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# TRANSFORMER

What Is a Transformer?
1. A transformer is a device that transfers electrical current from one circuit to another. It
does this via electrical induction. Transformers are very efficient. An ideal transformer
works very efficiently and can transfer over 99% of its energy from the input's circuits to
the output's circuits. Transformers are used for many electrical devices and come in a
wide variety of sizes. Inside a stage microphone is a small transformer approximately the
size of a thumbnail. Other, larger transformers are used to connect national power grids.
How Does a Transformer Work?
2. The first principle of a transformer is that an electrical current passing through a wire
creates a magnetic field (this is known as electromagnetism). The second principle is that
a changing magnetic field generates a electrical current within a coil of wire.
A transformer has two coils. The primary coil has a current that goes through it, which
generates a magnetic field that extends to the secondary coil. As the current in the
primary coil changes, it causes changes in the magnetic field that the secondary current
is exposed to, causing an electrical current to be induced in the secondary coil.
Practical Considerations
3. Hypothetically, a transformer is perfectly efficient, but real transformers have certain
deviations from that ideal. Some of the electrical current leaks out of the wires, reducing
its efficiency. Some of the electricity is lost and dissipates into the core (the windings of
the coil), and the surrounding structures. Larger transformers have less of this, which
allows them to be more efficient than smaller transformers. Using superconducting wires
also can raise the efficiency of a transformer.

## Definition of a Current Transformer

John Goodridge, Hobvias Sudoneighm, Victoria Catterson, Dennis Matheson, Patrick
Finnegan, Peter Van den Bossche available on Flickr.com

A current transformer uses the magnetic field of an AC current through a circuit to induce a
proportional current in a second circuit. The primary functions of a current transformer are
measuring current, stepping current up or down (usually down) and relaying current to
protective system controllers.
Significance

1.

## Transformers: Essential for Cost-Effective Power Distribution

Current transformers are integral components of power grid distribution, overload
protection and usage metering. Transformers permit long-distance transmission of
power at lower cost and higher efficiency. Current transformers are also critical
elements of ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI breakers) and power supplies of
electric appliances.

Function

2.

## Functions of a Current Transformer Include Metering and Protection

Current transformers perform metering, monitoring and circuit control functions by
transmitting a reduced current to equipment. Current transformers performing these
functions are also termed instrument transformers. Large power transformers step-
down current for relaying power on transmission lines. Those used to step-up current
for site delivery are called distribution transformers.

Features

3.

## Power is Theoretically Equal Across Primary and Secondary Windings

A current transformer is constructed of a core, generally of steel, coiled by primary
and secondary windings that are insulated from each other and the core. The
winding with more coils will have higher voltage and lower current than the winding
with fewer coils. The winding in contact with the energy source is referred to as the
primary winding; the secondary winding is the one with induced current.

Power is conserved through the transformer; the product of voltage and current at
the primary winding equals the product of voltage and current across the secondary
winding. For this reason, the effect of a transformer on voltage is inverse to its effect
on current. Current transformers are installed in series with the circuit. Voltage
transformers are installed in parallel.

Effects

4.

## Windings of a 750 KVA Transformer

The primary and secondary windings of a transformer are electrically isolated. The
magnetic field of the first winding induces current in the second winding. The
resulting current in the second winding depends on the strength of the magnetic field
and the number of coils in the winding. Current across the secondary winding is
predictably proportionate to current across the primary winding based on the turns
ratio between the first and second windings.

Size
5. Primary and secondary currents are expressed as a turns ratio varying from 1:10 to
more than 1:1000 for commercially available transformers. Transformers can range
in size from some that are smaller than a deck of cards in an appliance power supply,
to massive step-up transformers as large as a house in power grid generators. Large
power transformers are those rated for 500 kilo voltamperes (KVA) and above.

Types

6.

## Power Line Transformers

Current transformers can be classified as bushing, bar or window types, depending
on the method of connection to the power conductor. The bushing type is used in
GFCI breakers while window types are often used on power lines.
How Does a Step Up Transformer Work?

## The Electrical Grid

1. Our entire electrical grid runs on alternating current, or A.C. The main advantage to
using A.C. electricity is that it lets you use transformers. Transformers increase the
voltage so it can be distributed cheaply, and then reduce it so it can be used safely.
Transformers do this efficiently, reliably and at low cost.

2. Transformers employ Faraday's Law of Induction, which describes how a changing
magnetic field makes an electric current in a wire, and vice-versa. They're a pair of
wire coils wrapped around a common iron core. One coil, called the primary, takes in
the current and the other, the secondary, sends it out.

Turns Ratio
3. For each of the two coils, the wire is wrapped around the core many hundreds or
thousands of times. The wraps are called turns. The ratio of the number of turns in
the primary coil to the turns in the secondary determines if you're increasing the
voltage, decreasing it, or keeping it the same. If the ratio is 1:2, the secondary has
twice as many turns as the primary, and you double the voltage. Transformers that
increase voltage are called step-up transformers.

Power Generation
4. You'll find large step-up transformers located near power plants. They are house-
sized units designed to handle megawatts of power. The transformer takes the
12,000 to 25,000 volts coming out of the generators and increases it to 138,000 or
as much as 765,000 volts. The higher voltage flows more efficiently in the wire,
reducing the energy losses occurring in long-distance transmission.

Other Uses
5. Step-up transformers are also used for smaller, local applications. A dentist's x-ray
machine, for example, needs in excess of 50,000 volts to operate. A step-up
transformer plugged into the 220-volt office wiring provides the needed boost.
Smaller transformers can let you use 220-volt European appliances from a 110-volt
American outlet. Other small step-up transformers power neon signs and microwave
ovens.

High Voltage
6. The high voltages encountered with step-up transformers are handled in several
ways. Glass and ceramic insulators keep high voltages away from the metal case.
Some parts are electrically grounded. And they're always enclosed, placed on tall
pylons, or put behind wire fences to keep people safely away.

Heat
7. Since they can get hot, large industrial step-up transformers have a variety of ways
to keep them cool. The working parts are sealed in a special oil bath. Built-in electric
fans help reduce heat in the largest models. The enclosure is always a metal strong
enough to take the heat.

## How to Troubleshoot Electrical Transformers

Electrical transformers come in many shapes, sizes, and types. There are potential transformers
and current transformers. There are power transformers, audio transformers and signal
transformers. There are step-up transformers and step-down transformers. There are
autotransformers and isolation transformers and many other types. No matter what their
purpose they all suffer from the same basic problems--turn to turn shorts, open windings,
winding to ground shorts, for example. All these problems can be detected using a few simple
tests and a DMM (Digital Multimeter). For this tutorial we will practice using a 110-volt step-
down transformer with a 18-volt, CT (Center Tapped) secondary.
Things You'll Need:
• 110-volt to 18-volt step-down power transformer
• DMM (Digital Multimeter)
• 110-volt jumper cord w/insulated alligator clips

## Testing a Power Transformer Using a DMM

1. Step 1
Test the transformer for a primary winding to secondary winding short. Set your DMM
to a high resistance range, say 2 megohms, and touch one of the probes to a primary
winding terminal and the other to a secondary winding terminal. If the transformer has
more than one secondary winding, repeat this test for each secondary winding. Your
DMM should register "Infinite" resistance, an "Open Circuit" reading for a good
transformer. Different meters indicate this condition in different ways, the Sperry DM-
4100A, displays "1." on its LCD to indicate an open circuit. A continuity reading here
indicates a winding-to-winding short. The transformer is bad and needs to be replaced.
2. Step 2
Test the transformer for winding to lamination shorts. Set the DMM up as you did in step
one. Check each winding separately by placing a probe on one of the winding terminals
and the other probe on the transformer's metal frame. Make sure the probe on the
transformer case is touching bare metal and not resting on some type of finish that may
act as an insulator. Scratch the probe tip back and forth until it makes contact with base
metal.
3. Step 3
Test the primary winding and the secondary winding(s) for continuity by placing the
DMM probes across each winding's terminals. Set the DMM at a relatively low range,
say 200 ohms. The DC (Direct Current) resistance for most small power transformers
will be extremely low and that's normal. A high reading here or an "Open Circuit"
reading indicates a partially open or completely open winding and the transformer needs
to be replaced.
4. Step 4
Check the transformer;s output voltage. Connect the transformers primary to a 110-volt
source using the Test Jumper. Be careful that the Alligator clips don't touch one another
or touch some grounded surface. Do not touch the clips or the primary terminals once
the cord is plugged in, as you could receive a fatal shock. Set your DMM for an
appropriate AC (Alternating Current) voltage range. Test each individual secondary
winding by placing the probes across their terminals and noting the voltage.
5. Step 5
Check for turn-to-turn shorts in the primary and secondary windings. An output voltage
reading significantly higher than the transformers rated output indicates a turn-to-turn
short in the primary winding. An output voltage significantly lower than the rated output
for that winding indicates a turn-to-turn short in that secondary winding. Output
voltages may vary ± 10 percent and be within the acceptable range, but anything above
or below that indicates a defective transformer.
Tips & Warnings

• Use extreme caution when making the "Live" test because electricity is dangerous.
Contrary to what many people believe, even a low-voltage shock can be fatal under
the right conditions. It's not the voltage that kills you but the amount of current
flowing through your heart that kills you.

kinds of AC Transformers
Transformer and AC (alternating current) transformers are redundant terms. For a transformer
to work, it requires a change in magnetic flux in the primary windings to induce current in the
secondary winding(s).
Transformers offer two main effects, the isolation of DC (direct current) from the AC component
of a signal and the option of stepping up or stepping down of voltage from the primary side of
the transformer to the secondary side.
The Basic Transformer
1. In its simplest form, a pair of insulated wires laying parallel will see any current
change (resulting in changes in the magnetic flux around the first wire) in the first
wire induce a current in the second wire, as the changing magnetic flux around the
first wire cuts through the second wire.
If the first (primary) wire is coiled, this effect is increased. If the second (secondary)
wire is coiled, the resulting flux changes in the primary will induce stronger current in
the secondary coil.

AC vs. DC
2. The induction of current in the secondary is based on magnetic flux changes in the
primary. In a DC circuit, there is a momentary change in magnetic flux when the
circuit is energized. After this change, the current (and magnetic flux) remains fixed
unless switching action or other transient current changes occur. Without changes in
magnetic flux, the transformer secondary will be idle.
In an AC or alternating information-carrying situation, the primary of the transformer
will constantly change, inducing currents in the secondary at the same frequency as
the changes occur in the primary.

Isolation Transformers
3. Isolation transformers use the fact that DC levels in the primary windings of the
transformer do not pass voltage to the secondary windings.
In a circuit where the primary sees 100 VDC with a 3 VAC level riding on the DC
voltage, only the 3 VAC is passed from the primary to the secondary.
This effect allows separation (isolation) of the primary from the secondary except for
AC signals being passed through the transformer.
Isolation transformers are often used in audio circuits to isolate ground loop noise
and ground hum from high-end audio systems.

Turns Ratio
4. Another significant feature of transformer design is the ratio of the number of
windings (wire turns around the core) of the primary compared to the number of
turns for the secondary. This is called the turns ratio.
A primary with 1,000 turns and a secondary with 400 turns would give a transformer
with a 5:2 turns ratio.

Step-up Transformers
5. An important feature of transformers is their ability to step up and step down
voltages.
If a transformer has 1,000 turns in the primary and 3,000 turns in the secondary, this
would be a 1:3 transformer and would induce a greater voltage in the secondary than
was in the primary.
For an ideal transformer with this ratio, if 100 VAC was placed on the primary, 300
VAC would be induced in the secondary windings.
Power companies use the transformer's step-up capabilities to take generated power
up to very high voltages (and low current) for the efficient transmission of power
across long lengths of power lines.

Step-down Transformers
6. In an ideal (100 percent efficiency) transformer, total power on the primary
translates to total power from the secondary.
For a 10:1 step-down transformer, 1,000 volts at 0.1 amps on the primary would give
100 volts at 1.0 amps on the secondary, for a pure 100-watt translation from primary
to secondary.
In practice, transformer inefficiencies lost as heat at the transformer reduce the total
translation, but the general ability to transform a high-voltage (as delivered by the
power companies) source and convert this into a lower voltage (household or
commercial 110 VAC or 220 VAC) at a higher current make power generation and use
a practical transaction.

## How to Size a Transformer

Electrical transformers are used in everyday life. At times when an electrical device fails it is
more often than not the transformer that is the problem. Replacing the transformer is generally
an easy to do. You must be sure that you select the proper size so as not to ruin that particular
piece of equipment. Sizing an electrical transformer is an easy task once you understand the
nomenclature or language that is used. There are no hidden codes on the transformer, just
abbreviations.
Things You'll Need:
• Pencil
• Paper
• Calculator
1. Step 1
Understand the language used in transformer calculations. Certain terminology is used
when sizing the transformer. The terms are easy to understand since they use
abbreviations of voltage which is V and amperage which is A. The letter K stands for
Kilo which is equal to 1000. If a transformer is rated at 120VA it means that it can
handle 120 volts at 1-ampere or 1 amp of current. The VA is short for Volt-Ampere a
designation of power. A transformer rated at 1.2 KVA is another way of saying 1200 VA
or 120 volts at 10 amps of current.
2. Step 2
Calculate the load you want to place on the transformer. All electrical devices come with
a rated nameplate power usage. This is always described as voltage and load amps. The
load amps are calculated after the device is started and running. All electrical devices
have a starting current and must be accounted for, when sizing the transformer. When
figuring the load, always multiply the voltage times the load current and multiply a 125
percent start factor for the load.
3. Step 3
Calculate an example as follows. A 120-volt motor has a load amperage of 5 amps.
Multiply 120 volts times 5 amps this equals 600VA now lets multiply the 125 percent
start factor. Take 600 times 1.25 this equals 720VA and most transformers are sized by a
factor of 25VA or 50VA. The required transformer would be a 750VA or .75KVA
transformer. Always figure a little higher in the VA capacity, never go lower.
4. Step 4
Size the transformer for any voltage or amperage. You can plug any voltage or current
into the VA rating of the transformer. The nameplate rating will have a maximum voltage
rating for the transformer, generally this is 600 volts. If you want to operate a
transformer at 24 volts and it is rated at 120VA, then divide 120 VA by 24 volts. The
amperage allowed by the transformer would be 5 amperes.

## How to Specify a Power Transformer

Power transformers come in literally thousands of sizes for as many applications, from
megawatts of commercial electrical power distribution to a few watts for an AC adapter for a
cell phone. Almost every electronic device uses one or more power transformers for voltage
distribution. If you need to specify a power transformer for a particular application, you have to
collect specific data to give to your manufacturer or supplier. You need to understand electrical
terminology and understand transformer specification data to specify a transformer.
1. Step 1
Specify the exact use, whether it is for commercial power application, for use inside an
appliance or other application. If it is to replace an existing power transformer, specify
the name and model number of the appliance.
2. Step 2
Specify the exact voltage and frequency. Input voltages can vary from just a few volts to
several thousand, and frequencies can range from 50 or 60 Hertz to audio and radio
frequencies.
3. Step 3
Specify the output requirements. You will need to specify the voltage and current
requirements for any and all outputs you require for your power transformer, be it a few
microwatts or hundreds of kilowatts.
4. Step 4
Specify any size, shape or environmental requirements you may have, such as high or
low temperatures or humidity concerns. You may also need to specify concerns for
vibrations.
5. Step 5
Specify oil-filled or dry. If you don't know, whomever you are providing the
specifications to may help you decide which you need.

Kinds of AC Transformers
Transformer and AC (alternating current) transformers are redundant terms. For a transformer
to work, it requires a change in magnetic flux in the primary windings to induce current in the
secondary winding(s).
Transformers offer two main effects, the isolation of DC (direct current) from the AC component
of a signal and the option of stepping up or stepping down of voltage from the primary side of
the transformer to the secondary side.
The Basic Transformer
1. In its simplest form, a pair of insulated wires laying parallel will see any current
change (resulting in changes in the magnetic flux around the first wire) in the first
wire induce a current in the second wire, as the changing magnetic flux around the
first wire cuts through the second wire.
If the first (primary) wire is coiled, this effect is increased. If the second (secondary)
wire is coiled, the resulting flux changes in the primary will induce stronger current in
the secondary coil.

AC vs. DC
2. The induction of current in the secondary is based on magnetic flux changes in the
primary. In a DC circuit, there is a momentary change in magnetic flux when the
circuit is energized. After this change, the current (and magnetic flux) remains fixed
unless switching action or other transient current changes occur. Without changes in
magnetic flux, the transformer secondary will be idle.
In an AC or alternating information-carrying situation, the primary of the transformer
will constantly change, inducing currents in the secondary at the same frequency as
the changes occur in the primary.

Isolation Transformers
3. Isolation transformers use the fact that DC levels in the primary windings of the
transformer do not pass voltage to the secondary windings.
In a circuit where the primary sees 100 VDC with a 3 VAC level riding on the DC
voltage, only the 3 VAC is passed from the primary to the secondary.
This effect allows separation (isolation) of the primary from the secondary except for
AC signals being passed through the transformer.
Isolation transformers are often used in audio circuits to isolate ground loop noise
and ground hum from high-end audio systems.

Turns Ratio
4. Another significant feature of transformer design is the ratio of the number of
windings (wire turns around the core) of the primary compared to the number of
turns for the secondary. This is called the turns ratio.
A primary with 1,000 turns and a secondary with 400 turns would give a transformer
with a 5:2 turns ratio.

Step-up Transformers
5. An important feature of transformers is their ability to step up and step down
voltages.
If a transformer has 1,000 turns in the primary and 3,000 turns in the secondary, this
would be a 1:3 transformer and would induce a greater voltage in the secondary than
was in the primary.
For an ideal transformer with this ratio, if 100 VAC was placed on the primary, 300
VAC would be induced in the secondary windings.
Power companies use the transformer's step-up capabilities to take generated power
up to very high voltages (and low current) for the efficient transmission of power
across long lengths of power lines.

Step-down Transformers
6. In an ideal (100 percent efficiency) transformer, total power on the primary
translates to total power from the secondary.
For a 10:1 step-down transformer, 1,000 volts at 0.1 amps on the primary would give
100 volts at 1.0 amps on the secondary, for a pure 100-watt translation from primary
to secondary.
In practice, transformer inefficiencies lost as heat at the transformer reduce the total
translation, but the general ability to transform a high-voltage (as delivered by the
power companies) source and convert this into a lower voltage (household or
commercial 110 VAC or 220 VAC) at a higher current make power generation and use
a practical transaction.

## Submit by :Jyoti verma,Deepika joshi.

BRANCH : EEE
Roll.no. : 09227,09220.