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Tempo
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Inmusicalterminology,tempo("time"
inItalianplural:tempi)isthespeedor
paceofagivenpiece.

Contents
1Measuringtempo
2Musicalvocabularyfortempo
3Understoodtempo
4Beatsperminute
4.1Extremetempos

ThefirsttwomeasuresofMozart'sSonataK.331,which
indicatesthetempoas"Andantegrazioso"(Italianfor"atwalking
pace,graceful")andamoderneditormarking:"=120". Play

4.2Beatmatching
5Measuresperminute
6Italiantempomarkings
6.1Basictempomarkings
6.1.1Additional
terms
6.2Commonqualifiers
6.3Moodmarkingswith
atempoconnotation
6.4Termsforchangein
tempo
7Tempomarkingsinother
languages
7.1Frenchtempo
markings
7.2Germantempo
markings
7.3Englishtempo
markings
8Tempomarkingsas
movementnamesand
compositionswithatempo
indicatorname
9Seealso
10References
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11Sources
12Externallinks

Measuringtempo
Apieceofmusic'stempoistypicallywrittenatthestartofthescore,
andinmodernWesternmusicisusuallyindicatedinbeatsperminute
(BPM).Thismeansthataparticularnotevalue(forexample,aquarter
note,orcrotchet)isspecifiedasthebeat,andthattheamountoftime
betweensuccessivebeatsisaspecifiedfractionofaminute.The
greaterthenumberofbeatsperminute,thesmallertheamountoftime
betweensuccessivebeats,andthusfasterapiecemustbeplayed.For
example,atempoof60beatsperminutesignifiesonebeatpersecond,
whileatempoof120beatsperminuteistwiceasrapid,signifyingone
beatevery0.5seconds.Mathematicaltempomarkingsofthiskind
becameincreasinglypopularduringthefirsthalfofthe19thcentury,
afterthemetronomehadbeeninventedbyJohannNepomukMlzel,
althoughearlymetronomesweresomewhatinconsistent.Beethoven
wasoneofthefirstcomposerstousethemetronomeintheeighteen
teenshepublishedmetronomicindicationsfortheeightsymphonieshe
hadcomposeduptothattime.[1]

Electronicmetronome,
Wittnermodel

Withtheadventofmodernelectronics,BPMbecameanextremelyprecisemeasure.Musicsequencers
usetheBPMsystemtodenotetempo.
Insteadofbeatsperminute,some20thcenturycomposers(e.g.,BlaBartk,AlbertoGinastera,and
JohnCage)specifythetotalplayingtimeforapiece,fromwhichtheperformercanderivetempo.
Tempoisascrucialincontemporarymusicasitisinclassical.Inelectronicdancemusic,accurate
knowledgeofatune'sBPMisimportanttoDJsforthepurposesofbeatmatching.

Musicalvocabularyfortempo
Somemusicalpiecesdonothaveamathematicaltimeindication.Inclassicalmusicitiscustomaryto
describethetempoofapiecebyoneormorewords.MostofthesewordsareItalian,becausemanyof
themostimportantcomposersofthe17thcenturywereItalian,andthisperiodwaswhentempo
indicationswerefirstusedextensivelyandcodified.
Beforethemetronome,wordsweretheonlywaytodescribethetempoofacomposition.Yet,afterthe
metronome'sinvention,musicianscontinuedtousethesewords,oftenadditionallyindicatingthemood
ofthepiece.Thisblurredthetraditionaldistinctionbetweentempoandmoodindicators.Forexample,
prestoandallegrobothindicateaspeedyexecution(prestobeingfaster),butallegroalsoconnotesjoy
(fromitsoriginalmeaninginItalian).Presto,ontheotherhand,simplyindicatesspeed.Additional
Italianwordsalsoindicatetempoandmood.Forexample,the"agitato"intheAllegroagitatoofthelast
movementofGeorgeGershwin'spianoconcertoinFhasbothatempoindication(undoubtedlyfaster
thanausualAllegro)andamoodindication("agitated").

Understoodtempo
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Insomecases(quiteoftenuptotheendoftheBaroqueperiod),theconventionsthatgovernedmusical
compositionweresostrongthatcomposersdidn'tneedtoindicatetempo.Forexample,thefirst
movementofBach'sBrandenburgConcertoNo.3hasnotempoormoodindicationwhatsoever.To
providemovementnames,publishersofrecordingsresorttoadhocmeasures,forinstancemarkingthe
Brandenburgmovement"Allegro","(Allegro)","(Withoutindication)",andsoon.
InRenaissancemusic,performersunderstoodmostmusictoflowatatempodefinedbythetactus
(roughlytherateofthehumanheartbeat).Themensuraltimesignatureindicatedwhichnotevalue
correspondedtothetactus.
Oftenaparticularmusicalformorgenreimpliesitsowntempo,socomposersneedplacenofurther
explanationinthescore.Thus,musiciansexpectaminuettobeatafairlystatelytempo,slowerthana
Viennesewaltzaperpetuummobilequitefast,andsoon.Genresimplytempos.Thus,Ludwigvan
Beethovenwrote"Intempod'unMenuetto"overthefirstmovementofhisPianoSonataOp.54,though
thatmovementisnotaminuet.Popularmusicchartsusetermssuchasbossanova,ballad,andLatin
rockinmuchthesameway.
Notethatnotonlydidtemposchangeoverhistoricaltimeandevenindifferentplaces,butsometimes
eventheorderingoftermschanged.Forexample,amodernlargoisslowerthananadagio,butinthe
Baroqueperioditwasfaster.[2]

Beatsperminute
Beatsperminute(BPM)isaunittypicallyusedasameasureoftempoin
musicandheartrate.TheBPMtempoofapieceofmusicis
conventionallyshowninitsscoreasametronomemark,asillustratedto
theright.Thisindicatesthatthereshouldbe120crotchetbeats(quarter
notes)perminute.Insimpletimesignaturesitisconventionaltoshow
thetempointermsofthenotedurationonthebottom.Soa4/4would
showacrotchet(orquarternote),asshowntotheright,whilea2/2
wouldshowaminim(orhalfnote).
Incompoundtimesignaturesthebeatconsistsofthreenotedurations(so
thereare3quavers(eighthnotes)perbeatina6/8timesignature),soa
dottedformofthenextnotedurationupisused.Themostcommon
compoundsignatures:6/8,9/8,and12/8,thereforeuseadottedcrotchet
(dottedquarternote)toindicatetheirBPM.

BPMof120

ExotictimeandparticularlyslowtimesignaturesmayindicatetheirBPMtempousingothernote
durations.BPMbecamecommonterminologyindiscobecauseofitsusefulnesstoDJs,andremain
importantinthesamegenreandotherdancemusic.
Inthiscontextthebeatsmeasuredareeithercrotchets
(quarternotes)inthetimesignature(sometimes
MENU
0:00
ambiguouslycalleddownbeats),ordrumbeats
Exampleofabasic4/4,120BPM
(typicallybassdrumoranotherfunctionallysimilar
tempo
synthesizedsound),whicheverismorefrequent.
HigherBPMvaluesarethereforeachievableby
Problemsplayingthisfile?Seemediahelp.
increasingthenumberofdrumbeats,without
increasingthetempoofthemusic.Housemusicisfasteraround120128BPM(fromregularhouse
120BPMtempo

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musictoUKgarage),trancemusicrangesfrom125to150BPM,[3]anddrumandbassgenerallyranges
between150180BPM.Psytranceisalmostexclusivelyproducedat145BPM,whereasspeedcoreand
gabbermusiccanexceed180184BPM.

Extremetempos
Moreextremetemposareachievableatthesameunderlyingtempowithveryfastdrumpatterns,often
expressedasdrumrolls.Suchcompositionsoftenexhibitamuchslowerunderlyingtempo,butmay
increasethetempobyaddingadditionalpercussivebeats.Extrememusicsubgenressuchasspeedcore
andgrindcoreoftenstrivetoreachunusuallyfasttempos.Theuseofextremetempowasverycommon
inthefastbebopjazzfromthe1940sand1950s.Acommonjazztunesuchas"Cherokee"wasoften
performedatquarternoteequaltoorsometimesexceeding368BPM.SomeofCharlieParker'sfamous
tunes("Bebop","ShawNuff")havebeenperformedat380BPMplus.JohnColtrane's"GiantSteps"was
performedat374BPM.

Beatmatching
BeatmatchingisatechniqueDJsusethatinvolvesspeedinguporslowingdownarecordtomatchthe
tempoofaprevioustracksobothcanbeseamlesslymixed.
DJsoftenbeatmatchtheunderlyingtemposofrecordings,ratherthantheirstrictBPMvaluesuggested
bythekickdrum,particularlywhendealingwithhightempotracks.A240BPMtrack,forexample,
matchesthebeatofa120BPMtrackwithoutslowingdownorspeedingup,becausebothhavean
underlyingtempoof120quarternotesperminute.Thus,somesoulmusic(around7590BPM)mixes
wellwithadrumandbassbeat(from150185BPM).
Whenspeedinguporslowingdownarecordonaturntable,thepitchandtempoofatrackarelinked:
spinningadisc10%fastermakesbothpitchandtempo10%higher.Softwareprocessingtochangethe
pitchwithoutchangingthetempo,orviceversa,iscalledtimestretchingorpitchshifting.Whileit
worksfairlywellforsmalladjustments(20%),theresultcanbenoisyandunmusicalforlarger
changes.

Measuresperminute
Thespeedofapieceofmusiccanalsobegaugedaccordingtomeasuresperminute(MPM)orbarsper
minute,thenumberofmeasuresofthepieceperformedinoneminute.Thismeasureiscommonlyused
inballroomdancemusic.

Italiantempomarkings
ThedefinitionsoftheItaliantempomarkingsmentionedinthissectioncanbefoundintheHarvard
DictionaryofMusicand/ortheonlineItalianEnglishdictionary,bothofwhicharelistedinSources.

Basictempomarkings
Byaddinganissimoending,thewordisamplified/madelouder.Byaddinganinoorettoending,the
wordisdiminished/madesofter.TheBeatsPerMinutevaluesareroughapproximations.
Fromslowesttofastest:
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Larghissimovery,veryslow(24BPMandunder)
Graveveryslow(2545BPM)
Largobroadly(4060BPM)
Lentoslowly(4560BPM)
Larghettoratherbroadly(6066BPM)
Adagioslowandstately(literally,"atease")(6676BPM)
Adagiettoslowerthanandante(7276BPM)
Andanteatawalkingpace(76108BPM)
AndantinoslightlyfasterthanAndante(althoughinsomecasesitcanbetakentomeanslightly
slowerthanandante)(80108BPM)
Marciamoderatomoderately,inthemannerofamarch[4][5](8385BPM)
Andantemoderatobetweenandanteandmoderato(thusthenameandantemoderato)(92112
BPM)
Moderatomoderately(108120BPM)
Allegrettomoderatelyfast(112120BPM)
Allegromoderatoclosetobutnotquiteallegro(116120BPM)
Allegrofast,quickly,andbright(120168BPM)(moltoallegroisslightlyfasterthanallegro,
butalwaysinitsrange)
Vivacelivelyandfast(168176BPM)
Vivacissimoveryfastandlively(172176BPM)
AllegrissimoorAllegrovivaceveryfast(172176BPM)
Prestoextremelyfast(168200BPM)
PrestissimoevenfasterthanPresto(200BPMandover)
Termsfortempochange:
Ritardandoorrallentandograduallyslowingdown
Accelerandoorstringendograduallyaccelerating
Additionalterms
Apiaceretheperformermayusehisorherowndiscretionwithregardtotempoandrhythm
literally"atpleasure"[6]
Atemporesumeprevioustempo
L'istessotempoorLostessotempoatthesamespeed
Tempocomodoatacomfortable(normal)speed
Tempodi...thespeedofa...(suchasTempodivalse(speedofawaltz,60bpm),Tempodi
marcia(speedofamarch,120bpm))
Tempogiustoataconsistentspeed,atthe'right'speed,instricttempo
Temposemplicesimple,regularspeed,plainly
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Tempoprimoresumetheoriginal(first)tempo

Commonqualifiers
allainthemannerorstyleof,asin:
allabreveinshortstyle,i.e.,dupletime,withthehalfnote(minim)ratherthanthequarter
note(crotchet)asthebeatcuttime2/2insteadof4/4oftenmarkedasaCwithavertical
linethroughit(seeTimesignature)
allamarciainthemannerofamarch[7](e.g.,Beethoven,op.101)
all'ongareseinHungarianstyle
alla(danza)tedescainthestyleoftheLndler(c.1800),andsimilardancesinrather
quicktriplemeter(seeBeethoven,op.79,op.130)[8]
allaturcaintheTurkishstyle,thatis,inimitationofTurkishmilitarymusic(Janissary
Music),whichbecamepopularinEuropeinthelate18thcentury(e.g.,Mozart,K.331,K.
384)
allazingareseinthestyleofGypsymusic
assaiverymuch,asinallegroassai,quitefast[9]
benwell,asinbenmarcato(wellmarkedoraccented)
conwith,asin
conbravurawithskill[10]
conbriowithvigorandspirit[11]
condolcezzawithsoftnessdelicately[12]
confuocowithfire
conmotowithmotion
decisodecidedly,decisively
fugatoinfugalstyle,usuallypartofanonfugalcompositionsuchpassagesoftenoccurinthe
developmentsectionsofsymphonies,sonatas,andquartets[13]
inmodointhemannerof,inthestyleof:inmodonapolitano(inNeapolitanstyle),inmododi
marciafunebre(inthemannerofafuneralmarch)
menoless,asinmenomosso(lessquickly)[14]
appenaalmostnone,asinappenaforte(almostnotatallloud)
misteriosomysterious
moltomuch,very,asinmoltoallegro(veryquick)ormoltoadagio(veryslow)[15]
nontropponottoomuch,e.g.allegronontroppo(orallegromanontroppo)means"fast,but
nottoomuch"
nontantonotsomuch
pimore,asinpiallegro(morequickly)usedasarelativeindicationwhenthetempochanges
piuttostorather,asinpiuttostoallegro(ratherquick)[16]
pocoslightly,little,asinPocoadagio
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pocoapocolittlebylittle
polaccagenericnameforPolishdances,usuallythepolonaise,asintempodipolaccanote,
however,thatthe"Polacca"inBach'sBrandenburgConcertoNo.1showslittleresemblancetothe
polonaise[17]
primoprincipalorearly,asintempoprimo,thesametempoasatthebeginning
quasialmost,nearly,asif(suchasPiallegroquasipresto,"faster,asifpresto")
senzawithout,asinsenzainterruzione(withoutinterruptionorpause),senzatempoorsenza
misura(withoutstrictmeasure)[18]
sostenutosustained,prolonged
subitosuddenly
Note:Inadditiontothecommonallegretto,composersfreelyapplyItaliandiminutiveandsuperlative
suffixestovarioustempoindications:andantino,larghetto,adagietto,andlarghissimo.

Moodmarkingswithatempoconnotation
Somemarkingsthatprimarilymarkamood(orcharacter)alsohaveatempoconnotation:
Affettuosowithfeeling/emotion
Agitatoagitated,withimpliedquickness
Appassionatotoplaypassionately
Animatoanimatedly,lively
Brillantesparkling,glittering,asinAllegrobrillante,Rondobrillante,orVariationsbrillantes
becamefashionableintitlesforvirtuosopieces[19]
Bravurabroadly
Cantabileinsingingstyle(lyricalandflowing)
Calandodyingaway,slowing,diminishing
Dolcesweetly
Dolcissimoverysweetlyanddelicately
Energicoenergetic,strong,forceful
Eroicoheroically
Espressivoexpressively
Furiosotoplayinanangryorfuriousmanner
Giocosomerrily,funny
Gioiosojoyfully
Grandiosomagnificently,grandly
Graziosogracefully
Incalzandoencouraging,building
Lacrimosotearfully,sadly
Lamentosolamenting,mournfully
Leggierotoplaylightly,orwithlighttouch
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Leggiadrolightlyandgracefully
Maestosomajesticorstately(whichgenerallyindicatesasolemn,slowmarchlikemovement)
Malinconicomelancholic
Marcatomarchingtempo,markedwithemphasis
Marzialeinamarchstyle,usuallyinsimple,stronglymarkedrhythmandregularphrases
Mestosad,mournful
Misteriosomystical,inashadymanner
Morendodying
Nobilmentenobly(inanobleway)
Pateticowithgreatemotion
Pesanteheavily
Saltandojumpy,fast,andshort
Scherzandoplayfully
Smorzandodyingaway,decreasingtonothinginbothspeedanddynamic
Sostenutosustained,withaslowingoftempo
Spiccatoslowsautill,withabouncymanner
Tenerezzatenderness
Tranquillamenteadverboftranquillo,"calmly"
Trionfantetriumphantly
Vivacelivelyandfast,over140BPM(whichgenerallyindicatesafastmovement)

Termsforchangeintempo
Composersmayuseexpressivemarkstoadjustthetempo:
Accelerandospeedingup(abbreviation:accel.)
Allargandogrowingbroaderdecreasingtempo,usuallyneartheendofapiece
Calandogoingslower(andusuallyalsosofter)
Doppiomovimento/doppiopimossodoublespeed
Doppiopilentohalfspeed
Lentandogradualslowingandsofter
Menomossolessmovementorslower
Mossomovement,morelively,orquicker,muchlikepimosso,butnotasextreme
Pimossomoremovementorfaster
Precipitandohurrying,goingfaster/forward
Rallentandogradualslowingdown(abbreviation:rall.)
Ritardandoslowingdowngraduallyalsoseerallentandoandritenuto(abbreviations:rit.,
ritard.)
Ritenutoslightlyslowertemporarilyholdingback.(Notethattheabbreviationforritenutocan
alsoberit.Thusamorespecificabbreviationisriten.Alsosometimesritenutodoesnotreflecta
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tempochangebutacharacterchangeinstead.)
Rubatofreeadjustmentoftempoforexpressivepurposes(literally"theft",somorestrictly,take
timefromonebeattoslowanother)
Strettoinfastertempo,oftenneartheconclusionofasection.(Notethatinfugalcompositions,
thetermstrettoreferstotheimitationofthesubjectinclosesuccession,beforethesubjectis
completed,andassuch,suitableforthecloseofthefugue.[20]Usedinthiscontext,thetermisnot
necessarilyrelatedtotempo.)
Stringendopressingonfaster(literally"tightening")
Whilethebasetempoindication(suchasallegro)appearsinlargetypeabovethestaff,these
adjustmentstypicallyappearbelowthestaffor(inthecaseofkeyboardinstruments)inthemiddleofthe
grandstaff.
Theygenerallydesignateagradualchangeintempoforimmediatetemposhifts,composersnormally
justprovidethedesignationforthenewtempo.(Note,however,thatwhenPiMossoorMenoMosso
appearsinlargetypeabovethestaff,itfunctionsasanewtempo,andthusimpliesanimmediate
change.)Severalterms,e.g.,assai,molto,poco,subito,controlhowlargeandhowgradualachange
shouldbe(seecommonqualifiers).
Afteratempochange,acomposermayreturntoaprevioustempointwodifferentways:
atemporeturnstothebasetempoafteranadjustment(e.g."ritardando...atempo"undoesthe
effectoftheritardando).
TempoprimoorTempoIdenotesanimmediatereturntothepiece'soriginalbasetempoaftera
sectioninadifferenttempo(e.g."Allegro...Lento...Moderato....TempoI"indicatesareturnto
theAllegro).Thisindicationoftenfunctionsasastructuralmarkerinpiecesinbinaryform.
Thesetermsalsoindicateanimmediate,notagradual,tempochange.AlthoughtheyareItalian,
composerstypicallyusethemeveniftheyhavewrittentheirinitialtempomarkinginsomeother
language.

Tempomarkingsinotherlanguages
AlthoughItalianhasbeentheprevalentlanguagefortempomarkingsthroughoutmostofclassicalmusic
history,manycomposershavewrittentempoindicationsintheirownlanguage.Thissectionliststempo
markingsfromintheHarvardDictionaryofMusicortheonlineforeignlanguagedictionarieslistedin
Sources.

Frenchtempomarkings
SeveralcomposershavewrittenmarkingsinFrench,amongthembaroquecomposersFranoisCouperin
andJeanPhilippeRameauaswellasClaudeDebussy,OlivierMessiaen,MauriceRavelandAlexander
Scriabin.CommontempomarkingsinFrenchare:
Aumouvementplaythe(firstormain)tempo.
Graveslowlyandsolemnly
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Lentslowly
Modratamoderatetempo
Moinsless,asinMoinsvite(lessfast)
Rapidefast
Trsvery,asinTrsvif(verylively)
Viflively
Vitefast
ErikSatiewasknowntowriteextensivetempo(andcharacter)markingsbydefiningtheminapoetical
andliteralway,asinhisGnossiennes.[21]

Germantempomarkings
ManycomposershaveusedGermantempomarkings.TypicalGermantempomarkingsare:
Langsamslowly
Lebhaftlively(mood)
Migmoderately
Raschquickly
Schnellfast
Bewegtanimated,withmotion[22]
OneofthefirstGermancomposerstousetempomarkingsinhisnativelanguagewasLudwigvan
Beethoven.TheoneusingthemostelaboratecombinedtempoandmoodmarkingswasprobablyGustav
Mahler.Forexample,thesecondmovementofhisSymphonyNo.9ismarkedImTempoeines
gemchlichenLndlers,etwastppischundsehrderb,indicatingaslowishfolkdancelikemovement,
withsomeawkwardnessandmuchvulgarityintheexecution.Mahlerwouldalsosometimescombine
GermantempomarkingswithtraditionalItalianmarkings,asinthefirstmovementofhissixth
symphony,markedAllegroenergico,manontroppo.Heftig,abermarkig(Energeticallyquick,butnot
toomuch.Violent,butvigorous[23]).

Englishtempomarkings
Englishindications,forexamplequickly,havealsobeenused,byBenjaminBrittenandPercyGrainger,
amongmanyothers.Injazzandpopularmusiccharts,termslike"fast","laidback","steadyrock",
"medium","mediumup","ballad","brisk","up","slowly",andsimilarstyleindicationsmayappear.
TomLehrer'santhologyTooManySongsbyTomLehrer,usesfakeEnglishtempomarkingsto
humorouseffect.Forexample,LehrerspecifiesthatthesongNationalBrotherhoodWeekshouldbe
played"fraternally,"WeWillAllGoTogetherbeplayed"eschatologically,"andMasochismTangobe
played"painstakingly."

Tempomarkingsasmovementnamesandcompositionswitha
tempoindicatorname
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Often,composers(ormusicpublishers)namemovementsofcompositionsaftertheirtempo(ormood)
marking.Forinstance,thesecondmovementofSamuelBarber'sfirstStringQuartetisanAdagio.[24]
Somesuchmovementsmaystarttoleadalifeoftheirown,andbecomeknownwiththetempo/mood
markername,forinstancethestringorchestraversionofthesecondmovementofBarber'sfirststring
quartetbecameknownasAdagioforStrings.AsimilarexampleistheAdagiettofromMahler's
SymphonyNo.5.
Sometimesthelinkbetweenamusicalcompositionwitha"tempo"nameandaseparatemovementofa
compositionislessclear.Forinstance,Albinoni'sAdagioisa20thcenturycreative"reconstruction"
basedonanincompletemanuscript.
Somecomposerschosetoincludetempoindicatorsinthenameofaseparatecomposition,forinstance
BartkinAllegroBarbaro("barbaricAllegro"),asinglemovementcomposition.

Seealso
Acapriccio
Allabreve
AsSlowasPossible
Beat(music)
Halftime(music)
Multitemporalmusic
Stoptime

References
1. Someofthesemarkingsaretodaycontentious,suchasthoseonhis"Hammerklavier"SonataandNinth
Symphony,seemingtomanytobealmostimpossiblyfast,asisalsothecaseformanyoftheworksof
Schumann.See"metronome"entryinApel(1969),p.523.
2. musictheoryonline:tempo(http://www.dolmetsch.com/musictheory5.htm),Dolmetsch.com
3. Snoman(2009),p.251.
4. AmericanSymphonyOrchestraLeague(1998).JournaloftheConductors'Guild,Vols.1819
(http://books.google.cz/books?
ei=kFELUKCBN_OW0QWu0_zpCg&hl=cs&id=zGcIAQAAMAAJ&dq=%22marcia+moderato%22+tempo+
marking&q=%22marcia%22+).Viena:TheLeague.p.27.ISSN07341032
(https://www.worldcat.org/search?fq=x0:jrnl&q=n2:07341032)
5. WilliamE.Caplin,JamesHepokoski,JamesWebster(2010).MusicalForm,Forms&Formenlehre:Three
MethodologicalReflections(http://books.google.cz/books?
id=YhAgAJDAK9sC&pg=PT80&dq=%22marcia+moderato%22&hl=cs&sa=X&ei=TVULUNLTKISs0QW
1MDmCg&sqi=2&ved=0CFUQuwUwBg#v=onepage&q=%22marcia%20moderato%22&f=false).Leuven
UniversityPress.p.80.ISBN9058678229.
6. Apel(1969),p.42fortheliteraltranslationseetheonlineItalianEnglishdictionaryatWordReference.com.
7. Apel(1969),p.505.
8. Apel(1969),p.834.
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9. Apel(1969),p.61.
10. OnlineItalianEnglishdictionaryatWordReference.com.
11. Apel(1969),p.112.
12. TheAmericanHistoryandEncyclopediaofMusic,W.L.Hubbard(ed.)c.1908
13. Apel(1969),p.334.
14. Apel(1969),p.520.
15. Apel(1969),p.537.
16. Apel(1969),p.680.
17. Apel(1969),p.683.
18. Apel(1969),p.763.
19. "Brillante"entryinSadie(2001).
20. Apel(1969),p.809.
21. Gnossiennesmusicsheet(http://imslp.org/wiki/Special:ImagefromIndex/03007),IMSLPMusicLibrary
22. Apel(1969),p.92.
23. Italiantranslation,WordReference.comGerman,Apel(1969).
24. Heyman,BarbaraB.(19940512).SamuelBarber:thecomposerandhismusic(http://books.google.com/?
id=u6QGtHHtr6MC&pg=PA158&dq=second+movement+Samuel+Barber%27s+first+String+Quartet+is+an+
Adagio.#v=onepage&q=second%20movement%20Samuel%20Barber%27s%20first%20String%20Quartet%20
is%20an%20Adagio.&f=false).OxfordUniversityPress.p.158.ISBN0195090586.

Sources
Booksontempoinmusic:
Epstein,David(1995).ShapingTime:Music,theBrain,andPerformance.NewYork:Schirmer
Books.ISBN0028733207.
Marty,JeanPierre(1988).ThetempoindicationsofMozart.NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress.
ISBN0300038526.
Sachs,Curt(1953).RhythmandTempo:AStudyinMusicHistory.NewYork:Norton.
OCLC391538(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/391538).
Snoman,Rick(2009).TheDanceMusicManual:Tools,Toys,andTechniquesSecondEdition.
Oxford,UK:ElsevierPress.ISBN0974843849.
Musicdictionaries:
Apel,Willi,ed.,HarvardDictionaryofMusic,SecondEdition,RevisedandEnlarged.The
BelknapPressofHarvardUniversityPress,Cambridge,Massachusetts,1969.ISBN9780674
375017
Sadie,StanleyJohnTyrrell,eds.(2001).TheNewGroveDictionaryofMusicandMusicians,2nd
edition.NewYork:Grove'sDictionaries.ISBN1561592390.

Externallinks
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tempo

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18/04/2015

TempoWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Researchgroupspecializinginrhythm,timing,andtempo,UniversityofAmsterdam
(http://www.hum.uva.nl/mmm/)
TempoTerminology,VirginiaTechdepartmentofmusic
(http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/appendix/tempo/tempo1.html)
Tempoindicationsforsocialdances(http://www.beatsperminuteonline.com/en/home/bpmbeats
perminutereferencefordancegenres)
Tempovariationamongandwithin300+recordedperformancesofBeethoven's'Eroica'
Symphony(http://www.grunin.com/eroica)
Dolmetscharticleontempo(http://www.dolmetsch.com/musictheory5.htm)
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