion on grain boundaries of a metal or alloy is called inter-granular
corrosion. This takes place in austenitic stainless steel when subjected to high
temperature, the chromium present in it reacts with carbon and leads to the formation of
cre? which will precipitate out at the grain boundaries.
PITTING CORROSION:
Pitting is a form of corrosion that develops in highly localized areas on a metal surface.
This results in the development of capacities on pit.
59. What is meant by preventive maintenance and breakdown maintenance?
A. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE:
Preventive maintenance is the one which is to be carried out regularly and planned way
to prevent unforeseen major breakdown of the machinery and equipment which reduces
the down time and loss of production.
BREAK DOWN MAINTENANCE:
Break down maintenance is the one, which is to be carried out after a major breakdown
of machinery and equipment, which involves downtime, and loss of production.
60. What is in-service in-situ plant inspection?
A. In-service and insitu inspection is the one, which is to be carried out on regular basis
in a planned way to check the healthiness of machinery and equipments when the plant
is in operation.
17

61.What are the various surveillance activities in the plant in Mechanical Section?
A. The following are the various surveillance activities to be carried out on day-to-day
basis in mechanical section.
Check for general leaks in the system
Check for vibration level, bearing condition, wearing, lubrication and abnormal noise of
rotary equipment.
Check for thickness of the pipes, tanks, towers and other pressure vessels.
Check for the set values of pressure safety valves.
Check for the painting condition, proper boxing of insulation and cleanliness of the
equipments.
62.What are the general guidelines for effective, efficient mechanical maintenance?
A. General guidelines for efficient mechanical maintenance:
Planning for preventive maintenance, breakdown maintenance and annual turn around.
Effective utilisation of manpower.
Providing training in specific fields to the maintenance personnel to improve the skills.
Motivating the maintenance staff by providing qualification incentive.
63. What are the different classes of power supplies at HWP (M)?
A. The power system at HWP< Manuguru has been classified under four categories
depending on the reliability of the power supply and duration of interruption of power
supplies.
a) Class IV power supply: Normal power supply from APSEB 220 KV grid/CPP, Main
plant class IV power supply is at 6.6 KV and 415V 3phase A/C and duration of
interruption is not specified.
b) Class III power supply: The power supply comes from 1250 KVA 415V AC Diesel
generator. When class IV power fails the diesel generator sets take over within half a
minute and power supply to class III loads is restored.

c) Class II power supply: 110V AC (90 KVA) power supply from UPS and the interruption
of would not be more than 10 milliseconds.
d) I power supply: 110V DC power supply from batteries. In case of class I power
supply there would not be any interruption under any circumstances.
64. How is the power supply distributed for various units?
A. Power supply for main plant is received from CPP through 33 KV cables in three
substations namely East (two feeders), South (Four feeders) and North (two feeders)
substations. At all substations 33 KV is stepped down to 6.6 KV by power transformers
and loads are directly connected to this. This 6.6 KV is further stepped down to 415V to
feed the balance loads.
65.What emergency power system is available for power supply at the time of
emergency?
A. Two DG sets of each capacity 1250 KVA are available. This power will be available
to all class III loads on class IV supply failure within 30 seconds. Class I and Class II
power supplies will be available continuously.
66. What is diesel-generating set? What is its capacity?
A. This is diesel engine driven 415V AC generator of 1250 KVA capacity.
67.What is the time sequence of the emergency power supply from the DG set? Which
are the units getting the uninterrupted power supply? What is meant by uninterrupted
power supply?
A. Class IV power failure
Actuating of under voltage relay (instantaneous)
Starting of both DG sets (after 3 seconds)
Closing of circuit breakers after picking up full voltage and taking over of class III loads
Total time for restoration of class III 17 seconds.
The following loads are connected to class II power supply:
Alarm and indication of instrument panels
PA system
PLC
Flare ignition system
Fire alarm
Telephone system
H S monitors
2
Emergency siren
19

All temperature instruments


Chart drive motor recorders
Uninterrupted power supply system is the one, which supplies power without any
interruption. This is achieved by connecting rectifier and batteries in parallel to feed
inverters so that 110V A/C power is available. In case input supply to UPS fails,
batteries will take the load of inverter to give 110V A/C supply.
68. What are the different types of motors being used in HWP (M)?
A. TYPES OF MOTORS:
In Main Plant all the motors are 3-phase induction motors.
69. What is meant by synchronous type of motor?
A. SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR: They will run at synchronous speed i.e. speed of
revolving magnetic flux induced by station winding. The rotor of synchronous motor will
be supplied with DC power to form poles of magnet in the rotor.
70. What is short circuit?
Short circuit is flow of current through unintended path causing heavy current flow. This
short circuit occurs due to insulation failure.
71.What are the different types of protection given for electric motors, transformers and
other electrical appliances?
A. MOTORS:
a) Short circuit protection
b) Single phasing or relative phase sequence
c) Earth fault protection
d) Locked rotor protection
e) Thermal over load
f) Differential protection
TRANSFORMER:
Primary side:
a) Over current
b) Earth fault

c) Restricted earth fault protection


COMMON PROTECTIONS:
a) Differential protection
b) High winding temp.
c) High oil temp.
d) Low oil level alarm
e) Protection against lightening through lightening arresters.
f) Explosion vent.
72. What is static electricity?
electricity?

What are the safety measures to ward off static

A. Static electricity is electric charge on a material Static electricity results from removal
of electrons from the atoms of one material and adsorption of these electrons on the
second material during the physical separation of two materials.
Methods to control accumulation of static electricity.
a) Earthing
b) Bonding
c) To make material conductive
d) Static eliminators
f) Radio-active ionisers
g) Metallic spiral on pipelines.
73. What is electric shock? What is the first aid for an electric shock?
A. Electric shock is flow of current through human body. The severity of shock depends
on the magnitude of the current flow.
FIRST AID:
1. First switch off the electrical supply
2. Detach the victim from the source by using the dry wooden stick.
3. Remove the person to well ventilated area and gives him artificial respiration.
4. Give cardiac message if no cerotic pulse.
5. If conscious give plenty of water or hot tea.
6. Shift the person to First Aid for further medical help.
7. What type of instrument controls are provided in the plant?
A. The instrument controls provided in the plant area:
1) Pneumatic control
2) Electronic control
21

3) Distributed control
The control modes used are P and PI for main plant by both pneumatic and electronic
instruments.
The control modes P, PI, PID are used in CPP by distributed instrument control.
75. Explain the various controls located in the control panel?
A. The various controls located in the control panel are:
1) Pressure control
2) Flow control
3) Level control
4) Temperature control
5) Conductivity control loop
6) Oxygen control loop
7) pH control loop
76. What is meant by semi-graphic panel?
A. In semi-graphic process system layout is shown in miniature graphic form and the
instruments are identified on this graphic section by code numbers.
77. How are the data of various process variables relayed to the control panel for
automatic control?
A. Data variable which is sensed by the sensor is transmitted by the transmitter to the
controller. The controller produces a controlling signal by comparing the set point and
measured variable this controlling signal actuates the final control element to get the
controlled output from process.
78. What is solenoid valve? What is its use?
A. Solenoid valve is a valve operated by built in actuator in the form of an electric coil
(or solenoid) and a plunger (plunger is usually of a corrosion-resistant ferrous material)
USES:
1) for ON/OFF action of valves
2) to isolate/operate pneumatic operated valve with electric signal
3) in the condensate drain of high pressure compressors (AC coils are used for high
pressure compressor because they are faster in operation).

79.What are the various pneumatic and electronic process controls in HWP (M)?
A. a) PNEUMATIC PROCESS CONTROLS:
i) Pressure
ii) Flow
iii) Level
iv) Temperature
b) ELECTRONIC PROCESS CONTROLS:
i) Pressure
ii) Flow
iii) Temperature
iv) Level
v) Conductivity
vi) pH and etc.
80. What are the instruments used in the plant for H S leak monitoring?
2
A. The instrument used in the plant for H S leak monitoring are
2
a) Portable H S monitor (0-100 ppm)
2
b) Field H S monitor (0-20 ppm) & (0-50 ppm)
2
c) H S analyser
(0-50 ppm)
2
81. Explain the programmable logic controller used for process control?
A. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER:
It is a digital electronic device that uses a programmable memory to store instruction, to
implement specific functions such as timing, counting and arthematic to control machine
and process, PLC can be programmed and re-programmed on line while the process is
running and without hardware modification. PLC serves as a replacement for the
traditional relay control. More complex function of relays can be provided with greater
simplicity. The processing time for a loop of PLC is faster than with the relay loop. A
large data can be accumulated in PLC's memory and retrieved periodically. PLC has
data transfer capacity on to disks, can have printer output for hard copy report has
access for further processing or communication to other PLC.
23

82. Explain the principle of working for the following:


a) H S monitors:
2
When the H2S in the atmosphere surrounding the detector diffuses through, semiconductor resistance decreases which is directly proportional to the H2S concentration,
which is a measure of H2S in PPM.
b) pH meter:
It is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) present in the measuring
solution. For measuring pH, two electrodes are used. The measuring electrode is pH
sensitive and its potential is proportional to the pH of the solution, in which it is
immersed while the reference electrode develops a constant potential, against which
the potential of the glass electrode is measured.
c) Thermocouple:
When two dissimilar metal wires are joined and heated, a sensitive (galvano) meter
connected to the other end of the pair which is at reference temperature will generate
an e.m.f which is directly proportional to the difference in temperature between the
heated and reference temperature.

25

BASIC MODULE
Prepared by
M. Chandramouli, SO/F
01.What is Nuclear Power? What is the basic principle in making nuclear power?
A. The energy released from nuclear reactions i.e. Fission & Fusion is called Nuclear
Energy. The major use of nuclear energy is in the generation of power which is called
'Nuclear Power"
Basic Principle: The energy liberated in nuclear reactions is estimated using the famous energy
equation of Einstein.
2
E
= MC
M
= Mass of matter disappeared
C
= Velocity of light
E
= Energy liberated
02. What is atomic reactor?
A. An atomic reactor is simply a source of heat. The heat being produced by the nuclear
fission of atoms of certain heavy elements like Uranium atom. The main components of
a nuclear power plant includes nuclear reactor, heat exchanger (steam generator),
condenser and electric generator. The heat generated in the reactor is taken up by the
coolant circulating through the reactor core. Hot coolant then flows through the tubes of
steam generator (boiler) and passes on its heat to the feed water. The steam produced
drives the turbine and produces electricity.
03. What is moderator? What are the various types of moderators?
A. A moderator is one which reduces the speed of fast moving neutrons produced in the
fission reaction to slow neutrons thereby improving the availability of these neutrons for
sustaining nuclear chain reactions in a nuclear reactor.
The important property of a moderator is 'MODERATING RATIO' which is defined
below:
Moderating ratio (MR) = <s/<a * ln E1/E2
<s = Scattering cross section of moderator molecule
<a = Absorption cross section of moderator molecule

E1= Energy of neutron before its collision with moderator molecule


E2= Energy of neutron after its collision with moderator molecule.

Types Of Moderators:
MODERATOR

Moderating RATIO

1.

Water

58

2.

Beryllium

130

3.

Graphite

200

4.

Heavy Water

21,000

04. Why is Heavy water preferred as moderator for nuclear reactors?


A. 1) Heavy Water moderating ratio is very high i.e. 21,000
2) It has got high thermal conductivity
3) We can use natural Uranium as fuel if D O is used as moderator.
2
05. Describe the use of Heavy Water in the nuclear reactor?
A. Heavy water is used as moderator in PHWR type of reactor using natural Uranium as
fuel. In this, low pressure Heavy Water is used as moderator and high pressure D O as
2
coolant. The energy heat generated in the fuel bundles as a result of the nuclear fission
is removed by the pressurised Heavy Water used as coolant. This coolant Heavy
Water, in turn transfers its heat to ordinary water in Steam Generators and resulting
steam is used to drive the Turbines and Turbo-Generators to produce electricity.
06.What is an isotope? Give the names of the isotopes of hydrogen?
A. An Isotope is one, which has got the same atomic number but different atomic
weights.
Isotopes of Hydrogen

1
: 1H Hydrogen
2
1H Deuterium
3
1H Tritium

07. What are the various processes available for making heavy water?
A. The various processes available for production of Heavy Water etc.
27

I) DISTILLATION
a) Water b) Ammonia

c) Methane

d) Hydrogen

II) CHEMICAL EXCHANGE:


i) H O + H S
ii) H O + H
2
2
2
2
iii) NH
+ H
iv) NH
+ H O
3
2
3
2
III) Electrolysis
IV) Diffusion method
V) Gravitational method
VI) Adsorption method
VII) Biological process
VIII) Crystallization process
IX) Laser separation
08.What is the justification in locating HWP (M) at Manuguru?
A. The following are the reasons for locating Heavy Water Plant at Manuguru:
i) The requirement of water is met by nearby Godavari river.
ii) The requirement of coal is met by Singareni Collieries for the generation of 54 Mew
power and 400 te/hr HP steam.
iii) Density of population is low.
iv) This area comes under seismic zone-3 and well connected by rail and road.
v) There is no past history about occurrence of any natural calamity in this area.
09. What are the different operating units in HWP (M) and the different type of hazards
in them?
A. Unit

Hazards (Chemicals used)

1. WTP
2. DMWP

Alum, lime, polyelectrolyte and chlorine.


Na SO , lime, HCl, NaOH
2 3

3. CAP

Electrical/Mechanical hazards

4. NGP

Freon-12, Nitrogen (Liq/gas), Electrical/ Mechanical hazards.

5. CHWP

Freon-11, electrical / Mechanical hazards.

6. FWS

Diesel oil/ electrical / Mechanical hazards.

7. DU

Steam, electrical/ Mechanical hazards.

8. CWS

Chlorine, Aquat - 321, Aquat-351, Aquat - 565H, H SO .


2 4

9. H S Unit
2

Na S, H SO , H S gas, Electrical/ Mechanical hazards.


2
2 4 2

10. NaSO Recovery


4

Caustic lye, H SO , H S gas


2 4 2

11. XU
12. LPG Unit

H S gas, steam, SO gas, electrical/ mechanical hazards.


2
2
LPG/ Steam

13. ISG/AB

Steam, Electrical, Mechanical hazards.

14. ETP

Caustic lye, chlorine, H S gas.


2

10. What are the facilities in the plant to meet an emergency?


A. Breathing air shelter has been provided in the plant. In the event of declaration of
on-site emergency due to uncontrolled leakage of H S, all the operating personnel will
2
be rushed to these shelters where breathing air supply is available for 2 hours period.
Firewater distribution network is available to take care of the any fire accidents in the
plant. A fully equipped fire station with two fire tenders along with various types of fire
extinguishers is existing in the plant.
A fully equipped First Aid Center is available.
Run down facility of H S from exchange unit. In case of major leakage of H S from a
2
2
particular section of the plant, the section can be isolated and H S inventory can be run
2
down to H S bullets.
2
Flaring facility: Two flare stacks one in line other standby are available to take care of
any emergency dumping of H S gas.
2
Rescue and survey teams are available to handle emergency situations.
11. What are the different kinds of pumps being used in HWP (M)?
29

A. Reciprocating pumps & centrifugal pumps screw pumps, Gear pumps, Diaphragm
pumps, ejector pumps, water ring vacuum pumps, canned motor pumps, plunger type
metering pumps, submergible pumps.
12.Define the terms: capacity of a pump, head developed by a pump, cavitation?
A. CAPACITY OF A PUMP:
It is defined as maximum quantity of liquid it can deliver per unit time.
HEAD DEVELOPED:
It is defined as difference between the total discharge Head developed and suction
head.
(Head = Pressure head + static + velocity Head)
CAVITATION:
It is phenomena of formation of liq bubbles at low-pressure zones of an impeller and
subsequent collapse of the same on reaching high-pressure zones.
13. What are the different types of heat exchangers used in HWP (M)?
A. Shell and tube heat exchangers, Vertical Falling film type heat exchangers, Kettle
type heat exchangers, Plate and fin type, Double pipe.
14. What is the theory of corrosion? How is it different from erosion?
CORROSION:
Corrosion is an electro chemical reaction, which takes places on any metallic surface.
During the corrosion there exists two different spots anode (strained surface) and
cathode (unstrained surface). The following reactions take place during corrosion.
A. Anodic Reaction : Fe------->Fe

++

+ 2e

+
Cathodic Reaction: 2e + 2H + O ----> 2 OH
2
Fe

++

+ 20H ---->Fe(OH)

Fe (OH) is less soluble in water and gets oxidised to


2

Fe (OH) , which will decompose into Fe O , which is a corrosion product.


2
3
2 3
EROSION:
Erosion, is the destruction of a metal by the combined action of corrosion and abrasion
or attrition caused by the flow of liquid or gas.
15. What is meant by preventive maintenance and breakdown maintenance?
A. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE:
Preventive maintenance is the one which is to be carried out regularly and planned way
to prevent unforeseen major breakdown of the machinery and equipment which reduces
the down time and loss of production.
BREAK DOWN MAINTENANCE:
Break down maintenance is the one, which is to be carried out after a major breakdown
of machinery and equipment which involves downtime and loss of production.
16. What are the different classes of power supplies at HWP (M)?
A. The power system at HWP (M) has been classified under four categories depending
on the reliability of the power supply and duration of interruption of power supplies.
a) Class IV power supply: Normal power supply from APSEB 220 KV grid/CPP, Main
plant class IV power supply is at 6.6 KV and 415V 3phase A/C and duration of
interruption is not specified.
b) Class III power supply: The power supply comes from 1250 KVA 415V AC Diesel
generator. When class IV power fails the diesel generator sets take over within half a
minute and power supply to class III loads is restored.
c) Class II power supply: 110V AC (90 KVA) power supply from UPS and the interruption
would not be more than 10 milliseconds.
d) Class I power supply: 110V DC power supply from batteries. In case of class I power
supply there would not be any interruption under any circumstances.
17. What emergency power system is available for power supply at the time of
emergency?
A. Two DG sets of each capacity 1250 KVA are available. This power will be available
31

to all class III loads on class IV supply failure within 30 seconds. Class I and Class II
power supplies will be available continuously.
18. What is electric shock? What is the first aid for an electric shock?
A. Electric shock is flow of current through human body. The severity of shock depends
on the magnitude of the current flow.
FIRST AID:
1. First switch off the electrical supply
2. Detach the victim from the source by using the dry wooden stick.
3. Remove the person to well ventilated area and gives him artificial respiration.
4. Give cardiac message if no cerotic pulse.
5. If conscious give plenty of water or hot tea.
6. Shift the person to First Aid for further medical help.
19. What type of instrument controls are provided in the plant?
A. The instrument controls provided in the plant are:
1) Pneumatic control
2) Electronic control
3) Distributed control
The control modes used are P and PI for main plant by both pneumatic and electronic
instruments.
The control modes P, PI, PID are used in CPP by distributed instrument control.
20. Explain the various controls located in the control panel?
A. The various controls located in the control panel are:
1) Pressure control
2) Flow control
3) Level control
4) Temperature control
5) Conductivity control loop
6) Oxygen control loop
7) pH control loop

21. What is meant by semi-graphic panel?

A. In semi-graphic process system layout is shown in miniature graphic form and the
instruments are identified on this graphic section by code numbers.
22. What is solenoid valve? What is its use?
A. Solenoid valve is a valve operated by built in actuator in the form of an electric coil
(or solenoid) and a plunger (plunger is usually of a corrosion-resistant ferrous material)
USES:
1) for ON/OFF action of valves
2) to isolate/operate pneumatic operated valve with electric signal
3)in the condensate drain of high pressure compressors (AC coils are used for high
pressure compressor because they are faster in operation).
23. What are the instruments used in the plant for H S leak monitoring?
2
A. The instruments used in the plant for H S leak monitoring are
2
a) Portable H S monitor
(0-100 ppm)
2
b) Field H S monitor
(0-20 ppm)
2
(0-50 ppm)
& (0-1000 ppm)
c) H S analyser
(0-50 ppm)
2
d) H S monitor at CCR
(0-01ppm)
2
24. Explain the principle of working for the following:
a) H S monitors:
2
When the H2S in the atmosphere surrounding the detector diffuses through, semiconductor resistance decreases which is directly proportional to the H2S concentration,
which is a measure of H2S in PPM.
b) pH meter:
It is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) present in the measuring
solution. For measuring pH, two electrodes are used. The measuring electrode is pH
sensitive and its potential is proportional to the pH of the solution, in which it is
immersed while the reference electrode develops a constant potential, against which
the potential of the glass electrode is measured.
33

c) Thermocouple:
When two dissimilar metal wires are joined and heated, a sensitive (galvano) meter
connected to the other end of the pair which is at reference temperature will generate
an e.m.f which is directly proportional to the difference in temperature between the
heated and reference temperature.
25. Write down the LEL & HEL of the following:a) H2S b) Ammonia c) CO d) LPG e) Hydrogen
Ans: Gas

LEL

H2S
Ammonia
LPG
Hydrogen
CO

HEL
4.3%
16%
1.6%
4.1%
12.5%

46% by volume in air


25%
"
9.5%
"
74.2% "
74.2% "

26. Define the following Words:


a) Fusion b) Fertile Atom c) Critical Mass
Ans: Fusion: Atoms of same lighter elements have a tendency to fuse into an atom of
heavier elements. This phenomena is called fusion.
b) Fertile Atom: This by itself can't take part in a nuclear reactor, but can be converted
into one taht takes part in a nuclear reactor. Such an atom is called Fertile Atom.
238 232
Ex: U , Th
c) Critical Mass: The minimum spherical mass, which ensures adequate nuclei for
235
sustaining a chain reaction is called Critical Mass. In case of U
, the critical mass is
of the order of a few Kilograms.
27. Define TLV-TWA of the following:
a) H S b) SO c) Cl d) LPG e) Ammonia f)CO g) CO
2
2
2
2
Ans: a) 10ppm b) 02ppm c) 0.5ppm d)1000ppm e) 25ppm f) 50ppm g)5000ppm
28. Name three Fissile Elements?

Ans: The fissile elements are U

235

, Pu

239

and U

233

29. What are the methods for analysis of Heavy Water?


Ans: The methods for Heavy Water analysis are as follows:
1)

Mass spectrometry:- Range ( 0.1ppm - 10000ppm as mole basis)


Accuracy: 0.2%

2)
a)

Density Method:Pycnometry: Range - Full Range ( weight basis)


Accuracy - 0.02%
Temperature Float Method: Range - Full Range (weight basis)
Accuracy - 0.005%

b)
3)

Thermal Conductivity Method: Range: upto 15% (weight basis)


Accuracy - 0.05%

4)

Refractorymetry: Range: 1% - 99% (weight/weight)


Accuracy - 1%

5)

Infrared Spectrophotometry:- Range: More than 99% (Mole basis)


Accuracy - 0.02%

30. Give the location of operating Nuclear Reactors with their capacities?
Ans:
a) TAPS 1 & 2 Tarapur
each 210 MW
b) RAPS 1 & 2 Kota
each 235 MW
c) MAPS 1 & 2 Kalpakkam each 235 MW
d) NAPS 1 & 2 Narora
each 235 MW
e) KAPS 1 & 2 Kakrapar each 235 MW
f) KAIGA 1 & 2 Kaiga
each 220 MW
g) RAPS 3 & 4 Kota
each 220 MW
31. What is the specialty of XU pumps and Cooling water pumps ?
Ans:
XU pumps in exchange unit are provided with double mechanical seals, Cooling Water
pumps in main plant are provided with double suction to handle large flows.

35