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UWE Bristol

Thermodynamics & Fluids


UFMEQU-20-1

FLUIDS
Lecture 4: Fluid Machines

Todays Lecture
Pump Characteristics
Pressure Rise vs. Flow rate

Pipe Characteristics
Matching Pump and Pipe Characeristics
Efficiency
Example

Fluid Machines
A fluid machine either:
Takes energy from the flow:
e.g. Turbine, hydraulic motor, hydraulic actuator

Gives energy to the flow:


e.g. Pump, compressor

Machine Characteristics: Pump


Characteristic is relationship between
pressure rise, pp against flow rate
Simplest: pressure rise constant:
pp

V&

Unrealistic: pp x V& = Power


If pp is constant with any flow rate, power
= infinity

Machine Characteristic: Pump


Alternative characteristic:
We know that efficiency is defined as:

p pV&
Power to the flow
=
=
Power consumption
P

Rearranging

p pV&
P

p p =

P
V&

Therefore (assuming Power and efficiency are


constant):
constant

p p =

V&

Machine Characteristic: Pump


pp

V&

V&

Unrealistic: is not constant


normally optimised for particular flow rate and
rotational velocity.

Machine Characteristic: Pump


Power input can also be varied
Pump characteristic now:

Machine Characteristic: Pump


Pump Characteristic

2
&
p p = A1 A2V

A1 and A2 are constants specific to pump

Machine Operation
Analysis of machine in which pump is
operating
Allows us to find the operating point (what
flow rate)
For example
pB

D
pA

Pump
l

Machine Operation
pB

D
pA

Pump
l

Pump has to overcome:


Hydrostatic pressure (gh)
Pressure difference (pA pB)
Losses due to friction and minor losses

Need to use Bernoullis equation:


1 2
1 2
p A + c A + gz A + p p = pB + cB + gz B + pL
2
2

Machine Operation
A and B are reservoirs, so cA and cB are
zero:
1 2
1 2
p A + c A + gz A + p p = p B + cB + gz B + p L
2
2
p A + gz A + p p = p B + gz B + pL

p p = ( p B p A ) + g ( z B z A ) + p L
p p = ( p B p A ) + gh + p L

Pressure loss (excluding minor losses!):


fL 1 2 8 fL & 2
p L =
c = 2 5 V
D
D 2

Machine Operation
Substituting:
8 fL & 2
p p = (( p B p A ) + gh ) + 2 5 V
D
Static lift (not dependent
on flow rate)

Flow rate
dependent term

C1

C2

Pipe characteristic:

2
&
p p = C1 + C2V

Operating Point
Two equations for pP:
For pump characteristic:

2
&
p p = A1 A2V

For pipe characteristic:

2
&
p p = C1 + C2V

Operating point is where these two are


equated:
2
2
&
&
A1 A2V = C1 + C2V

Operating Point

Operating Point
By equating Pipe and Pump Characteristics,
flow rate at operating point can be found.

Example
On visualiser

Summary
2
&
p
A
A
V

Pump characteristic given by: p 1 2

2
&
p
C
C
V

=
+
Pipe characteristic given by:
p
1
2
C1 is static lift: (pA pB) + gh
C2 is flow dependent term: 8 fL (Note: this excludes
2 5 minor losses!)
D

Flow rate can be found by equating


equations: A A V& 2 = C + C V& 2
1

Summary
Some key things to remember:
Efficiency

p pV&
Power to the flow
=
=
Power consumption
P
Sometimes pump and pipe characteristic are
given as head (watch out!):

p
H=
g