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# CCGPS

Frameworks
Student Edition

Mathematics
Unit 2: Expressions and Equations

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## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

UNIT 2
EXPRESSIONS AND EQUATIONS
Overview ..........................................................................................................................................3
Standards Addressed in this Unit .....................................................................................................4

## The Standards for Mathematical Practice ............................................................................6

Enduring Understandings.................................................................................................................7
Concepts & Skills to Maintain .........................................................................................................8
Selected Terms and Symbols ...........................................................................................................8

## MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 2 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

OVERVIEW
In this unit students will:

## build on their understanding of order of operations.

use the properties of operations to rewrite equivalent numerical expressions.
understand that the properties of operations hold for integers, rational, and real numbers.
use variables to represent real-world situations and use the properties of operations to
generate equivalent expressions for these situations.
experience expressions for amounts of increase and decrease.
use substitution to understand that expressions are equivalent.
use and understand the properties of operations which include: the commutative,
associative, identity, inverse properties of addition and of multiplication, and the zero
property of multiplication.
understand the connections between performing the inverse operation and undoing the
operations.
show their steps in their work and explain their thinking using the correct terminology for
the properties and operations.
build upon their understanding and application of writing and solving one-step equations
from a problem situation in order to understand and solve multi-step equations from a
problem situation.
practice using rational numbers including: integers, and positive and negative fractions
and decimals.
analyze a situation and identify what operation should be completed first, and then find
the values for that computation.
work with multi-step problem situations that have multiple solutions and therefore can be
represented by an inequality.
understand that values can satisfy an inequality but may not be appropriate for the
situation, therefore limiting the solutions for that particular problem.
Although the units in this instructional framework emphasize key standards and
big ideas at specific times of the year, routine topics such as estimation, mental
computation, and basic computation facts should be addressed on an ongoing basis. Ideas
related to the eight practice standards should be addressed constantly as well. To assure
that this unit is taught with the appropriate emphasis, depth, and rigor, it is important that
the tasks listed under Evidence of Learning be reviewed early in the planning process.
A variety of resources should be utilized to supplement this unit. This unit provides much
needed content information, but excellent learning activities as well. The tasks in this unit
illustrate the types of learning activities that should be utilized from a variety of sources.

## MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 3 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

## STANDARDS ADDRESSED IN THIS UNIT

KEY STANDARDS
MCC7.EE.1 Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand
linear expressions with rational coefficients.
MCC7.EE.2 Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can
shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. For example, a + 0.05a = 1.05a
means that increase by 5% is the same as multiply by 1.05.
MCC7.EE.3 Solve multistep reallife and mathematical problems posed with positive and
negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools
strategically. Apply properties of operations as strategies to calculate with numbers in any form;
convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental
computation and estimation strategies. For example: If a woman making \$25 an hour gets a
10% raise, she will make an additional 110 of her salary an hour, or \$2.50, for a new salary of
\$27.50. If you want to place a towel bar 9 3 4 inches long in the center of a door that is
27 12 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate
can be used as a check on the exact computation.
MCC7.EE.4 Use variables to represent quantities in a realworld or mathematical problem, and
construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.
MCC7.EE.4a Solve word problems leading to equations of the form px + q = r and
p(x+q) = r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Solve equations of these
forms fluently. Compare an algebraic solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying the
sequence of the operations used in each approach. For example, the perimeter of a
rectangle is 54 cm. Its length is 6 cm. What is its width?
MCC7.EE.4b Solve word problems leading to inequalities of the form px + q > r or px
+ q < r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Graph the solution set of the
inequality and interpret it in the context of the problem. For example, as a salesperson,
you are paid \$50 per week plus \$3 per sale. This week you want your pay to be at least
\$100. Write an inequality for the number of sales you need to make, and describe the
solutions.

RELATED STANDARDS
MCC7.NS.1 Apply and extend previous understandings of addition and subtraction to add and
subtract rational numbers; represent addition and subtraction on a horizontal or vertical number
line diagram.
MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations
Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 4 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

## MCC7.NS.1a Describe situations in which opposite quantities combine to make 0. For

example, a hydrogen atom has 0 charge because its two constituents are oppositely
charged.
MCC7.NS.1b Understand p + q as the number located a distance |q| from p, in the
positive or negative direction depending on whether q is positive or negative. Show that a
number and its opposite have a sum of 0 (are additive inverses). Interpret sums of rational
numbers by describing realworld contexts.
p q = p + (-q). Show that the distance between two rational numbers on the number
line is the absolute value of their difference, and apply this principle in realworld
contexts.
MCC7.NS.1d Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract rational
numbers.
MCC7.NS.2 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of
fractions to multiply and divide rational numbers.
MCC7.NS.2a Understand that multiplication is extended from fractions to rational
numbers by requiring that operations continue to satisfy the properties of operations,
particularly the distributive property, leading to products such as (-1)(-1) = 1 and the
rules for multiplying signed numbers. Interpret products of rational numbers by
describing realworld contexts.
MCC7.NS.2b Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not
zero, and every quotient of integers (with nonzero divisor) is a rational number. If p and
q are integers then (p/q) = (-p)/q = p/(-q). Interpret quotients of rational numbers by
describing realworld contexts.
MCC7.NS.2c Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide rational
numbers.
MCC7.NS.2d Convert a rational number to a decimal using long division; know that the
decimal form of a rational number terminates in 0s or eventually repeats.
MCC7.NS.3 Solve realworld and mathematical problems involving the four operations with
rational numbers.

## MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 5 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

## THE STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE

The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics
educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students. These practices rest on important
processes and proficiencies with longstanding importance in mathematics education. The first
of these are the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof,
communication, representation, and connections. The second are the strands of mathematical
reasoning , strategic competence, conceptual understanding (comprehension of mathematical
concepts, operations and relations), procedural fluency (skill in carrying out procedures flexibly,
accurately, efficiently and appropriately) and productive disposition (habitual inclination to see
mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and ones
own efficacy).
1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
In grade 7, students solve problems involving ratios and rates and discuss how they solved
them. Students solve real world problems through the application of algebraic and geometric
concepts. Students seek the meaning of a problem and look for efficient ways to represent and
solve it. They may check their thinking by asking themselves, What is the most efficient way
to solve the problem?, Does this make sense?, and Can I solve the problem in a different
way?
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
In grade 7, students represent a wide variety of real world contexts through the use of real
numbers and variables in mathematical expressions, equations, and inequalities. Students
contextualize to understand the meaning of the number or variable as related to the problem
and decontextualize to manipulate symbolic representations by applying properties of
operations.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
In grade 7, students construct arguments using verbal or written explanations accompanied by
expressions, equations, inequalities, models, and graphs, tables, and other data displays (i.e.
box plots, dot plots, histograms, etc.). They further refine their mathematical communication
skills through mathematical discussions in which they critically evaluate their own thinking
and the thinking of other students. They pose questions like How did you get that?, Why is
that true? Does that always work?. They explain their thinking to others and respond to
others thinking.
4. Model with mathematics.
In grade 7, students model problem situations symbolically, graphically, tabularly, and
contextually. Students form expressions, equations, or inequalities from real world contexts
and connect symbolic and graphical representations. Students explore covariance and
represent two quantities simultaneously. They use measures of center and variability and data
MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations
Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 6 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

displays (i.e. box plots and histograms) to draw inferences, make comparisons and formulate
predictions.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
Students consider available tools (including estimation and technology) when solving a
mathematical problem and decide when certain tools might be helpful. For instance, students
in grade 7 may decide to represent similar data sets using dot plots with the same scale to
visually compare the center and variability of the data.
6. Attend to precision.
In grade 7, students continue to refine their mathematical communication skills by using clear
and precise language in their discussions with others and in their own reasoning. Students
define variables, specify units of measure, and label axes accurately. Students use appropriate
terminology when referring to rates, ratios, and components of expressions, equations or
inequalities.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
Students routinely seek patterns or structures to model and solve problems. For instance,
students recognize patterns that exist in ratio tables making connections between the constant
of proportionality in a table with the slope of a graph. Students apply properties to generate
equivalent expressions (i.e. 6 + 2x = 3 (2 + x) by distributive property) and solve equations
(i.e. 2c + 3 = 15, 2c = 12 by subtraction property of equality), c=6 by division property of
equality). Students compose and decompose two and threedimensional figures to solve real
world problems involving scale drawings, surface area, and volume. Students understand the
reason for rewriting an expression in terms of a contextual situation.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
In grade 7, students use repeated reasoning to understand algorithms and make generalizations
about patterns. During multiple opportunities to solve and model problems, they may notice
that a/b c/d = ad/bc and construct other examples and models that confirm their
generalization. They extend their thinking to include complex fractions and rational numbers.
Students formally begin to make connections between covariance, rates, and representations
showing the relationships between quantities.

ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS

## Variables can be used to represent numbers in any type mathematical problem.

Understand the difference in an expression and an equation.
Expressions you simplify and equations you solve for the variables value.
Write and solve multi-step equations including all rational numbers.
Some equations may have more than one solution and understand inequalities.

## MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 7 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

## CONCEPTS AND SKILLS TO MAINTAIN

It is expected that students will have prior knowledge/experience related to the concepts
and skills identified below. It may be necessary to pre-assess in order to determine if time needs
to be spent on conceptual activities that help students develop a deeper understanding of these
ideas.
number sense
computation with whole numbers and decimals, including application of order of
operations
addition and subtraction of common fractions with like denominators
computation with all positive and negative rational numbers
data usage and representations

## SELECTED TERMS AND SYMBOLS

The following terms and symbols are often misunderstood. These concepts are not an
inclusive list and should not be taught in isolation. However, due to evidence of frequent
difficulty and misunderstanding associated with these concepts, instructors should pay particular
attention to them and how their students are able to explain and apply them.
The definitions below are for teacher reference only and are not to be memorized by
the students. Students should explore these concepts using models and real life examples.
Students should understand the concepts involved and be able to recognize and/or
demonstrate them with words, models, pictures, or numbers.
The websites below are interactive and include a math glossary suitable for elementary children.
Note At the elementary level, different sources use different definitions. Please preview
any website for alignment to the definitions given in the frameworks.
http://www.amathsdictionaryforkids.com/
This web site has activities to help students more fully understand and retain new vocabulary
(i.e. the definition page for dice actually generates rolls of the dice and gives students an
opportunity to add them). This dictionary is for all levels of students and provides links to
sample questions.
http://intermath.coe.uga.edu/dictnary/homepg.asp
Definitions and activities for these and other terms can be found on the Intermath website.

Variable: A symbol, usually a letter, which is used to represent one or more numbers.

## MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 8 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Algebraic expression: An expression consisting of at least one variable and also consist
of numbers and operations.

## Term: A number, a variable, or a product and a number and variable.

Coefficient: The number part of a term that includes a variable. For example, 3 is the
coefficient of the term 3x.

Constant: A quantity having a fixed value that does not change or vary, such as a
number. For example, 5 is the constant of x + 5.

expressions.

## MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 9 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

## A corner has been removed from this rectangle.

1. Find an expression for the perimeter of the rectangle. Write your expression in simplified
form.

2. What is the perimeter of the rectangle if a = inch? Show your calculations step-by-step.

3. Find an expression for the area of the rectangle. Write your expression in simplified form.

4. What is the area of the rectangle if a = 1.8 feet? Show your calculations step-by-step.

## MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 10 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

## MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 11 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Lets use Algebra to solve some number puzzles on the calendar.
Using the calendar below, we will try a sample problem.

Guess my numbers
a. I chose 4 numbers in a row (vertically) that have a sum of 54. What numbers did I
choose?
List the expressions you need to find each number.
____________________________________________________________________
Write the simplified expressions (combine like terms) and write an equation.
____________________________________________________________________
Solve the equation.

List each numbers expression (as you did in step a) and show what number was
substituted into each expression to arrive at the original calendar number.
1st # :
2nd # :
3rd # :
4th # :

## Now it is your turn.

1. Using your calendar, secretly select 3 or 4 numbers that are in a row either horizontally,
vertically, diagonally, or that make a square.
2. Find the sum of the numbers.
3. Give this to your partner or to the members of your group.
4. Did they solve it correctly? Be sure to work it yourself so you can let them know!
5. Do this 3 times with your partner or group- show your work on the chart.

## MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 12 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Number Puzzle #1
Expressions needed to
find the numbers
Simplified Expression

## Equation (show how you

solved the equation)
Evaluate expressions to
find puzzle numbers
Number Puzzle #2
Expressions needed to
find the numbers
Simplified Expression

## Equation (show how you

solved the equation)
Evaluate expressions to
find puzzle numbers
Number Puzzle #3
Expressions needed to
find the numbers
Simplified Expression

## Equation (show how you

solved the equation)
Evaluate expressions to
find puzzle numbers

## MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 13 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

## MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 14 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Part 1.
order from shortest to tallest. Write 5 inequality statements using the symbols >, <, or =.

## Height in inches (in)

Inequality Statements:

## MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 15 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Part 2:
1. In your group measure everyones height to the nearest centimeter.
2. RECORD each persons height below: (Rank in order from shortest height to tallest
height.)
Names of groups members

## Height in centimeters (cm)

3. Using the number line below, number the line with consecutive values that include the
range of heights found in your group. Represent each person by placing a dot on their
corresponding height and fill in each persons name. If two people have the same heights,
place two dots on the number line by stacking the dots.

## MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 16 of 17

## Georgia Department of Education

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

4. Using the heights of the members of your group, write statements using >, <, or = to
describe the relationship between group members heights. Write at least 5 different
inequality statements.

5. Walk around the room and place your height on the number line where it fits according
to the inequality given. (h = height) Write 5 different statements about your class using >,
<, or = to describe the relationship between members of your class.

Part 3:
1. A new student comes into your class. You know that their height is less than 130 cm.
Write an inequality statement showing their height. Draw a graph showing this
inequality.

2. You also find out that the new students height is at least 90 cm. Write an inequality
statement showing their height is at least 90 cm. Draw a graph showing this inequality.

3. A second new student joins your class. Their height is more than 85 cm but no more than
150 cm. Write two inequality statements showing the height of the second new student.
Draw a graph showing these inequalities.

## MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

Georgia Department of Education
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
May 2012 Page 17 of 17