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Frameworks

Student Edition

Mathematics

7th Grade

Unit 2: Expressions and Equations

These materials are for nonprofit educational purposes only. Any other use may constitute copyright infringement.

Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

UNIT 2

EXPRESSIONS AND EQUATIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Overview ..........................................................................................................................................3

Standards Addressed in this Unit .....................................................................................................4

Enduring Understandings.................................................................................................................7

Concepts & Skills to Maintain .........................................................................................................8

Selected Terms and Symbols ...........................................................................................................8

Tasks

Georgia Department of Education

Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

May 2012 Page 2 of 17

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

OVERVIEW

In this unit students will:

use the properties of operations to rewrite equivalent numerical expressions.

understand that the properties of operations hold for integers, rational, and real numbers.

use variables to represent real-world situations and use the properties of operations to

generate equivalent expressions for these situations.

experience expressions for amounts of increase and decrease.

use substitution to understand that expressions are equivalent.

use and understand the properties of operations which include: the commutative,

associative, identity, inverse properties of addition and of multiplication, and the zero

property of multiplication.

understand the connections between performing the inverse operation and undoing the

operations.

show their steps in their work and explain their thinking using the correct terminology for

the properties and operations.

build upon their understanding and application of writing and solving one-step equations

from a problem situation in order to understand and solve multi-step equations from a

problem situation.

practice using rational numbers including: integers, and positive and negative fractions

and decimals.

analyze a situation and identify what operation should be completed first, and then find

the values for that computation.

work with multi-step problem situations that have multiple solutions and therefore can be

represented by an inequality.

understand that values can satisfy an inequality but may not be appropriate for the

situation, therefore limiting the solutions for that particular problem.

Although the units in this instructional framework emphasize key standards and

big ideas at specific times of the year, routine topics such as estimation, mental

computation, and basic computation facts should be addressed on an ongoing basis. Ideas

related to the eight practice standards should be addressed constantly as well. To assure

that this unit is taught with the appropriate emphasis, depth, and rigor, it is important that

the tasks listed under Evidence of Learning be reviewed early in the planning process.

A variety of resources should be utilized to supplement this unit. This unit provides much

needed content information, but excellent learning activities as well. The tasks in this unit

illustrate the types of learning activities that should be utilized from a variety of sources.

Georgia Department of Education

Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

May 2012 Page 3 of 17

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

KEY STANDARDS

MCC7.EE.1 Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand

linear expressions with rational coefficients.

MCC7.EE.2 Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can

shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. For example, a + 0.05a = 1.05a

means that increase by 5% is the same as multiply by 1.05.

MCC7.EE.3 Solve multistep reallife and mathematical problems posed with positive and

negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools

strategically. Apply properties of operations as strategies to calculate with numbers in any form;

convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental

computation and estimation strategies. For example: If a woman making $25 an hour gets a

10% raise, she will make an additional 110 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of

$27.50. If you want to place a towel bar 9 3 4 inches long in the center of a door that is

27 12 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate

can be used as a check on the exact computation.

MCC7.EE.4 Use variables to represent quantities in a realworld or mathematical problem, and

construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.

MCC7.EE.4a Solve word problems leading to equations of the form px + q = r and

p(x+q) = r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Solve equations of these

forms fluently. Compare an algebraic solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying the

sequence of the operations used in each approach. For example, the perimeter of a

rectangle is 54 cm. Its length is 6 cm. What is its width?

MCC7.EE.4b Solve word problems leading to inequalities of the form px + q > r or px

+ q < r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Graph the solution set of the

inequality and interpret it in the context of the problem. For example, as a salesperson,

you are paid $50 per week plus $3 per sale. This week you want your pay to be at least

$100. Write an inequality for the number of sales you need to make, and describe the

solutions.

RELATED STANDARDS

MCC7.NS.1 Apply and extend previous understandings of addition and subtraction to add and

subtract rational numbers; represent addition and subtraction on a horizontal or vertical number

line diagram.

MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

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May 2012 Page 4 of 17

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

example, a hydrogen atom has 0 charge because its two constituents are oppositely

charged.

MCC7.NS.1b Understand p + q as the number located a distance |q| from p, in the

positive or negative direction depending on whether q is positive or negative. Show that a

number and its opposite have a sum of 0 (are additive inverses). Interpret sums of rational

numbers by describing realworld contexts.

MCC7.NS.1c Understand subtraction of rational numbers as adding the additive inverse,

p q = p + (-q). Show that the distance between two rational numbers on the number

line is the absolute value of their difference, and apply this principle in realworld

contexts.

MCC7.NS.1d Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract rational

numbers.

MCC7.NS.2 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of

fractions to multiply and divide rational numbers.

MCC7.NS.2a Understand that multiplication is extended from fractions to rational

numbers by requiring that operations continue to satisfy the properties of operations,

particularly the distributive property, leading to products such as (-1)(-1) = 1 and the

rules for multiplying signed numbers. Interpret products of rational numbers by

describing realworld contexts.

MCC7.NS.2b Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not

zero, and every quotient of integers (with nonzero divisor) is a rational number. If p and

q are integers then (p/q) = (-p)/q = p/(-q). Interpret quotients of rational numbers by

describing realworld contexts.

MCC7.NS.2c Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide rational

numbers.

MCC7.NS.2d Convert a rational number to a decimal using long division; know that the

decimal form of a rational number terminates in 0s or eventually repeats.

MCC7.NS.3 Solve realworld and mathematical problems involving the four operations with

rational numbers.

Georgia Department of Education

Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

May 2012 Page 5 of 17

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics

educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students. These practices rest on important

processes and proficiencies with longstanding importance in mathematics education. The first

of these are the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof,

communication, representation, and connections. The second are the strands of mathematical

proficiency specified in the National Research Councils report Adding It Up: adaptive

reasoning , strategic competence, conceptual understanding (comprehension of mathematical

concepts, operations and relations), procedural fluency (skill in carrying out procedures flexibly,

accurately, efficiently and appropriately) and productive disposition (habitual inclination to see

mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and ones

own efficacy).

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

In grade 7, students solve problems involving ratios and rates and discuss how they solved

them. Students solve real world problems through the application of algebraic and geometric

concepts. Students seek the meaning of a problem and look for efficient ways to represent and

solve it. They may check their thinking by asking themselves, What is the most efficient way

to solve the problem?, Does this make sense?, and Can I solve the problem in a different

way?

2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

In grade 7, students represent a wide variety of real world contexts through the use of real

numbers and variables in mathematical expressions, equations, and inequalities. Students

contextualize to understand the meaning of the number or variable as related to the problem

and decontextualize to manipulate symbolic representations by applying properties of

operations.

3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

In grade 7, students construct arguments using verbal or written explanations accompanied by

expressions, equations, inequalities, models, and graphs, tables, and other data displays (i.e.

box plots, dot plots, histograms, etc.). They further refine their mathematical communication

skills through mathematical discussions in which they critically evaluate their own thinking

and the thinking of other students. They pose questions like How did you get that?, Why is

that true? Does that always work?. They explain their thinking to others and respond to

others thinking.

4. Model with mathematics.

In grade 7, students model problem situations symbolically, graphically, tabularly, and

contextually. Students form expressions, equations, or inequalities from real world contexts

and connect symbolic and graphical representations. Students explore covariance and

represent two quantities simultaneously. They use measures of center and variability and data

MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 UNIT 2: Expressions and Equations

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May 2012 Page 6 of 17

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

displays (i.e. box plots and histograms) to draw inferences, make comparisons and formulate

predictions.

5. Use appropriate tools strategically.

Students consider available tools (including estimation and technology) when solving a

mathematical problem and decide when certain tools might be helpful. For instance, students

in grade 7 may decide to represent similar data sets using dot plots with the same scale to

visually compare the center and variability of the data.

6. Attend to precision.

In grade 7, students continue to refine their mathematical communication skills by using clear

and precise language in their discussions with others and in their own reasoning. Students

define variables, specify units of measure, and label axes accurately. Students use appropriate

terminology when referring to rates, ratios, and components of expressions, equations or

inequalities.

7. Look for and make use of structure.

Students routinely seek patterns or structures to model and solve problems. For instance,

students recognize patterns that exist in ratio tables making connections between the constant

of proportionality in a table with the slope of a graph. Students apply properties to generate

equivalent expressions (i.e. 6 + 2x = 3 (2 + x) by distributive property) and solve equations

(i.e. 2c + 3 = 15, 2c = 12 by subtraction property of equality), c=6 by division property of

equality). Students compose and decompose two and threedimensional figures to solve real

world problems involving scale drawings, surface area, and volume. Students understand the

reason for rewriting an expression in terms of a contextual situation.

8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

In grade 7, students use repeated reasoning to understand algorithms and make generalizations

about patterns. During multiple opportunities to solve and model problems, they may notice

that a/b c/d = ad/bc and construct other examples and models that confirm their

generalization. They extend their thinking to include complex fractions and rational numbers.

Students formally begin to make connections between covariance, rates, and representations

showing the relationships between quantities.

ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS

Understand the difference in an expression and an equation.

Expressions you simplify and equations you solve for the variables value.

Write and solve multi-step equations including all rational numbers.

Some equations may have more than one solution and understand inequalities.

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Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

May 2012 Page 7 of 17

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

It is expected that students will have prior knowledge/experience related to the concepts

and skills identified below. It may be necessary to pre-assess in order to determine if time needs

to be spent on conceptual activities that help students develop a deeper understanding of these

ideas.

number sense

computation with whole numbers and decimals, including application of order of

operations

addition and subtraction of common fractions with like denominators

computation with all positive and negative rational numbers

data usage and representations

The following terms and symbols are often misunderstood. These concepts are not an

inclusive list and should not be taught in isolation. However, due to evidence of frequent

difficulty and misunderstanding associated with these concepts, instructors should pay particular

attention to them and how their students are able to explain and apply them.

The definitions below are for teacher reference only and are not to be memorized by

the students. Students should explore these concepts using models and real life examples.

Students should understand the concepts involved and be able to recognize and/or

demonstrate them with words, models, pictures, or numbers.

The websites below are interactive and include a math glossary suitable for elementary children.

Note At the elementary level, different sources use different definitions. Please preview

any website for alignment to the definitions given in the frameworks.

http://www.amathsdictionaryforkids.com/

This web site has activities to help students more fully understand and retain new vocabulary

(i.e. the definition page for dice actually generates rolls of the dice and gives students an

opportunity to add them). This dictionary is for all levels of students and provides links to

sample questions.

http://intermath.coe.uga.edu/dictnary/homepg.asp

Definitions and activities for these and other terms can be found on the Intermath website.

Variable: A symbol, usually a letter, which is used to represent one or more numbers.

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Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

May 2012 Page 8 of 17

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

Algebraic expression: An expression consisting of at least one variable and also consist

of numbers and operations.

Coefficient: The number part of a term that includes a variable. For example, 3 is the

coefficient of the term 3x.

Constant: A quantity having a fixed value that does not change or vary, such as a

number. For example, 5 is the constant of x + 5.

expressions.

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Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

May 2012 Page 9 of 17

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

1. Find an expression for the perimeter of the rectangle. Write your expression in simplified

form.

2. What is the perimeter of the rectangle if a = inch? Show your calculations step-by-step.

3. Find an expression for the area of the rectangle. Write your expression in simplified form.

4. What is the area of the rectangle if a = 1.8 feet? Show your calculations step-by-step.

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Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

May 2012 Page 10 of 17

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

Lets use Algebra to solve some number puzzles on the calendar.

Using the calendar below, we will try a sample problem.

Guess my numbers

a. I chose 4 numbers in a row (vertically) that have a sum of 54. What numbers did I

choose?

b. Remember to follow the steps (instead of guessing).

List the expressions you need to find each number.

____________________________________________________________________

Write the simplified expressions (combine like terms) and write an equation.

____________________________________________________________________

Solve the equation.

List each numbers expression (as you did in step a) and show what number was

substituted into each expression to arrive at the original calendar number.

1st # :

2nd # :

3rd # :

4th # :

1. Using your calendar, secretly select 3 or 4 numbers that are in a row either horizontally,

vertically, diagonally, or that make a square.

2. Find the sum of the numbers.

3. Give this to your partner or to the members of your group.

4. Did they solve it correctly? Be sure to work it yourself so you can let them know!

5. Do this 3 times with your partner or group- show your work on the chart.

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Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

May 2012 Page 12 of 17

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

Number Puzzle #1

Expressions needed to

find the numbers

Simplified Expression

solved the equation)

Evaluate expressions to

find puzzle numbers

Number Puzzle #2

Expressions needed to

find the numbers

Simplified Expression

solved the equation)

Evaluate expressions to

find puzzle numbers

Number Puzzle #3

Expressions needed to

find the numbers

Simplified Expression

solved the equation)

Evaluate expressions to

find puzzle numbers

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Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

May 2012 Page 13 of 17

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

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May 2012 Page 14 of 17

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

Part 1.

Record your findings about the Basketball Players Heights below. Be sure to put the players in

order from shortest to tallest. Write 5 inequality statements using the symbols >, <, or =.

Basketball Players

Inequality Statements:

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May 2012 Page 15 of 17

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

Part 2:

1. In your group measure everyones height to the nearest centimeter.

2. RECORD each persons height below: (Rank in order from shortest height to tallest

height.)

Names of groups members

3. Using the number line below, number the line with consecutive values that include the

range of heights found in your group. Represent each person by placing a dot on their

corresponding height and fill in each persons name. If two people have the same heights,

place two dots on the number line by stacking the dots.

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Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

May 2012 Page 16 of 17

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Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Framework Student Edition

Seventh Grade Mathematics Unit 2

4. Using the heights of the members of your group, write statements using >, <, or = to

describe the relationship between group members heights. Write at least 5 different

inequality statements.

5. Walk around the room and place your height on the number line where it fits according

to the inequality given. (h = height) Write 5 different statements about your class using >,

<, or = to describe the relationship between members of your class.

Part 3:

1. A new student comes into your class. You know that their height is less than 130 cm.

Write an inequality statement showing their height. Draw a graph showing this

inequality.

2. You also find out that the new students height is at least 90 cm. Write an inequality

statement showing their height is at least 90 cm. Draw a graph showing this inequality.

3. A second new student joins your class. Their height is more than 85 cm but no more than

150 cm. Write two inequality statements showing the height of the second new student.

Draw a graph showing these inequalities.

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May 2012 Page 17 of 17

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