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Consumer awareness towards e-bikes in Ludhiana city

A Research project
Submitted to
Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar

In partial fulfilment of the requirement of degree of


Masters In Business Administration

Submitted by:-Anterpreet kaur


Roll no-1335802

Department of Business Management


Punjab College of Technical Education, Ludhiana
Session 2013-15

CERTIFICATE I

This is to certify that the thesis/dissertation entitled Project on the consumer awareness
towards e-bikes in Ludhiana city submitted for the degree of M.B.A., in the subject of
Marketing of the Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar, is a bonafide research work carried
out by Anterpreet kaur bhangu (university Roll No. 1335804) under my supervision and that
no part of this thesis/dissertation has been submitted for any other degree.

Anterpreet kaur bhangu


1335802

Major Advisor
Mr. Aman Sood
Faculty, PCTE

CERTIFICATE-II

This is to certify that the research project report entitled,:- Consumer

awareness towards e-bikes in Ludhiana city submitted by Anterpreet


kaur bhangu(University Roll number- 1335802) to the Punjab Technical
University, Jalandhar, in the partial fulfilment of MBA has been approved by the
students Advisory Committee after the oral examination on the same in the
collaboration with the external examiner.

Major Advisor

External examiner

Mr. Aman Sood


Faculty, PCTE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the successful completion of this project inspiration and guidance of many


people was involved. A mere form of acknowledgement would be demeaning
the status of this whole effort, which has had the blessings, and supervision of
the eminent person around me.
First of all I would like to thank whole-heartedly Almighty God for bestowing
me with all favourable circumstances and keeping me in high spirits and I
express my sincere thanks to Mr Aman Sood who was there to guide me at
every step during the course of this project. He gave me tips for the
improvement in project whenever required. Apart from this I feel indebted to all
faculty members of PCTE, especially who have helped, developed the right
kind of attitude and scholastic excellence in me. Last but not the least; I am very
thankful to my parents, friends and all those persons who made this research
project possible, for their consistent guidance and constructive criticism.

Anterpreet kaur bhangu


MBA 2013-15
1335802

Title of the project : Consumer awareness towards e-bikes in Ludhiana

city

Name of the student

: Anterpreet kaur bhangu

University roll no

: 1335802

Name of the major advisor : Mr.Aman sood

Name of the college

: Punjab College of Technical Education

Degree to be awarded

: Master of Business Administration

Year of award of degree

: 2013-2015

Name of the university

: Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar

Total pages of the Report

: 68
5

ABSTRACT

The study entitled The consumer awareness towards e-bikes in

Ludhiana city:For doing this major project proper methodology and objectives were set to
conduct the survey. The research design is descriptive and data was collected
from both primary and secondary sources. Various tools were used to analyze
the data. The survey was conducted through sampling in the selected city of
Punjab. With this study it was analyzed that in Ludhiana people are very much
particular about their brand as TV ads also make an impact on buying behaviour

Signature of major advisor

Signature of student

Table of Contents
CHAPTER

Title

Page Number

1.

Introduction

9-34

I.
II.

Introduction to study
History of ebikes in India

III.

E-bike industry in India

IV.

Company profile

V.

Objective of the
Study

2.

Research Methodology
2.1 Research Design
2.2 Data Collection
2.3 Sample Design
2.2.1 Universe

35-37

2.2.2 Population
2.2.3 Sample Size
2.2.5 Sampling Technique

Review Of literature

38-43

4.

Data Interpretation

5.

5.1Findings

5.2 Suggestions

44-59

60-61

5.3 Conclusion
6.

Limitation of study

62

References

63

8.

Questionnaire

64-68

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION TO THE
CONCEPT

Marketing:
It is defined by the American marketing association as the activity, set of institutions, and
processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value
for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. The term developed from the original
meaning which referred literally to going to market, ass in shopping, or going to a market to
sell goods or services.
Awareness:
It is a term referring to the ability to perceive, to feel, or to be conscious of events, objects or
patterns, which does not necessarily imply understanding. In biological psychology,
awareness comprises a humans or an animals perception and cognitive reaction to a
condition or event.

E-BIKE:
An Electric Bike or Scooter is a battery operated vehicle that is very economical with low
maintenance cost and zero pollution. Electric two wheelers use the electrical technology of
rechargeable battery that converts the electrical energy into mechanical energy. The battery of
an EV can be charged easily using a power connection. There are many possible types of
electric motorized bicycles with several technologies available, varying in cost and
complexity; direct-drive and geared motor units are both used. An electric power-assist
system may be added to almost any pedal cycle using chain drive, belt drive, hub motors
or friction drive. The power levels of motors used are influenced by available legal categories
and are often limited to fewer than 700 watts. Electric bicycles use rechargeable batteries,
electric motors and some form of control. This can be as simple as an on-off switch but is
more usually an electronic pulse width modulation control. Electric bicycles developed in
Switzerland in the late 1980s for the Tour de Sol solar vehicle race came with solar charging

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stations but these were later fixed on roofs and connected so as to feed into the electric mains.
The bicycles were then charged from the mains, as is common today. Battery systems in use
include lead-acid, Ni C d, Ni MH and Li-ion batteries .Electric motorized bicycles can be
power-on-demand, where the motor is activated by a handlebar mounted throttle, and/or a
peddle (from pedal electric), also known as electric assist, where the electric motor is
regulated by pedalling. These have a sensor to detect the pedalling speed, the pedalling force,
or both. An electronic controller provides assistance as a function of the sensor inputs, the
vehicle speed and the required force. Most controllers also provide for manual adjustment.
Range is a key consideration with electric bikes, and is affected by factors such as motor
efficiency, battery capacity, efficiency of the driving electronics, aerodynamics, hills and
weight of the bike and rider. The range of an electric bike is usually stated as somewhere
between 7 km (uphill on electric power only) to 70 km (minimum assistance) and is highly
dependent on whether or not he bike is tested on flat roads or hills.[14] Some manufacturers,
such as the Canadian B ion X or American E+ (manufactured by Electric Motion
Systems),have the option of using regenerative braking, the motor acts as a generator to slow
the bike down prior to the brake pads engaging.[15] This is useful for extending the range and
the life of brake pads and wheel rims. There are also experiments using fuel cells. E .g. the
PHB. Some experiments have also been undertaken with super capacitors to supplement or
replace batteries for cars and some SUVS
The energy costs of operating electric bicycles are small, but there can be considerable
battery replacement costs. Riding an electric bicycle to work or to the store instead of taking
a car has long term financial gains. Solar power is possible when charging an electric bicycle.

WHY E-Bikes:
Global warming is a major concern all around and to save Mother Earth, the rare several
policies, promises and pledges. With the ever increasing emission of greenhouse gases, there
is an increased fear of environment pollution at every step. With modern technology and
innovation, transportation and communication have undergone a paradigm shift. Along with
this, we are also experiencing the negative effects of industrialization in the form of global
warming. Under these circumstances, when there are traffic jams, when you need to run an

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errand at an odd hour of the day, when you need to go to work place quickly, you stumble and
fumble as there are so many vehicles emitting soot and CO2 polluting the air incessantly.
With increased number of fossil-fuel dependent vehicles, they not only add to greater level of
pollution but are also leading to depletion of fuel resource. It is here that automobile
companies felt the need to innovate motorized vehicle that will get charged through
electricity and will not be depending on fossil fuels. This led to expansion of eco-friendly
initiatives and many automobile manufacturing companies invested in research and
development to bring for the electric bikes that will help people save a few bucks by reducing
consumption of already spiralling fuel price, besides fighting global warming.
Most electric bikes are emission-free bikes and this is the USP of the companys
manufacturing them in these days of global warming. It will not add to urban pollution. The
only thing required is to keep this bike charged with a battery Electric bike manufacturing is
considered as a grass root movement away from fossil fuels. Definitely, electric bikes are not
the only answer to our environment problem, but it definitely will help us to treat
environment better. These electric bikes will not make pollution worse and that makes e bikes
environmentally safe vehicle .It can be charged with the help of inverter and generator too. In
one charge, these electric bikes can go up to 50km and has no tail pipe emissions. It also
makes no noise while under operation. The best part of electric vehicles is that they can be
run with no registration and license. In the manufacture and production of electric bikes, the
main constraint is the battery in the bumpy roads.
Batteries get deteriorated at a fast rate due to excessive current fluctuation. Batteries need
frequent replacement and that is the greatest concern for the most Indian companies who
manufacture these electric bikes. The replacement cost of the batteries hover around Rs.
5000, but otherwise the maintenance cost of electric bikes is almost negligible .There is a
growing market potential of electric bikes in India; however, speed might not be the attractive
feature of these e-bikes, they will cater you to run the short distances maybe home to office or
home to college; but these are safer vehicles with benefit of almost no pollution. So instead of
kicking a 100 cc motorbike, just press the start button of electric bike and vroom your way
friendly on the roads. It is evident that electric bikes can reduce the air pollution. But there
are also some environmental problems caused due to these electric bikes. Disposal of worn
out batteries can be a cause of major concern for environmentalists. If this can be addressed,
electric bikes can definitely reduce environment pollution.
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Features of Electric Bikes and Scooters:


Electric bikes or scooters, light in weight, trendy, efficient and eco-friendly, are becoming
potent alternative to the conventional two-wheelers and the Electric two-wheeler industry in
India is developing at rapid speed. Have a look at the unavoidable advantages of Electric
Bikes and Scooters :

Licence and registration is not required for E Bikes and Scooters.

Electric two wheelers run on re-chargeable battery and uses electricity as fuel in place of
conventional Petrol/Diesel.

E Bikes and Scooters can beat the rising prices of Petrol/Diesel.

Simple design, light weight and economical Electric vehicles are very low in running and
maintenance cost.

With the ease of handling, Electric two wheelers save the commuting time in congested
roads especially in urban areas.

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Electric vehicles are more efficient in terms of generating usable energy from their electric
engine's battery in comparison to the regular fuel conversion. In this way E Bikes and
Scooters are innovative and efficient mode of personal transport.

Electric bikes or scooters use electricity therefore no emission of harmful gases like Carbon
dioxide (CO2) or Nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

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Major Components of an Electric Bike or Scooter:

ELECTRIC HUB MOTOR to drive the rear wheel directly and there are two types of
Electric Hub Motor i.e. DC Brush Motor and DC Brush less motor having two basic parts
namely Permanent Magnet Stator and Wound Rotor.

ELECTRONIC MOTOR CONTROLLER is the central controlling unit of any Electric


two wheelers provides electric power to the motor based on inputs from the accelerator.

ELECTRONIC ACCELERATOR sends electronic signals to the Electronic Motor


Controller to manoeuvre the bike or scooter.

BATTERY PACK is like the fuel tank of E Bike or Scooter. There are different kinds of
batteries like Lead Acid, Nickel Metal Hydrate (Ni-MH),Lithium, etc. that are used for
supplying energy.

BATTERY CHARGER is used to charge the battery pack of E Bikes or Scooters, just like a
mobile phone or a laptop. Some battery chargers are in-built and some are separate that
carried always on the move. The charger converts an AC supply to DC to store power in the
battery and it can be used with any normal domestic AC plug point. This makes charging of
battery pack easy and convenient.

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ORIGIN AND HISTORY:


Most People are not aware of how long electric bicycles have been around you might think
its something new since the recent fuel shortage and cost spikes we all hate, or even because
of Global Warming and the whole go green awareness. But not true although it might be one
reason for their recent surge in popularity also the technology has improved 10 fold. In the
1890s, electric bicycles were documented within various U.S. patents. For example, on 31
December 1895 Ogden Bolton Jr. was granted U.S. Patent 552,271 for a batterypowered bicycle with 6-pole brush-and-commutator direct current (DC) hub motor mounted
in the rear wheel. There were no gears and the motor could draw up to 100 amperes (A)
from a 10-V battery.
Two years later, in 1897, Hosea W. Libbey of Boston invented an electric bicycle (U.S. Patent
596,272) that was propelled by a double electric motor.The motor was designed within the
hub of the crankshaft axle. This model was later re-invented and imitated in the late 1990s by
Giant La free electric bi cycles. By 1898 a rear wheel drive electric bicycle, which used a
driving belt along the outside edge of the wheel was patented by Mathew J. Steffens. Also,
the 1899U.S. Patent 627,066 by John Schnepf depicted a rear wheel friction roller-wheel
style drive electric bicycle.Schnepf's invention was later re-examined and expanded in 1969
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by G.A. Wood Jr. with his U.S. Patent 3,431,994.Woods device used 4 fractional horsepower
motors; each rated less than horsepower and connected through a series of gears. Torque
sensors and power controls were developed in the late 1990s. For example, Takada Yutky of
Japan filed a patent in 1997 for such a device. In1992 Vector Services Limited offered and
sold an electric bicycle dubbed Zike.The bicycle included Nickel-cadmium batteries that
were built into a frame member and included an 850 g permanent-magnet motor. Despite the
Zike, in1992 hardly any commercial electric bicycles were available. It wasnt until1998
when there were at least 49 different bikes. Production grew from 1993 to2004 by an
estimated 35%. By Contrast, according to Gardner, in 1995 regular bicycle production
decreased from its peak 107 million units. Some of the less expensive electric bicycles used
bulky lead acid batteries, whereas newer models generally used NiMH, NiCd and/or Li-ion
batteries which offered lighter, denser capacity batteries. The end benefits usually varied from
manufacturer; however, in general there was an increase in range and speed. By2004 electric
bicycles where manufactured by Currie Technologies, EV Global,Optibike, Giante Lite,
Merida, ZAP.Electric bicycles are very common in many cities of eastern China, such as
Yangzhou; in some areas they may outnumber motorcycles or regular bicyclesBy 2001 the
terms, E-Bikes, power bike, pedelec, assisted bicycle and power-assisted bicycle where
commonly used to describe electric bicycles. E-bike ,according to Google, is a term that has
increased in trend. This term generally referred to an electric bicycle which used a throttle.
The terms Electric Motorbike or E-Motorbike have been used to describe more powerful
models which attain up to 80 km/h. PEDEGO Electric Bicycles are taking the nation by
storm, offering a stylish, and colourful electric bikes that use a throttle control for power.In a
parallel hybrid motorized bicycle, such as the aforementioned 1897invention by Hosea W.
Libbey, human and motor inputs are mechanically coupled either in the bottom bracket, the
rear or the front wheel, whereas in a(mechanical) series hybrid cycle, the human and motor
inputs are coupled through differential gearing. In an (electronic) series hybrid cycle, human
power is converted into electricity and is fed directly into the motor and mostly additional
electricity is supplied from a battery.Pedelec is a European term that generally referred to an
electric bicycle that incorporated a torque and/or a speed sensor and/or a power controller that
delivered a proportionate level of assist and only ran when the rider pedalled.On the opposite
side, a Noped is a term used by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario for similar type
vehicles which do not have pedals or in which the pedals have been removed from their
motorized bicycle. Finally, Assist Bicycle is the technical term used to describe such a vehicle
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and Power-Assisted Bicycle is used in the Canadian Federal Legislation, but is carefully
defined to only apply to electric motor assist, and specifically excludes internal combustion
engines (though this is not the case in the United States).Today, China is the world's leading
producer of electric bicycles. According to
the data of the China Bicycle Association, a government-chartered industry group, in 2004
China's manufacturers sold 7.5 million electric bicycles nationwide, which was almost twice
the year 2003 sales; domestic sales reached10 million in 2005, and 16 to 18 million in 2006.
By 2007, electric bicycles were thought to make up 10 to 20 percent of all two-wheeled
vehicles on the streets of many major cities. A typical unit requires 8 hours to charge
the battery, which provides the range of 2530 miles (4050 km), at the speed of around 20
km/h.A large number of such vehicles is exported from China as well (3 million units,worth
40 billion yuan ($5.8 billion), in the year 2006 alone)We are looking at practical and true
figures of current Indian markets. Current year 2009-10 will end up with Indian total e-bikes
sales at 120K bikes. Every year market is expected to rise initially by 100% and then by
200%. Lots of bikes we will see on the road in coming 5 years, just like bicycles and petrol
scooters. As people started accepting the technology and limitations of e-bikes,a definite
positive trends has started now. Due to collective efforts by manufacturers, Ads, PRs,
dealership networks hard work, people accepting e- bikes in a middle segment between
bicycle and petrol scooter. If you see both ends i.e. bicycles and petrol bikes are showing very
attractive sales figures. The middle segment of e-bikes has turned now to enter in the high
growth curve .Electric Bikes companies are highly optimistic about the e-bikes future.
According to a survey India may surpass china in numbers of e-bikes sale by 6-8 years.
Indian manufacturers of electric bikes, or e-bikes, are gearing up for what they call a second
wave of growth for these plug and play bikes. They say they are on the verge of launching
faster versions of their bikes and this would blunt the edge of traditional two-wheeler bikes in
the country. Electric bikes operate on a
chargeable battery and do not require petrol to operate. All the e-bikes today do not require
registration or license. This means they have to follow certain statutory norms that specify
that the speed of such two-wheelers should not be more than 25kmph.Some of the e- bikes
companies are now all set to launch a new e-bikethat would have an engine of 750 watts,
compared with 250 watt engines that existing e-bikes have. It would require registration and
license to ride and the average speed would be 35-40 km ph. This would help explode the
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demand for e-bikes in India, says Avinash Bhandari, director of Ahmedabad-based Electro
therm (India) Ltd one of the major Electric bikes manufacturers, He saysThe real game
would begin when we launch our high powered engine e-bike tocompete with TVS Scooty
Pep+ and Honda Activa. Citing the reason for the new models, Bhandari said that potential
buyers were apprehensive as they believed that a scooter has to look like a scooter and must
carry more weight at higher speeds. To a common user, performance and affordability is
important.It does not matter what fuel is being used or no fuel is being used, he
added.Ganesh Mahalingam, managing director of Ultra Motors Co., another entity that
manufactures e-bike in joint venture with Hero Electric of Hero Cycles group, says that they
too are working on a faster electric vehicle that would have a 6speed of about 50-70kmph. It
would take us six more months but remember that the electric bike market has come of age
only in last six months as, un like in the west where e-bike is a lifestyle product and for some
an environment friendly technology, in India it is an economical mode of transportation
.Primarily it is an aam admi(common man) vehicle as it is 10 times cheaper to operate an
electric two-wheeler that the traditional petrol bike, Mahalingam said.
Hero Cycles Ltd, like Electro therm, launched its range of Hero electric ultra- powered
electric two-wheelers in seven variants of e-bikes and e-scooters branded as Hero Electric
and priced between Rs14,300 and Rs19,000. The e-scooters are in the range of Rs22,00028,000. With no organized body to represent these manufacturers, industry players guess that
there are between 75and 80 players manufacturing e-bikes in India. Still, key hurdles remain
for the e-bike industry. One of the major issues is that many small players are flooding the
markets with a product that doesnt meet statutory requirements. They are not supposed to
have a speed of over 25kmph, but many do as they use a motor of higher capacity. Some of
them launch their vehicle and also give warranty but do not have adequate dealer or service
network. They also do not have spare parts. All this creates a very negative image in the
minds of people and can badly affect the growth of this industry in the medium and long
run, claims Bhandari. Electric bike manufactures are hoping that the creation of a strong
dealer network and service support will help make a dent in the conventional two-wheeler
market.

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INDUSTRY PROFILE:
The face of auto industry that was redefined with the invention of fuel-efficient four-stroke
engine technology is all set to see dawn of a new era in two-wheeler industry. It's not petrol
or diesel or any other fuel, but its electricity that have initiated a revolution in two-wheeler
industry in India. Indian two-wheeler industry has embraced the new concept of Electric
Bikes and Scooters that are very popular mode of personal transport in the developed
countries like America, Japan and China. With the rising cost of fuel at International and
national level, increasing levels of pollution and congestion in transport system specially in
Urban areas, higher running and maintenance cost of vehicle, the electrically charged bikes or
scooters have very bright future in area of personal transportation.

It is estimated that Indias fossil fuel dependency on other countries currently from 70% to
82% in 2012. If we can have three laky Electric Vehicles on the roads by 2020, including
three-wheelers, cars, and scooters, this could result in a reduction of over 16 laky metric tons
of CO, NOx and HC by 2020, savings of over Rs 3,700 crore in foreign exchange and
significant health costs savings Economic conditions around the world have been very
encouraging. Global growth is increasing year by year .While the Chinese economy is
growing at around 10% without any signs of slow down; the Indian economy is also
continuing to grow at more than 8%. In the coming years, and Indian economy will be
booming owing to the heavy demand on infrastructure. Energy sector is growing by leaps and
bounds as it is receiving the highest attention of both the State Governments and Central
Government. India has moved from an agrarian economy to a manufacturing economy. The
manufacturing sector now contributes around one-fourth of the total GDP and the industrial
output has now crossed USD 65 Billion in value. Global steel production is continuing its
growth. In spite of some control measures adopted by Chinese Government the crude steel
registered an impressive growth and has crossed 450 million tons. India is also witnessing a
huge growth in steel production and it is expected that steel industry will continue to grow by
more than 12% per annum.Sustainable economic growth of India as well as rest of the world
will depend on effective energy planning. Nearly 40% of the worlds energy comes from
petroleum. Natural gas contributes to another 20% and these two natural resources account
for 60% of the worlds energy. The growth in consumption of oil and natural gas in the past

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has been such that the consumption has been doubling every 15 years. This trend is likely to
continue and will lead to complete depletion of natural resources in next 30 years. It is
significant to note that more than 20% of the worlds total primary energy is consumed in
transportation. There are more than 410 million cars currently in the world and in another 20
years the automobile population will reach one billion marks. It is also significant to note that
after 1970 the new oil discoveries have been very few and any new discoveries will not make
any significant contribution to the worlds energy pool.

Transportation sector which consumes a large share of energy resource of the country also
contributes significantly towards pollution. So the main mission is to provide vehicles which
are emission free, which do not use petroleum products and which are inexpensive to acquire
and operate. Our launch of battery operated Bikes have been highly successful and hero is
now developing several new vehicles for the Indian market. Our launch in India has
developed interest for our vehicles for international market also and in the future we will be
exporting these vehicles to other countries. It will continue to provide leadership in this
segment by delivering innovative, cost effective, practical and environmental friendly electric
vehicles. Economic and environmental forces are frequently pitted against each other and
many a times the financial cost of environmentally friendly technologies and goods is so high
that one has to strike a balance or look for Government subsidies. Our Electric Vehicles are
unique in this aspect as they are not only economical but also environment friendly

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COMPANY PROFILE

Hero Electric
A pioneer and Market leader in the Indian Electric Two-Wheeler industry with its state-artmanufacturing facility at Ludhiana and Corporate office at Delhi. HERO Electric entered the
Electric two-wheeler segment after 12 years of extensive research in the EV segment with its
wide range of electric two-wheelers. HERO Electric is the Market Leader in the category,
with a strong network of more than 300 Exclusive Sales and Service outlets across the
country and is leading a revolution in Electric Mobility with more than 1 Lac happy
customers.
HERO Electric has aligned itself with the positioning based on the ecological and a socially
responsible platform with the objective of making the country greener and to be the best in
Zero pollution transportation in the country through its wide range of Electric Vehicles.
HERO Electric is a pioneer and market leader in the Indian Electric Two- Wheeler Industry
which provides Eco-friendly and Cost-effective mode of personalized transportation with its
diverse range of Electric Two-Wheelers.

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HERO Electric offers a wide range of High Range and High Speed Electric Two-Wheelers
manufactured in its state-of-the-art manufacturing facility at Ludhiana and has a widespread
network of Exclusive Sales and Service outlets across the country.

Being a pioneer, HERO Electric has a number of first only initiatives to its credit like:
The only Electric Vehicles Manufacturer in India to launch the unique concept of
Charging Stations for Anywhere, Everywhere Charging with in-house design and
development.
Only Electric Vehicle Manufacturer to launch first-of-its kind Electric Bike Door Step
Service branded as Electric Bike Assistance (EBA) for Electric 2-Wheelers for
Anywhere, Everywhere Service.
With an in-house research and design centre for development and invention of New
Greener & Innovative Technologies, HERO Electric has introduced first of its kind
innovative technologies like the Range Extender, Personal Charger, Charging
Stations, Easy Wheels etc.
Founded and constituted the Society of Manufacturers of Electric Vehicles (SMEV),
the global representative body of Indian EV Industry comprising of members from the
Electric Four/ Three/ Two-Wheeler and Auto Components Industry.

Motor
BLDC motors are a type of synchronous motor which is assisted by Hall sensor at throttle
grip. The powerful Torque generated by these motors is interplay of magnetic field generated
by

Rare

Earth

Permanent

magnets

and

electromagnets

on

the

motor.

This motor controlled by state-of-the-art embedded system technology coupled with reliable
power electronics gives the rider a smooth riding experience with a high starting capability
and ability to climb high gradients.
Features
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- Simple construction

- Ease of control

- High dynamic response

- High efficiency

- High reliability

- Noiseless operation

- Better speed Vs Torque characteristics

Battery
Sealed Lead Acid Batteries are basically the same as flooded cell batteries. In these batteries
electrolyte is in gelatine form and is absorbed into the plates. The battery is then sealed with
epoxy. They are exceptionally leak resistant .These batteries which are utilized for wide
variety of applications including UPS, Computer systems and Industrial equipment.
Specifications

- The battery type is a Sealed Lead Acid Battery

- 36-volt (3 x 12) and 48-volt (4 x 12) Battery Packs

- 15 , 20 & 24 Amp-Hour capacity

- Maximum Operating Voltage: 39.6 V (36 V system), 52.8 V (48 Volt System)

- Low Voltage Cut-Off (LVCO): 31.5 (36 V system), 42 V (48 Volt System)

- Claimed Cycle Life: 300 charge/discharge cycles

Advantage
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Every Hero Electric bike reduces more than 1 ton of CO2 and other greenhouse gases
(compared to a petrol 2-wheeler) in its lifetime.

Battery technology
The company possess Patents for Plastic grid Bi-Polar Batteries which are designed to get
charged to 90% of its capacity in about 20 minutes.

Charger Technology
The float cum boost technology has been used in our chargers so that when the charger is
connected to the battery the output first goes to the boost charging mode and thus the battery
will charge faster unlike that in a plain float charger.

Mechanics and Mechanical design


The world patented product Rear Guard prevents a vehicle from rolling back on slope. The
concept of this patent is used in drive mechanism of our electric vehicles. A four stroke IC
engine without piston and cylinders is also developed for the hybrid model of our Ev
SMEV is the perfect platform to learn, share and experience as we move forward into an age
where alternative energy efficient modes of transportation would be in demand. Electric
Vehicle Technology is gaining ground and popularity rapidly. This segment has tremendous
potential as it is an environmentfriendly, non-polluting means of transportation.
The SOCIETY OF MANUFACTURERS OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES (SMEV) is based at
New Delhi, India and comprises of the members from the following category:

Electric- Four /Three Wheeler Manufacturers

Electric- Two Wheeler Manufacturers


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Electric Vehicle -Auto Components Manufacturers

AVON
Group History
The beginnings were small offering classic example of the enterprising Punjabi spirit. In the
early days of the countrys independence post partition in 1947, the legendary Pahwa
Brothers dreamt of providing the common man an affordable means of mobility.
They started with a bicycle saddles and brakes manufacturing unit in 1948 and set off on a
long and arduous journey. Soon, it was time for an ambitious take-off. To realize their
cherished dream, the business was incorporated in 1951. To produce bicycles, the company
Avon Cycles came into being. A beginning was made when the first batch, perhaps 250
bicycles, rolled out of the plant.

The quality was excellent, the price was economical and the business dealings ethical. That
earned the promoters instant acceptability. Holding such values dear, the Pahwas built trust,
brick by brick. The numbers kept growing and in the pioneers league, AVON thus remained
in the top performers position ever since. The promoters abiding faith in human values and
fairness, likewise built enduring business bonds with a vast network of dealers in India and
abroad. High-class technology, consistent quality and effective after-sales service made a
perfect proposition.

27

Over the years the business expanded and it saw the birth of more companies doing various
components needed to complete bicycle assembly. The Group grew to own facilities making
almost all such parts.
And to meet their expanding requirement of raw materials, they set up facilities to make their
own special purpose steel strips and steel tubes, even Hot Rolled Steel. Today, AVON is the
only group anywhere in the world claiming full backward integration unique position,
unmatched and unequalled.
In 1997, the family business was reorganized. Control of the company Avon Cycles Limited,
the subject of this profile, exclusively passed to the family of Mr Onkar Singh Pahwa. The
organisation combines the simplicity and speed of a family business and the broad-based
features of corporate functioning. The former inspires trust and the latter confidence in its
ability to perform continually and consistently.
And the marketing strategies: wide choice, updated quality, affordable price, streamlined
distribution and an appealing message

Overview:
Decades of trust-building makes AVON the household name it is. Brands AVON,
APSARA and BUKE have become synonymous with dependable quality at competitive
price.
Quality at affordable price is the companys USP. Quality Management System ISO 9001:
2000 (E) certified by TUV Cert is in place. The bicycle facility is spread over a land site
145,000 square meters, producing two million numbers annually; most modern plants and
machinery systems, comparable to the best in the world, are employed. The product range
includes a hundred plus descriptions of pedal bicycles, half a dozen odd models of batterypowered bikes and the more recently introduced hi-power series of luxury bicycles and the
keep-fit series of home workout solutions

28

Marketing
Philosophy:
For every AVON product to be an excellent Value for Money (VFM) proposition, the
company adopts a proactive role to determine level of satisfaction and understand the
changing consumer aspirations.

Distribution:
Inland, through a well-established network of about 1,600 AVON authorised dealers in cities
and towns of India. A dedicated resource of more than 12,000 sub-dealers supports operations
of the dealership. Overseas operations are conducted through Representatives in respective
countries / regions. The companys executives are regularly visiting overseas markets, Trade
Fairs and Exhibitions.

Logistics:
For safe and speedy delivery to the dealership points spread across the length and breadth of
the country, the company employs a number of reputed transporters and haulers on a subcontracting basis. For multiple delivery point trips, the companys accompanying attendants
ensure correct and proper delivery.

Visibility:
At home in 85 countries worldwide, the companys products are regularly showcased in
International Trade Fairs and Exhibitions.

Loyalty:
The companys dealers have been with it all through. Many of them have grown into the
second, even third generation of owners. Their hopes and aspirations are inseparably linked to
the companys prosperity. This has fostered enduring relationships.

29

LOHIA
About Lohia Group
LOHIA GROUP, promoted by a well known business family of North India, diversified
from traditional business and ventured into manufacture of high-tech machines way back in
mid '70s. Lohia Group, has a long tradition of excellence is currently active in machinery,
mechanical sub-contracting, textiles and engineering plastics. Few of their mastered domains
include Extrusion Plants for polypropylene filament yarns, Weaving, Winding and Slitting
Machinery. The Group enjoys tremendous amount of goodwill and reputation on account of
its quality standards.

Lohia Engineering Works, a firm belonging to Lohia Group, began with the manufacture of
Schweiter type cone-winding machines, to handle a variety of yarns. Presently, the GROUP is
primarily engaged in engineering sector with LOHIA CORP LIMITED as its flagship
Company, under the leadership of its Chairman Mr. Raj Kumar Lohia.

LOHIA CORP LIMITED formerly known as Lohia Starlinger Limited incorporated in 1981
is engaged in manufacture of complete range of machines required by Plastic Woven Fabric
Industry and is an undisputed leader amongst machine manufacturers of this industry. At
present, it is not only enjoying over 60% of market share in India but has also earned a
reputation of world's leading manufacturer of such equipments. Its projects are running
successfully in over 60 countries around the world and this accomplishment has been
possible due to the GROUP's continuous emphasis on quality and innovation. The Company
has an outstanding track record to its credit as it enjoys the status of 'Trading House' and is
accredited ISO: 9001:2008 CERTIFICATE BY DNV NETHERLANDS.

30

Vision

To enlarge our product portfolio and production capacities in each of our businesses
leveraging our domain knowledge, expertise and resources by fostering global
partnerships and alliances to become leading global player with dominant market
share.

To be the partner of choice for our customers by providing technology based world
class products and performance enhancing services tailored to meet their
requirements.

To develop bench mark innovations and technologies to suit the changing


requirements of the customers & the industry by continuous investments in updating
our manufacturing & human resources.

To provide total customer satisfaction through quality products and services at


competitive costs.

To attain the leadership in technology, quality, services and costs with integrity and
stability.

Mission

To follow the best practices as a responsible corporate and contribute in sustainable


development of the society including employees.

To preserve and enhance the integrity in all our business dealings by continuous
monitoring, control and interventions without any compromises and concessions.

To achieve leading position in each of our business sector by sustainable and


profitable growth creating long term wealth for the shareholders

To provide total customer satisfaction through quality products and services at


competitive costs.

31

To make continuous up gradation in our products through innovation anticipating the


needs of our markets and customers.

To maximize the exports of our all products by offering quality products and services
at competitive costs combining with our intellectual and trade resources.

Ace motor bikes Peter Grimaldi is the inventor and founder of Ace Electric Motorbikes based
out of Monmouth County, New Jersey. His unique patented designs, reminiscent of the
classic American Board Track Racers, separate his electrically powered machines from other
bikes in todays marketplace
Ace American LLC uses the incredible Phoenix II 3640 Motor System standard on all ACE
Motorbikes. It uses a dependable, powerful 36 volt 40 amp controller. These kits have been
known to exceed 35,000 miles! It includes a light-weight motor, sensor less technology, a
lighted power indicator, a twist-grip throttle, and controller all with incredible reliability
and power. While you can pedal with Phoenix II systems, they are NOT pedal-assist. Phoenix
II systems will power themselves without help from the rider, even up hills.
Phoenix II 3640 Motor System

36V

25A

900W

26mph

Phoenix II 4840 Motor System

48V

40A

1920W
32

34mph

How it Works:
The major components of the system consist of a battery pack, a controller, a Motor Cycle
Type Twist Throttle with Lighted Power Indicator, and a hub motor. All major components
are connected to the controller, the brain of the system. The controllers basic operation is
similar to an electric light dimmer. It adjusts the amount of power going to the motor based
on the throttle setting. Brushless hub motors are very efficient.
Inside, there are three separate windings. Each winding is responsible for turning the wheel
one-third of the way around. While there used to be sensors inside the motor to tell the
controller which winding to apply power to, now the controller does all the work! There is
nothing inside the motor that can be damaged, other than bearings! This allows the energy to
be more focused, and changing windings is all electronic done completely by the controller.
There is no physical connection between the stationary part of the motor and the moving part
of the motor, so there is no theoretical limit to their life.
Brushed motors work differently. Power is transferred to the motor by brushes making
contact with the moving part of the motor. This means that brushes must be replaced
periodically, which can be expensive and can cause down-time.
All Phoenix II motors are brushless, so the only fixed cost of owning one is battery
replacement and the occasional tire, tube, and brake replacement. Yes, you will go through
more brake pads with a power system installed on a bike with rim brakes, but all Phoenix II
33

motors are available with optional disc brakes! Disc brakes require less adjustment, and less
brake pad replacements.
Ace Electric Motorbikes works with the worlds leading manufacturers of the highest-quality
Lithium Iron Phosphate or LiFePO4 battery products.
What exactly is LiFePO4?
A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery, also called a LFP battery, is a type of
rechargeable battery, specifically a lithium-ion battery, which uses the LiFePO4 chemistry as
a cathode material. With using phosphate as a cathode material, LiFePO4 is the safest and the
most environ-friendly chemistry make-up of lithium-ion batteries.
The safety characteristics of using phosphate as the cathode material makes them far more
advanced than other cathode materials such as nickel cobalt, polymer, and cobalt oxide.
LiFePO4, batteries are able to withstand high temperatures without deteriorating, and if they
are abused, LiFePO4 is not prone to thermal runaway and will not burn as other Lithium-ion
batteries will.
Along with paramount safety characteristics, LiFePO4 batteries have a long cycle life (2000+
cycles) which actually lowers the cost of ownership, and they are only 1/3 the weight of
Lead-Acid (Pb or LA) and less than 2/3 the weight of nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries.
More great characteristics of these batteries are that they do not have a memory. Thats right,
no memory effect!

YO BIKES
With the hike in fuel prices & rising concerns for Global Warming, today there is a latent
need for an alternative technology which can offer an affordable and pollution free
transportation. Globally Electric Vehicles have emerged as the most practical, reliable &
commercially viable option. YObykes is Indias largest selling and the most trusted Electric
Scooter Brand. YObykes is powered with Electric Drive Train where BLDC Motor &
Rechargeable Batteries replaces the conventional Engine. YObykes offers the most
Economical, Eco-friendly and Easy personal mobility solution
34

In 2006 ELECTROTHERM (INDIA) LTD, was the 1st to introduce Electric Scooter in an
organized manner on a pan India basis with brand name of YObykes. In 2006
ELECTROTHERM (INDIA) LTD, was the 1st to introduce Electric Scooter in an organized
manner

on

pan

India

basis

with

brand

name

of

YObykes.

YOBYKES LEADING THE EV CATEGORY IN INDIA

YObykes has the largest customer base of more than100,000 satisfied users

Only EV brand having In-house R&D and Manufacturing facility for complete power
train i.e. Motor, Controllers, Chargers & Converters

Only EV brand with High speed models like YOEXL (1000W) & YOSpark
(900W)motor power

Founder member of Society of Manufactures of Electric Vehicles (SMEV)

Core Member : National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 (NEMMP 2020)

A strong & well known brand YObykes has brought ET more close to common man
of India

Largest Pan India network of exclusive YOWorld & YOPoint (sales, service & spares
outlets)

1st and Only EV brand to offer 24 * 7 On Road Assistance (selected cities

35

Ideal City Two Wheeler

YObykes has been designed & developed keeping the travel needs & city riding
conditions in mind, which makes YObykes the most convenient & most suitable
scooter for within city mobility

YObykes city-zippy speed offers safe & convenient ride in the citys traffic condition

For full charge, YObykes offers long range up to 70 km/charge; while an avg daily
travel requirement is approximately 25 to 30km/day

Recharge Anywhere

No need to visit fuel station anymore, as YObykes can be charged easily at home or
wherever normal power supply is available. Just charge and enjoy safe & convenient
reid without being worried about running cost/km

Charging YObykes is as simple as charging mobile phone. YObykes can be charged


easily at home or wherever normal power supply is available

Those who residing in high rise building can charge YObykes at the parking area
easily. Required assistance shall be provided by YOWORLD team

Hassel Free & Low Maintenance

YObykes do not have any wear and tear parts like Clutch Plates, Gear Box, Air
Filters, Oil Filters & Spark plug which requires regular maintenance & lubrication.
YObykes drive train comprises of electronic parts like BLDC motor & controllers
which do not require lubrication or any regular maintenance. Maintaining YObykes is
easy and absolutely hassle free.

36

1.1 Service
While YObykes do not have any major mechanical moving components (engine, gear box,
etc.), service support requirements is much lesser than the conventional petrol vehicle.
However, we are committed to provide prompt after-sales service and genuine spares for your
YObykes, if required, through our wide spread dealer network being developed across India. .
Battery

Charging

Battery is like a fuel tank for the YObykes and requires refilling by the means of charging.
Before riding YObyke for the first time it is essential to charge the batteries for 6-8 hours
using the supplied charger. To charge, please remove the protective cover from the charging
socket. Then plug in the charger into the charging socket, before plugging the charger into a
wall power socket. There is an indicator light provided on the charger body which will turn
Red while charging. This will become Green when the charging is complete. In case the
battery charging light is not indicating, please check the fuse provided on the battery pack.
The charger has been provided with a safety feature to avoid overcharging of batteries and
thereby enhance the battery life. Generally recharging time will be around 6 to 8 hours. The
YObykes have been powered by four 12V, 12Ah or 12V, 20Ah, 24Ah, 33Ah & 40Ah
batteries wired in series to provide 48 volts. All batteries charge simultaneously.

The key points to improve the Battery Life

It is recommended to charge the YObyke as and when you get an opportunity to

charge & avoid complete discharge in use


You should charge the YObyke if it has not been used for 3-4 weeks or more.

37

Always charge the battery in dry and ventilated place to clear the gases emitted from

the batteries.
Battery should not be stored in discharged condition for any length of time.
Always use ET supplied / approved charge

CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

NEED

38

With increase in air pollution in urban areas and scarcity of fuels, Electric Bikes is in great
demand but it is not used by most of the people because of lack of awareness. Thus the
purpose of the study is to study the awareness level of consumers towards E-Bikes and also
the perception of the users. So by creating awareness we can enhance the sales of Electric
Bikes.

The objectives of the study are-

To find out the awareness of consumer about the electric bikes.


To find out the factor influencing the sales of electric bike.

39

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design Research Design is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing
of various operations thereby making research as effective as possible yielding maximum
information with minimum efforts. The research design is a pattern or an outline of a research
projects workings. The present study followed a descriptive design, as it is required to
analysis the consumer behavior towards green tea. The study was designed to provide for the
collection of this information. Design of research methodology is descriptive
3.2 Data Collection Methods
Collection of data
In this study the data will be collected through two sources:
Primary data - The source of primary data was collected from the respondents and also
through questionnaires, discussions etc.
Secondary data Apart from primary data, the data was collected through various published
forms such as journals, research papers, articles, various online sites.
3.3 Sampling Plan
A sample plan is a definite plan for obtaining sample from a given population.
Sampling is an effective step in the collection of primary data and has great influence on the
quality of results. The sampling plan includes the universe/population, sample size and
sampling design.
3.3.1 Universe/ Population
It comprised of all the people who know about e-bikes or those who use them. This study is
based on the all the people who use two wheelers in Ludhiana city.

40

3.3.2 Sampling Unit


Questionnaire will be administered to urban residents of Ludhiana (Punjab). Any person who
is the user of two wheelers whether they are using e-bikes or not in Ludhiana city is the
sample unit. The area which was covered is Sarabha nagar, model town, new professor
colony, BRS Nagar.

Sample size -In this study the sample size will be of 100 respondents.
Sampling technique -Convenience method of sampling will be used to collect the data
from the respondents. For the convenience of the respondents questionnaire method has been
used.

Sampling unit Persons of Ludhiana who use two wheelers

CHAPTER 3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE


41

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
BENJAMIN (2015) this article tells that the e-bike business in USA is much more then it
was accepted by the companies. Main reason cited behind the sales of e-bikes is that people
dont have enough money to buy other automobiles and to travel in the heavy traffics of
Boston it is easy for people to travel on e-bikes.

OORTWIJN (2015) this article tells that LG is about to enter into the e-bike battery business
as it is growth area. After Samsung, Bosch and Panasonic it is worlds next electronic player
who is going to entre in the e-bikes battery business.

WALKER (2014) in this article walker talks about the rise of e-bikes in foreign countries
like USA and China. It also tells that it is century old technology that is being used. These
days, e-bikes are booming in popularity in Europe and China where theyre revered for their
low impact on the environment. According to ZIV, a German industry organization, e-bike
sales represented 10 percent of all bike sales at the close of 2012, a 15 percent rise over 2011
numbers. Because the motors used in e-bikes are electric and not internal combustion, these
contraptions dont emit any carbon dioxide directly (the source of their electricity, however,
has an environmental impact, albeit one drastically smaller than a motorcycle or moped
engine).it also tells that USA lags behind the world in e-bikes sales. It is expected that e-bike
sales will reach 350000 in 2018.

BORA (2014) this is mainly article which talks about the launch of the e-cycles and bikes of
hero. Hero launched as two variants Avior AMX and Avior AFX for both male and female
riders respectively, the e-cycles will be available at a price of Rs 19,290 (on-road Delhi) for
the Avior AMX and Rs 18,990 (on-road Delhi) for the Avior AFX.The e-cycles will be
available at all five metros initially but prices may be Rs 3000-4000 more expensive in other
cities since the Delhi government has provided 15 per cent subsidy and 0 per cent VAT on the
environment friendly bicycles.

42

ELLIOT(2014) this articles tells how Harley-Davidson, Energica, Zero and other green
machine manufacturers are battling to become the Tesla of motorcycles. Harley-Davidson is
hardly alone in the e-bike wars, where several companies are seeking to become the Tesla of
motorcycles. And not just because its good for the environment. Last year, the major
motorcycle brandsincluding BMW, Harley-Davidson, Honda, Kawasaki, KTM, Piaggio,
Suzuki, Triumph and Yamahasold 561,000 bikes in the US, up from 557,000 in 2012 but
down a staggering 53 percent from the 1.2 million sold in 2006. This year, motorcycle sales
remained relatively unchanged, according to the Motorcycle Industry Council, which tallied
139,922 new units sold in Q1, 17 units higher than the same period in 2013.

OLMSTED(2013) This article talks about new trends and technology in the bikes sector as
e- bikes has came people are buying bikes for weight loss and riding bycycles at the charity
events. Many technological changes have come in the bikes as they are having disc brakes
now is one of the examples. The comfort while riding bikes is the person looks for now many
companies have come up with the idea of selling bikes on the basis of comfort.

LONGCHAR (2013) this article tells that AVON CYCLES had set up their new industry of
e-bikes in Nagaland. In the North East region to assemble and market its e-bikes (electric
bikes) which is gaining popularity as pollution free, eco-friendly replacement of fossil fuel
powered two wheelers. Under the initiative of North East Naga Traders Pvt Ltd (NENT),
Avon Cycles has established a manufacturing and assembly unit at Notun Basti in Dimapur,
the

only

one

in

the

northeast.

NENT is an agro based company established by entrepreneur Kathi Chishi and deals with
products related to agriculture activities and environmental friendly products. It has been
trying

to

establish

itself

for

the

market

for

the

past

three

years.

TREW(2013) this article deals with the launch of Rimacs Greyp G12 e-bike which has the
top speed of 40m/ph and it also has the pedal free range of 75 miles . It also has other neat
tricks include fingerprint activated ignition that allows different digits to trigger the bike's
43

two modes -- street or speed -- with profiles for up to 50 users available.It also has a less
alleged charge time of 80 minutes (from zero).

PHILIPS(2013) this article talks about the attempts of electronic shifting from mechanical
shifting first attempt was made in 1990s. but it didnt work as early adopter figure it out
thatwhen they rode to close to lose to power lines or their local radio station and their bike
started shifting with a mind of its own. Throughout the early 2000s, both Campagnolo and
Shimano used Mavics pioneering ideas to develop electronic groups for their pro teams. In
2009, the world finally had a new electronic group in the Shimano Dura Ace Di2 and boy
was it good. The entire system was wired, and only one inconspicuous lithium ion battery
powered the whole thing. Servos in the derailleurs were small, and front shifting was not only
electric, but powerful. Not content to rest on their reviews, the latest update to the Di2 took
the group from 10 to 11 speeds, dropped weight and improved ergonomics. The biggest
criticisms to the Di2 have consistently been its astronomical cost ($4,125 for the group) and
lack of feel (a connection to the bike almost as vague as a records warmth or a film
cameras grain).

BERA (2013) this article gives the detail of the top 5 e- bike manufacturers in India and tells
something about it. Top 5 manufacturers of e-bikes are as follows
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Ampere Vehicles,
Hero Ultra,
You Bikes, ACE Motors
Eko Vehicles
Ace motorsjjjjj

44

ECO WHEELS (2013) this articles tells about the pros and cons of the e-bikes that are a
new trend in the markets following are the pros

1)
2)
3)
4)

Much Cheaper than Gas


Extended Range / Reduced Stress
Exercise is Optional
Safe and Easy to Operate

Following are the cons of the e-bikes


1) Lost luxuries
2) Limited speed and range
3) Less Protection and security

DAS(2012) In this article the slumping e-bikes market is discussed and what strategies does
the companies are using to cope up with the difficult environment and it also tells that Mr.
Munjal head of hero electric has shifted his focus from selling it Indian market to the exports
of the e-bikes.

CUSICK AND WIRE (2012) in this article it is discussed that can e- bikes displace cars. It
is also discussed that Electric bicycles could offer cleaner air and reduced greenhouse gas
emissions, particularly in countries like China. He is discussing that the e-bikes can lead to
future of cleaner environment but it is suitable for only the young and strong people but still
over 1 million e-bikes are being sold in china and its limited speed is a bit tough for them to
displace cars but somehow they are displacing cars.

MAY(2012) this article tells that the Audi had planned to launch its new e bike and may tells
about its all features that the bike has and a video is also shown how comfortable the bike is
and how easy it is to drive. All the design details and advantages of the design are given.

45

WIESE (2011) this article tells about why to buy the e-bikes and it tells the e-bikes are way
affordable then other bikes it also tells about his confusion about buying the bike that why
should he buy an e-bike in his prime young age when he should drive other bikes. It also talks
about the by Navigant Research, a market analysis firm that wrote up a recent 73-page report
on the e-bike market, the reason that electric bikes have absolutely taken off in markets like
China and Europe is because those markets view them as a mode of transportation, not just a
piece of sports or fitness gear. Times are changing, though, and 2015 looks like it could be
the year of the cheap e-bike. Were only two months into the year, and more than one crowd
funding campaign has written a tale of wild success by marketing a sub-$500 electric bike.
That type of price makes the electric bike much more competitive with the pedal bike in
terms of price vs. reward.

STONE (2010) in this article the idea of e- bikes is discussed how e-bikes are popular in
china that every year around 10 million e-bikes are sold in the market. It also tells that
technology is upgrading and touching new heights every year and e-bikes are the part of the
technology. It also talks about the travelling of us people are around 5 to 7 miles of day and
how e-bikes can solve their problem of controlling pollution.

GOODMAN (2010) this article tells that e-bikes market has grown at a rapid pace in foreign
market but where as in India it has shown no signs of growth. Whereas everywhere there is
boom in the e-bikes market. It all started in china where an estimated 120 million electric
bicycles now hum along the roads, up from a few thousand in the 1990s. They are replacing
traditional bikes and motorcycles at a rapid clip and, in many cases, allowing people to put
off

the

switch

to

cars.

In turn, the booming Chinese electric-bike industry is spurring worldwide interest and
impressive sales in India, Europe and the United States. China is exporting many bikes, and
western manufacturers are also copying the Chinese trend to produce models of their own.
From virtually nothing a decade ago, electric bikes have become an $11 billion global
industry.

46

PATHAK (2010) in this article it is discussed that Electric bikes or e-bikes are environmentfriendly but in India they are yet to prove themselves user-friendly; and this despite the fact
that there is a huge market for these two-wheelers. Most of the e-bikes sold in India are
manufactured using Chinese technology and their main drawback in Indian 'conditions' is
their poor pick-up. Experts say e-bikes made with Chinese technology do not support the
weight of Indian users who are usually heavier than their Chinese counterparts. It also tells
that its poor pick up is main reason for low sales and also the weights of Indian people is
concern for the bikes as bikes made with Chinese technology is not able to carry weights of
their Indian counterparts.

UTTKARSH (2010) Hero Electric is ascending the path to the top of the electric bikes
industry in an aggressive manner. The company, which is the pioneer and market leader in the
Indian Electric Two- Wheeler Industry, recently launched its E-bike in India named Photon. It
then observed the electric bikes industry in India and acted accordingly. To lure in customers
the company had offered great services and offers in the past. Now, Hero Electric has
introduced a service for not only its customers but also for all the electric bike owners of the
country. There had been other companies in the electric bikes segment in India but due to
poor response from the people and unpopularity of the electric bikes, these companies
completely withdrew their business.

47

CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

ANALYLIS AND INTERPRETATION


This chapter deals with analysis of data collected on different aspect related to the satisfaction
level and the awareness about the green tea among population (ref. Appendix). The result and
analysis pertaining to various objectives of the study have been presented in this chapter.

48

Demographics :

Figure-4.1

Gender

Male

48

52

Female

INTERPRETATION: Out of 100 sample unit, 48 were female respondents and 52 were
male respondents
Figure 4.2

Age Group
15-25 years
35-45 years

25-35 years
Above 55
years

35-45 years

49

INTERPRETATION-Out of 100 respondents, 66% of them were of age group 15-25 years,
22% were of age group 25 to 35 years, 6% were of age group 35-45 years, only 3% were of
age group 35-45 and above 55 age group .Major respondents were youth.

Table4.1- Are you aware of E-bikes


Are You aware of E-bikes No. Of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

83

83%

No

17

17%

Figure 4.3

Are You aware of E-bikes?


17

Yes
No
83

INTERPRETATION-From the above chart it is evident that:

83% respondents were aware of e-bikes


17% respondents were not aware of e-bikes

50

This shows that most of the people are aware of electronic bikes. Very few are unaware.

Table 4.2How did you come to know about electronic bikes.


How did you come to
know

about

Electric

Bikes?

No. Of Respondents

Percentage

News paper/magazine

20

20

Television

24

24

Internet

43

43

Friends

13

13

Figure 4.4

51

How did you come to know about Electric Bikes?


50
40
30
20
10
0

43
20

24

13

INTERPRETATION:
From the above graph it is evident that 43% of respondents came to know about electric bikes
through internet, 24% through television, 20% through newspapers/magazines,
13% came to know through friends
INFERENCE: From the above it is evident that internet is the main source of awareness,
next is through television advertisements and awareness. There is not much of awareness
created through word of mouth from friends and family and print media such as newspaper
and magazine.

Table 4.3 Does brands influence your buying decision?

No.

Of

brand responden

Percenta

ts

ge

Yes

90

90

10

10
52

No

Figure 4.5

No. Of respondents

Yes
No

INTERPRETATION Above table shows that majority that means 90% people consider
brands while purchasing an electronic bike ,while only a few of them are not considering ebikes brands .

53

Table 4.4 Which Brands are you aware of in electric bikes?

Brands

No. Of Respondents

Percentage

Hero

29

29

Avon

16

16

Lohia

14

14

Ace Motor Bikes

18

18

You Bikes

23

23

Figure 4.6

54

Which Brands are you aware of in electric bikes?


40
30
20
10
0

29

16

14

18

23

INTERPRETATION
Above figure shows that 29% respondents are aware of Hero ,29% know about Yo bikes
,followed by Avon which stands at 16%.only 18% know about Ace motor bikes and only 14%
people know about lohia ebikes.
INFERENCE From the above figure it is evident that Hero and Yo bikes are more popular
amongst people .others brands are not very much known to the people .

Table 4.5
Which factors you consider while choosing amongst e-bike and conventional bike ?

Price:

Price

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly Agree

23

23

Agree

19

19
55

Neutral

37

37

Disagree

16

16

Strongly Disagree

INTERPRETATION
Above table shows that 23% strongly agree that price is the factor for choosing amongst
electronic bike and conventional bike .only 5% disagree that cost is one important factor.
INFERENCE:
It is clearly evident from the above graph that maximum numbers of consumers feel the price
of electric bikes to be high as compared to its features which are not that great compared to
conventional bikes. Very few consumers feel the price to be in the moderate and low range.
Thus the price of electric bikes needs to be lowered in case to increase the sales

Table 4.6
Weight:
No. Of respondents

Percentage

56

Weight

Strongly Agree

27

27

Agree

18

18

Neutral

39

39

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

INTERPRETATION
Above table shows that 27% strongly agree that Weight is the factor for choosing amongst
electronic bike and conventional bike .18% agree to it and 39% gave a neutral comment on
weight while comparing e-bike and conventional bike . Only 8% disagree that weight is one
important factor.

Table 4.7
57

Appearance:

Appearance

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly Agree

31

31

Agree

25

25

Neutral

28

28

Disagree

10

10

Strongly Disagree

INTERPRETATION-Above table shows that 31% strongly agree that Appearance is the
factor for choosing amongst electronic bike and conventional bike .25% agree to it and 28%
gave a neutral comment on appearance while comparing e-bike and conventional bike . Only
6% strongly disagree that appearance is one important factor.

58

Table 4.8-Safety:

Safety

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly Agree

35

35

Agree

32

32

Neutral

23

23

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

INTERPRETATION :Above table shows that 35% strongly agree that Safety
is the factor for choosing amongst electronic bike and conventional bike .32%
agree to it and 23% gave a neutral comment on safety while comparing e-bike
and conventional bike .4% disagree and Only 6% strongly disagree that safety
is one important factor.

59

Table 4.9-Advertisement:

Advertisement

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly Agree

22

22

Agree

38

38

Neutral

26

26

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

60

INTERPRETATION
Above table shows that 22% strongly agree that advertisement is the factor for choosing
amongst electronic bike and conventional bike .38% agree to it and 26% gave a neutral
comment on advertisement while comparing e-bike and conventional bike .9% disagree and
Only 5% strongly disagree that safety is one important factor.
INFERENCE:
It is evident from the graph that maximum numbers of E-Bike users were influenced to
buying through advertisements. Hence more of advertisements need to be taken up in order to
influence the potential customers.

Table 4.10 Are you convinced about Electric Bike benefits?


benefits

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Yes

57

57

No

43

43

Figure4.6

61

Are you convinced about Electric Bike benefits?


57
60
50

43

40
30
20
10
0
Yes
No

INTERPRETATION:
From the above graph it is evident that 57% of the electric bike consumers are convinced
about the benefits of electric bikes whereas 43% are not convinced about the benefits.

INFERENCE:
From the above graph it can be analysed that Almost equal of the Electric bike users are
convinced about the bike benefits whereas only few of them are not convinced.

Table 4.11

62

Would you like to suggest


electric bike to your friends?

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Yes

53

53

No

47

47

Figure 4.7

47

53
Yes
No

INTERPRETATION:
It can be interpreted from the above figure that 53% users recommend e- bikes to their friends
while 47% would not recommend.

INFERENCE:

63

It is evident from the graph that almost equal no. of the users of electric bike are willing to
refer it to their friends than those who dont.

Table 4.12

Which of the factors do you think that prevents you from making the decision of purchasing
the electric bikes?

decision

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Expensive

19

19

Unaware

10

10

Not convinced

16

16

Non availability.

16

16

Appearance

10

10
64

Speed

14

14

Battery life

10

10

Uncertainty of electric bike


technology

Figure 4.8

65

10

A. Expensive
19

B. Unaware

14

10

10

16
16

C. Not convinced
D. Non availability.
F. Appearance
G. Speed
H. Battery life
I. Uncertainty of electric
bike technology

INTERPRETATION:
From the above graph it can be interpreted that 16% of respondents are not convinced, 19%
feel expensive,10% are unaware,16% feel non-availability, and14% feel that speed is not
satisfying,10% dont like their battery life , which prevents them from making the decision of
purchasing the electric bikes.

INFERENCE:
From the above graph it is evident that most of the respondents do not purchase the E-Bikes
because they are not convinced about the electric bike technology or the benefits, and also
because it is expensive. Awareness need to be created& the product need to be made available
to maximum no of places.

66

Table 4.9 is after sales service availability affecting your purchasing decision of electric
bikes.

0After sales service

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Yes

66

66

No

34

34

Figure 4.9

Is after sales service availability affecting your purchasing decision of electric bikes?

34
Yes
No
66

INTERPRETATION:

67

From the above graph it can be interpreted that 66% of respondents feel that after sales
service availability affects their purchasing decision while 34% of respondents say it does not
affect.

INFERENCE:
It is evident from the above graph that maximum no of respondents did not go for buying the
electric bike due to the non availability of proper after sales service. Hence the after sales
service need to be improved and service centre needs to be operated in major cities to
overcome this problem

CHAPTER5
FINDINGS,SUGGESTIONS,CONCLUSION,LIMITATIONS
Summary of findings:
1.It was found that most of the respondents are aware about the Electric Bikes and their
benefits.

2.It was found that majority of the consumers came to know about electric bikes through
internet and there are only few through friends and peers

It was found that maximum numbers of customers were influenced by internet while making
their buying decisions.

It was found that most of the customers are not much satisfied with the price of the product,
and Price quoted by the companies has affected the customer satisfaction to a great deal.

68

It was found that most of the customers were satisfied with the mileage of the Electric bikes
and are convinced about the electric bike benefits and were willing to refer it to their friends.

It was found that most of the customers are not satisfied with after sales service. It shows
that customers are dissatisfied about after sale service.

It was found that maximum number of the customers feel the speed of the Electric bikes to
be very low and were not satisfied with the current speed of the bikes.

It was found that expensiveness and non-availability of Electric bikes is also a reason
for lower market share and consumers not purchasing it.

It was found that most of the respondents feel that the promotional activities for electric
bikes are not sufficient to make the purchasing decision.

It was found that most of the respondents feel that the factors such as speed & power, battery
life and appearance of Electric Bikes are the main reasons for its lower market share.

Suggestions
Awareness needs to be created among the consumers regarding the Electric Bikes and their
benefit.

69

There are only few advertisements in newspapers and TVs. Thus maximum advertisements
need to be put up in these Medias as they reach wider audiences.

The price of the electric bikes need to be decreased it can be done by adopting sophisticated
technologies and carrying out mass productions or some discounts on price or offers should
be given in order to increase the sales.

More number of service centres need to be opened at least in major areas to cater to the
problems & needs of the customers when needed.

As most of the people prefer high speed the speed of the electric bikes need to be improved
so as to increase the sales of the E-Bike

We need to have more number of dealers covering major urban areas and the distribution
network should be made strong.

Promotional activities should be increased to create awareness and increase the sales. Like it
should be displayed in auto shows and to attract more youths demonstrations and special
offers should be given to college students.
As appearance plays a major role for most of the customers while making purchasing
decisions so the Electric Bikes need to be made more attractive.

70

LIMITATIONS TO THE STUDY:


Some of the limitations of the study may be summarised as follows

An underlying assumption for entire project is that the details and feedback received

from population are true.


It was difficult to find respondents as they were busy in their schedules and collection
of data was very difficult. Therefore study had to be carried out based on availability

of respondents.
Some of the respondents were not ready to fill the questionnaire and some of them not

ready to come out openly.


Also the sample size of 100 may not truly represent whole population

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References

1.http://aceelectricmotorbikes.com/about-the-bikes
2.http://www.lohiagroup.com/welcome-lohia-group
3.http://www.avoncycles.com/marketing/
4.http://yobykes.in/global_business.aspx?pg=gb
5.http://heroelectric.in/corporate/about-hero-electric-2/
6. http://www.wlivenews.com/top-5-best-electric-bike-brands-and-leading-models-in-india.html
7. http://www.peopleforbikes.org/blog/entry/the-rise-of-the-e-bike
8. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/can-ebikes-displace-cars/
9. http://in.askmen.com/guy-gear/1102699/article/affordable-e-bikes
10. http://www.levassociation.com/light-electric-vehicle-association/the-ebike-trend-for-2011
11. http://www.fischen.de/en/ebike-the-new-trend-in-cycling
12. http://www.bike-eu.com/sales-trends/nieuws/2014/4/lg-about-to-step-in-e-bike-battery-market1019234
13. https://www.electricbike.com/audi-ebike/
14. http://gearpatrol.com/2013/06/18/point-and-click-everything-you-need-to-know-about-electronicshifting/

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15. http://in.askmen.com/guy-gear/1102699/article/affordable-e-bikes
16. http://electricbikereview.com/

Chapter 8 QUESTIONNAIRE
Questionnaire:
Personal Details:
Name:............................................................................................
GENDER-.
Age group- A) 15-25 yrs B) 25-35yrs C) 35-45yrs D) 45-55 yrs E) Above 55yrs

1.Are you aware of Electric Bikes?


Yes
No

2. How did you come to know about Electric Bikes?

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a. News paper/magazine
b. Television
c. Internet
d. Friends
e. Others (specify)..........................................

3.Which brand are you aware of in electric bikes ?


a. Hero
b. Avon
c.Lohia
d.Ace motor bikes
e.Yo bikes
f. others.............................

4.Does brand influence your buying decision?


Yes
No

74

5. What factors you consider while choosing amongst e-bike and conventional bike ?
i.

Weight
a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

ii.

Appearance
a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

iii.

Safety
a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neutral

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d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

iv.

Cost

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

6. Does advertisement influence your buying decision?


a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

7. What is your opinion towards mileage of Electric Bikes as compared to


conventional bikes?
a. Very good
b. Good
76

c. Average
d. Bad
e. Very bad

8. Is the promotional activity about Electric bike sufficient enough for you to make the
purchasing decision?
Yes
No

9. Which of the factors do you think that prevents you from making the decision
of purchasing the electric bikes?
a. Expensive
b. Unaware
c. Not convinced
d. Non availability.
f. Appearance
g. Speed
h. Battery life
i. Uncertainty of electric bike technology
j. Others (specify)

77

10. Are you convinced about Electric Bike benefits?


Yes
No

11. Is after sales service availability affecting your purchasing decision of electric bikes?
Yes
No

78