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Physics Equation List :Form 4


Introduction to Physics
Relative Deviation

Relative Deviation
=

Mean Deviation
Mean Value
100%

Prefixes
Prefixes
Tera
Giga
Mega
Kilo
deci
centi
milli
micro
nano
pico

Value

Standard form

Symbol

10129
10
6
10
3
10

T
G
M
k
d
c
m

n
p

1 000 000 000 000


1 000 000 000
1 000 000
1 000
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.000 001
0.000 000 001
0.000 000 000 001

10-1
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9
10-12

Units for Area and Volume


1 m = 10 cm
2

-2

1 m3 = 106 cm3
1 m = 10 cm

(100 cm)
2

= 10 m

1 cm

(10,000 cm ) 3
(1,000,000 cm )

1
2
m )
10,000

-6

3
1
m )
1,000,000

Force and Motion


Average Speed

Distance
Average Speed Total
Total Time

(ms

) s = displacement (m)
t = time
(s)

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

m)

-4

1 cm = 10 m

v = velocity

100

1 cm = 10 m

Velocity

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Acceleration

a
u

-2

a = acceleration
v = final velocity
u = initial velocity
t =time for the velocity change

(ms )
-1
(ms )
-1
(ms )
(s)

Equation of Linear Motion

Linear Motion

Motion with
constant velocity

Motion with
Motion with
constant accelerationchanging acceleration

v
u
at

s 1 (u v)t
2

s
t

s ut 1 at
2

v2 u 2 2as

Using Calculus
(In Additional

u = initial velocity
v = final velocity
a = acceleration
s = displacement
t = time

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

-1

(ms )
-1
(ms )
-2
(ms )
(m)
(s)

Ticker Tape
Finding Velocity:

velocity

s
0.02s
number of ticks
1 tick = 0.02s

Finding Acceleration:

v u
a t
a = acceleration
v = final velocity
u = initial velocity
t = time for the velocity change

-2

(ms )
-1
(ms )
-1
(ms )
(s)

Graph of Motion
Gradient of a Graph

The gradient 'm' of a line segment between two


points and is defined as follows:
Change in y coordinate, y
Gradient, m Change in x coordinate, x
or
y
m x

Displacement-Time Graph

Velocity-Time Graph

-1

-2

Gradient = Velocity (ms )

Gradient = Acceleration (ms )


Area in between
Displacement

the

graph

and

x-axis

Momentum

p m
v

p = momentum

(kg ms

(kg)
-1
(ms )

) m = mass
v = velocity

Principle of Conservation of Momentum

m1u1 m2u2 m1v m2v2


1
m1 = mass of object 1
m2 = mass of object 2
u1 = initial velocity of object 1
u2 = initial velocity of object 2
v1 = final velocity of object 1
v2 = final velocity of object 2

(kg)
(kg)
-1
(ms )
-1
(ms )
-1
(ms )
-1
(ms )

Newtons Law of Motion


Newtons First Law
In the absence of external forces, an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continues in
motion with a constant velocity (that is, with a constant speed in a straight line).

Newtons Second Law


The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the
resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction.

mv

F
mu

F = Net Force

(N or kgms

(kg)

a = acceleration

(ms )

) m = mass

F
ma

-2

Implication
When there is resultant force acting on an object, the object will accelerate
(moving faster, moving slower or change direction).

Newtons Third Law


Newton's third law of motion states that for every force, there is a reaction force with the same magnitude
but in the opposite direction.
Impulse

Impulse
Ft

Impulse mv
mu

F = force
t = time

(N)
(s)

m = mass
v = final velocity
u = initial velocity

(kg)
-1
(ms )
-1
(ms )

F = Force
t = time
m = mass
v = final velocity
u = initial velocity

(N or kgms )
(s)
(kg)
-1
(ms )
-1
(ms )

Impulsive Force

mv

F
mu

-2

Gravitational Field Strength

g
Weight

F
m

g = gravitational field strength


F = gravitational force
m = mass

-1

(N kg )
-2
(N or kgms )
(kg)

W mg

(N or kgms-2)
W = Weight
(kg)
m = mass
g = gravitational field strength/gravitational acceleration

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Vertical Motion

If an object is release from a high position:


The initial velocity, u = 0.
The acceleration of the object = gravitational
-2
-2
acceleration = 10ms (or 9.81 ms ).
The displacement of the object when it reach the
ground = the height of the original position, h.

If an object is launched vertically upward:


The velocity at the maximum height, v = 0.
The deceleration of the object = -gravitational
-2
-2
acceleration = -10ms (or -9.81 ms ).
The displacement of the object when it reach the
ground = the height of the original position, h.

Lift
In Stationary

When a man standing inside an elevator, there


are two forces acting on him.
(a) His weight which acting downward.
(b)Normal reaction (R), acting in the opposite
direction of weight.

R mg

The reading of the balance is equal to the normal


reaction.

Moving Upward with positive acceleration

R mg ma
Moving Upward with constant velocity

R mg
Moving Upward with negative acceleration

R mg ma

Moving downward with positive acceleration

R mg ma
Moving downward with constant velocity.

R mg
Moving downward with negative acceleration

R mg ma

Smooth Pulley
With 1 Load
Moving with uniform speed:
T1 = T2

T1 = mg

Stationary:

Accelerating:
T1 = mg

T1 mg = ma

With 2 Loads
Finding Acceleration:
(If m2 > m1)
m2g m1g = (m1+ m2)a
Finding Tension:
(If m2 > m1)
T1 = T2
T1 m1g = ma
m2g T2 = ma
Vector
Vector Addition (Perpendicular Vector)
Magnitude =
Direction =

Vector Resolution

x2 y2

tan

1 |

| x || p | sin
| y || p | cos

y|

|x|

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Inclined Plane
Component parallel to the plane

= mgsin

Component perpendicular to the plane

= mgcos

Forces In Equilibrium

T3
mg

T3 mg

T2
sin mg

T2
cos

T2 cosT1

T2 sinT1 sinmg

T1 cos

T1
tanmg
Work Done

W Fx
cos

W = Work Done
(J or Nm)
-2
F = Force
(N or kgms )
x = displacement
(m)
= angle between the force and the direction of motion

When the force and motion are in the same direction.

()

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Inclined Plane

W
Fs

W = Work Done
F = Force
s = displacement

(J or Nm)
-2
(N or kgms )
(m)

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Energy
Kinetic Energy

1 2
E mv
K

EK = Kinetic Energy
m = mass
v = velocity

(J)
(kg)
-1
(ms )

Gravitational Potential Energy


EP = Potential Energy
EP
m = mass
g = gravitational acceleration
mgh
2
) h = height

(J)
(kg)
(ms
(m)

Elastic Potential Energy

1 2
E kx
P

21
E
Fx
P

EP = Potential Energy
k = spring constant
x = extension of spring

(J)
-1
(N m )
(m)

F = Force

(N)

Power and Efficiency


Power

P
Efficiency

-1

P = power
W = work done
E = energy change

(W or Js )
(J or Nm)
(J or Nm)

t = time

(s)

t
Efficiency
=

Useful Energy
Energy
100%

Or

Efficiency
=

Power Output
Power Input
100%

Hookes Law

F
kx

F = Force
k = spring constant
1
) x = extension or compression of spring

-2

(N or kgms )
(N m
(m)

Force and Pressure


Density

m
V
-3

= density

(kg m )
(kg)
3
(m )

m = mass
V = volume
Pressure

-2

P = Pressure
A = Area of the surface

F
A

Liquid Pressure

P hg

(Pa or N m )
2
(m )

F = Force acting normally to the surface

-2

(N or kgms )

h = depth
= density
g = gravitational Field Strength

(m)
-3
(kg m )
-1
(N kg )

h = depth
= density
g = gravitational Field Strength
Patm = atmospheric Pressure

(m)
-3
(kg m )
-1
(N kg )
-2
(Pa or N m )

Pressure in Liquid

h
P
g
Patm

Gas Pressure
Manometer

U=tube

P
Patm

hg

-2

Pgas = Pressure

(Pa or N m )

Patm = Atmospheric Pressure

(Pa or N m )

g = gravitational field strength

(N kg )

-2

-1

h1 h2 2
1

Pressure in a Capillary Tube

Barometer

Pgas = gas pressure in the capillary tube


2
) Patm = atmospheric pressure
2
)
h = length of the captured mercury
= density of mercury
g = gravitational field strength
Pressure in unit cmHg

(Pa or N m
(Pa or N m
(m)
-3
(kg m )
-1
(N kg )
Pressure in unit Pa

Pa = 0

Pa = 0

Pb = 26

Pb = 0.261360010

Pc = 76

Pc = 0.761360010

Pd = 76

Pd = 0.761360010

Pe = 76

Pe = 0.761360010

Pf = 84

Pf = 0.841360010
-3

(Density of mercury = 13600kgm )

Pascals Principle

Archimedes Principle

F1 F2
A1 A2

Weight piston
of the object, W 1V1 g
F1 = Force exerted on the small
A1 = area of the small piston
F2 = Force exerted on the big
piston
area
Upthrust,
F A2 = V
g of the big piston
2 2

1 = density of wooden block

V1 = volume of the wooden block


2 = density of water
V2 = volume of the displaced
water g = gravitational field
strength

Density of water > Density of wood


F=T+W

Vg T mg

Density of Iron > Density of water


T+F=W

Vg T mg

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Heat
Heat Change

Q mc
m = mass
c = specific heat capacity
= temperature change
Electric Heater

E Pt
Energy Receive, Q mc

(kg)
-1 o -1
(J kg C )
o
()
Mixing 2 Liquid

Heat Gain by Liquid 1 = Heat Loss by Liquid 2

Energy Supply,

m1c11 m2c22

Energy Supply, E = Energy Receive, Q

Pt mc
E = electrical Energy (J or Nm)
P = Power of the electric heater
(W) t = time (in second) (s)

m1 = mass of liquid 1
c1 = specific heat capacity of liquid 1
1 = temperature change of liquid 1
m2 = mass of liquid 2
c2 = specific heat capacity of liquid 2
2 = temperature change of liquid 2

Q = Heat Change (J or Nm)


m = mass
(kg)
-1 o -1
c = specific heat capacity (J kg C )
o
= temperature change ( )

Q mL

Specific Latent Heat

Q = Heat Change
m = mass
L = specific latent heat
Boyles Law

(Requirement: Temperature in constant)


Pressure Law

(Requirement: Volume is constant)

(J or Nm)
(kg)
-1
(J kg )

P1V1 P2V2

P1
P2

T1
T2

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Charless Law

V1 V2

T1 T2
(Requirement: Pressure is constant)
Universal Gas Law

P1
P2V2

V1
T2
T1

P = Pressure
V = Volume
T = Temperature

(Pa or cmHg .)
3
3
(m or cm )
(MUST be in K(Kelvin))

Light
Refractive Index
Snells Law
Real depth/Apparent Depth

sin i
n sin r

n = refractive index
i = angle of incident

(No unit)
o

( )r=
o
()

angle of reflection

D
d

n = refractive index
(No unit)
D = real depth
(m or
cm) d = apparent depth (m or cm)

Speed of light

c
v

n = refractive index
(No unit)
-1
c = speed of light in vacuum
(ms )
v = speed of light in a medium (like water,
-1
glass ) (ms )

Total Internal Reflection

1
n
sin c
n = refractive index
unit) c = critical angle

(No
o
()

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Lens
Power

P
P = Power
f = focal length
Linear Magnification

hi
ho

f
(D(Diopter))
(m)

hi v
ho u

v
u

m = linear magnification
u = distance of object
v = distance of image
hi = heigth of image
ho = heigth of
object
Lens Equation

(No unit)
(m or cm)
(m or cm)
(m or
cm) (m
or cm)

Conventional symbol
positive neg ative

1
u

1 1
v f

Real object

Virtual object

Real image

Virtual image

Convex lens

Concave lens

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Astronomical Telescope
Magnification,

Pe

fo
fe

Po
m = linear magnification
Pe = Power of the
eyepiece
Po = Power of the objective
lens fe = focal length of the
eyepiece
fo = focal length of the objective lens
Distance between eye lens and objective lens
d = fo + fe
d = Distance between eye lens and objective
lens fe = focal length of the eyepiece
fo = focal length of the objective lens
Compound Microscope
Magnification

m m1 m2

Height of first image , I1 Height of second image, I 2


Height of first image , I
Height of object
1

Height of second image, I 2


Height of object, I1

m = Magnification of the microscope


m1 = Linear magnification of the object lens
m2 = Linear magnification of the eyepiece
Distance in between the two lens

d > fo + fe

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d = Distance between eye lens and objective lens
fe = focal length of the eyepiece
fo = focal length of the objective lens

Physics Equation List :Form 5


Wave

Oscillation

f
T

f = frequency
T = Period

-1

(Hz or s )
(s)

Displacement-Time Graph

Amplitude, Period and Frequency can be found from a Displacement-Time Graph

Wave

v f

-1

v = velocity

(ms )

f = frequency
= wavelength

(Hz or s )
(m)

Displacement-Distance Graph
18

-1

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= Wavelength

18

Interference

= Wavelength

ax
D

a = Distance between the two wave sources


x = Distance between two successive anti-node lines or node lines
D = Distance from the wave sources to the plane where x is
measured.

Summary

Electricity
Sum of charge

Q
ne

Q = Charge
n = number of charge particles
e = charge of 1 particle

Current

t
Q
19

Q
=

Charge I =
Current t =
time

19

Potential Difference

= WV = potential difference,

-1

(V or JC )

W = energy

(J)

Q = charge

(C)

V = potential difference,

(V or JC )

I = Current
R = Resistance

(A or Cs )
( )

Ohms Law and Resistance

V
IR

-1

-1

Resistance

R (

R R1 R2

1
1 1
)
R1 R2 R3

Current
Series Circuit

Parallel Circuit

The current flow into a resistor = the current flow


inside the resistor = the current flows out from the
The current flow into a parallel circuit is equal to the
resistor
sum of the current in each branches of the circuit.
IA = I B = IC
I = I 1 + I2
Example

In a series circuit, the current at any points of the


circuit is the same.

If the resistance of the 2 resistors is the same, current


will be divided equally to both of the resistor.

20

Potential and Potential Difference


Series Circuit

Parallel Circuit

The sum of the potential difference across individual


resistor in between 2 points in a series circuit is equal
to the potential difference across the two point.
V = V1 + V2

The potential difference across all the resistor in a


parallel circuit is the same.

Example

V = V1 = V2
Example

Potential Difference and Electromotive Force

If we assume that there is no internal resistance in the cell, the potential difference across the cell is equal to
the e.m.f. of the cell.

21

Electromotive Force and Internal Resistance

E I
(R

r)

or

E = Electromotive Force
r = internal resistance
V = potential difference,
I = Current
R = Resistance

Ir

(V)
( )
-1
(V or JC )
-1
(A or Cs )
( )

2 methods to find the internal resistance and electromotive force


a. Open Circuit Close Circuit method
Open Circuit
Close Circuit

In open circuit ( when the switch is off), the In close circuit ( when the switch is on), the
voltmeter shows the reading of the e.m.f.
voltmeter shows the reading of the potential
difference across the cell.
With the presence of internal resistance, the potential difference across the cell is always less than
the e.m.f..
b. Linear Graph method

From the equation,


E = V + Ir
Therefore
V = -rI + E
Gradient od the grapf, m
= -internal resistance
Y intercept of the graph, c
= electromotive force

Electrical Energy

E
QV

E = Electrical Energy
Q = charge
V = potential difference

22

(J)
(C)
-1
(V or JC )

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Electrical Power

P
IV

W
t

P I R

-1

P = Power
W = Work done/Energy change
t = Time
I = Current
V = Potential difference
R = Resistance

(W or Js )
(J)
(s)
(A)
(V)
( )

Efficiency

output power
100%
input power

Electrical efficiency
=

Electromagnetism
Root mean Square Value

Vrms

Vp

Vrms = root mean square voltage


(V) Vp = peak voltage
(V)

Irms

Ip
2

Irms = root mean square current


(A) Ip = peak current
(A)

23

V
R

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Transformer
Input And Output Of A Transformer

Vs

Vp

Vp

Ns

input

(primary)

potential

difference

(V) Vs = output (secondary) potential difference


(V) Np = number of turns in primary coil
Ns = number of turns in secondary coil

Power In A Transformer
Ideal Transformer

Vp = input (primary) potential difference


(V) Vs = output (secondary) potential difference

V p I V
p

I
s

(V)
Ip = input (primary) current

(A)

Is = output (secondary) current

(A)

Non-ideal transformer

Efficiency

Vs I s 100%
V I
p
p

Power Transmission
2Steps to find the energy/power loss in the cable
a. Find the current in the cable by the equation P=IV
2
b. Find the Power lost in the cable by the equation P=I R.

Electronic
Energy change of electron in an electron gun
Kinetic energy electrical potential
=
gain
energy

2
mv v

2eV
m

eV
24

v=
speed
of
electro

n
(m
V=
potential
difference

across the electron gun

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(V) e = charge of 1 electron


(C)
m = mass of 1 electron

24

(kg)

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Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
Vertical scale = Y-gain control
Horizontal scale = Time base
Period = Time for 1 complete Oscillation
Frequency,

1
f
T

Transistor - Potential Divider

Potential difference across resistor R1

R1
=1
R

R2 V

Potential difference across resistor R2

R2
=1
R

25

R2 V

Radioactivity
Alpha decay
A

Beta decay

A4

Z 2Y

A
Z

Z 1Y

1
0

Gamma emission

A
Z

2 He

0
1

n11 e 10
p
A

A = nucleon
number Z = proton
number
Half-life

1 n
( ) N
2

N = Amount of radioisotope particles after nth half life.


N0 = Initial amount of radioisotope particles.
n = number of half life

Nuclear Energy - Einstein Formula

E mc

m = mass change
c = speed of light
E = energy changed

(kg)
-1
(m s )
(J)

26