CHARlEZ
Mining Engineer from Facult Palytechnique de Mans
Ph.D from Institut de Physique du Glabe de Pars
Rack Mechanics Expert at Total Compagnie Fran~aise des Plroles
ROCK
ECHANICS
volume 1
IHEOREIICAL FUNDAMENIALS
Foreword by
Vincent MAURV
Chairman of Comit Franvais
de Mcanique des Raches
Rack Mechancs Expert al Elf Aquitane
1991
EDITIONS TECHNIP
Table of contents
Foreword
VII
IX
Preface
Nomenclature
INTRODUCTION. Some hasic concepts of solid mechanics
XXI
1 MECHANICS OF CONTINUOUS
BASIC CONCEPTS
1
STATE OF STRAIN
1.1
1.2
1.3
lA
1.5
9
9
9
10
11
11
12
13
13
14
14
14
15
15
16
16
XII
Table of contents
1.6
Geometrical
of the strain tensor .......................
1.6.1 Diagonal atraina ... ... .. . ..... ...... .................
1.6.2 Non
strains ...... ...............................
1.6.3 Volume variations. Firat
of the tensor f ..........
1.6.4 Elongation of the vector
Invariant of the second arder ...
18
19
19
20
20
1. 7
1.8
21
21
21
22
24
25
1.9
Bbliography .......................
. ..... .. .............
STATE OF STRESS
27
2.1
2.2
2.3
28
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
27
30
31
32
33
33
34
35
35
36
38
41
3
43
A. REVIEW OF
3.1
3,2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
43
44
44
45
46
46
47
47
XIII
Ta.bie of contents
3.9
48
48
49
50
51
51
52
52
52
53
53
54
54
54
54
55
56
57
57
58
59
62
65
65
66
3.21 Conclusion........................................................
68
Bibliography ............................................................
68
73
4.1
4.2
4.3
73
74
74
76
76
XIV
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
Ta.ble al cantents
77
81
theorem ....................................... .
in cyIndrical coordinates ................ . .... .
83
83
84
84
85
state of strain
Basie
of
Stress harmonic ,."""t'lrm
potential ........................ .
Plane
coordinates ...............................
Application to the calculation of stresses in infinite pi ates ..........
5.4.1 Determination of
function for an infinite plate .......
disturbance. Kirsch'g problem
5.4.2 Effect of a circular
pressure on the borehole ............
5.4.3 Effect of a
85
86
5.7
92
98
98
100
101
102
5.8
5.9
103
105
106
109
110
111
6.1
6.2
111
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
78
78
79
79
82
4.9
4.10
4.11
........ .
77
6.3
Determination of
Phenomenological
Strain energy associated with a
Definition of effective bulk
modulus ........................................................ .
Specific types o cavities: pares and microcracks '" .............. .
87
87
87
89
92
111
113
TabIe oE contents
115
116
119
121
122
122
123
124
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
130
131
131
131
132
132
132
133
INFINITESIMAL THERMOPOROELASTICITY
135
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
xv
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
124
125
126
127
128
129
135
136
137
138
138
138
140
141
141
144
XVI
8.6
Table of contents
145
146
146
146
8.7
.. _.....
147
8.8
8.9
potential .........................................
Relation between thermal expansion coefficients ...................
148
8.10
of hydraulic diffusivity ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .........
8.11 Particular cases .................................. ................
8.12
o thermal diffusivity .............. _... . . .. ............
8.13 Resolution of a thermoporoelastie boundary
BeltramMitchell and consolidation eQllatlOrlS
151
151
152
=
=
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15
150
153
156
156
159
159
161
162
163
163
164
164
165
Calculation of
from the consolidation time.... ........
Undrained hydrostatic compression measurement of B and
9.8.1 The measuring circuit of pore presEure _....................
9.8.2 The heterogeneity of the stress field ........... .... .......
Second
of consolidation ................... .................
Measurement of drained elastic parameters ....................... .
Measurement of undraned elastic
. . . . .. .. ., ....... .,
Measurement of Biot's coefficient and matrix bulk modulus ...... .
Measurement of the coeffic.ents of thermal
" .......... .
fluid ................ .
9.13.1 Thermal expansion coefficient of
'"
.... .
9.13.2 Measurement of Q:u and O'B .......
Thermal conductivity ...................... .
heat ................ _.......... .
167
168
170
173
173
173
174
175
176
177
177
178
180
181
Tabie oE contents
XVII
183
A. GENERAL CONCEPTS
183
183
184
185
186
186
187
188
191
192
193
193
194
195
196
197
198
200
200
201
202
204
204
204
205
206
207
208
208
212
XVIII
Table
o( contellts
214
10.19 The
line ............................. ....
10.20 Yield locus in the space of principal stresses ...................... .
215
216
218
218
219
220
221
222
224
OF
226
227
228
228
228
232
233
235
236
237
MECHANISMS
COHESION LOSS
11 FISSURING
11.1
11.2 Basle
of brittle
...... ...........................
11.3 Stress field assciated with a. crack concept of stress intensity factor
o stress intensity factor .............
11.4 Generalization of the
o the stress
factors .................
11.5 Physical
fa.ctor ..........................
11.6 Calculation o the stress
with a rectilinear crack in a uniaxial stress field
11.6.1
with rectilinear crack in any far stress field
11.6.2
241
241
241
243
245
247
248
248
249
XIX
TabIe o[ contents
249
250
250
251
251
252
253
254
255
255
256
257
257
259
260
261
262
265
265
265
266
268
268
269
269
271
272
274
274
277
MODEL
......... .
278
280
283
B. HOMOGENIZATION OF A FISSURED
12.4 Introduction ..... ........................... . ... .
12.5 Macroscopic and local stress flelds
12.6 Macroscopic and local strain fields ........ ..... .. ...............
286
287
288
xx
TabIe ol contents
12.7 Expression of
289
290
290
293
294
295
298
298
299
302
303
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
12.12
12.13
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
306
307
309
313
313
315
317
318
320
320
320
321
321
326
326
326
327
329
N omenclature
MATRICIAL NOTATION
,v
vectors.
vector Nabla.
6,lj
tr(1)
AH
= AH
trace of a tensor.
1= i1 V
Aij =
UiVj
transposition of a tensor.
symmetric part of a. tensor.
1= \l i1
.. _ OU,
A 1) u. 
 2: OU,
\JU=
e==
gradient of a vector.
OXj
ox'
oAsJ
2: _OX'_
j
divergence of a tensor.
di vergence of a vector.
tensor of the fourth order.
product of two tensors.
scalar product of two vectors.
XXII
Nomenc1ature
MAIN SYMBOLS
vector.
f.,
(XI
strain tensor.
matrix thermal expansion coefficient.
elastic strain.
plastic strain.
latent heat.
stress tensor.
Young's modulus.
[{
u, U, U m
entropy.
Poisson's ratio.
h, h m enthalpy.
shear modulus.
9, gm
drained
modulus.
>.
undraned
modulus.
pore volume.
Biot's coefficient.
matrix volume.
Biot's modulus .
coefficent.
drained
coefficient.
multiplier,
compressibility coefficient.
bulk volllme.
free enthalpy.
porosity.
."
interna! energy.
expanSlOn
4>(z ),
XXIII
Nomenclature
hardening modulus.
le
fracture
factors.
INTRODUCTION
Very gene rally speaking, two categories of physical parameters can be distinguished in mechanics:
(a) The dynamic quantites which give rise to motion. These are mainly forces or
force couples.
(b) The kinematic qua.ntities which describe motion geometrically. These are
mainly displacements, velocities a.nd accelerations.
Before getting down to the founda.tions of continuum mechanics, there are certa.in
general concepts that need to be recalled. These will be a. good startingp'oillt for a
proper understanding of rock mechanics.
OM =
i=l
Xi
(1)
lntroduction
where Xi are the coordinates of the point, C the vectors o the basis. If this latter is
orthogonal and unit vectors
(2)
in which Dij is the Kronecker symbol. Given a moving object initially situated at
point X defining the "initial configuration". At the instant t, the moving object has
a velocity v(t) and is situated at point i(t). These parameters define the "present
configuration". There are two separate methods of representing the movement that
we shall describe succinctly below.
Eulerian configuration
The movement is described by evaluating the present velocity of the moving object
on the basis of its present position x(t) and of time
(3)
At any time, the driver of the moving object informs the observer of his position.
The laUer can then evaluate the present velocty o the moving objed without taking
account of the previous information. The observer is not obliged to follow the moving
object and can ignore what has occurred between the initiaI instant and the present
one. The transformation is then "increme~tal".
Lagrangian configuration
The present position of the moving object is evaluated on the basis of its initial
configuration and of time
(4)
The observer must then follow the moving object, otherwise the information at
his disposal (X and t) would be quite insufficient to describe the present position of
the movng objed. Fundon <$ L will enable the observer to follow the moving object
as it moves. The movement described by a Lagrangian transformation is therefore a
"finite" transformation.
The Eulerian configuraton s the most physical representation mode snce all
quantity is compared with the present configuration. In the Lagrangian configuration,
on the other hand, since the quantity is compared with the initial configuration, it
can lose its physical meaning. We shall see therefore that the stress tensors issued
from the Lagrangian configuration (Piola Lagrange or Piola Kirchoff tensors) have no
physical meaning since they compare a present effort with an initial surface.
However the Lagrangian configuration is appreciable when calculating particulate derivatves (derivatives with respect to time), for these are reduced to a partial
derivative with respect to time. ForO an Eulerian description, on the other hand, time
Introduction
appearing in x(t) , the particulate derivatives a.re total derivativ~. We may note lastly
that the kinematic variables X, X, V, and the acceleration f do not depend on the
representation mode and are equal irrespective of the configuration chosen since, in
both cases, they are compared with the same reference frame. One must then avoid
any confusion between representation mode and change of reference frame.
(5)
F

e
Fg. 1. PrincipIe o objcctivily.
Intreducton
dF = Fow (
' _
_)
dt
 sm Wtcl + cos wte2
(7)
dF =0
(8)
and
dt
in
Rw
The force rate depends then on the chosen referimce frame. Clearly in this example
the physica.l reality ls the second oue (wth respect to Rw) snce is assumed to be
constant. If one wishes however to use the fixed reference frame, it is necessary, for
the rate to be objective, to eliminate the rigid movement of Rw with respect to Ro.
There are several methods of eliminating the movement of the observer. The best
known are the convective derivative (calculation of the variation rates with respect to
the material itself) and the Jauman derivative (material derivative with respect to the
corotational reference fra.me). In the framework of this study, we shall consider that
the partieulate derivatives are objective and always expressed with respect to a fixed
observer. This lS a perfectly realistic hypothesis fOl rock strain where movements are
aIways sma.ll and sIow.
mv.
(9)
If this reasoning is extended to a solid o density p, of volume V and of external
surface S subjeded both to surface forces o resultant F and to body forces of resultant
f~ the theorem can be written
(10)
Intraductin
MOMENTUM
definition, the knetic momentum
with resped to a point 0, of a mass point
o masa m driven by a velocity i! ia the vector ; such that
OM Ami!
(12)
in which w is the
~UI~~"~'
"'11),Ul'"
A Uf
)
= r 2 mwu z
(13)
""'IiIlllllllB... X
Extending the
CaoVUJlHj<.
introducing
(15)
moment of inertia o the solido
lntrodudioll
Ir one rep(aces (14) in (11) and derives wjtb respcd Lo time one obt.ains
(16)
or by applying (9)
(17)
since iOMjdt = r (d.. jdt) = rwiit = V.
"A solid begins lo rotate around ao axis ir the resulting: momentum oC the Corces
aeting 0 0 this poio!. is not nil."
CONCLUSIONS
From Eqs (10) and (17). one can then state the conditions under which a salid
BmLIOGRAPHY
COUARRAZE, G" snd GROSSIORD, J .L. , Initiation d la rhlologie, Technique et docu
Part 1
Mechanics
of continuous media
Basic concepts
CHAPTER
State of strain
1.1
LAGRANGIAN DESCRIPTION
OF THE STRAIN OF A SOLID
Given a solid S located with tesped to a rcference (rame of fixcd axes Ro and
given X the initial coordioate of any paint of this solid.
Consider a motian of this point which at time t is in a position i(t).
We explained in the inlroduction that it was possible to describe the salid motian referring to its initial position and time; it is expressed using the Lagrangian
transformation
x= 4)L(X ,t)
where
1.1.1
X a~d t
( 1.1)
Concept of displacement
The displacement vector , of the considered point is the difference betweeo the
initial configuratian and the present configuration relative to the initiaJ oonfiguration
so that (1. 1) can be written
ii~.i(+;(X,t)
(1.2)
(13)
10
Ji
one abtains
8Ui
ax.,
where H'j =
~he
(1.4)
affine transformation .
(1.5)
where
HI(O
(1.6)
=>; = J'(t).X
(1.7)
J'(t) = l
8;
J'(t) = uX
X, one obtains
ux
where F. . . = '
'1
8X.
(1.8)
di= J'(X,')dX
1.1.2
(1.9)
Po at zetO
(1.10)
so that the vedorial variation
P will be equal to
(1. 11)
11
1.1.3
v, =
Po, Qo, Ro
(1.12)
Indeed,
Po
and
Qo
beiDg perpendicular,
P, Q, ii represent
v = (PI";) R
(1.13)
V =
(1.14)
v = J Va
in which J:::: del 1
!1 is the Jacobian ofthe transformation.
1.1.4
(1.15)
Qa " Po = Soiio
(1.16)
12
00
'0
rig . 1.2. Conveclive t rAJlsporl ot 811 orienled surhce.
( 1.17)
(1.18)
that is, ta.king account of (1.10)
(1.19)
1.2
A material becomes strained when the melric properties (distances and angles) of
tbe respective body are modified, On the contrary ir the moticns affecting the salid
do oot modify t he metric properties, one can speak oC "rigid moticn" . Let us translale
these definitioos into mathematical formulae by expressing tlle norm of any vector P
(1.20)
with
q= I[.!
(1.21)
One conclucles from (1.20) that the motian is rigid provided that
9=1
1 GeneralIy,
(when a
( 1.22)
tramposition is omitted for th e scaru product except where th e resuhs lLre affecteJ
ma~rix
13
Relation (1.20) can then be decomposed ioto a rigid part and a st raining part
IPI = Po'
Po+ Po ,
Po
(1.23)
Equation (1.23) shows that the second term i5 characteristic of a purely rigid
motion and the litst of apure strain. Therefore, one defines t he straio GN!t:n LfJgrangt:
tensor 5uch that
,,=! (C 1)
1.3
2 ~ is a symmetric tensor.
(1.24)
v= t$E(i, t)
(1.25)
1.3.1
This assumes t hat the velocity is a linear fundion of the presenl coordina tes. that
"
(1.25)
We m ay observe that i is no looger (as was the ioit ial coordinate X) a constant .
As we shall see litis maJ.:es the derivation with respect to time much more complex o
If one takes the Lagtangian t ransformaLion again , and derives ii with respecl to
time, one obtains
d%
=v=FX =KF .Y
(1. 27)
:::} K=t".r
( 1.28)
dt
 
14
1.3.2
P,
1.3.3
Let us decompose first [( into its syrnrnctrie an:l its skew symmetric
par~s
such
that
[S=[J+g
(1.30)
wit.h
1
D=  (K+ 'K)
2 
l=

~2 (K'K)

d (_ _)
p. P
di
= pfSP+lS; p
(1.31)
PIS p+p'IS ,P
pWp
In the Eulerian description of motion, the movement is rigid (i.e. the norm
of P does not change with time) ifand only ir Q= O. So t,he symmetric part of!f.
characterizes the late o strain in the salid wbile Q, skew symmetric part, represents
tbe rigid motiaD (tbe cate of ratation).
1.3.4
The
deri~tive
or strain
15
( 1.34)
from which one can easily show (by taking vectors parallel
V= L
J(
Lo
(1.35)
i=l
Ol
what. is exactly t.he S<Ulle (eince t.be diagonal compooeots of 9 are nil)
V = '""'
L Di; = tr D
(1.36)
;=1
VIV ;8 a knowo
1.3.5
[{ =
~
.. _ I)vi
K '}  o
UX j
lJii
ez
(1.37)
K is t.hus t,he "velocity gradient" tensor. The tensor pcan tben be exp res..<ed as a
runction of the strain velocities such t bat
D ij
= ~
2
[8v; + 8Vi ]
{JZj
OZi
(1.38)
(1.39)
1.3.6
dii
= dt
( 1.40)
1.4
LAGRANGF.
EULER
z = X + If(')X
z=[(') X
ti = ~(t) . %
K~f!1
P=f Po
P=/SP
V = J Vo
V = "W)V
'1tansformation
Candtion oC rigidity
= d,t([)
f'S:;:
Jn~
Sg
Q:;: l with
p=O
Q= '[ E
Strain tensor
Accelcration
1.5
24=
fl' f[
aiJ
'i = &t
"'(=
al +
;_
"V~v V
Let U8 tale the Lagrangian description again and assume "hat the variation oC
norru associated wi th any vector j5 is sufficiently small 1.0 neglect the infinitely small
of t he second arder.
P between
p = Po+ Cl.P
(1.43)
Negled ing
6.p2
. =2
('Fj )
P2
=2
Po + lj . Po
Pu +Po . .ti . Po
Po +Po'
+ IJ . Po
(1.45)
that 18 by writing
( 1.46)
one obtains
(1.47)
P;
In othcr words, p 2 =
(rigid mot ion) if and only if f = O. The vector 6.P cal!
now be written by decomposin g !Jin its symmetric part and its skew symmetric part:
 [1
, 1(
1
/lP = H
P,= (H+H)+
 H  'H
) po
22
or writing
2 = 1j 
( 1A8)
'{!
( 1.49)
n,
~ =
!(CI)=!('F.PI)
22 
'"
:; [('1!+if)[ =[
(1.5 1)
18
(1.52)
This identity shows us tllat ene can (in SPll) derive ind iscrimillately witb respect
i and tbaL Lbe particulat.e derivative becomes a partal derivative witb re
X 01
sped to time. One can &ka undcrstand why it ill preferahle to speak about "Sma.ll
perturbalions" rather than "SmaH deformations". In raet, ene has lo take into consideration thaL botb the displacerncnt and the displa.ccment gradien t llhavc to be
smaU. Finally {rom (1.6), (1.7) sud ( 1.26) one deduces
( 1.51)
and replacing (1.54) in (1.30)
.
D= 1 [ H+
fH. J = i:
2 
(1.55)
smce the pa rticulate der ivative c.oincides with a par tia.! deri vative witb respect 1.0
time.
Ta sum up, one should nole a1l the following basie formulae in the SP H
(1.56)
1.6
GEOMETRlCAL SIGNIFICAN CE
OF THE STRAIN TENSOR
The state of atrain at any ptu't oC the solid ls therefore rep resented by a symmetric
tensor ~ auch that
( 1.57)
The diagonal com ponenls are known as normal strains and the no n diagonal ones
as shear alrains . Their geometric significante can be underst.ood as Collow$. If one
considers Eq . (1.50) taking account oC (1.57), one obtains
19
c:u
Cr~
1.6.1
P..~
Po.::
Diagonal shains
ll.P:r; = En Po",
Cn
rep tesen1s then t he relat.ive variation of a vector parallel lo the axis
reasolli ng .....ould be idcnti cal ror y and z .
1 .6.2
(1.58)
(1.59)
% . The
Given t he initial vect.or merged witb O. whose coordinales are PD'" = Pa.,
Paz.
Let. us apply to it a displacemenl ll.P" ( Fig. 1.3)
= O allcl
Oll e
can write
8=
e".
I"P,I
= [PDII
(1.6 1)
20
Part l. Mccl>llnjcs
e ll O i:,
~lip
of
11
Q(
plane pe rp endicular to
.t
and parllllel lo
y. This slip creatcs a distortion oC thc medium and is characLeristic oCts change in
sha.pe. It IS called shear slrain.
1.6.3
fOI
( 1.62)
( 1.63)
which ;5 the firsl invariant oC {.
dVIV is known as "cuhic cxpansioD" .
As a condusian, the normal strains charac.t.erizc the relative changcs in length and
eventually in voLume while l he shear strains charac1erize the changes of form oC a
continuou!I mediurn.
1 .6.4
P =.
p~
P represeots
+ ;;P \\le
Po
IPI I P.I
IPI
(1.6')
(1.65)
P" .
( 1.66)
is the invariant oC the second order oC tbc tensor { and js t lterefore indepe ndent of
Lile reference frame .
21
1.7
A solid is in a state of pla.ne strain paralJel to 11. plane Oxy if the displacement
component w (Le. perpendicular to Oxy) is zero and if the components Iinked t o tbis
plane (i.c. tl and v) depelld only on x and y hui not on z.
Consequently, this definition induces that
f: yy
F: rz
8W]
="21 [8u
f}z + ox
CH
0'
f}y
: :; O
:::
Cy
="2
[o, + Ow]
ay = o
f}z
(1.68)
oW
OZ :::; o
( 1.69)
and , the elongation (. Ln a. direction 8 (with resped to Or) by
e:::;
1.8
f: rr
(1.70)
In certain specific problems such as wellbore stabili ty, it is often useful to refer to
other types of reference feame than t he conventional Cactesian coardinates system.
One uses curvilinear coardinates defining a "'local reference (rame" associated with
the specific point where the state of stra.in is calculated.
1.8.1
(1.71)
22
PM(
l. Mechanics
Q(
continuous
m~; .
Basic concepts
In arder that thc sequencc UI, U2, tia should make it possible to achicve an llUambiguous acatian of point Al, it is neccssary that there should be ane to one correspondence between u; and Xi . It i5 therefore necessary tho.t there exists a unique
inver:>c of (l.71). Furtherrnore we sho.11 assume tho.1 the ti; are continuous derivable
functions with respect to the Xi (and conversely). A point M so dcf1ned, one can
effed an infinitesimal displacemenl dOM while only vruying tI and monitoriog U2
and U3. Ooe describes thus a curve known as "coordinate tine" associated with tll.
ln tlle same way ooe could describe starting from M two other "coordinatc lines",
ene associated with U2 , the other with u;:! (Fig. 1.4).
~
Space can then be meshed by a set of three networks of coordinate lines. Tbus
starting from point M, one can define three specific direct.ions tangent to the coordinate lines at this point. One builds tbu$ a local basis with which are associated the
vectors 91,92,93 (Fig. lA) such that
 = L ;ej
8.
,
j _
uU;
(1.72)
Tbe new base in the general case is not orthogonal and nol composed of unil
vectors.
1.8.2
23
tlHl.t
z
y
pcosO
psin8
(1.73)
In the Eucl idian space, a ny point M can t hen equally well be located ei ther by a.
sequence of values x, v, Z or by the ~uence p, O, z called "cylindrical coordinate of
pomt M ". A set of coordinale tines (Fig. 1.5) is dcscri bcd , consisting of straightlines
lile O/M (fJ and:: constant, p variable), PH (p and O cOllstant , z variable) and drclcs
of radiliS O/M (p and z constants, 9 variable). In each point of the space it is tben
possible t o define a local reference frRlIle of basis 9", g" g, such t hat [~(gq. 1.72)]
+ s iu O,
psin O~ + p cos 9Fy
9,
ff.
g,
c060r
(1.71)
i,
'z
'U
O'
"
' ;
5,
Iff,1 ~
Iff.1~ p
Iff,1
~ 1
(1.75)
P a re l .
24
'fhe
:; ~I ai n
"f~ch a n ;e~
gp, g/l, 9.
C(J II Cl:'p~
is called
"tensor oCna t ural strains" . 11. does nol correspond to t he physical o ne sinct th e lJ(ulS
is not unil vedeTS. Qfie can deduce the compone nts of Lhe physical si raio te nsor ("'1
from t hose oCl ile natural slrain tern;or ':, by lhe relationship
(1.76)
In t he case of an ort hogonaJ a nd u ni ~ vedors local referente frame, the n a~ ural
components are equal to t he physical components.
111 Lhe case oC cylind rical coordillates, one can tbererorc defin e a sLrain tensor
(associated wiLh l he local basis c;,. " ez ) suth lhat
[ <"
e"
f =
<.,
".". ]
<"
<u
<
9'
e,=
p = gp
( 1.77)
<..
i',.
:= ~
( l.i8)
Oue can also determine Lbe differelll ial equations connecting deformations and
displacement in thc case of cylilldrical coordi nales by calcul atmg t he symmctric part
of t he displa ccme nt g rad ient . Qne is led to t lle classical equatio ns (for demonslration
se<: Germain Vol.I pp. 383387).
= 
f;p~
1.9
1 811,
Vp
Cu=+P !JO
p
8"
pp
8p
_~(8',
~8,.)
2 {};, + P 88
C,z 
EQUATIONS OF COMPATIBILITY
Equal io ns (1. 56) make it possible to establish rel ationships between lhe strains
known as "com patibili ty equ alions". Indeed ir o ne considers Eqs ( 1.56) th a t fo llow
!~~
="2
(8U8y + :r8, )
8y'
02!$
{J2!~v _ ~
= 83 u
8%Oy~
1(
~ ="2
0%'  Oy{}:r"l
fFu
8:r8y2
lJ 3
v)
+ Oy8;r."l
25
(1.80)
One could show similarl)'
(1.81)
2
8 ,'I
OZ2
+ 02~z = 2 Oy
011 2
(1.82)
oy8z
(1.83)
that is,
8
= .!!.... [~ 8(:,.
8y/Jz
82:
8x
2
e:&:&
+ {)f;,,~ + /J'r y]
8y
oz
(1.84 )
(1.85)
(1.86)
The compatibility equations show that the strain field must be continuous (since
derivable two timesq across the medium. Their physical significance is clear: the
state ofstrain in a point (or in a smal l volume e/ernent) must be compatible with the
strains of its ncighbours; the compatibility equations characlerize conlinuity oC the
matter.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
DRAGON , A., Plasticit et endommll'gement, cours de ttoisieme cyde, universit de
Poitiers  UER Sciences. ENSMA 1988.
JA EGER, J.C., and COOK, N.W.G., Fundamentafs 01 rock mechanlcs, third edition,
Chapman and Hall , London , 1979.
26
JEA NPERRIN, el. , ln itiation progn s.sive aH calclt( j ~ nsori d, Ed . ElIipse, Ecole Polyt.echnique , 1987.
CERMAIN , p" M can ique, Vo l. T, Ed. El lipse, Ecole Polyt echniquc, 1986.
CHAPTER
State of stress
2. 1
Let us consider asolid in equilibrium under the Retioo oC external force5 distri buted
on its external surfa.te. We neglect presently body forces , forces of inertia and moment! of forces. Let us cut this solid by a surface (Fig. 2.1) and el us take as p08itive
~hc external side of the section and negative Lba.t situated towards the remaining
material. The sold can only remain in equiJibrium ir one applies 10 th!! positive side
of the section, Corces wbose resultant ir is equal to that exerted previously on the
removed part of ihe body. We define the stress vector fin aL point M oC the section,
such tbat
(2.\ )
The elementary force dP" acting on the infinitesimal surface dS whose externru
normal is is therefore such that
p..
L (J"nei
vec~or
ca.n be
(2.3)
28
O"zn ',
'.
+
+
dS
(J
,
rilo 2. J. Defi nilion o lhe slreu ,,tor .
2.2
(2.4)
We may now write lbe statie equilibrium of a.n infinitely small tetrahedron OABC
( Fig. 2.2b) . This will be writLen in 1\ vectorial form
t. A foz
+m
P, +11
P. :::: A Pn
(2 .5)
IThi. demonl~T.~ion neAIKL5 Ih~ praence o f body fOf'CetI ..nd fOf'C6 of illuti ... Ooe c..n "how
lhal in a f,eoeroJ CNe the resulu aTe Wlmodilied. lile V(!lIlne of Ihe ~tlrahedrOJlle "dio, more rapidl y
lo,..ard. ero lh..n iu exluooJ surf&ee.
,
(J
I
i/
(J
:
!
UyZ
..................... .
"
l 'y
........
.. P"
,.....
~_ ......
..
SUC S>l
,",cc: lO l"S
on coor dl na l t pllllltll .
where t, m, 11 are the di rector cosines of aJld A the area of triangle ABe.
By identify ing in (2.5) tbe coefficiente of~ , e~ and e~ one obtaine the three
equations
..
a,o
(l"OJr
t + (T",,~m + O'"r . n
t + (TuI/m + (T~ .. n
a,o
(Tu:
"
(Tn:
+ (T~~m + O"un
Pn =e
(2.6)
with
(",.
an
a,.
a.,
a"
".,
an
a"
aH
(2 .7)
"
r*cI~
}'
,
FiC Z.2b. Equihbrium of lhe element!lry tclrnhedroll.
Tbe stress sta~ in any point of the sold is then represented by a tensor oC tbe
secand arder known as "stress tensor". The quantities appearing in the tensor are
called stress compoMnts" . The dillgonal compone.nts are called "normal slresses";
they are pOIIitive ir tradions. The non diagonal componenLs (0"" with #J) are on t,he
aLher haDd called sbear slresses. The koowledge oC this tensor makes it possible Lo
calculate t he stress vedar on any face! passing lhrough this point..
2.3
In each point of the external surCace oC the solid the equilibrium cand itioD must
be respected . Thus. ir F is the surface force apptied on the houndary of the solid
and ir repreaents the cxternal normal to this BUrrare, in any point of this external
surfa.ce one has
F = e . M E S
This equat.ion is known as boundary condition. Eq. (2.8) SboWB that
application betwecn F and .
~ is
(2.8)
a linear
2.4
MOMENTUM BALANCE
EQUILIB RIUM E Q UAT IO NS
From thc moment.um balance one can deduce a first. property oC tbe stress tensor.
This fun dl\rnental principIe (see lnt.roduction) can be writLen
(2.9)
Ir one assurnes tbat the external (orces are both sur(ace forces F applied o n .. he
e:tlernaJ boundary and bod)' (orces (gravity for uample) , Eq. (2.9) can be written
(2.10)
Iv
1.
di!
pdV
=
dt
1.
V' !ZdV+
1. v
(2.11)
/dV
or loeally (in other wo rds at any point of the salid) i( one extends the above formula
l o any volume V
_
d
"\l.!?: +f=P
(U, )
dt
CM
'V. !Z = 0
(2.13)
o,
{}d u
&
lJtr,,,,
&
lJ(T u:
&
+
+
+
3:,
Tu
8tr
lJ(T 1/"
Tu
lJtr. ,
lJus~
+ &
lJtr 11 %
+ &
Tu +
{}tr u
a,
(2.14)
oC tbc solid.
2.5
(2. 15)
Observing tba'
i] . (V
(1.16)
Usiag lhe dassical properly
l!:
(V' l u)"' dV
(1. 17)
1 (2 .:)dV
and applying the divergente theorem to the first !.erm oCLhe left hand member one i5
led to
(2.18)
(2. 19)
The fi rst term of the leCt hand member rep rcsents Lbe acLion of the exlerna! forces
through Lhe displacemenLS oCthe ex ternaJ sur(ace, Lhe second Lhe acUen ofthe internal
forees, the tl'lird on the rigilt hand member, lhe action of the forces of ncrLia. Thi!! is
a. diroct oonsequence of the rnomentum balance. (2.19) can also be written in tcrms
of energy tate. For this , one derives it with respect to time (the rorces are supposed
to remain constant )
(2.20)
J. (dV)
v
P 
dt
. tlaV = d
J.
1
_pv'ldV
= K.
div2
(2.21 )
ChapCer~.
33
S'aCt o( . Irea
(2.22)
where
P~Z I
2.6
and P;nJ are respectivel)' tbe ene.rgy late of external and internal forces.
(2 .23)
The momentu m equilibrium can tben be wri tten
(2 .24)
T he two otber equilibria (around z and V) would similarly Icad ta
(2.25)
Tbe momentaequilibrium shows that 2' is a sy mmctrc tensor. Two basic cansequences can be deduced fram this proper ty.
2.6.1
lf!! ia the stress tensor expressed in reference frame xyz and ji (P. , P,I , P.) any
vedar expressed with resped to thiB Btlmtl re{eren ee fl'ame, the qu1l.d.ro.t.i.c fo rm
112' ( Pz,P,JtP. ) =
+20'zy p. f1~
un:P~
:.
+O'noP, +uup.
(2.26)
is invariant (in o thcr words independent o r the coordinate system ). Eq. (2.26) <an be
put in a matricial form
(2.27)
34
;(!..
u.
.,)""'
2.6.2
2" being symmetric, t here exlst three values 0'1,0"2 . (13 diagonalizing the tensor
when expressed in a specifi c set ofaxes named principal directions. Tbey are roots of
t.he characteristic equation
(2.28)
where 11, I'J, 13 are three invariant8 such that.
l
l7 u :+U.... +(Ju
12
(Q'y~O'"u
13
U.,rO'n(1u +20"y.orzU,.. .. 
O'"y~cr~r
+ l7u

tT:u
Uuu.,y
0"10 (7 ~, (13 are called prin,jpal strcsses. The tensor ~ can theo be expressed
(2 29)
35
U,
~;;
In a plane perpendicula r to
stress tensor at e thus nil.
2.7
&
(2 .30)
~ r ijej
(2.31)
where ~ (; = 1, 2,3) are lhe buis vedors of lbe first coordinale system . In (2.31)
in lbe previous basis.
l he P" are t be components of vector
i:
(2.32)
'fhe change oCCartcsian ,eferencc frame is lben defi ned by a malrix f (nKessa.rily
orthogonal).
Following l he defin ition oCa malrix
T=T,;(,,'))
(2.33)
one can easily show that tbe relation;hip between Lhe stress tensor !'!' (wit h respect
to x' , rI, z') an d ~ is such thaL
~.=
2.8
e .~ .'f
(2.34)
EQUlLffiRIUM E Q U ATIONS
IN C YLINDRlC AL C OORDIN ATE
As for the strain tensor (see C hapter 1, Eq. ( 1.74)], in cylindrical coordinates, one
introd uces the orthogonal (but not neusslltily un it vectors) 10caJ refelence f,ame g"
g, , ~ .
(2.35)
36
in which
is known
pp
116
q"
<1:>
They are respect.ively parallel to the vectors gp and ffe. Similarly (Tu is parallel te g~.
The equjlibrium equation can be established by ca.lcuJating the divergence operatcr
in cylindrical coardinales. Dne is led to ihe cJassical equations
1
aUpB
U'pp 
+ '7i8 +
+ "P8e +
+
1 OUI8
, ue
1 OCT,.
2 .9
(1"
P
lTp6
P
p
(2.36)
P.e
P.e = in which
that is
f(~ ' P)
dV
(2.37)
ia lhe symmetric part or the velocity gradient (see Chapter 1, Eq. (1.30)1
D=!(K+'K)
p,E=_ f~'
Ir Va
(2.38)
(239)
V=J Va
E
p=

Now,
2 
v.
dV=JdVa
IS=ff1
(,
J=detfE
(2.40)
(2.41 )
dV,
J~:t
(2.42)
U =Jrzff l
(2.43)
37
that is
(2.44)
U is known as the mixed "Piola Lagrange" stress tensor. Its physical meaning
clearly appears in Fig.2.4. Whereas the "Cauchy" stress tensor represents the action
of a current force f on a current area increment da (normal to ), the "Piola Lagrange"
stress tensor represents the action of the same current force f on the initial area
increment dao (whose normal is o). This fact appears clearly in Eq. (2.44): U.t.f is
(like l!), purely Eulerian whereas tE is a mixed Eulerian Lagrangian tensor so that
TI has to be mixed to balance
This is the reason why U is nol a symmetric
tensor.
fe.
.
a)lnilial un9lrained
configur alion
::__ .~ T
The energy rate o the internal forces can be expressed then in Lagrangian configuration that is
(2.45)
Equation (2.41) has the disadvantage of using the velocity gradient. Furthermore
U is a mixed non symmetric tensor. One can obtain a more homogeneous formulation
by defining the "PiolaKirchoff" stress tensor. Indeed
39
(Jyx
(Jxx
..
tr
41
Two diametrically opposed points on the circle are then representative of the
state of stress on two perpendicular facets. We may note that on these perpendicular
facets, the shears are opposed (but of the same sign). We may further note that for
a hydrostatic plane loading (0'"1 = 0'"2), Mohr's circle is reduced to a point.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
GERMAIN, P., 1986, Mcanique, Vol. I and TI. Ed. Ellipse, Ecole polytechnique, Paris.
JAEGER, J.C., and COOK, N.W.G, 1979, Fundamentals ofrock mechanics, 3,d edition,
Chapman & Hall, London.
LEMAITRE, J., and CHABOCHE, J .L., 1988, Mcanique des matriaux solides, Dunod,
Paris.
MUSKHELISHVILI, N.I., 1977, Some basic problems of the mathematical theory of elasticity, reprint of the 2 nd English edition, Noordhoff international publishing.
44
3.2
Let us consider a transCormation during which one subjects the system to a variation oC internal energy AU by modiCying the kinetic energy oC its partic!es. Experience shows that only a part of this variation of interna] energy carries out mechanieal
work. In order to satisfy the fundamental principie oC energy eonservation, one has
to imagine another form of energy: heat. The physical interpretation is simple: if one
nereases the velocity of the partic!es, one also inereases the frietions between partic!es from which results an energy loss by heat dissipation. Dnder these eonditions the
energy balance can be written
AU
= AW+AQ
(3.1)
+ Al(
= AW + AQ
(3.2)
in which Al( is Lhe variation in kinetic energy of the system during transformation.
One has to differentiate c!early the microscopic kinetie energy of partic!es which define
internal energy from kinetic energy which results from a maeroscopic motion of the
solid. The incremental form of Eq. (3.2) can be written
d
dt (U
in whieh
3.3
vV.:!
+ K) =
..
W e.: t
+Q
Q the
(3.3)
heat fiow.
The first principie of thermodynamics alone is noL sufficient to explain the transformation of a system. Indeed, experience shows Lhat in the absence of any exchange
of heat or work with the exterior an isolaLed system is able to evolve.
The most classical experiment is that of a container of volume 2V shared between
two compartments A and B of Lhe same volume V, separated by a screen pierced with
a pinhole. If initially, A contains a gas and B is empty, the system evolves and the gas
spreads spontaneously throughout the pinhole until the pressure becomes uniform or,
which is equivalent, until the number of particles is equal in A and B. This socalled
equilibrium state is irreversible, since the system never reverts spontaneously to its
initial state (by spontaneously is meant without additional energy supply).
45
N!
W 71 = :;::::
n!(N  n)!
Jt can be se en that \lVn , known as "complexion number", is maximum for n = N /2.
In other words the system always evolves towards a state in which the complexion
number is maximum.
The equilibrium state of a system is therefore a state of maximum probability.
The entropy of a system containing N particles in any state (i.e. not necessarily
in equilibrium) is by definition
s = k en W"
(3.4)
s = k en Wo
(3.5)
3.4
dS> dQ
 T
(3.6)
46
3.5
FREE ENERGY
dU
dWext
dQ
TdS
or by substtuton of dQ
diJI
= dWext
iJI = U 
+ dQ
(3.7)
wth
(3.8)
(3.9)
TS
known as free energy of the system. This s a state functon in the same way as U
and S.
3.6
p
(
O O)
p
p
in which p is the fluid pressure (the minus sign shows that this relates to compression).
Consequently the force exerted on an external element of surface dS of the system
will be equal to
d] = pdS
(3.10)
>
(3.11)
If one again assumes the macroscopic kinetic energy to be zero the first principIe
can be written for this isobaric transformation
dH =dQ
(3.12)
47
with
H
= U+pV
(3.13)
H is known as the enthalpy of the system. It is also a state function. In the same
way one can define the free enthalpy of a system by defining the state function
G= HTS
3.7
(3.14)
All the state functions can be reduced to the mass of the system. One spea.ks then
of specific quantities written u, s, h, "p, g. If p is the density of the constituent of the
system (assumed to be unique), one will then have for example
u = PUdV
We should note that the specific enthalpy of a fluid can be written
(3.16)
3.8
Experience shows very clearly that three variables influence the behaviour of a
fluid (except chemical phenomena): volume, pressure and temperature. It would
seem judicious then to choose these variables when describing the state of a fluid. In
fact, these variables are not independent: it is known for exa.mple that if one heats
a fluid while maintaining its volume constant, its pressure increases uncontrollably.
One therefore has to admit that these three va.riables are linked by an equation: the
state equation, which is generally written
f(p, V, T)
=O
(3.17)
3.9
St.ate runchons are generally Ilot ac.cessiblc t o experimentation . Ho weve r con51der ing their total diffcrentials one can deduce ccrtain irn portant propert.ies from Lhc m
and define uperimentally measurahl(" coefficients.
3.9.1
Ir o lle caU5eS the tem p<:rature o f a system t o rise fro m T to T + dT al con~ ta.Jlt
ptessu re, l he ncrease in temperature is accompanicd by an i"<.rease in vollJm e. M o r~
Qver, ir thc ma.."S of the syslem lS m , it is observed t hat l ne quan~ ity of heal recei ved
by the 5ystem is more al lcss, in a [ange oC re&sonable t.emperalures, prop orlloua l to
lhe increflSe in tempe.rature, thal i5
(3. l8)
dQ:::: mCdT
dU == mCdT  1xi\'
(3. 19)
dU ==
BU)
(BV
dV
+ (8U)
aT v dT ==
(3.20)
mCl  pdV
Cv ~ ~ (8U)
oT v
(3.2l)
dT= Vdp+mCdT
lL9
sta.tc
(3.22)
eP == ~
m
(81/)
8T ,
(3 .23)
For obvious rea.qons, Cv is known as specific heal at eonst ant vol ume and Cp
speciftc heal. al. constaul pr cssu rc . ThcorcticaIly thcy dcpcnd only Oll thc fl L d considered.
It is also possible to connect specific heat al. constant pressu re and entropy. Indel.,
in lhc case of a reversible transformation
dQ
TdS
(3.14)
meclr:::. TriS
~1 orcvcr
(325)
writtcn
dS=
3 .9 .2
e=
(3.'6)
C p and , by identi fyi:Lg
(DS) _C,
ar
(32 7)
(3.28)
lhe minus sign indicating t.hat an increase in pressure creat.es a reduct.iolL ilL
volume .
(b) b obaric h eating (T and Vare st.ate variables)
In t.his case one defines the volume expansion coefficient cr J of lhe fluid sllch
that
d\l = VajdT
(3.'9)
dp ~ PXdT
(330)
50
We may note that each of t he Eqs (3.28) (3.29) and (3.30) can be expressed in tbe
form of partial derivative!!I since they correspoll d fOI each special case to a welldefined
Lransformat ion
_1 =
KI
3.9.3
_~
V
(av)
8p
01
~
V
(W)
liT
x= ~(ap)
p
liT v
(3.3 1)
At this stage it is useful t o deri ....e a few remarkable equalities by exploiting the
Cauchy Riemann condition fol' a funetian F(z, y), that is
dF ~ Pd<+Qdy= ap ~ aQ
.
By
(3.32)
()x
(as)
OT
d'F +
(as)
op
dp
(3.33)
Similar ly
dH = Vdp+ TdS =
[v+
(~!)T] dp+ T
( : ) p dT
(3.35)
(3.36)
51
3.10
dS = (85)
dT (8S) dP
8T
,
+{)
(3 .39)
P T
takin,ll; account of(3.27) (3.31) and (3.37) one is \ed t.o the expression
dS=
()f
Cm
~ dTaVdp
(3.10)
al
oS
dp
(3.41 )
3.11
52
3.11.1
Mass balance
Ir pis the solid density and V its volu me, it can be written
(3.42)
3.11.2
Momentum conservation
This hllS been expounded in various forms in the InLtoduction and in Chapter 2.
1t expresses the conscrvation of mechanical power in the form (Eqs (2.20) and (2.22)
 in the absence of body forces)
F iJdS 
(3,4')
3.11.3
(3,41)
in which Pt r l is the po wer of t lle externa! forces and Q the heat ratc . Thc hcat rate
con 1ains 111'0 terms: an intt'Jllal source contained in V and the eonduction heal fl ow
(only this mode of transfer is envisaged al present) through the sali d surfacc S, t hat
"
Q=
Iv
rdV 
fs if
(3.45)
dS
in which r represenls thf': Internal heat productioIl per uni t of time and vo!ume and
q lile heat flux per unit of me, being lhe external no rmal to the surface . we
introduce the specific interna! energy ti (see Eq. (3.15)], by eli minating i< belween
Eqs (3.43) and (3.44) and taking account of the rac~ t hat
Ir
Pw =
(3.4S)
idS
!!.. { pudV = r (~ :f
)dV
rdV _
r q  dS
(,.47 )
dtJv
Jv
v
J...
By applying the divergence t heorem lo lhe las! t(!fm oC the righthaod member ,
tlle local statement relali\'c to (3.41) is
53
ptl~U
.t +r'V q
(3.48)
3.11.4
Its genera! expresslou (:.U:i) can be clarifled by tak lng account of(:i .45) 10 the form
J.' 1.
qd
S
 dVdtvT
sT
dS >
(3.49)
ds
ri r
Pdi+ 'V ' T  T~O
3. 11.5
(3.50)
Lel us extracL r from Eq. (3 .18) and replace il in (3.50). One obtai ns
d,
dI
p
(3.51 )
Observing thaL
V.
P [T
dS
dl
dh] + 2: : t
dt
, .'VT
>O
l' 
(3 .52)
.p =
u  Ts
d lb ::: du _ T ds _ s dT
dt
di
di
dt
one fina lly obtaillS
.
.)
VT
(3.53)
54
3.12
3.12.1
Any material call have a precise memory of the past, in particular of the irrevcrsibilities it may h'\\'e experienc.ed. This is apparcnt in t lle dassic dio.gram reptesented in Fig. 3.1. A material wiU bchave differcntly depending on whether it has
bel!:n loaded up to point A (no memory) or up to point 8 .
In t his (:asc, during e. future loading the irreversibilities will appear in B and not
in A as previously. In thermody namic formalism one will therefore have te define a
certAin oumber of "memo ry" variables also known as inte rnal hardening varial;.les. As
suggested above , these oons ideralion., lcad us lo envisage two types of slate variables :
the measurable variables a nd the internal variables.
3.12.2
The state variables truly accessible lo expedmentation are those deduc.ed conventionally from me<.haoics: di.splacement , force, time , temperature. In mechanics of
continuolIs media, the rollowing will therefore be obser vable variables
(a) Tbe st.ate of total strain at any point oCthc system .
(b) The state of stress at any p<oint. of the system .
(c.) The tempecratllre at any poio\ oC the syst.em.
Amongst these variables, experience s hows t.hat one cannot independently control
stress and total stra.in. Two measure.ble state variables enable one to define Lhe sta te,
for example ~ and T, One (:an soow that ihis ch oice prescribes the use of the free
energy '" as a tbermodynamic potential.
3.12.3
'fhese intervene in the dissipativc processes and can be dassified in two categories:
1. First, ooe must inlroduce a distinction between reversibletypc strain f..c alld
tbe irreversible one (Fig. 3.1) {p. One introduces an additional hypothesis of
dccoupling of the reversible 3ncl irre\'ersible processes: lile "pa rtitiolli ng rule"
which is writ~cn under the h)'pothesis of sma ll perturbatiolls
(3.54)
Wc ma)' note that in the case of a purcly reversible process (e.lasticitr) f.,e
becomes atl observable variable .
(J
(J
__________~____~___ f
f' ~.
3.1 Cnncept of
"
hard ~n \llg.
2. Lastly, lile va ri ablf'_<; cllaracterizing o ~her dissipative phenomena. These varIables constitute in fael the "memory of tiJe past" . Dne introduces Lhus ViLriOU.\J
irreversib le proceSse3 (Ilardening, damage, rupture) through slate variables Vi ,
'fhey eao be of a sealar Of t ensorial nature.
3.13
THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIAL
Thc state law assumes the existence of a scalar fundion '" also known as "tl1ermodynamic potcntial" function of state variables. \Ve shall see that , cxccpt in purely
reversible processes, tlle knowledge of t/J is insufficient lo complelely define the behaviour of the material. Among all s tale fundions, we chose Lhe spedfic fr ee energy
1/J as potential that is
... =
,J,
...olIt:
(3.55)
Pan l. Mcchanics of
or taking
i\ c coun~
conlmu o ~
,T.{" ,V.I
(3 .56)
The fun ction 1/1 being a sti\t,e funaion Dne can caku late its to t.al differential thaL
a"
8.
(3.57)
+ 8T dT + tJ Vt dVt
a"
a"
8Tj
Jp
EN>
= Oct : df.t + fJrdT+ {jVi dVt
Thc partilioning hypot hcsis enables one theterarc to wrile the deri vative (with
res pect lO tinll!) of '" in lhe form
: _ EN . . ~
1p 
Q{e  ...
(358)
(3 .59)
3. 14
Let us consider a reversible transformation (no irreversible strain i;.P and no evolu tion oC lhe hard ening variables) al. constant a nd un iform temperature ('r = 0,
'V. T:;:: O). In this case Eq . (3.59) becomes equality and yields
8~
~ = p u,'
(3.60)
One may also consi der the eMe of a reversible t ransformation consisting of a
uniform heating of the soli d. In this case (3.59) implics that
,= 
a~
8T
(3 .61)
60
fundion of order zero which means that /{J is homogeneous of order 1 (since !Z is the
derivative of /(J). These properties have fundamental consequences on the formalism
of dissipative phenomena (independent of time scale).
1st consequence
i;.P :!Z 
/(J
01{)
8u :!Z/(J
(3.73)
k=~
(3.75)
ml
~hen
inn.nite.
2nd consequence
(3.76)
which can also be written
(3.77)
,\ being arbitrary; one can choose ,\ such that '\if == l.
'\i~ ... '\i~ from the 6 equations of the type (3.77) leads to a scalar equation of the
type
(3.78)
lOne of the fundamental properties of homogeneous functions is the Euler identity: if 0(x) is
homogeneous of arder m, then
x 80
8x
= m0
66
O~~~=
__
~~
________
yield locus
~_____
P'
Fig. 3.5. Principie of maximum plasUe wOl"k.
![' being any plastically admissible field (f(!!:') ~ O]. Eq. (3.97) alone expresses therefore normality and convexity. It shows that for an associated plastic law, the material
"works" plastically to the maximum limit of its possibilities. Plastic dissipation is
thus maximum.
3.20.2
(3.98)
in which dil is the displacement increment associated with df .
67
o
dF
\1. d~
dq: Ti
or
in V
on S
(3.99)
tl :
+ H
(da : n ) . n

da

with
H >O
(3.100)
a
a~
in which
Let us now assume two sets of increments (d~, df. ) and (d~', df.') that satisfy
the three condtions (3.98), (3.99), (3.100). They are at the same time kinematically,
statically and plastically admissible, and let us consider the volume integral 1 such
that
1{[d~'dQ"]:
=1{(
1=
[df'df]}dV
(3.101)
(3.102)
or agam
1
The second term is zero [Eq. (3.99)]. By applying to the first righthand ter m the
divergence theorem, one obtains
1=
(3.104)
in which Ti is the externa! normal to the solid surface. As on the exterl1al surface, the
loading increment dF (andJor displacement increment) is prescribed
dF = d~ =
dil = d'
dQ"'
on bF
(3.105)
on bu
which means that (3.104) has to be zero, that is coming back to (3.101)
1[(
dQ"' 
d~ )
: (df.'  df )] d V
=O
(3.106)
68
To come back now to the constitutive relation (3.100), let us calculate the integrand of Eq. (3.106)
1
(d['  d[) : (df.'  df) = H(d['  d[): [(c/d[': 2  exd[ : 2)2]
+4 el
(3.107)
with
ex
1 if f([ ) = O
and du : n ~O
O'.
O ir f(1l ) < O
a'
1 if f('!.') = O
a'
O if f(t;z')
(3.108)
The second term ofthe righthand member is nonnegative (it is a quadratic form).
It is zero for d'!.'
d'!. . SimilarIy the four conditions (3.108) show that the first ter m
is never negative (it is sufficient to test all the combinations to be convinced of the
fact).\
The integrand of (3.106) is therefore always positive except when d'!.'
d[.
Expression (3.106) can then only be zero if d'!.
d'!.' everywhere in V which proves
the uniqueness of the solution.
3.21
CONCLUSION
The inequality of ClausiusDuhem has established the thermodynamic admissibility of the solid behaviour. Two additionnal hypotheses (time independence and
continuity of the strain increment across the yield locus) have enabled us to build a
general formalism for a class of dissipative mechanisms. One now has to determine the
various potentials (thermodynamic potential, yield locus, plastic potential) in agreement with the actual behaviour: experience and phenomenological considerations wiII
guide this choice.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOUTIGNY,
LABETHER,
LEMAITRE,
J., and
CHABOCHE,
69
Paris.
NOWACKI,
DUZIAUX, R.,
REIF,
and
PERRIER,
F., 1965, Statistical physics, Mac Graw Hill, Berkeley Physics course.
ROCARD,
Part 11
Mechanis
of materIal strain
CHAPTER4
Linear elasticity
General theory
4.1
HOOKE'S LAW
In its original conception we have seen [Eq. (3.63)] that the theory of linear elasticity is based on the foHowing hypothesis:
"The components of the stress tensor at a given point of a solid are linear and
homogeneous functions of the components of the strain tensor at the same pont."
This definition induces automatically the small perturbations hypothesis
rJ=A:e....
:::
(4.1)
, )
75
coordinate z. In
can now
written,
(4.6)
r++~3
,++__~2
2
dentifying
A13)
(4.7)
13
(4.8)
us write
12
=A
(4.9)
All 
+ z + 3
(4.10)
lTl
one would
AH
+ 2J12
+ 2J13
obtain
into
(4.11)
76
or in a tensorial form
(4.12)
In linear and isotropic elasticity, the nllmber of elastic constants is reduced to two:
Lame 's constants A and J.
4.3.1
Equation (4.12) can be generalized to any Cartesian reference frame by using the
quadratic invariant form of tensors !! and f..
Let us consider a vector P with respect to a reference frame linked to the principal
directions 1, 2, 3.
The quadratic invariant is then written
(4.13)
nO" =
.AulPI 2 + 2JP
& . P =
.\tu!?1 2 + 2Jn&
(4.14)
Given now any reference frame x, y, z with respect to which the components of P
"1,(. The invariance of (4.14) makes it possible to write it with respect tO!! and
f. expressed in the new basis, that is after development
are~,
O"xxe
=
(4.15)
By identifying the variolls coefficients of the two members one obtains a relationship identical to (4.12) i.e.
(4.16)
4.3.2
77
4.4
Lame's constants >. and J.l are rarely used in practice. Other elastic constants can
indeed
defined [roIn
loading
4.4.1
If one a.<;sumes that the material is loaded uniaxially (Fig. 4.2) the only non zero
component of the tensor f! is (1'zz. Eqs (4.16) are reduced to
o =
2l:c:r:
2j.Le yy
>.a
+ 2J.l u
Young's modulus
summing the
(4.17),oIle
O'zz
by extra.et.ing
Poissons's
= a(3)' + 2J.l)
from (4.18) and replaeing in t,he third Eq. (4.17) one is led to
in whch
E = J.l (3)'
+ 2",)
>'+Jl
IS
(4.18)
as ''Young's
78
On the other hand, by eliminating in (4.17) .\ea between one of the first two
equations and the last, one obtains
U
zz
+ 2J.LE. zz
= 2J.LE. yy
( 4.20)
U zz
e yy
2J.L
=  2J.L+
ezz
E. zz
that is by taking account of (4.19) one obtains
(4.21)
(4.22)
= .\ /
in which v
2(.\ + J.l) is known as "Poisson's ratio".
Figure 4.2 shows the physical significance of E and v: E represents the rigidity of
the material under uniaxal loading while v represents the capability of the material
to transfer its deformability perpendicularly to the loading. The definition of E and
v enables one to express lIooke's equations in their conventional form, that is
E.x:r; = E [U.,.,  v (u yy
1
E.:r:y = 2J.L u:r:y
+ u zz )]
4.4.2
U yy
exz =
1
 U xz
2J.l
1
E. yz = 2J.L u yz
= E1 [uzzv(u",.,+uyy )]
(4.23)
In the case of a hydrostatic loading, the three normal stresses are identical (uxx =
= U zz = P); Hooke's law will be written
==> E.",,,,
= E. yy = E. zz = E
[P(1  2v)]
(4.24)
E.a
= J(
(4.25)
4.4.3
Shear modulus
79
Cxx
2G
_
Cyy 
(4.27)
(J"yy
20
with G
I 2(1 + being known as "shear modulus" .
One can easiJy verify that G is in fact equal to Jl (Lame's second coefficient).
4.5
FURTHER EXPRESSION
HOOKE'S EQU ATIONS
be put
L(J"kk
k
(TU
convention)
3
Indeed, the first Eq. (4.23) can be written
Ex"
1+1I
1I
(Txx 
mean stress
(ITxx
+ (J"yy + IT zz )
311
2G
(j
~J
2G !Z

v_
1I
(J" 
2G 
(4.30)
(J'kk 1
smce Jl
4.6
THE BELTRAMIMITCHELL
DIFFERENTIAL
81
_1_
[8
+
1
(J'kk
8y2
= 82 /
+ 82(J'U]
8z 2
8x2
_ 'V
+ 82
2 (J'xx
8y2
+ 82
8z 2
= O
(4.38)
(1
4.7
+ v)
8 2 (J'kk
'V
(J'ij
+ 8x i 8Xj
(4.40)
= O
F.
It
(4.41)
'V2=0
(4.42)
(J'= A:
(4.43)
:::.
1=
[(2d:('V!2l('17))]dV
(4.45 )
1=
'V.
1
k' ~)l dV
( 4.46)
82
The second integral is zero since the two fields ![ and ![I are statically admissible.
By applying the divergence theorem to the first integral, one is led to
[(![ 
17)] dS
(4.47)
= =
On the boundary one has ' 17 ifJ when displacements are prescribed,
(J'.Ti = f when forces are prescribed.
Therefore, 1 is nil everywhere on the surface and,
 =(J.
![~ . (" 
dV
=O
(4.48)
(4.49)
The integrand being a quadratic form, Eq. (4.49) can only be zero if t;.' = t;. since
is defined positive. The solution to a boundary elastic problem is then unique.
4.8
(4.50)
A:E
'"
1
d =  E : A :
2 '" 
(4.51)
or
( 4.52)
For a solid of volume V, the total accumulated elastic strain energy wil! therefore
be such that
(4.53)
Chapter 4.
Ljlle,~I'
83
theory
THEOREM
4.9
\7 .
(r. 11) dV 
(4.54)
11 .
tbeorem to
(4.55)
As on the boundary S
F=2'.
(4.56)
w =~ f
2 s
4.10
BETTY'
F11dS
(4.57)
RECIPROCITY THEOREl'vi
fs
= Fl 112 dS
(4.58)
i ~:
fl
1~:f2
fs F
2l
(4.59)
84
EQUATIONS IN
4.11
The
pp
89
1
= E
zz= E
In
 V (0'08
+ uzz )]
2p8
l+v
= ~Up8
v (u pp
+ u zz )]
2pz
[uzzv(upp+uoo)]
2' 8 z
l+v
= ;0"8 z
[u pp
[0"98 
l+v
;O"pz
cylindrical
(4.60)
BIBLIO
JAEGER
Chapman
& Hall.
RICE,
Mathernatir:;d
London.
TIMOSHENKO,
J.N., 1970,
in "Fracture,
San Francisco,
Graw Hill.
CHAPTER
5.1
The definition of
state of strain has already been given in Chapter 1: the
pla,CeInelrlt w (i.e.
to Oxy) is nil and the displacements linked to
u and v) are independent of z. As a consequence, en exz = eyz O.
these conditions to Hooke's law one obtains
O"zz
V (O"xx
O"xz
0"'11.10
+ O"yy)
= 0
of z, the
equation reduces
to
(5.2)
+
and the compatibility
to
= 2 {Pexy
+
At
and
in plane state of
(4.30)], taking account of
 2(>.
=
(5.3)
oxoy
eyy
~ p)
(0"",,,,
+ O"yy)}
>.
1
{ O"YY
1
2p O"xy
Lame's constants
+O"yy)}
(5.4)
86
5.2
HARMONIC EQUATION
POTENTIAL
(5.5)
one derives the equilibrium Eqs (5.2) reTo eliminate the last term of
with
to x and y. One is led after summation to
"",,,T>"'A;I,,
(5.6)
(5.6) in
+ (J'IIY) = 0
(5.7)
account of the
one can
{)B
{)A
show that
(5.9)
From condition 1 (5.9) one can deduce the existence of a function U(x, y) such that
A
{)U
(5.10)
(5.11)
o
U known as "Airy's
1 For
nrll,",'n;T.l"
is a biharmonic function.
87
IN POLAR COORDINATES
5.3
In polar
'~'JLU,UH"'""",
such
the Laplacian
1a
+ pap
+
(J'ee
(5.13)
(5,11)
lau
+
pap
a2 u
1
(J'pe
au
(5.14)
a
ap
a (_ ~)]
TO
IN INFINITE PLATES
5
Determination
Given an infinite
parallel to x. The
solid is such that
Airy's function
an infinite plate
to a uniaxial
state of stress
of the
the state of stress at all
(5.
(J
88
pVl')rp"''''(j
2 0'(1
1
2
coordinates
III
(2.34)]
+ cos 28)
(5.16)
cos 28)
~ sin 20
UpS
0'
vpp 
(5.17)
%sin28
To these two
two different Airy's functions Ui and U2 since
the overall problem is considered to be the superposition of two elementary problems
(1) and (2).
As far as problem (1) is rr.r'rp ... n~rI
condition being uniform the
problem is axisymmetric. In other
IJV.,"'''''HU is only a function of p, and
its derivatives with
to e are all nil.
account of (5.13) can
be written
=0
(5.18)
p+
+D
To calculate the Airy potential of the second elementary problem, one can start
from Eqs (5.14) that is taking account of (5.17)
(5.20)
to () leads for U2 to the general form
which after
(5.21)
1 8
+p
89
g(p)
+ C +D
(5.23)
+
5
+ D)
cos 2()
(5.24)
of a circular
Kirsch's problem
o
o
(5.25)
p=
00
1:::
2
(J'
(5.26)
(J'p8
(J'pp
A
"2
p
+ B(l + 2
log p)
+B(3+2
p2
+ 2C
p)+2C
90
A=
V>~,.HA'"
(1
20=
(5.28)
~ (1 R2)
p2
(1 )
upp
uie
==
(1)
(5.29)
p2
(1 p8
Stress field
: . (1 +)
from component 2
P=R{
p=
(1pp
U p8
u
00
(1e8
(5.30)
cos 2(J
(5.31)
~ sin 2(J
2
The derivation of
u1~
uW
(2A
+ 12Bp2 + ~~)
u~~) =
(2A
+ 6Bp 2
(5.32)
cos2()
6C _ 2D
sin 2(J
Substituting the boundary conditions (5.30) and (5.31) in (5.32), one obtains a
of linear equations in the unknowns A, B,
D, the solution to which is such
that
A
(1
0=
D==
(1
(5.33)
91
Substituting
(2)
cr68
This is obtained
cr ( 1   )
2
p2
+ cr2
( 1 + 3R
"2cr
( 1+ 7
3R
p4
)
 4R2
p2
cos 2()
4
)
(5.35)
cos28
2R2) sin20
+ p4
p2
At the well bore
for p
= cr ( 1 2cos2() )
(5.36)
It varies therefore from cr (traction) in the direction of (1' to 3(1' (compression) in
the orthogonal direction. These considerations are of prime
in hydraulic
fracturing and for the
of well stability. Solution (5
can
be extended to
a biaxial stress field (1'1, (1'2 (1(1'11 > 1(1'21). For this purpose it is sufficient to recalculate
condition
for a biaxial stress field that is
.....::...:;..;;;. cos 20
(5.37)
solution
cos 20
(5.38)
92
= R)
(5.39)
It varies therefore from
5.4.3
U1
+ 3U2
in the
U1
direction to
U2
+ 3U1
in that of U2.
In the case in which the only external loading is a hydrostatic pressure p applied
to the borehole, the problem is identical to elementary problem (1) of the preceding
paragraphs since the state of stress is axisymmetric (in other words independent of
B). The boundary conditions are such that
p= R
p=
U pp
= p
U pB
= 0
u pp
= UpB = 0
00
(5.40)
The derivation leads of course to the same equations as those of the elementary
problem (1) [Eqs (5.27)]. Taking account of (5.40), one is led to a system of three
equations in the three unknowns A, B, C to which the solution is
A
= _pR2
=C =0
(5.41)
U fJP
= P2
p
Up 9
5.5
R2
Uoo
=0
= R)
= P2
p
(5.42)
We propose now to extend the theory developed in the previous paragraph to the
case of a finite plane with a central hole subjected to a non hydrostatic loading. The
difficulty of the problem lies in the different nature of the two boundaries, the external
boundary not being a priori expressible in polar coordinates.
Let us consider the following transformation
(5.43)
93
2L
in which
z
z
+ iy
ie
e :::: cos 0 + i sin 0
x
(5.44)
sin
~ cos 30)
0 ~ sin 30)
(5.45)
is such that
p(O)
(5.46)
94
"2((J"l
(J"pp
= p(B),
+ (J"2) + "2((J"l 
~((J"l 
(J"2)
cos 2B
(5.47)
(J"2)
sin 2B
(J"p=R
pO
= 0
2
while the periphery of the borehole is such that
(J"p=R
pp
(5.48)
U1
+ (J"2)
= (J"p=R
=0
pO
(5.49)
Alogp+Bp 2 Iogp+Cp2+D
A
+2C
R2
A
p2(B) + 2C
(5.50)
95
1970 for
that B should be
B=O
D=Q
(5.51)
Resolution of problem 2
Problem 2 is such that
(1p=1\1
pp
1
2
=0
1
(112
sin 28
 ( 2E +
2E
6G
6G
+ R4 +
4H)
+ M2
="21 (11
4H
0
(5.53)
2E+
2E+
the solution of which is
E
F
(5.54)
G
H
(11 
(12)M 2 .
(M4 + M2R2
2(M2 R2/'
+ R4)
96
Replacing Eqs (5.51) and (5,54) in the expressions of the stresses one obtains the
final solution such that
0' pp
M2(0'1 + 0'2) (
R2)
2(M2 _ R2)
1 pi
[(M4
+ R2
4(M4

'1\12
+ R2
+ 4R4) +
. A12
2
M2(O'J  0'2)
2(M2 _ R2)3
3M (M: + R2)R4
4
+ R4)R2]
cos28
(1 + R2)
_ M2(0'1  0'2)
p2
2(M2 _ R2)3
M2(0'1 + 0'2)
2(M2  R2)
3M2(M2 + R2)R4]
2
4
4
2
p4
cos2B
[(M +R M +4R )12 R2.p2+
M2(0'1  0'2)
2(M2 _ R2)3
_(M4
[
2(M4

+ R2
. M2
+ 4R4) + 6 . R2
+ R2 . M2 + R4)R2]
p
. p2
+ 3M2(M2 + R2)R4
p4
sm 28
(5.55)
Does the solution verifiy the boundary conditions particularly on the external
contour?
On Fig, 5.4, the stress field on this external contour has been recalculated in
Cartesian coordinates for various configurations (K :::: LI R) as a function of the
azimuth8 (in the particular case 0'2 = 0), For an infinite medium (K = 00) O'xx is
equal to 0'1 for 0 < B < 'if/4,O'yy :::: 0 for 7r/4 < {} < 'if/2 while O'xy = 0 on the entire
interval. For the limit value f{ = 3, the difference does not exceed 3% for O'xx and
O'y"),' and 8 % for O'xy (for a value of {} = 20 0 ), vVe may note that these differences tend
to diminish for 0'2 i 0, In conclusion, the differences observed remain therefore small
if the borehole radius does not exceed one third of the semilength of the square,
It can easily be shown that if M is infinity, one finds again Kirsch's solution (stress
0'98 comprised between 0'1 for 8 = 0 and 30'1 for () :::: 'if 12). Similarly if M is constant
(the external contour is circular) and if 0'1 :::: 0'2 = P, one has again the wellknown
Lame's formula.
In the event of the finite medium it is observed that the stress concentration around
the hole increases very markedly when f{ is low (J( ~ 3) but diminishes rapidly once
I< > 5.
For example for f{ = 3, the tangential stress at the well is comprised between
1.980'1 and 4.20'1, a very different result from that of the infinite medium (0'1 and
30'd,
When the well is loaded by a hydrostatic pressure (without any stress on the
external contour) the calculation is axisymmetric and Airy's function will take the
form [see Eq. (5.49)]
U = A logp + Cp2
(5.56)
97
CJ
~
CJ
=3
~:~l':':';;';;"'======"'"
1.21
K ~
0.9
0.6
co
~:~ '.........................
o
10
1S
20
25
30
35
40
45
O"arK ~ ro3
0.1
K ;;::
0.2
0.3
0.4
()
0.5 '......,....~....,........
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
BO
B5
90
P= R{
(J'pp
(J' p8
p
and p = M {
o
o
(5.57)
pR 2
(M2 _ R2)
[1 ~2]
(J'ee
pR 2
(M2  R2)
[1 + ~2]
(J'r9
(J'rr
(5.59)
In the same way as for the previous problem, one can easily have Lame's formulas
again for M = 00 or M =Const.
98
METHOD OF
OF MUSKHELISHVILI
5.6.1
= P(z, y) + iQ(x, y)
(5.60)
variable
z
= x + iy
(5.61)
When one has the variable z, in the complex plane, functions Q and P have determinate values
so does the complex number Z. One can therefore
say that Z is a uniform function of variable z and write
fez)
= P(x, y) + iQ(x,
The
ap
ax
.aQ
ax
+z+
It appears that
not only on variables x and
dy/dx.
One cannot attribute to (5.63) a determinate value at a
plane. On the other hand in the specific case in which
aQ
i [ap +i
] = ap +
ax
ax
ay
(5.63)
y
z of the complex
(5.64)
99
(5.65)
aP
ax
aP
ay
aQ
ay
aQ
ax
(5.66)
A complex function f(z) is analytical if and only if its derivative is unique. Any
analytical function verifies therefore the CauchyRiemann conditions.
The CauchyRiemann conditions have a fundamental consequence: the analytical
function is a function only of the variable z. Indeed, if one introduces the variable z
conjugate with z and such that
z= x  iy
(5.67)
one can either consider f as a function of x and y or as a function of z and z and
express the total differential of f in the two following ways
df
df =
af dx+af dy
ax
ay
af
af
 dz+ dZ

az
(5.68)
az
Resolving (5.61) and (5.67) with respect to x and y then differentiating, one is led
to
dy = 2(dZ  dz)
(5.69)
which after substitution in the first of the Eqs (5.68) then identification with the
second gives
(5.70)
By developing this second equation, taking account of (5.62) one obtains
af
Oz
=~
[ap + i aQ + i aP _ aQ]
ax
ax
ay ay
=0
(5.71 )
If the CRC are verified, function f only depends on z. Similarly, one can prove
in the same way that the function conjugate with f, f only depends on z. In other
words
af =
az
(5.72)
We may note lastly that the CRC prescribe that functions P and Q be harmonic
= 0). Any analytical function is therefore harmonic.
(\7 2 P = \7 2 Q
100
5.6.2
Let us look for the solution to the biharmonic equation in the form of an
function of two
variables z and z.
Taking account of (5.70), the
derivatives with
to x and 11 can be
written
{)
so that the
ua.'~la""la,u
{)
{)
and
{)
(5.73)
=~
{)y
to
(5.74)
The biharmonic
is therefore written
(5.75)
The solution to
(5.76)
it is sufficient to .,.,>'."',.',,,.,
functions Xl and <Pl
on z, X2 and <P2
of (5.76) is such that
+
U
its
(5.77)
(5.78)
that is
account of
(5.79)
One can therefore
U =Re
+ X(z)]
101
5.6.3
The expressions of the stresses are obtained directly by deriving Airy's potential
twice 3 [Eqs (5.11)].
Taking account of (5.73) and (5.79), one obtains
17xx
(l7 yy 
(5.81)
with
<P(z) == <p'(z)
W(z) == 1j;'(z) = X"(z)
Similarly, one can show that the displacements field u, v is such that
2G(u + iv) == (3  4v)<p(z)  z<p'(z) l,b(z)
(5.82)
We may note finally that in polar coordinates Eqs (5.81) and (5.82) can be written
2G(u p
+ iue)
= e i9
[(3  4v)<p(z) 
zcp(z) 1j;(z)]
I7pp
(5.83)
The solution of an elastic boundary problem is therefore based upon the determination of two complex functions, which have to be determined from the boundary
conditions specific to each problem.
The form of the complex potential can be better specified in the case of finite
or infinite connected regions i.e. bounded by several simple contours L1, L2 ... Lm,
Lm+I (Fig. 5.5) where Lm+l is supposed to contain all the other contours. For infinite
regions, the contour Lm+I has entirely moved to infinity. Furthermore one assumes
that these contours do not intersect themselves (L, n LJ =0 \;12 and VJ).
G
Fig. 5.5. Multiply connected regions.
(after Muscnelishvili. 1954).
3Indeed 8",(z)
8;;
== ",'(z).
102
In these conditions and remembering the uniqueness of the elastic solution both
in terms of stresses and displacements, one can show (see Muskhelishvili pp. 121 to
126) that the complex potentials are analytic functions of the complex variable z i.e
can be expanded in the form of a Laurent series. This fundamental property (in the
case of multiply connected regions) will have an important practical repercussion on
complex potential determination.
5.7
= x + iy = wee) = w(pe,e)
(5.84)
y
~~~+~....~
103
It is a univocal and
plane. If
the direction
dz
(5.85)
0: being the
of the vectors OA and Ox. From (5.84) one can easily deduce an
equation between 0: and B. Indeed
e,,:t
(5.86)
""'''"H''''~
\[1(z)
\[1 [wee)]
)
1li 1
(5.87)
and,
=
Taking account of (5.86) and (5.87) and
formed formulas for stresses
+ \[1I()]
(5.88)
+ Ilil)]
(()]
Similarly, it is easily found that
+ ius) = p
5.8
EXPRESSION OF
IN THE IMAGE
(5.89)
CONDITIONS
<1>1 and \[11 have been determined. This will be made via the
UUlIlIUa.lY
problem once
conditions.
104
Let us consider
5.7) for this purpose the boundary
AB and
the surface force applied on a
element ds. The boundary conditions can
be written
that is
Fn
cr xx
cos a
cryy
sin Q'
+ crxy sin
+ xy cos
(J'
Q'
(5.90)
Q'
dx
Bt..
As
dx
the
domain
sin Q'
dx
(5.91)
(5.11)
ay2
Fi{
that is after
on AB
au +t.au)]
ay
AB 
AB
+ iFi{)ds
(5.93)
105
~B
AB
(5.94)
in which z belongs to the real (curvilinear) boundary. Eq. (5.94) can be expressed in
the image plane by introducing the variable ( such that z = w(() which leads finally
to
w(()   _ _
h+ih
+ w'(()
i {
(F~ + zF~) ds
with
h + ih
rp~(()+1fl(()
rpl(()
JAB
(5.95)
In the specific case for which the region is mapped on to a circle one introduces
in Eq. (5.95) the notation (J = poe ifJ where Po is the radius of the mapped circle that
is (the index 1 of complex potentials are not useful anymore)
rp((J)
5.9
= f((J)
(5.96)
The objective is now to determine the two complex potentials rp(() and 1j;(() so
as to satisfy the boundary conditions. (5.96) can be rewritten in the integral form
(after multiplying each member by 1 / (J  ()
1
y
rp((J) d(J
(J  (
1
y
W((J) rp'((J)~
w' ((J )
(J  (
+ l1j;((J)
d(J
(J  (
f ((J)d(J
=
y (J(
I
y
(5.97)
1
y
t (
Indeed, the Cauchy integral has some mathematical properties of which one can
take advantage for the determination of the complex potentials rp(() and 1j;((). Provided g(() is analytic (which is the case for multiply connected regions) at every
point outside " (including infinity), one can show (for demonstration see Goodier
and Timoshenko, 1970, pp. 207 to 209) that
1
y
g(t)dt == 21rig(()
t (
and
1
y
g(t)dt
t (
=0
(5.99)
106
5.10
Let us consider an infinite elastic plate (Fig. 5.8) containing an elliptical cavity of
axes a and b. That is the conformal transformation
(5.100)
(J
y
'+ ~
.........
~~
2a
For m= I the ellipse
decays into a crac}(
or
length 2a
(J
To the ellipse of the real plane corresponds a circle of unit radius in the image
plane. Indeed, by identifying the real and imaginary parts of (5.100) one obtains for
p = 1 (that is for ( = u = e,9)
x=R(1+m)cosO
y=R(1m)sinO
(5.101)
which are the parametric equations of an ellipse in the real plane whose semiaxes are
such that
(5.102)
b = R(1 m)
a = R(l + m)
Solving (5.102) with respect to Rand m , one obtains
m= ab
a+b
R= a+b
2
(5.103)
107
dO'
+
0'(
(5.104)
In
(5.104) both second and third terms of the first member vanish 4
while the first one is such that
r.p(O')dO'
1
'Y
nelelCH'e.
0'(
105)
the first complex potential is such that [replacing (5.105) into (5.104)]
r.p)
0'(
The second '"'v,,, .... ,,,.... potential 1/;(() can be determined by conjugating
is after
on l'
(5.106)
that
Among the three Cauchy integrals of (5.107), the first one vanishes while the two
others are such that
(5.108)
The second
",.."."..",1"" l'UI'''''''.l''''l
1/;(() =
4FoT demonstration, see Goodier and Timoshenko, 1970, p. 212.
(5.109)
108
cavity
In this case, the boundary conditions on an element ds can be written [Eq. (5.90)]
pcosa
FYn
h + ih = z
(5.1
psin a
ac
[Eq. (5.95)
1,
11)
ip() =
pRm
(5.113)
replacing (5.113) in (5.88), one obtains the OVlrw<,eelr>n of the stresses and in
the expression of the displacements. These results are
useful in the
case of an infinitely flattened ellipse (crack) for which m
L
In this case, one obtains for the stress and
fields after substitutions
(5.114)
.~~~==~~==~
2Gp
pRp
2G'r~~~~~
with
3  411 (plane state of strain)
In the crack extension (that is for B
a pp
a XT and aeo = a yy )
0),
2p
a xx
== .,
1
p
a yy
(5.115)
109
In other words, at the fracture tip (that is for p = 1), the elastic solution leads to
a singular stress field. This observation, as we shall see, is of prime importance in the
study of fissuring.
a'
= a [ 1 1  E2v
(J'
(5.116)
+ (J'yy
(5.117)
On the symmetry axis of the ellipse (J'xy ::::: O. (5.117) only takes account of
the disturbed solution and to obtain the global solution, one has to add the trivial
solution of the plate without a cavity subjected to the same loading. We shall see that
Eqs (5.117) are the starting point for the study of fissured materials. It is also useful
to calculate the volumic elastic strain energy associated with the elliptical cavity.
This calculation can be easily performed from the stress and displacement fields
but one can also evaluate it directly using complex potentials. For a biaxial loading
(J', k(J'(k < 1) it is equal to (per unit length perpendicularly to the considered plane)
Wi ::::: 7r(J'2(1  v
[(1 _ k?(a
4E
+ b)2 + 2(1 _
k 2 )(a 2
b2 )
(5.118)
+(1 + k)2(a 2 + b2 )]
5.11
CONCLUSION
While very condensed, this chapter provides readers with the mam bases for
solving a number of plane elastic problems. Although insufficient to solve a concrete problem in rock mechanics, linear elasticity will enable us to introduce very
intuitively the concept of a porous medium to which a large part of what follows will
now be devoted.
110
BIBLIOGRAPHY
J.N., 1968, Mathematical theory of equilibrium cracks, in
Mathematical fundamentals" (Vol. II), Liebowitz Ed. Academic Press New York, San
GU"","V. London.
GOURSAT, E., 1956, COUTS
mathimatique, Vol.
GauthierVillars, Paris.
and COOK, N.G.W., 1979, Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics; 3rd ed.
Chapman and Hall, London.
LANDAU, L., and
Thiorie de l'iiasticiti,
Moscow.
MUSKHELISHVILI, N.1., 1954, Some basic problems of the mathematical theory of elasticity, Noordhoff International Publishing.
PARODI, M., 1965, Mathimatiques appliquies a l'aM de l'ingenieur, VoL III, "Fonction
de variable complexe.
symbolique", SEDES, Paris.
PARTON,
and
1981, Methodes de la tMorie matMmatique de l'elasticiU,
Vol. I, II, Mir, Moscow.
V., and
P., 1977, Equations intigrales de la tMorie de
Mir, Moscow.
REKATCH, V., 1977, ProbJemes de La theorie de l'elasticiti, Mir, Moscow.
SALEH,
1985, Determination de l'etat de contrainie et des pToprietis ",nCh"",,,
d 'un massif rocheux par inversion des donnees ricolties lors d 'un essai de fracturation
pressiometrique, Thesis
Paris.
and
H., 1968, Mathematical theory brittle fracture, in "FracG
ture, Mathematical fundamentals" (VoL
,Liebowitz Ed. Academic Press New
San
London.
1970, Theory of elasticity, Mac Graw Hill.
and GOODIER, J
CHAPTER
Behaviour of a material
containing cavities
In a fairly general way, a rock can be ranked with a continuous material containing a more or less substantial proportion of vacuums, often random in shape and
geometrically complicated.
In this chapter we shall study how the presence of vacuums can influence the
macroscopic behaviour of an elastic material.
6.1
PHENOMENOLOGICAL ASPECT
The stress strain curve of the majority of sedimentary rocks (specially sandstones
and limestones) offers in compression (uniaxial, triaxial or hydrostatic) a strongly nonlinear behaviour for low stresses (Fig.6.1). Under increasing loading, the modulus of
the material (Young's modulus or hydrostatic bulk modulus) gradually increases until
a certain value for which the curve becomes pseudolinear. Furthermore, the rocks
often display hysteresis after unloading. These two phenomena, namely non linearity
and hysteresis are the dominant characteristics differentiating dry rocks (i.e without
interstitial fluid for the moment) from continuous materials. We shall see that they
are attributed to the presence of specific vacuums: microcracks.
6.2
112
ol mateTal stran
Chapter 6. BeJum
without a cavity. Thereore, the elastic strain energy o a cavity IVc is the difference
between the energy W o the solid containing the cavity under a given loading system
and that Wo o the same solid identically loaded but without a cavity, that is
(6.1)
700
600
500
'.."
''""
..'"
e,
400
;:l
300
200
Replacing (<<
100
behaviour
compression
of a porous
(Indonesian
rock under
Sandstone).
= 20"~V
(6.2)
Wo
0".
In the
1 (j2
= 20"
kk
=2K
(6.3)
in which K is the bulk modulus o the solid material (known as matrix) and V the
total volume o the cube (V
A3).
KeJf is can
bulk modulus (l
a cavity) knowi
real material (iJ
that Wc still hE
modulus is less
increases the 01
6.3
SPEC
PORl!
Equation (fi
linear behaviou
necessary to ex
For instance tbl
mmor axes a al
Chapter 6. Behaviour
of a material containing
the difference
Ioading system
that is
113
cavities
a
A
(6.1)
,'('.
          
~aA
L
.
'
a
Fig. 6.2. Cavity in a material
a hydrostatic
under
loading.
~V
1
I<
2 Wc
V (72
=+=(7
a cavity, and
, the elastic
out by the
has therefore
(6.2)
In the
(6.3)
1
I<eff
(6.4)
6.3
Equation (6.4) defines the effective modulus but do es not account for the nonlinear behaviour of the material such as is observed in Fig. 6_1. For this purpose it is
necessary to expound Wc which can only be envisaged for simple cavity geometries.
For instance the calculation is possible for an elliptical cavity of respective major and
minor axes a and b, under any type of loading (the calculation is performed on the
114
of material strain
basis of the complex potentials determined in the previous chapter). In the case of
hydrostatic loading the result becomes very simple [Eq. (5.118), with k
1]
a..pccr
6.4
'<1
6. B' .
EVOLU
WITHl
(6.5)
E and v being respectively Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the matrix.
Replacing (6.5) in (6.4) one is led to
_1_
Keff
=..!..
K
21l'"(1 v2) A( 2
EV
a
b2)
Let us coasidI:
der increasin~"
disappear one a8I
remain open, tha
(6.6)
The variation in total volume is equal to the volume variation of the matrix plus
the volume variation of the cavity which for a value u of the loading will be equal to
(0'2
(6.7)
Ke,
Initially, the volume of the cavity was such that
Vo = 1rabA
(6.8)
The volume of the cavity for a value u of the loading will therefore be such that
R; being the da
The nonlnea
gradual closure (J
tion of the pares
range so that one
(6.9)
or by introducing a
= bJa,
Under compressive loading (u < O), the cavity volume will gradually be reduced
and will be equal to zero for u e such that
(6.11)
The smaller the shape factor of the cavity, the lower the pressure required to close
the cavity. One can therefore differentiate two categories of vacuums with respect to
their closure pressure:
(a) Those whose shape factor is small with respect to 1. These are sharply flattened ellipses closing under a low stress field. They are known as microcracks.
(b) Those whose shape factor is large. They are circular vacuums (spherical or
cylindrical). They can practically never close (indeed, a pressure of the order
of magnitude of the matrix Young's modulus would be required). They are
known as pores. By extension, a medium containing cavities is known as a
porous medium.
is a constant. It I
material whose b4
will become appa
KB is always les!
the microcracks a
of the curve u  .
this straight line
the microcracks (
one can define tb
in which
Chapter 6. Behaviour
In the case of
i= 1]
6.4
115
(6.5)
Let us consider a material containing initially np pores and nJ microcracks. Under increasing loading, only the microcracks will close and, their contributions will
disappear one after the other. Therefore under loading 17, only n(17) microcracks will
remain open, those whose shape factor is such that
of the matrix.
(6.6)
217(1  1I2)
a> 
(6.12)
(6.7)
[{elJ
J{
+~
n(q)
+~
(6.13)
(6.8)
be such that
I
(6.10)
be reduced
(6.11)
2. ~
_1__
(6.9)
]{B
+ L..J
(6.14)
EV
.:1
in which
. sharply flat_ .icrocracks.
(spherical or
ofthe order
)_ Theyare
" bown as a
4(11I2)1l"R;A
VP(17)
V
(6.15)
n(q)
VF(17) =
Vi(17)
(6.16)
.:1
+ 271"(1;
2
1I ) Aar17
(6.17)
116
al material strain
Chapter 6. Behay
Taking acco
in which the sw
a shape factor (
The shape (
a higher level a
loading ranges
whose shape faA
O~~~~rr
~"~
Now, d7](a)
and a + da, in
and crack
porosity
ai
u
/{B
+ ra 
r(u)
(6.18)
in which d 2:,
a and a + da.
The sum ex
a.:: k k
ou
or(u)
/{B~
(6.19)
that is by repla
1
1
or(u)
tc. f
J{B
oU
which is another form of the effective modulus evolution.
6.5
(6.20)
The curve 7]( u) can be used to determine the distribution of cracks in accordance
with their shape factor.
Let us call dr( a) the porosity associated with all the crack s whose shape factor
is comprised between a and a + da and given h( a) the density probability function
such that
d7](a)
h(a)da
(6.21)
or again taking
Replacing (~
Let us deriw
material
strain
Ghapter 6. Behaviour
of a material
117
containing cavities
dr(u)
da
211"(1 v
EV
A" 2
L.., a,
O'
(6.22)
in which the sum is extended to all the cracks still open under u, in other words with
a shape factor O' such that [Eq. (6.12)]
2u(1  v2)
E
a> 
0'1
(6.23)
The shape of the compressibility curve leads one to think that O' is bounded by
a higher level O'M. In other words for O' > O'M all the microcracks are closed in the
loading ranges envisaged. The sum (6.22) is therefore only extended to the cracks
whose shape factor is such that (u < O)
2<T(1  v2)
and
(6.24)
O'M
Now, dr(O') is the porosity of cracks whose shape factor is comprised between
O' + da, in other words
d r( 0')
= ::V::=
O'
(6.25)
a;
(6.18)
(6.19)
L  j _
a2
(6.20)
aM
2<7(1,,2)
V
d
O'
11"
Aa r( )
(6.27)
:a  ja
2 _
1I"A
_2<7(1_,,2)
E
h(O')
;;dO'
(6.28)
= 2(1  v2)
E
ja
h(O') da
_2<7(1_,,2)
E
O'
(6.29)
2(1  v2)
E
[h(O') 00']
O'
o s
OU _
2<7(1,,2)
E
(6.30)
118
of material strain
Chapter 6. BehaVOl
0.182
or again by writn
0.181
0.18
~...
0.179
'"
..
0.178
Po
'"
0.177
E:;
0.176
0.175
::
o::
O
P...
Let us observe
in fact, according
0.174
where
0.173
110
is the 1
It is then neee
0.172
An example (
case O:M ~ 4.10:
0.171
100
200
300
'100
PRESSURE(bar)
6.6
450
400
CLOSU
A CON
350
Knowledge 01
closure under an
Given a defec
stress fieId (T1, (T2
(Fig. 6.5).
The shape C~
a constant direct
will be such that
300
c:I
~
.c
250
200
150
100
50
0.001
0.002
a
Fig. 6.4. Cracking
by Morlier's
spectrum
melhod
b+De ns ty probability
of Vosges Sandstone
(tifter
0.004
delermined
Segal,1989).
versus
versus
0.003
pressure.
sh ape coefficient.
Three cases e
its orientation
the contrary the
be open if its din
su
crlmaterialstran
Chapter 6. Behaviour
119
function, h(aM)
20(1I/Z)]
E
or again by writing
[C]l
= O hence
2)]1
[2(1_1/
2(1 E
2
d 'f}(0)
o doz
1/2)
= Cod2'f}(0)
2
h(C10)
(6.31)
(6.32)
(6.33)
d0
Let us observe that (6.33) is not a true probability density since it is not normed;
in fact, according to (6.21), one has
cxM
cxM
h(a)da =
d'f}(a) = 'f}a
(6.34)
6.6
{:
(6.35)
Under the effect of 0, the defect initially open begins to close. According to (6.12)
and (6.32), the critical value or o for the crack to close is
oer
= aC
(6.36)
Three cases can be considered: if Oer < 01, the defect will remain open whatever
its orientation since the minor component is less compressive than Oer; if Oer > 02 on
the contrary the defect cannot remain open; finally, if 01 < Oer < Oi, the defect will
be open if its direction (3 is such that
7r
(3er
120
Chapter 6. Behavi
36
34
32
30
28
26
E
Z
<,
Eo
Z
,,
"
\~"
\.
24
22
20
18
16
a \
14
12
10
8
20t
Fig. 6.5. Open crack
under
a b axi al loading.
F.
01'
f3cr
. JlJ'l+O:C
arcsm
IJ'1 
IJ'2
(o
One can easily find from (6.37) the two first cases: if IJ'1 = o:C, f3cr = O (the
o:C, f3cr
'Ir/2 (the crack is closed whatever
crack is open whatever 13is) and if IJ'2
13 is). Let us consider now N defects and given h(o:) the probability density on 0:.
Among these N defects, a certain number d N have a shape coefficient comprised
between o: and o: + do: that is
01
(6.37)
(6.38)
ADDITl
THE el
Under uniaxial
pressure shows thl
st; = Nh(o:)do:
'Ir
"2 dNT = d N
(6.39)
2
Under a compressive stress field IJ'1, IJ'2, the percentage of open cracks will be then
such that
NT
(CXM 1
N = J ;h(o:) ['Ir 2f3cr(1J'1, IJ'2, 0:)] do:
(6.40)
o
The numerical integration of (6.40) is represented on Fig. 6.6 for Vosge Sandstone
and clearly shows that even for a smaU confining pressure IJ'2, only a few percent of
defects remain open. Nevertheless we will see afterwards that these open cracks have
a great importance as regards rupture.
6.7
aJaterialstrain
Chapter 6. Behaviour
oi a material containing
121
cavities
36
J4
32
30
28
26
24
z
)..
22
z,
20
lB
16
14
12
lO
8
200
300
400
lall
Fig. 6.6. Percentage
of confining
(6.37)
pressure
600
(bar)
of open cracks
for different
values
(Vosges sandstone)
6.7
(6.38)
(6.39)
,
(6.40)
500
(a) The microcracks perpendicular to the direction of the stress close as the stress
increases, while those parallel to the latter have a tendency to open.
(b) The closure of the microcracks is nearly always incomplete as far as the "fossil" microcracks are con cerned (nonsuperimposable lips, residual material between lips). The morphological characteristics of the microcracks playa very
important part in their closure. This phenomenon alone explains why the
nonlinearity is due to the microcracks and not to the pores.
(c) In the same way as we have defined J{E, one can define a drained Young's
modulus EB and drained Poisson ratio VE such that
(6.41)
122
6.8
of material strain
Thern
satura
(6.42)
This concept, in the same way as EB, l/B and f{B, is a global parameter (in other
words associated with a macroscopic quantity of material) and not a localquantity.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BRACE, W.F., WALSH, J.B. and FRANGOS, W.T.,
under high pressure, JGR, Vol. 73.
BRACE, W.F., 1965, Some new mesurements
Vol. 70, No 2.
1968, Permeabi/ity
of linear compressibi/ity
of granite
of rocks, JGR,
CHARLEZ, P., SEGAL, A., PERRIER, F. and DESPAX, D., 1991, Microstatistica/
behaviour of brittle rocks, submitted to lnt. Jour. Rock Mech. and Mining Sciences.
GHIASSI, H., 1985, Dtermination
de l'tat de contrainte
microfissuration
des roches. Thesis EC Paris.
of rocks",
partir d'essais
"
Porous media
taining vacuums ~
beyond a certain
could then be Ial
associated a globs
The chapters dev
pothesis: either o
implicitly that th4
the presence of Yo
continuous media
tally filled by 0114
"interstitial presss
If the connect
saturated,
each al
certain conditions
rated. Its behavi
deals only with p4
Historically sp
was supplemented
(1975), who for th
Mac Tigue (1985)
equations the infll
Lastly, quite 11
thermomechanics
His achievemei
and opens the wa
CHAPTER
Thermodynamics of
saturated porous media
.!
(6.42)
..
rupture
Porous media were envisaged in the previous chapteras continuous media containing vacuums of different forms (pores or microcracks). It was also observed that
beyond a certain loading value, the microcracks completely close and the material
could then be ranked with an equivalent continuous medium with which could be
associated a global parameter characterizing the proportion of vacuums: porosity 0.
The chapters devoted to porous media will be made in the scope of the following hypothesis: either one considers that the medium is not microcracked, or one assumes
implicitly that the loading is sufficient for all the microcracks to be closed. However,
the presence of vacuums is not the only dominant characteristic that differentiates
continuous media and porous media. The connected porosity is always partly or totally filled by one or several fluids under pressure p, known as "pore pressure" or
"interstitial pressure" .
If the connected porosity is entirely filled with fluid, the medium is said to be
saturated, each of the fluids participating in the saturation. On the contrary under
certain conditions (particularly at low depth) the medium is only imperfectly saturated. Its behaviour becomes then very difficult to model. The following chapters
deals only with porous media saturated by a single fluido
Historically speaking, Biot was the first to deal with solid fluid coupling. His work
was supplemented in the seventies first by Geertsma (1969), then by Rice and Cleary
(1975), who for the first time provided a comprehensive formulation of poroelasticity.
Mac Tigue (1985) completed the work of Rice and Cleary by adding to the poroelastic
equations the influence of temperature.
Lastly, quite recently Coussy (1989 a) (1989 b) developed a general theory of the
thermomechanics of porous media by writing the major conservative laws.
.
His achievement makes it possible to go beyond the stage of thermoporoelasticity
and opens the way to thermoporoplasticity.
124
7.1
BASIC HYPOTHESIS
OF THERMOPOROMECHANICS
7.3
7.2
Chapter
Jiodao
ifda
In the presen
other hand, the I
to (since the mal
We saw in Chapter 1 that during a finite transformation, volume or area increments are modified and that elements in strained state (that is dV and da) could
be determined from elements in the nonstrained state (that is dVo and dao) provided the transformation gradient f and its determinant J (also known as Jacobian
of the transformation) are known. These convective transports were expressed by the
equations [Eqs (1.15) and (1.19)]
JdVo
MASS'
Given a nons
Ro, and given 8)
dV
7. Thermo
(7.1)
Given W (l
normal Ti (conves
is then an exit 11
Mass conserv
't
To give to (7.
with
that
f= o~
oX
= det If I
(7.2)
where
is the coordinate of any point of the medium in the present configuration
and X its initial position in the reference configuration (Lagrangian variable).
In the case of continuous media, the conservative laws are often described neglecting the convective transports. This can be justified by the fact that the medium is
thermodynamically
closed. The open character of porous media necessitates writing
the conservative laws in finite transformations for fear of committing serious errors
particularly with regard to mass balance.
By inserting
the expression ol
Chapter
7.3
7. Thermodynamics
oEsaturated
125
porous media
MASS CONSERVATION
Given a nonstrained
Ro, and given 8Mo the total mass of this element (fluid
8Mo
= modVo
(7.3)
In the present strained state, the mass of solid remains unchanged while, on the
other hand, the mass of fluid contained in the element of present volume dV is equal
to (since the material is saturated) by taking account of (7.1)
= p0dV = J p0dVo
8M!
(7.4)
where p and 0 are respectively the fluid density and the medium porosity in the
present configuration.
In this way, the total mass increment ..M (equal to the fluid
mass increment) between the initial configuration and the present configuration will
be equal to
J p0 dVo  po0o dVo
mdVo
..M
(7.5)
= 8Mo
+..M
= (m + mo)dVo
(7.6)
Given Mi da the mass of fluid flowing by time unit across the present area da of
normal (conventionally taken towards the exterior of the volume element). Mi da
is then an exit flow.
Mass conservation implies
f ~ (mo + m )dVo + t.
f Mi da = O
i;
(7.1)
(7.7)
vt
that
(7.2)
c:onfiguration
le).
t.:med neglect
medium is
.ates writing
senous errors
and the
odao
the Lagrangian
= Mi da
vector
M such
(7.8)
where dao is the surface element in the nonstrained state and o the outside normal
to this surface elemento In fact, M has no physical meaning, but M, unlike Mi,
depends only on X and t.
From (7.1) and (7.8) one can extract furthermore
(7:9)
By inserting (7.8) into (7.7) and by applying
the expression of mass conservation
m=V'M
the divergence
(7.10)
126
kk
Ghapter 7. Thermo
Taking accow
gence theorem
where t = 1/2[v
the external foro
+1
7.5
FIRST
m=
as is generally admitted
7.4
(p0)
(7.12)
This principk
of the system au
external forces ir
Given udV, t
volume dV and
variation in inte
equal to
If one neglects inertia and body forces, it is reduced to a static equilibrium (see
Chapter 2). Writing directly the equations in the present configuration it will be
written
(7.13)
where T is the surface force applied on the present surface of the body. The boundary
condition implies
(7.14)
where !?: is the Cauchy stress tensor also defined in the present configuration. It is not
then necessary in the linear momentum balance to differentiate stresses in solid and
skeleton. !?: and T are to be understood as average quantities.
Substituting (7.14) in (7.13) and applying the divergence theorem, one is led to
the classical equilibrium equation
The power o
paragraph and o
respect to the sil
If Vr is the ~
surfacic force exl
will be such that
(7.15)
The mechanical energy balance is a consequence of linear momentum conservation.
If v is the velocity of any point of the skeleton (with respect to which, we may recall,
the kinematic quantities are defined), one can easily deduce from (7.15)
ti(\7 . !?:)dV= l
(\7 0 v)dV = O
(7.16)
This equatioi
1For convenienc
reference s made
densty of the medi
Chapter
7. Thermodynamics
oE saturated
127
porous meda
Taking account of (7.14), Eq. (7.16) can also be written, after applying the divergence theorem
(7.17)
a
where ~ = 1/2[\7 <'9v + t(\7 <'9v)] is the strain velocity tensor and
e the power of
the external forces as if the Huid and the skeleton had the same velocity
that is
v,
(7.18)
vTda
(7.11)
7.5
This principle expresses the energy balance, that is the variation in internal energy
of the system augmented by the rate in kinetic energy is equal to the power of the
external forces increased by the heat rate:
(7.12)
(7.19)
Given udV, the internal energy of the Huid and the solid contained in the present
volume dV and given Um, the internal energy of the Huid per unit of mass. The
variation in internal energy of the system during the increment of time dt will be
equal to
u. = 8ta J v udV +
l
A Um
a
u. = 7i
t
uodVo
Vo
(7.20)
W . iida
(7.13)
..
j
of the medium.
In Lagrangian
1
(7.21)
umM . iiodao
Ao
The power of the external forces is the sum of W: expressed in the previous
paragraph and of
the power of the forces in the relative motion of the Huid with
respect to the skeleton.
If
is the relative velocity of the Huid with respect to the skeleton and TF the
surfacic force exerted on the Huid portion of the total area (that is 0da), this power
will be such that in the present configuration
W;
v,.
(7.15)
W; =
(7.22)
TF . VrOda
such that
(7.23)
(7.16)
lFor convenience, the state functons (u, s, h, 1/J) are related to the unit volume except when
reference is made to the Huid (specific state functon with index m). This is the reason why the
densty of the medium does not appear in the equatons as it was the case in Chapter 3.
128
Chapter
7. Therm~
by temperature. 1
paragraphs, one CAl
(7.24)
where the minus sign indicates a compression ( is towards the exterior).
(7.23) and (7.24) into (7.22) one obtains
. 
w; = 
Replacing
In (7.31),
p
W . iida
(7.25)
AP
So
is
. =w;
P
Ao
M
P
odao
(7.26)
Let us extract
Q=
 { q. da =  {
s.. Q.
lA
TS
odao
(7.27)
or after developme
{~
where q and Q are respectively the "Eulerian" and "Lagrangian" heat flows received
(the minus sign compensates for the fact that the normal points towards the exterior). The formula of convective transport of surfaces also makes it possible to
express
Jq= F
(7.28)
Neglecting the kinetic energy rate k, substituting (7.21), (7.26), (7.27) in (7.19)
one obtains by introducing, hm
Um + p] p, the fluid mass enthalpy
2
(7.29)
By applying the divergence theorem to the surface integral and substituting''
value of ea extracted from (7.17), one is led finally to
vv
Let us introdu
thalpy gm of the :f
ti
the
One will suppc
(7.30)
7.6
The second principle expresses that the variation in entropy of the system (again
volume term plus convective term) is greater than or equal to the heat rate divided
2This hypothesis is not necessary. If k: is not nil, it appears in (7.18) and is eliminated between
(7.18) and (7.19). See paragraph 3.11.2 and 3.11.3.
3Equation (7.17) can be written indifferently in Lagrangian or Eulerian configurations (expression
of energy).
(7.10),
cll1 is known as
7.7
CHOICl
The inequality
of the system (the
or material
Chapter
strain
7. Thermodynamics
129
by temperature. The approach being quite similar to that developed in the previous
paragraphs, one can write the equation directly in Lagrangian variables that is
(7.24)
 r). Replacing
(7.31)
(7.25)
In (7.31), So is the volume entropy of the skeleton fluid whole and Sm the mass
entropy of the fluido Locally, by applying the divergence theorem, (7.31) can be
written
Q + T . ('lT)
(7.32)
Let us extract '1 . Q from (7.30) and introduce it into inequality (7.32),
(7.26)
(7.33)
(7.27)
or after development
{Q': t  (uo
M}
(7.34)
+ {  ~ srr  M . ['1 hm
T'l
sml } ~
Let us introduce into (7.34) the volumic free energy tPo and the specific free enthalpy gm of the fluid such that
tPo = Uo  Tso
(7.29)
(7.35)
(7.30)
<I>l
t  sor + gm m  ~o ~ o
Q
 T . ('lT)  M . ('1gm +
Q' :
Sm
7.7
dissipaiion,
(7.37)
'lT) ~
<1>2 as thermohydraulic
dissipation.
ted between
(expression
130
variables: the total strain ~, the temperature T and the mass variation of the system
m (we should remember that it is only a Huid mass variation).
This latter state variable characterizes simultaneously the presence of vacuums
(through 0), the Huid compressibility (through p) and the medium compressibility
(through tu). Taking into account dissipative phenomena such as plasticity necessitates the introduction of additional variables known as internal variables. These
variables are of two types: plastic strain and hardening variables that characterize
the memory of the material (see paragr. 3.12.3). For a porous medium, plastic strain
results, from on the one hand, irreversible strain of the matrix ~~ (which is not an
observable variable) and on the other from that of the interconnected porous space.
In fact these variables are not independent.
First of all, the hypothesis of small
deformations induces,
Chapter 7. Therm~
that is replacing
(J'~
(
7.9
<1
CASE O
LAWS(
(7.38)
where ~e and ~p are respectively the elastic and the plastic total strain. Secondly, the
total plastic strain can be divided into a matrix plastic strain (on the portion 100
of the total volume) and a plastic porosity 0P such that
(7.39)
Physically, the plastic porosity represents the irreversible change of porosity after
unloading.
As a summary, taking account of (7.38) and (7.39), after elimination of ~e and ~~
the state variables can be chosen as ~' ~P, 0P, T, m and Vk in which Vk represents
the hardening variables that characterize the possible memory of the material.
In case of reves
leads to
In the same w;
lastici ty. If 1/Jo is
largely devoted ~
7.10
CASE
In the case of i
of Clausius Duhen
7.8
CONSTITUTIVE
STATE LAW AND
THERMODYNAMIC
POTENTIAL
In the same way as for continuous media we assume the existence of a scalar
function 1/Jo (known as thermodynamc potential) of the state variables. \Ve shall
assume that this is free energy 1/Jo such that
(7.40)
7.11
DIFFU
THERJ
1/Jo being a state function one can calculate its total differential in order to eliminate
~o from the inequality of Clausius Duhem (7.37). By following the same reasoning as
in [Eq. (3.57)], one is led, taking account of the strain partitioning rule, to
,i. _ {No .. e
o/o  fJc_ e . f
{No T
fJT
{No.
+ fJm m +
{No 0'
fJ0P
(No
+ fJVk
Vi
k
(7.41)
Intrinsic dissip
Indeed, therrnopo
pressure and temj
tion results from 1
Chapter 7. Thermodynamcs
o( saturated
131
porous media
(J" 
o'if;o )
o.

.e
+
(J" :
.P
_ o'if;o
o0P
7.9
+ ( gm 
o'if;o). m  ( So
Bm
el _ o'if;o Vi
Q'if;o)
+ oT
T'
>o
OVk k 
(7.42)
(7.38)
In case of reversible behaviour
leads to
(tP = izl = Vk
o'if;o
gm=
om
= O) (7.42)
So
= o'if;o
oT
(7.43)
In the same way as for continuous media (7.43) define the laws of thermoporoelasticity. If 'if;o is a quadratic form, the behaviour becomes linear. Chapter 8 will be
largely devoted to this.
(7.39)
P
and _M
Vi represents
material.
OfE;e
_
7.10
In the case of irreversible behaviour, taking account of Eqs (7.42), the inequality
of Clausius Duhem becomes
,
of a scalar
_ We shall
(7.40)
(7.41 )
(7.44)
(7.44) defines thermoporoplasticity.
7.11
DIFFUSION LAWS OF
THERMOPOROMECHANICS
132
7.11.1
Chapter
diffusion law
Replacing the
This law expresses that the fluid velocity V through a porous medium is proportional to the interstitial pressure gradient 'Vp. The proportionality coefficient depends
on the fluid (by means of its dynamic viscosity fL) and the rock, by means of a tensor
~ characterizing the medium's percolation quality and known as permeability iensor,
that is
k
v=_:::'.'Vp
(7.45 )
= pil,
or after developrnei
7.11.2
one obtains
= l(. 'Vp
T'V
(7.46)
fL
tensor.
This is similar to the previous one and expresses that the heat flow per unit of
surface Q is proportional to the temperature gradient. The proportionality constant,
which is also tensorial, characterizes the ability of the medium to diffuse heat, and is
known as thermal conductibility tensor x, Fourier's law will be written
Q=
7.11.3
SI
one obtains
fL
7. Tbermodyi
Hydraulic
and thermal
(7.4 7)
!S. 'VT
diffusivity laws
The drawback of the diffusion laws is that they depend on the flow rate M and
the heat flow Q. Therefore diffusivity laws, (combining diffusion and conservation
laws) are preferred.
The hydraulic diffusivity law can be obtained by coupling Darcy's law and the
mass conservation that is
m='VM
(7.48)
which Ieads after elimination of
to
m
'V(pIJ. 'Vp) =
(7.49)
Similarly, the thermaI diffusivity law can be obtained by coupling Darcy's law and
the two principles of thermodynamics [Eqs (7.30) and (7.37)]
+ 'V.
(hmM)
M., 1941, (
12.
 1972, Variation.
chanics of porous
579597.
 1977, The theor
27,597620.
BIOT,
= q::
4. 
'V.
Q
(7.50)
COUSSY, 0.,1989
du Groupe III du I
 1989, Thermod,
J ournal of Mechan
 1989, A general
March 1989.
 1988, Personal (
133
Replacing the second of these equations in the first and taking into account that
'lj;o
um is proporcient depends
s of a tensor
bility iensor,
uo  T So  soT
(7.51)
(7.45)
one obtains
(7.52)
or after development
(7.53)
The first term of (7.53) represents the input of convective entropy due to the fluid
flow, the second, the variation in entropy of the material over time and the third, the
local in crease in heat due to the therrnal conductivity of the material. The right hand
member characterizes the energy dissipated in heat, either mechanically in plastic
irreversibilities or by the viscosity forces in the moving fluido
(7.46)
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIOT,
consolidation,
J. Appl. Phys.,
12.
 1972, Variational Lagrangian thermodynamics
of nonisothermal finite strain mechanics of porous solids and thermonuclear
diffusion, Int. J. Solids Structures 13,
579597.
 1977, The theory of finite deformations of porous solids, Indiana Univ. Math. J.,
27,597620.
(7.47)
(7.48)
(7.49)
Darcy's law and
(7.50)
CHARLEZ,
P., 1989, Thermomcanique
des milieux poreux saiurs, rapport de recherche
du Groupe TMP, March 1989, unpublished.
COUSSY, 0.,1989, R61e du fluide interstitiel sur le comportement des roches, rapport
du Groupe III du GS Mcanique des roches profondes.
of saturaied porous solids in finite deformation, European
 1989, Thermodynamics
Journal of Mechanics, A/Solids, Vol. 8, No 1.
Transport in porous media,
 1989, A general theory of thermoporoelastoplasticity,
March 1989.
 1988, Personal Communications, TOTAL CFP, unpublished.
CHAPTER
Infinitesimal
thermoporoelasticity
{)T
(8.1)
To obtain a linear theory, it is sufficient to choose a quadratic form for the thermodynamic potential. The most physical approach is to find the thermodynamic
potential by integrating the constitutive laws rather than to find the constitutive
laws by deriving the thermodynamic potential. It is proposed first of all to determine
![, gm and s.
8.1
One can rank dry rocks with an equivalent continuous medium the mechanical
behaviour of which is identical to that of the actual material.
The laws of thermoporoelasticity are built on the following assumptions.
First of all, one assumes that the equivalent dry material (i.e. without any fluid
in the porous space) is linear, elastic and isotropic with elastic constants EB and v.
Secondly one admits that the matrix (solid + unconnected porosity) is continuous
isotropic and linearly elastic with elastic constants EM and VM.
lln the previous chapter, index zero referred to a Lagrangian quantity. In the case of small
perturbations (which is the scope of this chapter), Lagrangian and Eulerian configtirations being
ident.ical, the index has been abolished.
136
oi material strain
The second hypothesis as we shall see later is not necessary to build a general
theory.
8.1.1
p
....
where KM
EM/3{J
Component 11 o
stress field r!: + [p 3D
The previous considerations enable one to determine easily the constitutive law of
the equivalent material by decomposing the actual state of stress into two elementary
components according to Fig. 8.1: the porous medium is subjected to a state of stress
r!: and to a pore pressure P which are decomposed into a purely hydrostatic component
1 and a deviatoric component 1I. We shall mention that stresses are defined with
respect to an initial state of stress r!:o different from zero (because of the hypothesis
on microcracks closure). The pressure is also defined with respect to a reference value
Po
Chapter 8. Infinitesimal
in which KB = EBI
Eq. (8.5) represents I
8.1.2
Biot's co
Let us write
az
@
Component
with
~
+
o
Component
of the state
a2+p
In other words, 11
as that of a continuo
II
of stress
(cift er Carnet.1976).
Let us now apply Hooke's law to these two elementary states of stress [Eq. (4.30)]
that is
~
v
= 2G  ElJkk8'J
'J
(8.2
{J
I
'J
P
= 3KM
'J
(8.3)
Chapter
137
8. Infinitesimal thermoporoelasticity
where KM
EM /3(1  211M) is the bulk modulus of the matrix.
Component 11 corresponds to the loading of the dry equivalent material by a
stress field q;+ lP and leads to a deformation state c{f
II
c~J
titutive law of
two elementary
a state of stress
ic component
. are defined with
the hypothesis
a reference value
.r
1+ IIB
= ;;;((f~J + p8~J)
IIB
EB ((fa
+ 3p)8~J
(8.4)
The ~verall strain is obtained by adding (8.3) and (8.4) which leads to
(8.5)
in which KB
EB/3(1  211B) is the bulk modulus of the equivalent dry material.
Eq. (8.5) represents Hooke's law of poroelastic materials.
8.1.2
Let us write
with
a
= 1 KB
KM
(8.6)
(8.7)
In other words, Hooke's law of a poroelastic medium is written in the same way
as that of a continuous material provided one replaces:
(a) The stresses (f'J by < (fij >.
(b) The elastic characteristics by those of the equivalent continuous dry material
EB,
(8.2)
(8.3)
ve
The stresses < (fij > (8.6) are known as effective stresses and a is known as Biot's
coefficient. It is therefore the effective stresses and not the total stresses that govern
the strain of a porous elastic material. We may note that this concept of effective
stress is linked to the constitutive
law. It is not a static concepto
138
Chapter 8. Infinit.
(8.11) and (1
8.2
8.2.1
The bulk volume variations (matrix + pores) can easily be calculated from Hooke's
law (8.5). Indeed, the volume strain f.u is such that
f.u
6.VB
VB
1 (Uu
KB 3
+P
)

P
KM
By eliminati
(8.8)
8.2.2
=
Uu
(8.9)
The final ex
jected to an ine
pressure, is obu
the two transfor
in which the me
remains constan
pore pressure v
volume de crease
increase in the Il
dO' referring
reciprocity theoi
By replacing
Let us assume that Vp (pore volume) and VB (bulk volume) are state functions of
p and /7. One can therefore calculate their total differentials. The relative variations
in pore volume will therefore be such that
or taking accour
dVp
Vp
= _1
Vp
(OVp)
8U
dO'+ ~ (OVp)
Vp
op
dp
To eliminate/ (oVpfop)q from (8.10), let us consider the stress path dp
Equations (8.3) and (8.8) lead to
dp
dVB
=
=
VB
KM
Since dVp
= dVB 
1
f.k/c
= dVM
VM
dO'
(8.10)
77
= dp
= dO'.
(8.11)
dp
= (VB
KM
 VM)
dp
= ,,Vp
AM
(8.12)
of the loading path.
Formula (8.1:
material strain
139
dVp
Vp
dVM
VM
dVB
VB
dp
KM
M=dp
(8.13)
By eliminating
{}(
p 
Vp
ap
(8.14)
7i
(8.9)
1 (avp)
1 (avp)
KM = Vp
~ (avp)
{}(
Vp
= __ l_dp+
KM
(M+ dp)
p
(8.15)
The final expression of the relative variation in pore volume for a material subjected to an increment M of mean total stress and to a variation dp of interstitial
pressure, is obtained by applying Betty's reciprocity theorem (see paragr. 4.10) to
the two transformations represented in Fig.8.2: on the one hand the transformation
in which the mean total stress varies between 7f and 7f + M whereas the pore pressure
remains constant and, on the other, that in which 7f remains constant whereas the
pore pressure varies from p to p + dp. In the first case, the increment M induces a
volume decrease (M negative when increasing compression) while dp induces a volume
increase in the second case.
M referring to the external surface (Fig.8.2) and dp to the pore surface, Betty's
reciprocity theorem will be written
dVp,
dp + dVB
O = dVP2 X 0+ dVB
p
(av{}()
functions of
ive variations
(aVB)
(8.16)
dp
= M.
(avp)
{}(
= VB
1 1)
(8.17)
KB  KM
(8.11)
The same reasoning with the deviatoric components
pression
(8.12)
path.
dVp
Vp
1 ( 1 1)
KB
KM
(dUiAJ  M)
=O
(8.19)
140
ol material strain
Chapter 8. Inni
8.3
av
dV: =( p)
Pl
au
MAS!
ACC(
OFA
dCT
p
The pore
VI
in which p is ti
p
The differen
(assumed to be
dV:B?=(
aaVBP )u dp
which can also
8.2.3
of Betty's thearem
af the paraus
Dividing (8.
after linearizati
far calculatian
:=(
valume.
in which m = 1
of per unit of t.
7Y and p, ar.
pore pressure p
By differentiating
r
i
8.4
d0 _ dVp._ dVB
Vp
VB
o 
(8.20)
UNDJ
SKElV
AND
(8.21 )
_material
strain
8.3
iJvp
_
dO'
)
iJO'
141
MASS VARIATIONS
ACCOMPANYING
THE DEFORMATION
OF A SATURATED POROUS MEDIUM
= pVp
(8.22)
in which pis the fluid density. The differentiation of this expression leads to
dM
= pdVp + Vpdp
(8.23)
~M
= Po~Vp + (p 
_1 __
K 
Po)Vp
(8.24)
.L (OVp)
Vp
op
te = ~
(8.25)
p Po
Dividing (8.24) by PoVp and taking into account of (8.18) and (8.25), one obtains
after linearization
(8.26)
in which m = ~M/VB
is identical to that defined in Chapter 7 (variation fluid mass
of per unit of total initial volume).
(j' and p, are defined with respect to a reference state of stress [o and a reference
pore pressure Po.
J
(8.20)
(8.21 )
8.4
UNDRAINED
BEHAVIOUR
SKEMPTON'S COEFFICIENT
AND UNDRAINED
ELASTIC CONSTANTS
The name "undrained test" is given to a test during which the loading variations
do not induce fluid mass variations. By taking m
O, Eq. (8.26) becomes
p =B(
(8.27)
142
Chapter 8. Infiai
Identifying
in which
1
B =
J(B {M
o [~j  }M] + [;B  }M]

(8.28)
J(Bm = _0"+

expo
(8.29)
Hooke's la1
elastic constan
~ ~a
or taking aCCO
Fig. 8.3. Skempton's
Under undrained
of (8.27)
coefficient
(undrained
conditons).
(8.30)
or , by introducing
where
r is a constant
Biot's coefficient ex
one is led to
(8.31 )
Vu
that is taking ,
(8.32)
Chapter 8. Infinitesimal
Identifying
thermoporoelasticity
143
1 + VB
EB
===>
(8.28)
3VB
3v" = __
E"
G _ G
,,
(8.33)
(1 2vB)aB
+ 00...._='_
EB
EB
+ (1  2VB )aB
= 3VB
3  (1  2vB)aB
(8.29)
E
(8.34)
3EB
3  (1  2vB)aB
(8.35)
/{B
(8.36)
1aB
which can also be written
Hooke's law can be written in its general form as a function of the undrained
elastic constants K and E". By solving with respect to the stresses, (8.5) becomes
(8.38)
or taking account of (8.36)
(8.39)
where
(8.40)
(8.30)
r is a constant
and depends on
/{u,
(8.31 )
one is led to
/{Bm
=
poa
rr
1\Bkk
(1
aB)
B
(8.42)
(8.43)
144
of material stl'ain
Chapter 8. ImiII
(8.44)
The consti
constants by i
then written
BKu
O'
= r ( O'a + :)
(8.45)
Equation (8.45) enables one to interpret physically constant r: T}/ Po evaluates the
excess of pressure that needs to be exerted with respect to a reference configuration
to in crease the fluid content by a unit of mass per unit of total volume for an isochoric
(a
O) and isothermal stress path since thermal phenomena have not been taken
into account.
8.5
The last te
(p = Po), non
taking accoun
from an incres
THERMAL EFFECTS
In the gen
The constitutive Eqs (8.38), (8.39) and (8.45) established in the preceding paragraph consider implicitly that the temperature of the medium remains constant during
the transformation.
The main temperature effect on a medium (solid, liquid or gas) is to cause an
in crease (or a diminution) in volume: this is the phenomenon of thermal expansion.
The increase in incremental volume resulting from an increment in temperature dT
is such that
dV
 = O'fdT
(8.46)
8.6
ENT
ATl
Vo
where O' J is the thermal expansion coefficient of the material. If one wishes to maintain
the volume of material constant during transformation, one has thus to apply to this
latter a compressive mean stress such that
(8.4 7)
Let us now consider the case of a saturated porous medium and let us carry out an
isochoric (ea
O), undrained (m
O) test with temperature variations. This causes
the appearance of a thermal stress of the type (8.47) with K (undrained bulk modulus) and O'u (volumic thermal expansion coefficient of the medium under undrained
conditions) as parameters.
In the general case, after linearization of Eq. (8.47) the
constitutive equation will be therefore''
+ 2Gue.]
Entropy .c
obvious reaso
and T rather
After differen1
or dividing b3
d
(8.48)
(ni (:)
To compm
3We write now the equations taking into account the initial state.
Each part
tests.
_ material strain
(8.44)
Chapter
8. Infintesmal
145
thermoporoelastcity
The constitutive equation can also be expressed as a function of the drained elastic
constants by introducing the drained thermal expansion coefficient e Eq. (8.38) is
then written
2GB)
( J(B  3
+ 2GBC
1)
(8.49)
(8.45)
", evaluates the
configuration
b an isochoric
aot been taken
Ckk81)
The last term of (8.49) is therefore, characteristic of an isochoric (ckA: = O), drained
(p = po), nonisothermal (T#To) transformation. By comparing (8.48) and (8.49) and
Gu, one obtains the pressure variation resulting
taking account of the fact that G B
from an in crease in temperature in an isochoric undrained transformation, that is
p
aBJ(B (T
_ auJ(u 
Po 
'T')
(8.50)
.Lo
p  Po
8.6
= r [m]
aCkk
+
Po
;;  aBJ(B
(T  To)
o:
(8.51 )
(8.46)
To compute the thermodynamic
(8.47)
carry out an
_ This causes
bulk mod_der undrained
_ Eq. (8.47) the
lIS
potential
dS = ( oS )
aVB
dVB
M ,T
(OS)
aT
vB,M
ar ; (
OS)
aM
vB,T
quantities.
dM
(8.52)
or dividing by VB
OS)
( aVB
(8.48)
Each partial
tests.
m,T
Ckk
1
VB dT
(OS)
aT
Ekk,m
os )
aM
(8.53)
Ekk,T
146
8.6.1
(m = O) isothermal
Undrained
(T
= To)
test
where s~ is ti
one increases
fluid, one has
that is
(a~~k)
3
m,T
(::r)
(8.54)
m,T
(a~:')
3
(avaT )
B
m,T
zs:
m,
where L is the
therefore the _
the temperail
latter transfos
= ll'uVB
The total,
(8.55)
aO';k)
Chapter 8. lD&
aVB
m,T
that is
(8.56)
8.6.2
Undrained
(m
= O) isochoric
Replacing
of reference ".
(ckk = O) test
Ckk
kk constant)
induces a
(8.57)
where Mo and To are the initial mass (invariable since the test is undrained)
reference temperature. The second partial derivative is such that
and the
8.7
VAR
DUR
The free el
(8.58)
By differes
8.6.3
Isochoric
(ckk = O) isothermal
(T = To) test
By introducing an additional mass offluid into the porous medium, one introduces
an additional quantity of entropy such that
(8.59)
where Vi is ti!
medium is sat
ot material strain
147
where s~ is the specific entropy of the Huid at temperature To. But by injecting Huid,
one in creases its pressure. Since compression tends to in crease the temperature of the
Huid, one has to extract heat from the system to maintain its temperature constant
that is
dQ= LdM
(8.60)
(8.54)
where Lis the latent heat per unit ofmass of fluid supplied. The latent heat represents
therefore the quantity of heat to be removed per unit of mass of Huid for maintaining
the temperature constant in an isochoric, isothermal test. There results from this
latter transformation a decrease of entropy
dS2
=
dQ
To
= ~dM
(8.61)
To
dS
= dS + dS = s~dM
1
 dM
To
(8.62)
that is
(:!)
(8.56)
kk,T
= s~
 ~
(8.63)
(8.64)
or, after linearization,
(8.65)
(8.57)
8.7
(8.59)
 TS,
(8.66)
one introduces
= H,
G,
= V,dp 
S,dT
(8.67)
where V is the Huid volume contained in the porous medium (equal to Vp since the
medium is saturated)
(OG,)
op
=
T
V
'
(OG,)
oT
=
p
S,
(8.68)
148
dV
dS
dp
T
(as)
ap
dp
T
(av)
aT
dT
p
gm
(as)
aT
 1 [l+a(TTo).,~
dT
p
p  po]
A
TTo
+ Cp
Sm
(8.70)
the thermal
Po
expansion
coefficient
static bulk modulus of the fluid, and Cp its specific heat at constant
Replacing
gm 
9m
o
T  To)sm
a
+(T
Po
8.8
p + 
 To)(p  Po) 
THERMODYNAMIC
one obtains
Po
Po
Cp
2T,
(p  PO)2
(8.71)
.,
2poA.
POTENTIAL
= (Kv. 
17
2A22 =
+ G.(b'kbJl + b,ebJk)
E = a1J[.
6 = a.Kv.1.
equations
2~ .) b'Jbkl
The last co
Now in a Ji
'"
A~kl
The coeffici
and by identifj
(T  To)2
The constitutive Eqs (8.48), (8.51), (8.65) and (8.71) define the thermomechanical
behaviour of a poroelastic material.
These equations can be written in a matricial
form by introducing:
(a) The elastic undrained
Contrary ti
in T  To and
is a quadratic
while the term
In these ea
(p  Po)
To
= 9~
(8.69)
which can also be written by taking account ofEqs (3.31) and (3.41), after linearization
and division by mass (the index m indicates specific quantities)
1
Chapter 8. InfinI
=  + A'"'"
0
17
p = Po  R:
can be written,
e  (m) 
R

+ 1J+
Po
Po
9m gm
A (T  To)

a .K . aBKB
(T  To)
a
(8.72)
Deriving (8
(8.73)
Chapter 8. Innnitesimal
149
thermoporoelasticity
mo(T  To)
O
To
+Smm
S=SO+{l.:f+GEkk
gm
= gm 
(T  TO)sm
PPO
+ 
(8.69)
PO
Gp
(TTo)2
2
Lm
To
+ (T
T.
 To)(p  PO)
Po
(8.74)
(8.75)
(p  PO)2
2pOK
linearization
Contrary to (8.72), (8.73) and (8.74), (8.75) is not linear but of the second order
in T  To and P  Po. In a linear theory (i.e. for which the thermodynamic
potential
is a quadratic form), only the three first terms of (8.75) are taken into consideration
while the terms of the second order are neglected.
In these conditions, the thermodynamic
potential can be written
(8.70)
'1/;
A2(T
'1/;0
 To)
(8.76)
The coefficients can be estimated by taking account ofthe partial derivatives (81)
and by identifying subsequently with (8.72,8.73,8.74,8.75).
Thus by calculating
0'1/;
u=
of
(8.71)
one obtains
after identification
with (8.72)
dt3
= ~
(8.77)
0'1/;
s=one obtains
after identification
with (8.74)
mo
= G
2An
oT
Ekk
(8.78)
To
rro)
.1. o
Sm
P+ 
Po
Po
(8.79)
= gmo 
1J
: f
Po
TI
2" m
Po
+ (T  To)
[ Smo
a" te;  o s
+ poa
KB]
(8.80)
(8.72)
Deriving
to m, one obtains
0'1/;
(8.73)
gm = om = 2A33m
+ A3 + dt3
: f
+ A23
(T  To)
(8.81 )
150
Part
Ir.
Mechanism
ol material strain
Chapter 8. InDi&
= 2rPo
A3
= gm
The expression of
_
V;  V;o
+[0: , 
V;
A33
23
= Sm +
Q'u
Ku  Q'B KB
poQ'
(8.82)
Substituting
one finally obta
mO
~u :
Smm
(,6 : ,)(T
Lm
T  To)+ (T
To
+ 2P6m
 To) 
3 : ,
(8.83)
(:)
8.10
 To)
Finally, identification of A23 in (8.78) and (8.82) leads to a relation between latent
heat and thermal expansion coefficients
L= To [Q'uKu Q'BKB]
Q'
Po
8.9
(8.84)
I~Vfl
= ~V
= sv 
(8.86)
~VB
Extracting I
time, one obtaa
(8.85)
 ~Vp
+ ~VM
 To) + VMCtM(T
Up to now
Fourrier's law ti
into the constin
law is written ~
Mass conser
EQU
Replacing (1
(8.87)
 To)
where Ctf and CtM are respectively the fluid and matrix expansion coefficients. IntroVf), one
ducing the porosity and taking account that the medium is saturated (Vp
is led to
I~Vfl
= [0oCtf
(8.88)
8.11
PAR:
(8.89)
Let us consa
and (8.96) are 1
the minus sign indicating that the fluid is expelled from the porous space.
On the other hand, in drained conditions (that is at constant pore pressure) and
at constant mean stress, Eqs (8.49) and (8.51) are written
(8.90)
Gl material strain
Chapter 8. Infinitesimal
151
thermoporoelasticity
(8.91)
(8.82)
Substituting
(8.89) and (8.90) in (8.91) and taking account
one finally obtains
(8.92)
(8.83)
8.10
between latent
(8.84)
EQUATION
OF HYDRAULIC
DIFFUSIVITY
Up to now we have not used the diffusion equations (Darcy's law for flow and
Fourrier's law for heat) defined in the previous chapter. They have to be introduced
into the constitutive laws in order to complete the formalismo As regards flow, Darcy's
law is written [Chapter 7, Eq. (7.46)] (l{ is supposed to be a scalar)
!Vi
= l{V'p
with l{
Po
Mass conservation
= /tk
(8.93)
m=V'!Vi
(8.85)
(8.86)
(8.94)
Replacing
(8.87)
{)t
{)t
1]
1]To
with respect
{)t
to
(8.95)
!{)p + a O.::kk_
Lpo {)T
1] {)t
T01]
PARTICULAR
{)t
(8.88)
8.11
(8.89)
= ~V'2p
{)t
/t
(8.96)
CASES
test at constant
mean stress.
(8.97)
(8.90)
(8.98)
oi materal stran
Chapter 8. Infiair
By replacing (8.97) in (8.98) and by taking account of (8.36) and (8.44) one is led
Taking a.caJI
152
to
~
= ~J1\12p
8p
Bl\.B 8t
(8.99)
mass conservati
8p
(8.100)
8t
where
KB
KM
(8.101)
KM
are respectively the fluid and the pore volume compressibilities [see Eq. (8.18)] at
constant mean stress.
(8.100) is the classic equation used in reservoir engineering.
Another interesting case is that of a rock with an incompressible matrix
(KM + 00, O:M + O). For such a material, the thermoporoelastic coefficients become
[see Eqs (8.6), (8.28), (8.36), (8.44), (8.84) and (8.92)]
Kf
(8.103)
+ 00KB
K
00
To
= af1\
In Eq. (8.11
fluid flow is of
theory. Taking
PoL
(8.104)
7]=
since in a lineal
(8.102)
a=l
(8.108) can :
T.7
(8.105)
11
(8.113) is ti
Po
By replacing (8.102), (8.103), (8.104) and (8.105) in (8.96), the hydraulic diffusivity equation becomes
_1_ 8p
J{
8t
+ ~
fJckk
_ O: 8T
00 8t
at
= .s: \12p
00J1
(8.106)
8.13
RES~
BOU
ANI:
which only depends on the fluid properties (that is J{ and a) and the porosity.
A general tl
8.12
EQUATION
OF THERMAL
DIFFUSIVITY
This derives directly from Eq, (7.53), assuming on the one hand 1>1 = O (no mechanical dissipation in an elastic material) and ignoring, on the other, the viscous
dissipation in the fluido In this case, around the reference temperature To, one obtains
(8.107)
Chapter 8. Innnitesimal
153
thermoporoelasticity
as
(8.99)
0<;'
mo
aT
Lm
o.
(8.108)
To
mass conservation
(8.109)
(8.100)
Eq. (8.95) and Fourier's law
Q=
/\,VT
(8.101)
(a,J'uTo
 LpQa)
(8.110)
6
and
by their values)
aekk
(
P6L2) er
Tt
+ CCkkmO + rTo 7it
(8.111)
_poL ap
r
at
+ T.oMVs
m
= /\,V2T
agm
Sm
=  aT =
(8.112)
sm
(8.102)
In Eq. (8.111), the convective term ToMVsm representing the heat supply due to
fluid fiow is of the second order and consequently can be neglected in a linearized
theory. Taking account of (8.84), one obtains
(8.103)
PoL ap
 ry
at
(8.104)
(
CEkkmO
P6L2)
rTo
er
.r
aekk
7it + aBJ'BT0Tt
2
/\'V
(8.105)
(8.113)
T
materials.
IIItkallllic diffusi
8.13
(8.106)
RESOLUTION OF A THERMOPOROELASTIC
BOUNDARY PROBLEM. BELTRAMIMITCHELL
AND CONSOLIDATION EQUATIONS
A general thermoporoelastic
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(8.107)
The
The
The
The
The
In the same way as for elastic media, the Hooke's equations, the compatibility
equations and the equilibrium equations can be expressed together into a differential
form: the BeltramiMitchell equations.
Chapter 8. InlUtc
154
For this purpose, let us express the Hooke's equations in drained conditions with
respect to the deformations. Taking account of Eq. (8.37) this is written [see Eq. (8.5)]
2GBt:'J
3(/1"  /lB)
+ B(1 + /1,,)(1 + /lB) (p  PO)'J
+ fJ2t:zz
Writing
(3
= 2 {Pt:yz
oy2
Two further
After summing
(T  To)'J
Consider now one of the compatibility equations, for instance [see Eq. (1.82)]
{Pt:yy
oz2
(8.114)
O:BEB
+ 3(1 + ve)
or by replacing
(8.115)
oy Z
3(/1"  /lB)
B(l + /1,,)(1 + /lB)
(8.116)
(8.114) in (8.115)
020'kk
(302p
OZ2
"Y
o2T
Oz2
Taking into
substituting in ~
(8.117)
where
The equilibrium equations on the other hand are
Adding Eqs
00' xx
00' xy
00' x z
00' yx
00' yy
00' yz
;+Ty+Tz
OO'zy
(8.118)
;+Ty+Tz
OO'zx
2Jj
OO'zz
;+Ty+Tz
+
Let us derive these equations respectively with respect to x, y and z. After summation of the two last and subtraction of the first, one is led to
02
2~=~~+
oyoz
1

1 + v
02
02
oy2
02
O'xx
ox2
oz2
(8.119)
where CT is cal]
Writing
allows one to ea
of (8.119) in (8.117)
[020'kk
020'kk]
+oy2
oz2
+r
['V2T
"2
O'
_ 02T]
ox2
x+ (3
=O
["2
v
p022 ]
ox
Equation (8.
(8.120)
of material strain
155
conditions with
[see Eq. (8.5)]
f3 and
or by replacing
'V
2 [U
xx(1
i by their values
VB)  ukkl
(8.114)
_ aBEB
3
[PUkk
3(vu
B(l
+ ;;2 ('V2T
VB)
V )
u
(2'V p 
[Pp)
OX2
(8.121 )
=O
_ 02T)
Ox2
Two further expressions (with respect to y and z) can be derived in the same way.
After summing of the three equations, one finally obtains
2 [
(8.115)
'V
Ukk + B(l
6(vu  VB)
+ v.)(l _ VB/
2aBEB]
VB) T
+ 3(1 _
=O
(8.122)
(8.116)
2
om
at
Po
= K'V2p
(8.'i23)
Taking into account (8.37) and (8.48), deriving (8.51) with respect to time and
substituting in (8.123), one obtains
(8.117)
2KGBB(1+vB)(1+vu)'V2
3(V,,VB)
\
where
P
!. [
ot
(]H+
~P
~T]
B +
KB
= Ba
(8.124)
(8.125)
(aB  au)
CT'V
(8.118)
6(vu
2KGBB(1 + vB)(l
+
3CT(VuVB)
.dz.
After sum
~
(8.119)
VB)
vu)
] _
2aBEB
3(1vB)T
!. [
(8.126)
lT]
PatUkk+BP+C
=B
(8.127)
.,]
0'1:.1:+B(l+vu)(lvB)P+
(8.128)
(8.120)
(8.129)
156
Part
Ir.
Mechanism
oE material strain
Chapter 8. InnnitesJI
or by writing
 1989, A general
March 1989.
(8.130)
GEERTSMA, J.A.,
elasticity o/ satur.l
 1957, The effect
Petroleum transact
(8.131)
called "general consolidation equation". Coupled with the diffusivity Eqs (8.96) and
(8.113) it allows one to calculate (TU, p and T.
In the particulate case of an isothermal transformation, one obtains
CT'12
called isothermal
consolidation
[(TU +
!p]
%t [(TU +
!p]
(8.132)
equation.
SCHEIDEGGER, A.:
New York.
8.14
CONCLUSION
The constitutive
such as
equations ofthermoporoelasticity
encloses independent
constants
(8.133)
These constants do not necessitate taking into account the hypothesis of homogeneity and isotropy of the matrix. This hypothesis is then not necessary to the
establishment of the constitutive laws. The equations deriving from this hypothesis
[expression of the Biot's coefficient (8.6), of the Skempton's coefficient (8.28) and relation (8.92)] have to be used carefully. It is better to measure directly fundamental
constants like, J(u, a and B and to verify subsequently this hypothesis.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BEREST, P., 1988, Phnomnes
canique des roches", BRGM.
thermiques
en gotechnique,
CORNET, F.R., and FAIRHURST, C., 1974, lnfiuence o/ pore pressure on the dejormation behaviour o/ saturaied rocks, in Proceeding of the 3rd Congress of ISRM, Vol.
1, part B, pp. 638644, National Academy of Sciences, Washington.
COUSSY, O., 1988, Thermoporoelastic
)
Chapter 8. Innnitesimal
(8.130)
(8.131)
(8.132)
thermoporoelasticity
157
(8.133)
media, Tech
on the defor
o ISRM, Vol.
CHAPTER
The triaxial cell is the most suitable tool for determining the thermoporoelastic
properties of a geomaterial. This test derives in fact from soil mechanics where it has
long been used (since the 1930s), except for its adaptation to highpressure conditions.
For a more detailed study therefore, readers are referred to the work of Bishop and
Henkel which contains complete information on the subject.
9.1
In a triaxial test one applies to a cylindrical sample a vertical load ov and a radial
confining pressure Pc. In a radial plane, the stress field is therefore isotropic (and
equal to Pc). Furthermore, an interstitial pressure p is imposed in the interconnected
porosity via a third pressurization circuit.
The latter can moreover function (Fig.9.1) under drained (valve V1 open) or
undrained conditions, (valve V1 closed). The Total Compagnie Francoise des Peiroles
(Total CFP) experimental system is of entirely new design. It is schematized in
Fig.9.2.
Its originality lies in the fact that instead of conventionally regulating a vertical
load and a confining pressure, one directly imposes a hydrostatic stress and a deviator.
This is accomplished thanks to direct communication (through conduit AB) between
the confining pressure and the chamber above the piston (chamber C).
160
Chapter
9. The tria
In this way, tI
The deviator is a
load O"y is (Fig. 9
fluid inlet
VI
__
~I"""
~
description
of the triaxial
test.
.<oJ
Pv is the pre
of the piston (eq
?'
'"
~
'Fl
:..
:..
in
~
?'
0~
'Fl
'"
'"
c,
?'
0c,
9.2
patent).
cell
DRAll
The interstiti
recovered) volun
ment of the piS
(Fig. 9.4).
A set of two 1
in the table belo
161
of material strain
..
(9.1)
,,..
a
2r
2R
st.ress
.'
9.2
DRAINAGE CIRCUITS
The interstitial pressure is imposed via a servocontrolled jack. The injected (or
recovered) volume can be evaluated with maximum precision by measuring the movement of the piston with the help of a displacement transducer linked to the rod
(Fig. 9.4).
A set of two valves (1 and 2) enables one to establish three types of drainage listed
in the table below
162
Regime
Undrained
Drained
at 2 ends
Drained
at 1 end
Vl
V2
Closed
Closed
or open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
injection
VI
of material strain
j ac k
fluid inlet
Chapter
9. The trial
The displacement
to the strain of tI
cell base, in othes
unwelcome strain
The strain gal
strain of the cell a
(i.e. horizontal ta
of the sample (sa;
is not integrated
reliable results tl
dependent on the
displacement trar
to regulation exo
C2
regulation
Cl }
loop
....J
9.4
FRICTJ
Friction probl
of two orders.
V2
9.4.1
of the circuit.
If Vl is closed, one is working under undrained conditions and one can no longer
control the interstitial pressure since the sample is isolated from the injection jack. It
is therefore essential for obvious reasons of regulation to schedule two measurements
of pressure (transducers Cl and C2) so that the transducer on which the cylinder is
regulated (C1 in our case) is not isolated from the jack.
Under drained conditions, on the other hand, a single transducer would be sufficient (Cl and C2 do in fact provide an identical measurement). Valve V2 makes it
possible to carry out drainage at both ends if it is open, at one end only if it is closed.
Drainage at both ends speeds up the test quite notably, which is extremely useful
when the sample has a low permeability.
! .
9.3
STRAINS MEASUREMENT
Frictil
This relates tA
ment of the plane
manner the latteJ
of limiting this E
teflon, on the oth
be homogeneous.
correct.
of material strain
jack
lion loop
163
The displacement transducer can be placed outside the cell. In that case, in addition
to the strain of the rock, one measures that of the cell. It can also be placed on the
cell base, in other words in the confining chamber. In this case, one eliminates the
unwelcome strain of the central block of the cell.
The strain gauges have the advantage, on the one hand, of not integrating any
strain of the cell and on the other of allowing possible measurement of the radial strain
(i.e. horizontal tangential strain). However, their use requires meticulous preparation
of the sample (sticking, wiring) and the measurement remains localized (the strain
is not integrated over the whole sample). Generally, strain gauges give much more
reliable results than displacement transducers the measurements of which are very
dependent on the quality of sample faces parallelism. The author recommends that
displacement transducers should not be used for strain measurements but restricted
to regulation except when the material is highly deformable.
9.4
FRICTION PROBLEMS
Friction problems are the most crucial in experimental rock mechanics. They are
of two orders.
9.4.1
This relates to the friction between rock and piston which prevents free displacement of the plane faces of the sample. Instead of becoming strained in a homogeneous
manner the latter tends to assume the form of a barrel (Fig.9.5). There are two ways
of limiting this edge effect: on the one hand friction can be limited by grease or
teflon, on the other, one can increase the length of the sample for the central zone to
be homogeneous. Ratio 2 between length L and diameter is generally admitted to be
correct.
<I
I
o
.c
displacement
sample via a
. iderstitial fluid.
shape).
on the strain
of the sample
164
9.4.2
of material strain
Friction of the moving piston is very troublesome when one inverses loading.
thermore this friction generally increases very sharply with confining pressure,
the loadingunloading loop increases (Fig.9.6). A very effective technical trick
enables one to avoid this by making the piston slide over a teflon ring (Fig.9.7).
oring located behind the ring ensures the tightness of the system. Thanks to
method, it is possible to minimize to a large extent these disturbing effects.
Furand
over
An
this
displacement
Fig. 9.6. Typical stress strain curve
with hysteresis
due to friction
during
9.5
unloading.
Chapter
9. The trial
damage minerals I
However, it is espt
a problem, much
After cleaning
avoid such unwelc
better to use a no
distilled water is
Once it has be
porous plates an
ensure better dist
9.6
COMP]
After 48 houn
To be convinced
hydrostatic stress
connected porosit
in the hydrostati
increases slightly
An undrained
tion. Contrary tc
165
teflon
ring
\
oring
I
piston
ring
system
with
(Nicolas Patent).
After cleaning, the samples are presaturated in a vacuum system for 48 hours. To
avoid such unwelcome phenomena as clay swelling (frequent in sandstones) it is often
better to use a nonpolar fluid such as a lowviscosity refined oil. Among polar fluids,
distilled water is to be avoided.
Once it has been presaturated the sample is introduced into a rubber sleeve. Two
porous plates are placed between the pistons and the faces of the sample. These
ensure better distribution of the fluid into the sample. .
9.6
COMPLETE
SATURATION
OF THE SAMPLE
After 48 hours in a vacuum system, the sample is generally very poorly saturated.
To be convinced of this fact, it is sufficient to close the drainage and to increase the
hydrostatic stress (f. If the sample is poorly saturated (presence of air in the interconnected porosity), the interstitial pressure will respond poorly to any incrementing
in the hydrostatic load (f: either the interstitial pressure remains unchanged or it
increases slightly with respect to (f and above all with a certain delay (Fig. 9.8).
An undrained test is therefore a very reliable way of checking the sample saturation. Contrary to what is generally admitted, it is not a flow but a consolidation
166
undrained
pressure
Ir
CALCl
9.7
saturated
(instantaneous
sample
THEe
response)
unsaturated
sample
time
pressure
an undrained
response
test.
with
volume
)
The boundar
log(time)
of 'tOO'
curve
with
where Pi is the
conditions (9.4),
Carslaw pp. 991
p(z
in which Tv is a
almaterialstrain
167
'
9.7
.',
(
CALCULATION OF PERMEABILITY
THE CONSOLIDATION TIME
FROM
Aside from being a very effective saturation process, consolidation is also an indirect method of measuring permeability via the isothermal consolidation coefficient.
For this purpose one has to solve the consolidation equation for the imposed
initial and boundary conditions imposed [Eq. (8.131)]. In the case of an isothermal
transformation, a constant load and a linear flow (according to axis x of the core) the
isothermal consolidation equation is written
(9.2)
with
CT = 2kGBB2(1
9J1.(vu
+ vu)2(1
 VB)
vB)(l
Vu)
(9.3)
The boundary conditions (in the case of drainage at both ends) are such that
p(x, t = 0) = 0
= h, t)
p(x = h, t)
p(x
Vx
(9.4)
Pi } Vt
Pi
where Pi is the consolidation pressure and h the halflength of the sample. With
conditions (9.4), (9.2) admits the wellknown solution (see for example Jaeger and
Carslaw pp. 99100)
P()z , t
= Pi 
4Pi ~
(_l)n
+ 1) e
(2n
_(2n+1)2,,2T.
4
cos
+ 1)1I'x
2h
(9.5)
n=O
~'
168
of material strain
a dimensionless
9. The triaJI
variable U,
p(bar)
50
f~hP(x,t)dx
(9.7)
2hpi
substituting
Chapter
U=l
2:
00
11"2n=O
(2n
+ 1)2
_ (2n+l)'".'Tv
4
(9.8)
30
Tv=O
U=O
Tv=oo
U=l
20
The sample is therefore consolidated after an infinite time. It is possible to calculate the consolidation time from approximate expressions. That of Terzaghi for
example provides a very accurate approximation up to a 90 % degree of consolidation
10
(9.9)
In a first approximation, if one admits this equation valid up to 100 % of consolidation, one can easily evaluate the consolidation coefficient as a function of consolidation
time tlOO that is
50
100
<Tl(bar)
1I"h2
CT
= 4tlOO
(9.10)
300
200
9.8
UNDRAINED HYDROSTATIC
MEASUREMENT
OF BAND
COMPRESSION
x;
100
The second phase of the test consists in gradually increasing 0', in undrained conditions, up to the mean total in situ stress O'g. If complete saturation has been reached
(it is generally the case) after the first consolidation, an increment of hydrostatic
stress /:).0', induces an instantaneous interstitial pressure increase /:).p
/:).p = B/:).O'
(9.11)
where B is the Skempton's coefficient. However, the response is not always ideal as
is shown by a few typical cases in Fig. 9.10: total destruction of the interconnected
20
40
of material strain
169
ess variable U,
p(bar )
p(bar)
50
25
(9.7)
20
_1 .,'
.
(9.8)
.:,,:,
30
~~':..........
""''''''''!'''
15
20
10
10
1000(bar)
o
(9.9)
50
100
150
200
250
300
50
100
150
200
250
p(bar)
150
(9.10)
the permeability
_.rect permeability
.'
300
./
100
.!
1~:
200
ION
..
'
.'
.'
/
d
50
100
lal(bar)
Ev (*10000)
20
60
80
100
(9.11)
always ideal as
lite interconnected
destruction
bunsaturated
of porous
under
100
undrained
space
sample
cinfluence
of fissuring
on stress
strain
dinfluence
of fissuring
on stress
pressure
(after
Charlez.1987)
curve
curve
200
300
conditions
170
strain
porosity (a) (at the end of the test, the porosity is no longer in communication with
the pressure transducer) or quite simply (b) poor initial saturation.
Contrary to
what is generally accepted in soil mechanics, Skempton's coefficient is often much less
than 1.
Type of rock
Ruler sandstone*
Tennessee marble*
Charcoal granite*
Berea sandstone*
Westerly granite*
Vosges sandstone
Weher sandstone*
Venezuela sandstone
0.88
0.51
0.55
0.62
0.85
0.41
0.73
0.30
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.19
0.01
0.18
0.15
0.05
9.8.1
1
Ll7f = kLl7f
_m_21
= PI = =mi
(9.14)
The instanta
that of the mat
coefficient).
The rock not
can take a certa
that is Pt, can b
the expression (4
where
an is the roo
Po is the initi
PI is the initi
Pt is the pres
poo is the eqt
J1.
inverse of the oe
171
nnication with
. Contrary to
is often much less
porous
stone
(compressibility
factor m L)
me asurerne nt
factor
m2)
measurement
system
on the response
:Dowever, the rate
The instantaneous response is therefore that of the measuring circuit Pl and not
that of the material Po (which is equal to Bl:!."ff in which B is the Skempton's
coefficient) .
The rock not being necessarily very permeable, equalization between Pl and Po
can take a certain time. The pressure evolution in the measuring circuit at time t,
that is Pt, can be evaluated by integrating the consolidation equation. One is led to
the expression (Gibson, 1954)
1~
Poo
(9.12)
(9.13)
(9.15)
where
0,
an is the root of the equation an cot an
Po is the initial pressure in the sample,
Pl is the initial pressure in the measuring system,
Pt is the pressure measured at instant t,
Poo is the equilibrium pressure,
f1
(7r/2)[hD2mv/(ml
+ m2)] in which D is the sample diameter and mv the
inverse of the oedometric modulus
(9.14)
m,,=
1 v  2v2
E(Iv)
172
of material strain
obtained
after an
1 PI }
Poo
= Po { 1
1 +~
(9.16)
When equalization is reached between the sample and the measuring system, one
evaluates an apparent Skempton coefficient Bmes such that
= BmesL:l.7i
Poo
(9.17)
The measured value ofSkempton's coefficient must be corrected; one easily obtains
by replacing (9.14) and (9.17) in (9.16)
= Bmes
(1
+ ~) 
(9.18)
Generally, especially for high pressure systems, the tubing is much more compressible than the porous disc (ml > m2) so that k is closer to 1. As J1. is always
greater than 100 (except for very incompressible samples), this correction modifies
very slighty the results. An example of measurement of Skempton's coefficient is
presented in Fig.9.12.
40
30
Chapter
9.8.2
9. The tI
The
The heterog
consequence is
become uniforn
of the interstiti
unwelcome phe
Aside from
makes it possil
phase of (Fig.!
linearity in the
observed whose
ticularly specta
instantaneouslj
9.9
snco
When the h;
pressure (whid
actual value ~
a final consolid
permeability hi
consolidation is
the loading rate
geostatic stress
36
..
oj
.D
34
32
~
:..
30
;::l
25
OJ
OJ
~
..
c,
9.10
PAR
26
24
"@
~
...,
22
OJ
20
...,~
.S
MEA
15
16
14
12
10
100
120
140
160
mean
Fig. 9. 1.2~lcasurement
on Lavoux limestone.
stress
150
200
(bar)
of Skempton's
coefficient
220
A test unde
carried out in s
throughout the
too fast the loe
modulus will 1>4
The ideal sc:
but this proced
coefficient to ei
excessive local]
Let us imag
this test is earn
will be equal to
of material s~rain
obtained
after an
(9.16)
(9.17)
0Ile
easily obtains
(9.18)
lIluch more com
L As jJ is always
tion modifies
's coefficient is
173
9.8.2
The heterogeneity of the stress field within the sample is due to end effects. The
consequence is a heterogeneity of the instantaneous pore pressure which tends to
become uniform in the same way as during the previous process. The distribution
of the interstitial pressure prior to the equilibrium is difficult to evaluate, and this
unwelcome phenomenon often remains difficult to quantify.
Aside from Skempton's coefficient, the undrained hydrostatic compressibility test
makes it possible to obtain the undrained bulk modulus. In fact there is firstly a
phase of (Fig.9.10c) microcracks closure which is reflected in a very marked nonlinearity in the stress strain curve. During this phase, microruptures are occasionally
observed whose effect is to increase the connected porosity; this phenomenon is particularly spectacular on the curves in Fig. 9.l0d in which the interstitial pressure falls
instantaneously by nearly 100 bars. This effect will be studied in the third part.
9.9
When the hydrostatic pressure (j reaches the mean geostatic stress, the interstitial
pressure (which was not monitored during the previous phase) is readjusted to its
actual value PR (corresponding generally to that of the reservoir) by carrying out
a final consolidation. Generally speaking, during the preceding hydrostatic phase,
permeability has decreased so that the consolidation time corresponding to this final
consolidation is greater than the previous one. Measuring it enables one to readjust
the loading rate of the subsequent phases which will always take place above the mean
geostatic stress.
9.10
_ P
Pu 
R
B0"1
0"2
(9.19)
174
Chapter
9. The
= PR
=1
(9.21)
= 1
h2

(9.22)
nCTtf
20hZ
tf =
3CT
(9.23)
and will ensure proper drainage of the sample. If R; represents the compression
strength of the material under the considered confining pressure, a loading rate such
that
Rc
(9.24)
Ve=tf
Vc
is known measurement
9.11
MEASUREMENT
PROPERTIES
OF UNDRAINED
9.12
MEA
AND
ELASTIC
Measurement of undrained elastic properties (Ku, lIu, Eu) is carried out using the
same loading paths, but the loading rate can be higher.
Two cases c
1. If one aI
the hydJ
of material strain
would not
equal to PRo
d, at tf (instant
of dissipation
250
(9.20)
230
175
.l!Ssure
240
220
210
(9.21)
200
the consolida~irical
formula
(9.22)
~
.D
190
';:;'
0
..,
180
<Il
'I
';:
<1>
'"
170
160
'
..
equal to 3 for a
H one supposes
. ed by experithe case n
3)
150
140
130
120
(9.23)
110
2
2
deformation
(9.24)
(104)
of elastic
properties
on Lavoux limestone.
9.12
MEASUREMENT
OF BlOT'S COEFFICIENT
AND MATRIX BULK MODULUS
tic load conLet us take again the expression of the variation in total volume [Eq. (8.8)]; in the
case of a hydrostatic loading 7f, it is written
1:!.kk
1
= }.'
(6.7f + a6.p)
'\..B
(9.25)
= a6.p
(9.26)
176
2. If the interstitial
increment (~O'
(9.25) becomes
of material strain
~Ekk
= }'iM
(9.27)
210
t*
190
180
170
(fJ
~
'"..
'"~
....,
160
ro
150
:j:++'
140
t*
t*
110
Th4
When the ts
form
Generally tl
perature. In th
such that
where ar is the
The volume
tion will be sue
+1
/
l
++
or again
However, tl
the order of 10'
therefore relati
130
120
9.13.1
(If
200
9. The CI
= ~p),
~(f
Chapter
+*
+*
of grains
bulk modulus
of Lavoux limestone.
9.13
The thermal expansion coefficients are probably the most difficult therrnoporoelastic constants to measure. In fact, there are four different coefficients (au, oe, au
and aj), but only two of them are independent.
9.13.2
M.
In theory, I
sample in a tri
associated stra
The heatin
1. Either
rock.
2. Or by c
In the first
rogeneous due
the confining (
of the rock an4
177
atic pressure
modulus since
(9.27)
9.13.1
Generally the fluid is in a solid receptacle which also undergoes changes of temperature. In this way, the receptacle which initially occupied the volume Vo expands
such that
(9.29)
Vr
Vo [1 + O'r(T  To)]
rC
rC.
0'/(103;oC)
Acetone .......
Benzene .......
Oil ............
Water .........
Mercury ......
1.32
1.16
0.9
0.5
0.18
.'
9.13.2
Measurement
of au and o
ts (au, O'B, aM
In the first case, only the rock is heated, but the temperature distribution is heterogeneous due to heat losses by conduction in the piston steel and by convection in
the confining oil. The temperature field depends greatly on the thermal conductivity
of the rock and on the thermal convection coefficient in the oil.
178
of material strain
Chapter 9. Tbe CI
Rather than heat just the rock, it is better in order to obtain a homogeneous
temperature field, to heat the whole of the cell via the confining oil and to measure
the thermal strain with the aid of a strain gauge stuck on the sample so as to avoid
the expansion of the various parts of the cell (or of the transducer itself if it is situated
inside the cell). The disadvantage of this technique is that it restricts measurement
to temperature fields below 1300 (problem of thermal instability of the gauge at high
temperature). An example is presented in Fig. 9.15 for Lavoux limestone (undrained
test ).
In SI units I
The thermal
but it remains 4
...
vert
'"
~1
;..
...,;:J
<Q
~
c,
12 \
..., 40
(J)
hor
.,'
"t;j
35
3
30
4
vol
25
5~~
20
1
lime
3
(thousands
"~
o
time
of s)
of thermal
expansion
(thousands
of s)
coefficient
on Lavoux Limestone.
9.14
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
Thermal conductivity measures the ability of the medium to let heat flow through
it. This is expressed by Fourier's law which relates the heat flow Q to the temperature
gradient
Q K'VT
(9.32)
of material strain
a homogeneous
and to measure
so as to avoid
if it is situated
measurement
the gauge at high
ne (undrained
179
K.
00
i
\.
t:
0.0060.180
0.1670.377
0.1000.400
0.1008
0.6282.930
0.0250.25
0.11
8.5
20400
0.0
0.0
in W j m.oC
vert
f
TABlE 1
Thcrmal
hor
conductivities
of common
2.5
rocks
at 20 C
7.5
..
sedimentary
rocks
quartzite
dolomite
sandstone
vol
limestone
wet clay
shales
argillaceous
sand
salt
anhydrite
metamorphic
rocks
gneiss
marble
volcanic
rocks
basalt
g abbro

diabase
granite
(9.32)
K(w/m.C)
180
Chapter 9. The tr
Contrary to electrical conductivity or magnetic susceptibility, thermal conductivity changes are relatively small from one rock to another. Low for clays, medium
for carbonates, it is relatively high for rocksalt.
The measur
fluid at a given
being known ill
temperature of
specific heat of
TABLE 2
of common
Specific heat
600
BOO
700
900
rocks
1000
at 20 C
1100
1200
1300
BIBLIOGB
dolomite

sandstone

BISHOP,
limestone

CHARLEZ,
argillaceous
salt


Ph.,
abilite d 'une fIl
 1987, The tr.
mation, Augus
shales
metamorphic
A.W.
triaxial test, Ec
wet clay
sand
anhydrite
rocks
COSTE,
J.,
gneiss
marble
GIBSON,
R.E.
rate of strain,
volcanic rocks
JAEGER,
basalt
.C.:
Oxford.
gabbro
REUSCHLE,
diabase
f
am
: "Plasticite et
T.
un calcaire, un
granitc
SKEMPTON,
pore pressure,
TERZAGHI,
K.
 1948, Soil AI
9.15
V
Vol. I & II, 'I'I
VUTUKURI,
SPECIFIC HEAT
WEAHLS,
For solids and fluids, it is not useful to distinguish specific heat at constant pressure
and volume. One merely defines it at constant strain, that is C'kk. Specific heat was
defined in Chapter 3. It represents the capacity of the material to store heat. It is
defined by the quantity of heat required to increase by one degree the temperature of
one gramme of material, that is
(9.33)
Cekk is expressed as J /(kg. DC). Specific heat varies very little from one rock to
Its order of magnitude is 800 J /kg.oC.
another.
H.}
., material strain
181
The measurement of specific heat can be carried out in a calorimeter filled with
fluid at a given temperature
(water for example). The specific heat of this fluid
being known as well as the masses of fluid m f and of rock mr, if T; is the initial
temperature
of the rock and TF the final equilibrium temperature
of the mixture, the
specific heat of the rock will be written
T!
c <Ok
mf T/ TF
f mr TF Tl'
i
(9.34)
BIBLIOGRAPHY
I
i
I
I
~
l
(
of soil properties
in the
CHARLEZ, Ph., 1981, Etude critique des differentes methodes de mesure de la permeabilite d 'une roche au laboratoire, in French, unpublished.
 1987, The triaxial test. Its application to petroleum engineering, Petroleum Information, August.
COSTE, J., and SANGLERAT, G., 1975, Cours pratique de mecanique
: "Plasticite et calcul des tassernents", Dunod Technique.
GIBSON, R.E., and HENKEL, D.J., 1954, Influence of duration of tests at constant
rate of strain on measured drained strength, Geotechnique 4: 615.
JAEGER, J.C.,
Oxford.
Press,
sur un gres et
SKEMPTON, A.W., 1960, Effective stress in soils, concrete and rocks, Proc. Conf. on
pore pressure and suction in soils, 416, London, Butterworth.
TERZAGHI, K., 1943, Theoretical Soil Mechanics, John Wiley.
 1948, Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, John Wiley.
VUTUKURI, V.S., LAMA, R.D., and SALUJA, S.S., Mechanical
Vol. I & II, Trans Tech Publications.
WEAHLS, H.E., 1962, Analysis of primary
the soil mechanics division ASCE, Dec.
(9.33)
f
t
and secondary
properties
consolidation,
of rocks,
Journal
of
CHAPTER
"':'.
10
Thermoporoelastoplasticity
General theory and
application
A.GENERALCONCEPTS
10.1
Let us consider the simplest case of ideal plasticity, ignoring therefore any hardening phenomenon. We propose in this scope to write the constitutive laws.
10.1.1
with a TPEP
184
of material strain
or
(10.1)
10.1.3
Var
trm
Let us imag
of fluid minto j
plasticity thresl
variation is eqw
e
P
'YJ
Po
Po
~m
me
111
tsot.hcrm al isoehorie
t ransrorm
at ion.
where 0P is the plastic porosity (irreversible variation or porosity when the material
is unloaded). During the transformation, since only the increment of elastic mass me
can generate an increase in pressure the constitutive equation of ideal plasticity for
pressure is therefore such that
p
= Po + !L(m 
p00P)
(10.2)
Po
= Po
G:TJ(ckk
transformation
c1k)
(10.3)
in which cu and c1k are respectively total strain and plastic strain. For a general
transformation, the overall variation in pressure will therefore be written
(10.4)
10.1.2
Constitutive
law in TPEP
(10.5)
The final te
extracted from
phase, one folka
the material be
yond point A d
extract heat fro
Entropy ine
to AB' as woul
point A. In this
.EmaUrial
strain
Finally, during
mass mP is the
185
or
(7'

(7'0
+ AU
""
( 
P)
(m 
Po
0P)
A (T  To)

(10.6)
(10.1)
10.1.3
m
Lm
To
(10.7)
O=~"'L
(10.2)
isothermal
associated
with
transformation.
(10.3)
(lOA)
(10.5)
The final term of the righthand member represents the quantity of heat to be
extracted from the system to maintain the temperature constant. During this first
phase, one follows path OA of Fig. 10.2. When the ideal plasticity threshold is reached,
the material becomes strained at constant pressure. The additional fluid supply beyond point A does not create any increase in pressure; it is no longer necessary to
extract heat from the system to maintain its temperature constant.
Entropy increases therefore according to AB (parallel to OM) and not according
to AB' as would have been the case if the elasticity limit had not been reached at
point A. In this way, the variation in entropy is therefore such that
s = s~m  ~ (m  P00P)
(10.8)
186
isothermal transformation
one
(10.9)
so(T  To)
10.1.4
(TTo
According to Eq. (8.71) the free enthalpy of the fluid in a linearized theory is such
that
(10.10)
10.2
or by taking into account that g! = 1,b!
INEQl
CONe
+ pol Po
(10.11)
In the case of i
is reduced to
gm
1,b!+
s!(T
10.1.5
in which Vk are tJ
Taking accoun
:0 [PO+17[o:(c;kkc;~k)+(:0P)]+P;~(TTo)]
 To)
Thermodynamic
(10.12)
The pore pres
that the dissipatk
potential in TPEP
a1,b
s=aT
laws
(10.13)
However one must take care when integrating on variable m since (10.12) combines
energy flows (1,b! and s!) and a pressure term. By the same reasoning as in the
previous paragraph, it is clear that the integration of gm leads to
(10.14)
since once plasticity appears the pressure remains constant. Taking account of (10.4)
and of the two other partial derivatives of (10.11) one is led after integration to
where
is the thermodyni
If one consides
(10.18) is writ
In the case of
ciated with fP is ~
This effective stre
As already menta
It depends on the
Chapter
187
10. Thermoporoelastoplasticity
ormation one
'I/J= 'l/Jo+ 2:0 : (f.  f.P)
 0P)
+ 'I/J~m + Po (:
(10.9)
so(TTo)+
(T
[Cf.f.p) :~u:
 ToM:
+~
theory is such
(f.f.p)]
 To)
[m _ 0
0P)
/2 (:
+ L(m
8: (f.e)
TTo
(10.15)
 p00P)r;;
CkkmO (T _ TO)2
2To
P] 2 _
2 Po
(10.10)
10.2
(10.11)
(T  To)]
80P
8Vk
(10.16)
(10.12)
(10.17)
=  80P
force associated
with 0P so
(10.18)
where
(10.13)
Ak = _ 8'I/J
8Vk
force associated with Vk.
(10.19)
is the thermodynamic
If one considers a plastically incompressible matrix that is
(10.20)
(lD.18) is written
(10.21)
(10.14)
In the case of a plastically incompressible matrix, the thermodynamic force associated with P is
"+ [p, the effective stress conventionally used in soil mechanics.
This effective stress is different from that defined in poroelasticity (equal to "+alp).
As already mentioned, the effective stress cannot be considered as a static concept.
It depends on the constitutive law; it is a rheological concept.
i=
188
Secondly, we have seen (paragr. 3.19) that in the case of dissipative phenomena
the normality concept was not necessarily verified and one has in the general case
to differentiate the yield locus from the plastic potential F. Under the hypothesis of
matrix incompressibility, the plastic How rules will be written
(10.22)
where). is the plastic multiplier.
(10.22) clearly shows that the idea of plastic effective stress is connected to the
concept of plastic flow and not to the concept of yield locus (Coussy, 1989). In the
general case, even under the hypothesis of plastically incompressible matrix, one has
f(q;,p)#f(rz+l
p)
(10.23)
The concept of effective plastic stress on the contrary is very interesting for an
associated plastic flow rule for which f == F. In that case, the poroplastic problem
can be considered as a continuous plastic problem provided that one replaces total
stress q;by effective plastic stress
in the plastic formalism, exclusively. On the other
hand, it makes no sense to write static conditions with effective (elastic or plastic)
stresses. For example boundary conditions have always to be written in terms of total
stress and pore pressure separately.
10.3
~= ~
(0: Of)
orz
>0 ====?
hardening
<0 ====?
softening
====?
. of
u:7J>

====?
loading
====?
unloading
(J'
. of
u:7J<

informa
====?
(10.24)
(J'
The physical meaning of H can be easily understood if one considers the simple
a.
case of an uniaxial stress path and an associated constitutive law such that, f
The hardening I
and in this simple
local stiffness).
The hardening
pends on several he
In the stress 51
"deform" the yield
The hardening
time. They are the
The evolution (]
both in size (isotro
across the stress sp
scalar, tensorial or
This is so for e
hardening consists
dening consists in a
variable).
189
a
hardening
(10.22)
softening
(10.23)
!!jIIIftSLin,g for an
ti",c problem
replaces total
_ On the other
 or plastic)
. _ tenus of total
OLL
~~
E
Fig. 10.3. Physical concept
of hardening
modulus .
1.
=rr
H
'e
1.
= ~rr
E
"'_uy informa(10.24)
The hardening modulus has then in plasticity (from an incremental point of view
and in this simple case) the same meaning as Young's modulus in elasticity (i.e. a
local stiffness).
The hardening modulus describes the memory of the material and generally depends on several hardening variables.
In the stress space these hardening variables appear as parameters which can
"deform" the yield locus.
The hardening variables describe therefore the evolution of the yield locus over
time. They are the image of the past.
The evolution of the yield locus can take several forms (Fig. 1004): it can change
both in size (isotropic hardening), in shape (anisotropic hardening) or simply move
across the stress space (kinematic hardening). The hardening variables can thus be
scalar, tensorial or both.
This is so for example in Fig. IDA in which the yield locus is a circle: isotropic
hardening consists in an increase of radius R (scalar variable) while kinematic hardening consists in a displacement of the circle whose radius remains constant (tensorial
variable).
190
of material strain
Chapter
10. Therm
the consistency e
c
1_+4 __
By replacing
types
of hardening.
aisotropic
banisotropic
ckinematic
'r
,
forces Rand
Similarly, the
by identifying (1
JS
INCH
OF Aj
lOA
(10.25)
If one asSUID
dition will be WI
and if one derives (10.25), with respect to time, one obtains
(10.26)
The partitios
In the general case (no partitioning rule between 9" and fL), one has to introduce crossed terms in the expression of'lj; (see Lemaitre and Chaboche, 1988, p.198).
Writing
{)2'1j;
I< = {)2'1j;
and
L=
with
(10.26) becomes
where A is the eI
{)fL2
R=I<jJ,
and
and
{)!J2
=f
.9"
(10.27)
==
As by definil
191
= 0 is written
(10.28)
and the plastic flow rule with respect to the hardening variables [Eq. (3.95)]
(10.29)
By replacing (10.26) and (10.29) in (10.28) one finally obtains
of
~:
0"
uO"
(10.30)
Similarly, the hardening modulus H can be calculated from the plastic multiplier,
by identifying (10.24) and (10.30)

10.4
of
(10.31)
o~
(10.25)
If one assumes that J1 is the only scalar hardening variable, the consistency condition will be written '
of . (/
00'
 .(10.26)
The partition
of.  0
(10.32)
+ 0 p. J1
rule is written
(10.33)
with
i/=A:i:e
 ~and
(10.34)
where A is the elastic tensor.
(10.27)
=:
As by definition
e'
20ne will write the equations with respect to the plastic effective stress
= +lp. One will
suppose furthermore c<= 1 (elastic effective stress identical to plastic effective stress).
192
of material strain
or
.x = ~ of it
(10.35)
n o;
( .x 8q;'8f)
of : A:
8q!
'"
 tt
=0
(10.36)
~f : A:
da'
8f
A=
H
'" 
+ 8q! : 4:
of
(10.37)
8q;'
Taking account of (10.33) and (10.34), the incremental law can be written
8f)
U'=A:.x(A:
or by introducing
the elastoplastic
'" 
matrix
10. TherIlMlt
The hyperplao
of the incremental
one side and pure!
We shall thus 4
the incremental e
independent of tit
In a tensorial
two tensorial ZOnE
an arbitrary choic
multiplier X and tl
(10.38)
'" oq;'
4ep
Chapter
10.6
and taking account of (10.37)
LAWS
ZONE!
(10.39)
with
(10.40)
10.5
= (AeP)l
'"
: ;,
(10.41)
GENERALIZATION
OF ELASTOPLASTICITY:
CONCEPT OF TENSORIAL ZONE
To define the plastic flow rule (Chapter 3, paragr. 3.19), one assumes the existence
of a constitutive matrix varying with the incremental stress direction:
(a) If the increment dq; points outside the yield locus
tutive relationship is such that
In the case of
the entire increme
the elastic tensor]
loading zone and;
than two tensorial
increment, sever~
law (four tensoria
raise serious proh
However, mod
ample) is facilitat
model, paragr. U
10.7
LAWS
TENS4
If the numbs
corresponds to a
no longer disconl
very difficult expe
dissipative mecha
of material strain
(10.35)
(10.36)
(10.37)
lie written
193
i!
< 0) on the
(10.38)
10.6
"'(10.37)
(10.39)
(10AO)
(lOA 1)
10.7
194
of material strain
transformation
will
where
)
At least, instead
void ratio which is
incremental
zones
zones
sollicitations.
are defined
by the dashed
in which 0 is the II
One can dedua
differentiating (10.'
lines.
(after Darve.1987)
B. THE CAMBRIDGE
MODEL
Generally in books on rock mechanics, few pages are devoted to clay materials. Indeed, clays are very often solely listed under the word "soil", relating to un compacted
materials existing at shallow depth.
In fact, numerous oil drillings show compact rocks with a very high clay content
at great depth. For this reason we describe in the following paragraph the classical
CamClay model recently generalized to thermoporous materials by Coussy (1989,
1991).
10.8
SPACE OF PARAMETERS
Let us consider a volume element submitted to a state of stress " a pore pressure
p and undergoing a total strain increment df. The strain energy associated with this
10.9
PHEN(
NORM
HYDW
Elastoplasticity
memory of the grt:A
The consolidati
applying to a SaIIlJl
Consolidation take
Let us consider a
completely unload!
195
transformation
+ pdv
.: d + Pdv
dW
![: df.
(10.42)
rdc+ Pdv
where
s = a
P =
1
fT""I
+P
fTkk
(10.43)
J~(~:~)
Vp
Vs ==> e
2 dVs
Vs
if one neglects the compressibility
(dV8 ~ dVp). Finally one obtains
clay content
the classical
Coussy (1989,
(10.44)
Vp ~ dVp
Vs
(10.45)
dv~
10.9
0
1_ 0
de
l+e
(10.46)
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
STUDY:
NORMALLY CONSOLIDATED CLAY UNDER
HYDROSTATIC COMPRESSION
Elastoplasticity of clays is based on the following concept: the material has the
memory of the greatest consolidation stress undergone in the course of its history.
The consolidation concept was described in details in Chapter 9: it consists in
applying to a sample a constant mean total stress and a uniform interstitial pressure.
Consolidation takes a certain time having regard for the permeability of the material.
Let us consider a previously consolidated clay sample (at a value P
pJ) then
completely unloaded, and given eo the void ratio of the sample after removal of the
196
Chapter
load. Let us load the sample again under a hydrostatic compression P (Fig. 10.6)
and under drained conditions. One assumes that loading is sufficiently slow for the
interstitial pressure to remain uniform at all times.
10. TbenDIII
with
To introdnc
a state function 01
For an isothen
In(P)
of a clay under
compression.
10.9.2
Initially the material displays a nonlinear elastic behaviour such that the void
ratio decreases linearly versus logarithm of mean effective stress P with a slope equal
to K known as "swelling coefficient". At pJ, irreversible strains appear. The material
hardens and the maximum value reached by the loading (PJ in Fig. 10.6) is memorized
as a new consolidation stress. The maximum consolidation stress appears therefore
as an elastic limit but also as a hardening variable, so that an unloading according
to path Be will be purely elastic and during a subsequent reloading, plasticity will
appear in B and no longer in A.
During hardening, the material exhibits again a linear behaviour of void ratio
versus In (P), but with a deeper slope >., known as "compressibility coefficient".
that is
10.9.1
If the mean effective stress is less than the current consolidation stress, the non
linear constitutive law is written (Fig. 10.6?
eO
= eo
 K In(  P)
POI.
(10.47)
or, with respect to the mean pressure P and the volumetric elastic strain [see Eq. (10.46))
3The minus sign compensates
where e~ is the pi
It is necessary
tition rule) is not
since, infinitely so
ism. Although ope
hypothesis issued
197
P (Fig. 10.6)
slow for the
= Poexp
with
ko
{ko(ve
(10.48)
va)}
= _1 + eo
K;
dP =
For an isothermal path (dT
(~;)
(o~)
ov
dve
(OP)
dT
oT
(10.49)
u.
(10.50)
va)}
ve
Va = aB(T
= 0) the
volumetric
 To)
(10.51)
where aB is the drained expansion coefficient (the interstitial pressure being constant
during this transformation).
Replacing (10.50) and (10.51) in (10.49) (with dP
0) one can calculate the second partial derivative which allows one after integration
to determine the general non isothermal state law
P = Po [1 + exp{ko(ve
10.9.2
that the void
a slope equal
The material
~ is memorized
Illlealrs therefore
according
plasticity will
va)}  exp{koaB(T
 To)}]
(10.52)
When the mean effective stress P reaches the consolidation stress Pal, plastic
irreversibilities appear: the void ratio evolves linearly versus In(  P) with a slope >.
(known as compressibility coefficient) greater than K;. Assuming the partition rule
for strains, the constitutive law will be written (Fig. 10.6)
e
= e"
+ eP
= eo + >.In( POI)
= (A
 K;)[ln(P) In(PoI)]
(10.53)
k=>._K;
where eb is the plastic void ratio associated with the initial consolidation
pressure
POI'
(10.4 7)
(see Eq. (10.46)]
It is necessary to point out that the small perturbation hypothesis (i.e. the partition rule) is not strictly in accordance with a non linear elastic constitutive law
since, infinitely small of power more than one are taken into account in the formalism. Although open to criticism from a theoretical point of view, we will adopt this
hypothesis issued from the Cambridge School.
198
10.10
of material strain
Chapter
10. Thermop
BEHAVIOUR OF A CLAY
UNDER DEVIATORIC STRESS
CRITICAL STATE CONCEPT
and
dr
= =dtr,
260
220
a
e..
180
140
100
60
20
0
elastic
limi t
IL __ ~
__
~~_P
JL~
Pcr
Fig. 10.7. Concept
of critical
state
The clay behaviour for such a loading path is displayed in Fig.lD.8. It can be
divided into three phases: initially, the material is strained under growing deviatoric
stress and undergoes a plastic volume decrease (contractant behaviour). The density
of the sample increases, the material hardens. The second phase shows the appearance
of an ideal plasticity stage: the material is then strained at constant plastic volume.
This second type of behaviour has a limit, and gradually there is a strain localization
in a shear band: this is the phenomenon known as bifurcation for which the behaviour
becomes dilatant (dVB > D). Only the first two types of behaviour will be studied
in this chapter; bifurcation will be dealt with in the third Part. We may mention
4Do not forget that
dlT~
is negative (compression).
The transition
the change from a
is associated with
which the originaJi
1. Critical sta;
P constant
The critiea
slope M . .Ii
and of the i
Pr into
'f)
= =rl P,
2. This first a
density) de
flEJBaterial
strain
199
however that, concerning the appearance of a shear band, one can no longer strictly
speaking refer to rheological behaviour given the separation of the sample into two
distinct structures.
s)
positive
Z50
confining pres(that is at
tative point
hardening
phase
,...r~~~'
ZZO
00 bar
180
~
.0
J::'
140
00 bar
100
00 bar
50
100 bar
20
0
10
12
14
Ev(l~)
Fig. 10.8. Stress
(remoulded
strain
curve under
deviatoric
loading
The transition phase (which can be ranked with perfect plasticity), characterizes
the change from contract ant to dilatant behaviour and is known as critical state. It
is associated with two fundamental properties, corroborated by experiment and on
which the originality of the Cambridge model is built:
1. Critical state appears for a ratio between deviatoric stress r and mean stress
P constant.
The critical state is reflected therefore in diagram Pr, by a straight line
slope M. M, being a material constant independent of the loading parameters
and ofthe initial void ratio (Fig. 10.7). The critical state line divides the plane
Pr into a contracting zone and a dilating zone. Introducing the parameter
1] = r/ P one has
1]
1]
hardening
1]
= M ==? dvP = 0
critical state
shear band
2. This first condition is not sufficient: in the critical state, the void ratio (or the
density) depends only on the mean effective stress, which is expressed by
e
(10.54)
200
strain
10.11
EXPRESSION
dvP
(10.55)
=T}M
One can then calculate plastic strain work dWP such that [see Eq. (10.42)]
dWP
The first condition and its three associated zones can be synthesized by writing
that the plastic volume strain, plastic deviatoric strain ratio is such that
dc;p
10. TheJDllllll
The constant CI
for instance the
the yield locus eqIII!
Chapter
= Pdd' + rde"
(10.56)
= 111Pde"
(10.57)
Equation (10.57) used in the original model has been modified by Burland so as
to obtain better forecasts for low ratios r / P
(10.58)
which leads by taking account of (10.56) and introducing the variable
dc;P
dvp
10.12
DETERMINATION
10.13
to
2T}
T}2
(10.59)
M2
HARI
To determine d
(10.54). Indeed, iIi
associated void rail
iP
T}
= ~.of
or
of the
(10.60)
Let us unload"
line whose ordinal!
Finally, a new
that is
of
or
of 
27]
T}2M2
T}
=P
(10.61)
oP
5A
star has been put after the plastic multiplier to avoid a confusion with the compressibility
coefficient.
Eliminating eo ;
of (10.47) to
Per increases d
the critical state. ']
201
to
r2
+ M2 P = Const.
(10.62)
(10.63)
.lSilred by wri ting
(10.55)
Eq. (10.42)]
(10.56)
(10.57)
p __ POI
er 2
Per>
(10.64)
(10.65)
(10.58)
10.13
(10.59)
HARDENING
LAW
To determine the hardening law (i.e. how Per evolves), one has to use the condition
(10.54). Indeed, if Per is the current mean stress [positive according to (10.64)], the
associated void ratio is such that (Fig. 10.9)
Cer
 iveness of the
= Cer
(10.61 )
r  ).In Per
(10.66)
Let us unload elastically the material from point A of Fig. 10.9. It follows a swelling
line whose ordinate at origin Co will be
Co
(10.60)
Eliminating
of (10.47) to
Co
+ K In Per
(10.67)
(10.68)
Kln(P)
and Cer from (10.66), (10.67) and (10.68), one is led taking account
Per = exp{ k( Co
cP
r)}
(10.69)
Per increases therefore during the hardening contractant phase and is constant in
the critical state. The latter corresponds as indicated previously to perfect plasticity.
202
To calculate II
(10.70); taking aCl
eo
eer
t==.
K
A
I~_I
To calculate II
sider the three pa
In(P}
Per
Fig. 10.9. Hardening
ovof = (1+~
P
Substitution of (10.69) in (10.65) gives a more general form to the yield locus,
that is taking account of (10.47)
r2 + M2 P2]
[ 2M2P
f(P,r,e)=e+Kln(P)+(AK)ln
r=o
dvP )
( dc.:P
that is by replacil
Equation (10.1
in the critical sta!
calculated
(10.70)
In the generalized space of the Cambridge parameters (P, r, e), the CamClay can
be ranked with ideal plasticity. The yield surface (10.70) is fixed since the only parameters figuring in it are material constants (A, K, M and I'). The representative points
localized outside the surface (10.70) are therefore inaccessible to experimentation.
In the space of the loading parameters P and r on the other hand, Eq. (10.70)
shows that e appears as a hardening variable. To complete the formalism, it is necessary now to calculate the plastic flow rule and the hardening modulus.
10.14
In (10.73),"
will be written6
= (N')l
==
( dP )
dr
(10.71)
_material
strain
Chapter
203
10. Thermoporoelastoplasticit.r
of
(AP)l =
HoP oP
'"
[ 1 of of
HoP Or
.2. of
of
HoP or
1 of of
H or or
1
(10.72)
To calculate the partial derivatives and the hardening modulus, let us differentiate
= (1 + e)dvP
21]('\ 
K)
 P(1]2 + M2) dr
(10.73)
(M2 _1]2)(,\  K) dP
+ P(1]2 + M2)
To calculate the elastoplastic matrix and the hardening modulus, one has to consider the three partial derivatives
.lID
(10.70)
tile CarnClay can
the only param
of
~=(l+e)
P
uv
of
or
of
oP
(M2 _1]2)(,\  K)
P(1]2 + M2)
iJP
(10.76)
tative points
lIIperiJ" mentation.
(10.74)
(1 + e)(M2 _1]2)(,\  K)
P(1]2 + M2)
(10.77)
Equation (10.77) shows that before the critical state (71 < M), H is positive" while
0 (ideal plasticity). The plastic matrix (10.72) can now be
in the critical state H
calculated
(10.78)
18 and loading
(10.71)
6The prime index is introduced in (10.75) and (10.76) to indicate that 'is an effective state of
stress.
7Remember that in (10.77) P is negative.
204
dtJ'
>.. 
K (
1+ e
10.15
=>
2TJdTJ )
TJ2
M2
2TJ
(2TJdTJ
TJ2
M2
M2  TJ2
dv
= dtf'
_ ~
(10.79)
dP)
+P
law.
10.15.1
dP
1+e P
MODEL
Isotropic consolidation
In this case, r
= TJ = 0 which
10.15.3
= .6..
This is charactee
with
.6.. =
r + (>" 
(10.43),
K) In 2
(10.80)
The elastoplastic law has thus the same form, as for the critical state but the
constant is no longer r but .6...
10.15.2
Oedos
Anisotropic
consolidation
=> r
e
= TJP
+ >..In( 
P)
= e'l
with
(10.81 )
which is indeed a constant since TJ is constant in this type of test. Again the elastoplastic law is identical, but the constant is different. It will easily be verified that the
three constants are such that r < e'l < .6..(Fig. 10.10).
We may observe that in the specific case in which TJ = M (critical state) one has
e'l = r. Lastly, for TJ = a (isotropic consolidation) one obtains e'l = .6...
which is a constant
K,>" and M).
Rather than 'lo. i
of material
strain
205
isotropic
consolidation
(10.79)
anisotropic
consolidation
critical
state
MODEL
stress paths.
OL
10.15.3
in the eP
diagram.
Oedometric consolidation
This is characterized
(10.43),
(10.80)
state but the
states
p
de
2
= dv
3
(10.82)
Let us seek a constant value of 7] (and equal to 7]0) for which (10.82) is verified.
For this purpose let us replace in (10.82) Eq. (10.79) with d7] = 0 (since 7] is assumed
constant and equal to 7]0 in the course of loading).
After substitutions, one obtains
7]2
+ 3A7]
M2 = 0
in (10.70) to
A=I}"
7]0
(10.83)
(10.81 )
which is a constant
= ~ [V9A2 +4M2
3A]
(10.84)
parameters
7]0,
no 
0";, _
0"1
327]0
7]0
+3
206
of (10.84) in (10.85)
J(
10.15.4
of material strain
 1 [
1]
3(1A)+v'9A2+4M2
02
(10.86)
that is by elirmna.
or by replacing
(It
M
240
10.16
200
DIFFl
THEi
1;1 160
.0
';:;'
120
In the CamOI
C1k see FAII
equation of fluid (
[0P
80
40
Let us now increase 0'1 alone under undrained conditions. Given the matrix incompressibility, this condition is obtained by assuming a constant void ratio during
loading so that (10.70) can be written (introducing 'fJ instead of r).
eo
+ Aln(P)
 (A  K)ln
2
2
'fJ
r=0
(10.88)
p
1+ M2
A
Equalling (10.87)
1  KIA)
(introducing
the
constant
(10.89)
By substitutisq
led to
_.aterial strain
207
(10.86)
LlO"l
P
that is by eliminating
= Po + 3 + Llp
LlO"l
===} Llp = P  Po
at a value Po
.io eo is such
+ r
or by replacing (10.89)
(10.87)
(10.90)
10.16
of the matrix
[0P = c1k see Eq. (10.20)]. Taking account of Eqs (8.102) to (8.105), the constitutive
equation of fluid (10.4) becomes
(10.91)
_d
(10.88)
,".
the
constant
(10.89)
which only depends on fluid properties. The hydraulic diffusivity equation will be
therefore similar to Eq. (8.106).
To determine the thermal diffusivity equation, it is necessary to know the entropy
equation. One will proceed as in Chapter 8, paragraph 8.6.
The first derivative of Eq. (8.55) consists in a non isothermal undrained elastic test
at constant mean total stress for which Eqs (10.52) and (10.91) are written
+ Po exp{ kOCkd
Po
Po +
By substituting
led to
~~(Ckk) + Cl:jKj(T
(10.92)
 To)
one is
(10.93)
208
of material strain
3 +P
that is after substitution
Kj
Po  fkk
00
[O"Zk]
3 + Po
Chapter
10. Thermot
test. In diagram P
(point C) will be I
(10.94)
e
exp{kofkk}
(10.95)
The last two partial derivatives [Eqs (8.58) and (8.63)] being identical, the entropy
equation takes the form
8
80
+ m8~ + POCiBko
+ajKj
(f
kk
:)
exp{a8ko(T
 TO)}fkk
+ ;:CEkk(TTo)
(10.96)
10.17
e, ~
10.17.1
Po
(10.97)
p~
Undrained overconsolidated
test
Let us consider a normally consolidated clay sample under a mean effective stress
Po (Fig. 10.12). Given eo the initial void ratio. From Po, let us carry out an undrained
R~
al'material
strain
209
test. In diagram P, r, one then follows the curve PoBC [Eq. (10.89)]. The critical state
(point C) will be reached, with a mean effective stress equal to
(10.94)
P2
Po
2A
(10.98)
tlerivation,
(10.95)
M
(10.96)
o~L
J~
__ ~+~
~P
L
i
 the beginning
'" pressure of the
a consolidated
lithostatic stress
subjected to
.
 urn reached
OIerconsolidation
critical
(10.97)
state
on the stress
of the overconsolidated
path (after
Desptuz, 1987).
p
210
of material strain
(10.99)
in which P~ is the new consolidation pressure. It can be calculated by taking account
of the fact that B also belongs to the undrained path normally consolidated PoB that
is [Eq. (10.89)]
Pl=
Po
[1+ ;2]
'h
WIt
1]
=r
PI
(10.100)
Chapter
10. Th~
(10.101 )
An unloading from B being purely elastic the constitutive equation will be
e + JCIn( P)
= Const.
(10.102)
According to Eq. (10.102), as the void ratio does not vary, (it remains equal to the
initial void ratio eo), the effective mean stress P remains therefore constant during
this unloading (vertical path B Pion Fig. 10.12) while in diagram e, P, the figurative
point remains fixed. To understand the effect of the overconsolidation ratio under
undrained conditions (in other words at a constant void ratio equal to eo), let us
reload the material starting from Pl' The present consolidation pressure being
the overconsolidation ratio Nl is therefore such that
P;,
(10.103)
Given the choice of Ps ; it can easily be verified that this ratio N; is comprised
between 1 and 2. One can moreover, taking account of (10.101), relate pressure PI
to the initial consolidation pressure Po and to the overconsolidation ratio Nl that is
(10.104)
Starting from PI and reloading the material (still under undrained conditions with
void ratio equal to eo), one follows a vertical elastic path PIB. At point B, the first
plastic irreversibilities appear. One follows therefore, as far as the critical state in
C, the undrained path normally consolidated BC. During this phase, the material
hardens and the final yield locus corresponds to a consolidation pressure P; = 2P2.
A typical exau
ical analysis (ovee
lllMerial strain
If the test was begun at point P2, the overconsolidation ratio would then had been
equal to 2, and the critical state reached according to P2C, in a purely elastic path .
To study the effect of an overconsolidation ratio greater than 2, the representative
loading point must evolve towards P3 (Fig. 10.12) while maintaining the void ratio
constant (and still equal to eo). Since from point P2 elastic unloading P2P3 would
not maintain the void ratio constant (path CR in diagram e; P), it is necessary to
consolidate again the sample (necessarily under drained conditions) until pressure
PI (intersection point of the isotropic consolidation path and the elastic exponential
passing through point eo, P3) then unload until P3 (elastic exponential SP3).
If the deviator is gradually increased in P3, (under undrained conditions), one
travels along the vertical line P3C3 in diagram P, r while in diagram e, P, the figurative
loading point remains fixed. When the critical straight line is crossed in C3, one of
the two critical state conditions is not respected. Indeed in diagram e, P, the loading
point is not situated on the critical state path (point C for a void ratio equal to eo).
The representative point crosses therefore the critical straight line r
M P, and
the first plastic irreversibilities appear only in B3. One can show experimentally that
one meets point C by a straight line of slope m (which is a new material parameter)
. B (still under
.C
211
(10.99)
(10.100)
(10.101)
(10.102)
r = m(P)
+ (M
(Po)
 m)2A"
(10.105)
In this case the curve r, s, displays a peak (Fig. 10.13) while, for an overconsolidation ratio comprised between 1 and 2, it does not.
2<N
(10.103)
axi al strain
o~~~
(10.104)
Fig. 10.13. Influence of the overconsolidated
ratio on the stress strain curve.
A typical example is presented in Fig. 10.14 and shows the validity of the theoretical analysis (overconsolidation ratios of 1, 2 and 12).
212
M=O.90
2
Ii
OCR=l
P(bar)
3
Fig. 10.14. Typical example
(after
of an overconsolidated
clay
D'espax. 1987).
10.17.2
r = m(P)
+ (M
 m)
[(;I)r
(_p)lA
e~
(10.106)
e
material strain
Chapter
213
10. Thermoporoelastoplasticity
Cl
....
O~~L
~"_P
4__~~~~
critical
isotropic
consolidation
(10.106)
e
drained
of consolidation
conditions
(after
ratio
on stress
Despax. 1987).
path
state
214
10.19 THE]
In numerous geomaterials, plastic strains take their origin from relative slippage of the grains. The most conventional criteria of rock mechanics derive from this
concept. Therefore, although the subject has been developed by numerous authors it
seemed essential to examine in detail what is perhaps one of the oldest concepts of
rock mechanics: the MohrCoulomb criterion first formulated in 1773.
AND OF COHESION
(J
grain
glue (cohesion
c)
Equation (10.1
stresses (j[, UIII (.
the triangles OO'(
gr ain 2
meaning
of MohrCoulomb
AB=~
criterion.
The contact between the two grains produces a frictional force proportional to the
normal stress a and opposed to the motion of the two grains. The relative slippage
will only be possible if
(10.107)
in which J1. is known as internal friction
with
In Eq. (10.111),
Chapter
10.19
215
10. Thermoporoelastoplasticity
LINE
In diagram U  T, Eq. (10.107) represents a straight line of slope Jl tan <p where
<p is known for obvious reasons as "internal friction angle". Therefore, a sample under
triaxial compression will be plastified when the biggest of the three Mohr circles will
cut the straight line that is on a facet forming an angle /3 such that
.;
:;:"
11"
<p
/3=
(10.108)
with the direction of the principal major stress UI (Fig. 10.17). The MohrCoulomb
criterion reveals one of its essential properties: the elastic limit depends oniy on the
two extreme principal stresses and is independent of the intermediate component U II.
;
Fig. 10.17. MohrCoulomb
criterion.
AB
UI 
OA =
UfII
UI
+ UfII
SlD<p=
AB
=
AC
Uf 
c cot o
(10.109)
(10.110)
2ccot<p(UI+UIII)
UIIf
= Co
2cc~s<p
1 SlD<p
q=
with
Co =
UIII
==>
(10.107)
OC =
+ qUI
1 + sin <p
1  sin <p
(10.111)
216
of material strain
Chapter
10. Th~
Similarly one can seek the elastic limit in uniaxial traction by making in (10.111)
=0
p~
(7II1
(71
Co
q
2ccosr.p
1 + sin r.p
= To
(10.112)
Ii
..
n.
'
V:
(10.113)
Vtj
10.20
Given (Fig. 10.18) a sample under a triaxial state of stress (71, (72, (73. These
stresses (Arabic index) are associated with directions x, y, z. The Roman index, that
is (71, (7II and (7II1 will define the intensity (major, intermediate, minor).
They describei
towards the tradij
axis.
:
i
I
.~
hydrostatic
axis
 ...
i
Fig. 10.lB. Yield locus
+ (73)/V3.
to a straight .
symmetry axes
Fig. 10.19 rep
the hexagon
criterion: the
217
in (10.111)
Plane
(10.112)
(10.113)
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
Order
(13
(13
(11
(11
(12
(12
< (12
< (11
< (13
< (12
< (11
< (13
Equation
of type
(10.111)
(TIll
(11
minor
stress
major
stress
(13
(11
(13
(13
(12
(13
(11
(12
(11
(11
(13
(11
(12
(13
(12
(12
(11
(12
< (11
< (12
< (12
< (13
< (13
< (11
= Co +
= Co +
= Co +
= =C +
= +C +
= Co +
q(11
q(12
q(12
q(13
q(13
q(11
(12
(T3. These
index, that
~.
(13
Co
= S; = ql
= c cot e
(10.114)
They describe a pyramid (Fig. 10.18), the apex of which is pushed back in S;
towards the tractions and whose axis (such that (11
(12
(13) is known as hydrostatic
axzs.
).
a'J
'fresco
hexagon
,..
t
Fig. 10.19 Yield locus in a devi atoric
for different
values
of
plane
'P.
218
10.21
SPECIAL
CASE OF TRIAXIAL
TEST
Pial
I
D
n,
V
In plane stress ~
pseudo hydrostatic
<p
0, To
Co; 311
'
hydrostatic
Ol'' __~
axis "./
""
. '
'
'
"
planes
III and IV
in a triaxial
plane.
10.22
SPECIAL
Another interesting special case is that of the biaxial test (0'3 = 0), for it leads to
very different conclusions. Again, one has to consider the six possibilities of sequencing
the stresses, and this is summarized in the table hereafter.
C.ases I and II, corresp~nd to uniaxial tension, cases IV and V, to uniaxial compression.
10.23
TENS
Up to now we
"compression" .
In fact, for gn:
deviators (a pheno
_ material strain
Chapter
219
10. Thermoporoelastoplastici~y
Plane
Order
Cfl
I
II
Cfl
Cf2
>
>
III
Cf2
> 0>
IV
V
0>
0>
>
>
VI
Cf2
Cfl
Cf2
Cft
Equation
of type
(10.113)
CfIlI
Cft
Cf2
Cf2
Cfl
0
0
Cfl
Cf2
Cft
Cft
0
0
Cf2
Cft
Cft
Cf2
> 0
> 0
Cf2
> 0>
Cft
CfIl
Cf2
Cft
= To
= To
=1
Co
= Co
= =C
=1
Cfl,
Cf2
Cf2 _
To
Cft
Cf2
Cft _
Cf2
To
Cf2
Co
In plane stress (Fig. 10.21), it is thus possible to plastify the material under biaxial
pseudohydrostatic
loading (Cfl
Cf2), the elastic domain being closed. At least, if
cp 0, To Co; and the yield locus becomes a regular hexagon, that of Tresca.
hydrostatic
axis
/
/
/
TO
...1.,./
CO
/
/
/
IV
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
10.23
I
t
TENSION
state
of stress
yield locus
under
( (13 =0).
CUTOFFS
Up to now we have not made any physical distinction between "traction" and
"compression" .
In fact, for growing mean compression, geomaterials resist increasingly to high
deviators (a phenomenon due of course to internal friction) whereas in traction, plas
220
ticity only occurs in connection with the major stress, independently of the two others.
In fact, in tension friction has no action since the contact does not exist.
Thus, the value of To proposed [Eq. (10.112)] is only an ideal and purely theoretical
value. These considerations have led certain authors (Paul, 1961) to modify the yield
locus by introducing into the traction domain a cubeshaped yield locus intersecting
the initial pyramid by three planes perpendicular to the axes (Fig. 10.22) at a distance
equal to To, (real and not ideal traction resistance).
where F(O") is a fm
mentally. This fune
of the preceding ail
The fundamental PI!
particular the indep
stress component. j
...
.0
0.8
0
[/)
'0
.:
oj
0.6
[/)
;::l
0
..c:
..,
~\0
0.4
0.2
0
0
modified
with tension
Paul. 1968).
cutoff (after
cr i te r io n
10.25
10.24
GENERALIZATION OF MOHRCOULOMB
CRITERION: CONCEPT OF INTRINSIC CURVE
While the MohrCoulomb Criterion models fairly accurately the behaviour of low
cohesion soils, for rocks the forecasts are often poor particularly at low mean stresses.
In fact, for material such as sandstone, the internal friction coefficient is not a
constant and depends on the stress level. This phenomenon can be clearly explained
by the presence of microcracks and will be developed in the third part. At present, we
will content ourselves with introducing the concept of intrinsic curve: the irreversible
strains occur when the shear stress 7 on a given plane reaches a limit value as a
function of the normal stress on this plane, that is
171 = F(O")
(lO.115)
THE N
THEP
It is often assmJI
locus. This hypothe
model. For the inlli
that plasticity is all
friction coefficient
Very often, expe
only observed just I
has to be consideee
yield locus and the
model.
221
where F(a) is a function dependent on the material and to be determined experimentally. This function known as intrinsic curve in diagram (J', T is a generalization
of the preceding criterion, for which the internal friction coefficient J1. depends on (J'.
The fundamental properties of the MohrCoulomb criterion remain therefore valid, in
particular the independence of the criterion with respect to the intermediate principal
stress component. An example is presented in Fig. 10.23.
~
...
.n
0.8
en
"'s::
"
0.6
11l
en
::l
0
..c:
...,
~10
0.4
0.2
o
o
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
IQKthousands of bar)
Fig. 10.23. Intrinsic
10.25
1
,
..
(10.115)
curve
of Vosges Sandstone.
THE NONASSOCIATIVENESS OF
THE PLASTIC FLOW RULE
It is often assumed in plasticity that the plastic potential is identical to the yield
locus. This hypothesis of normality has been used in the framework of the Cambridge
model. For the intrinsic curve model, the hypothesis of normality (Fig. 10.24) shows
that plasticity is accompanied by a plastic dilatancy dp the greater the internal
friction coefficient is large. The dilatancy factor j3 is defined as the ratio de" / diP.
Very often, experiments do not confirm these forecasts, and generally dilatancy is
only observed just before and possibly after the rupture peak. A "Mohr Coulomb"
has to be considered with a non associated plastic flow rule; by differentiating the
yield locus and the plastic potential. Such is the case with the Rudniki and Rice
model.
222
of material strain
Chapter
10. Thermop
Rudniki and Hi
7
f(7f,7') =1
Expression (10_
defining identically
Let us introdue
a~
J
For a nonassoe
yield locus f
of the
where
10.26
To understand Rudniki and Rice's approach, let us express in two dimensions the
principal stresses as functions of components Uxx, UYY' uxy
C1I
C1II
= 21(C1xx
=
~(uxx
+ C1yy) +
+ Uyy)
[2
C1xy
+ 41(C1xx
[u;y
+ ~(uxx
C1yy)
2] !
r
2
s.,
u'3 
(f
(10.116)
(10.117)
o'J(f
7'
in which j3 is the d
the plastic strain ill
a standard law. 'l'l
Eqs (10.40) and (UI
of 9 and f is writtl
1
]!
= [2s.,s'3
Finally the
(10.118)
COllI
material
strain
223
with
such that
J1*
(10.120)
_
'J 
s'J
21'
J1* 0
(10.121)
'J
where
ag
Pij
=
au.)
In their model, Rudniki and Rice assume a plastic potential such that
dimensions the
(10.123)
(10.116)
..t
,
its deviatoric
A"
(10.117)
(10.124)
G(OmkOnl
(Skl
(10.119)
H+Q:1,::f
1,:1+ ~(Q@f)
Finally the constitutive
(10.118)
A:Q@P:A

+ OmlOkn) + (I< 
2~)
OkiOmn
(10.125)
224
10.27
of material strain
Cu is known as '
idation pressure. II
state is independess
criterion is reduced
only dependent on t
The concept of critical state written in the principal stress space makes it possible
to define for a clay an apparent cohesion and an angle of internal friction. Indeed,
one has (Fig. 10.25)8
r
= A1P
==::}
0"1
2M+3
3M
(10.126)
0"2
<P=arcsin 
3M
6+M
state
D.APPL
that is by comparing with (10.111) (these are compressions
Co = 0
2M+3
3M
s=
==::}
O"Hf
O"~)
TO TIm
(10.127)
or again
c
=O
.
sin <p
= 6 3.M
+M
10.1
28)
Under undrained conditions on the other hand, taking account of equation (10.89),
the critical state will be such that
r
= M P ==::}
0"1
= 0"2
MP
+ """""2Ao
( 10.129)
that is
Co = _ ~~o
q = 1
(10.130)
or again
<p=o
8 O"~ and
O"~
=
MPo
21+1\
(10.131 )
Among rock I
logical behaviour. It
as "coccolithes". 'l1
erty whose impact 0
reaches 45 % or IIlOI
has become essential
velopment of chalq
been observed (se
considerable.
Numerous exped
is highly complex
the gradual poroSity:
multiplicity of elastcJj
ticated constitutive 1
to explain the rheola
of material strain
225
Cu is known as "undrained cohesion". It increases proportionally to the consolidation pressure. Eq. (10.131) shows that, under undrained conditions the critical
state is independent of the deviator since the angle of internal friction is zero. The
criterion is reduced to a Tresca criterion (Fig. 10.26) and the undrained cohesion is
only dependent on the consolidation pressure Po.
(10.126)
a
Cu
'J
criterion
for a clay
conditions.
(10.128)
ofequation
(10.89),
(10.129)
(10.130)
(10.131)
OF CHALK
Among rock materials, Chalk is certainly the one with the most complex rheological behaviour. It originates from the sedimentation of planktonic organisms known
as "coccolithes". This chemically very pure rock (99 % Ca C03) possesses a property whose impact on mechanical behaviour is decisive: its porosity which frequently
reaches 45 % or more. In recent years, a rheological understanding of this material
has become essential in petroleum engineering. Indeed, as a consequence of the development of chalky oil deposits in North Sea, very large payzones compactions have
been observed (several %), and their transmissions to the surface (subsidence) are
considerable.
Numerous experimental studies carried out have dearly shown that this behaviour
is highly complex and exhibits very substantial plastic irreversibilities resulting from
the gradual porosity destruction, both under deviatoric and hydrostatic loadings. The
multiplicity of elastoplastic mechanisms has led certain authors to increasingly sophisticated constitutive laws. However, we shall see that two mechanisms are sufficient
to explain the rheological behaviour of this extremely capricious material.
226
10.28
of material strain
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY
UNDER HYDROSTATIC LOADING
10.29
PHENC
DEVIA
Under deviatoric
fluenced by the COD
pressure (Fig. 10.281
precedes a pseudoI
rheological significai
600
500
400
,D
300
Ie
200
100
0
10
~V/V(%)
Fig 10.27. Typical behaviour
under
hydrostatic
of a porous
compression
stress
chalk
state.
This zone generally covers a range of substantial strains (over 10%). Lastly, the
curve becomes inflected quite sharply (Be), the final slope being of the order of the
initial elastic slope. This behaviour becomes even more complex if one carries out
successive loadingunloading cycles (Fig. 10.27): the elastic bulk modulus increases
very sharply with loading, particularly when the final zone is reached.
Fig.
strei
At 75 bar of COD
peak is observed; tl
vertical strain of 10
Lastly at 150 be
practically disappea
pression) and only 1
227
10.29
Under deviatoric loading, the behaviour of chalk is more conventional but is influenced by the confining level as can be seen in Fig. 10.28. At 25 bar of confining
pressure (Fig.10.28a) an elastic zone is observed during the deviatoric phase; this
precedes a pseudobrittle peak and a negative hardening zone which no longer has
rheological significance (appearance of a shear band, see Chapter 13).
E1(lII)
E1(lII)
4
10i 021
c
100
50
deviatoric
At 75 bar of confining pressure, (Fig. 10.28b) the elastic zone is still large, but no
peak is observed; the material hardens positively during the elastoplastic phase (a
vertical strain of 10 % is reached at the end of the test).
Lastly at 150 bar of confining pressure, (Fig.l0.28c) the initial elastic zone has
practically disappeared (the material has left the elastic domain in hydrostatic compression) and only the positive hardening phase is observed.
us increases
,
I
228
of material strain
Chapter
10. Thermop
Chalk offers therefore two very distinct types of behaviour in the stress space: on
the one hand, an "implosive" mechanism due to the destruction of the porosity under
hydrostatic loading, on the other, a mechanism highly dependent on the confining
pressure (therefore on the internal friction) under deviatoric loading.
It is therefore essential to define for chalk two distinct elastoplastic mechanisms.
10.30
THE "TWOPOTENTIALS"
LADE MODEL
In this model the total strain increment dt:<) is divided into an elastic increment
dt::), a plastic collapse increment dt:~) and a deviatoric plastic increment dt:f) so that
in accordance with the partition rule (small perturbations) one can write
(10.132)
10.30.1
Elastic behaviour.
Loadingunloading
modulus
The loadingunloading cycles in Fig. 10.27 show a very sharp increase in the hydrostatic bulk modulus with the mean stress ff
( 10.133)
where K; is the initial bulk modulus (in other words under zero confining pressure),
Pa the atmospheric pressure (its purpose is to makes the equations homogeneous) and
n a material constant. On the other hand the model assumes a Poisson's ratio loading
independent. Young's modulus follows therefore a law identical to Eq. (10.133).
10.30.2
Elastoplastic
Under deviatoric loading, the yield locus is an "internal friction" cone for which
the friction angle decreases when the mean stress increases.
To take this curvature into account Lade proposes for the yield locus an equation
in terms of the first and third stress invariant that is
(10.134)
in which h = 0'1 + 0'2 + 0'3
Is = O'!O'20'3
m 2: O.
In the principal stresses space Eq. (10.134) is a pseudoconical surface whose projections in a triaxial plane and in a deviatoric plane are represented on Fig. 10.29.
Under growing continuous loading, the surface increases in size around the hydrostatic axis by means of the hardening parameter fp which evolves with loading. In
conformity with the positive hardenable plasticity hypothesis, the yield locus corresponds to the highest value reached by Ip during the material history.
The value of fp
nitely and, for a T.iI
bifurcation phenoo
motion of two rigi~
Equation (10.C
m and '1]1. These all
(Pal h). Let us no
(confining pressure
The hardening I
the basis of the aJ
curves are extre~
pressure, the more
elastic zone is rem.
This phenomes
where Wp is the pi
'1]1(0'2)
(maximl
(Fig. 10.30); but, tI
increases with inCII
229
hydrostatic
rupture
triaxial
axis
surface
plane
/
/
(10.132)
hydrostatic
/ ,/
hydrostatic
plane
axis
,/
,/
/
/
/
,/
,/
,/
,/
(10.133)
t
locus an equation
f
(10.134)
The value of fp has a limit however: indeed, the material does not harden indefi7]1, a shear band appears (see Chapter 13); this is the
nitely and, for a value of fp
bifurcation phenomenon followed by a softening phase corresponding to the relative
motion of two rigid structures.
Equation (10.134) contains (aside from the hardening parameter) two parameters
m and 7]1. These can be easily determined from rupture tests in a diagram (Ir /13  27),
(Pa/h). Let us note that m is a true constant while 7]1 depends on the mean stress
(confining pressure).
The hardening (i.e. evolution of fp with loading) law needs now to be specified on
the basis of the experimental results presented in Fig. 10.28: indeed the stressstrain
curves are extremely dependent on the confining pressure. The higher the confining
pressure, the more "the plastic effect" dominates "the peak effect" and the more the
elastic zone is reduced.
This phenomenon appears again very clearly in a diagram fp, Wp (Fig. 10.30)
where Wp is the plastic strain work such that
Wp
J L
a;
cf
(10.135)
7]1(0'2)
(maximum value reached by fp on each curve) is fairly 0'2 dependent
(Fig. 10.30); but, the amount of plastic strain work required to reach the peak largely
increases with increasing confining pressure.
230
40rr.r~~_.__,
10
0.3
0.1
0]
o~
L_
3
(WplPaJ
law tp=F(1p)
(after Lade,1977).
I = 7]1
(;;~&k)~ ~::;:&:p
e
(10.136)
determined,
w;e&k_Wl'
Wpea.k
p
(10.137)
fp is maximum for Wp
W;&k, that is for fp
7]1 and the curve fp (Wp) is
tangent at the origin (since 8fp/8Wp is infinite), (q > 1).
The hardening law (10.136) depends on two functions of 0"2, that is W;&k and q.
Experience shows that q is a linear decreasing function of 0"2 (Fig.10.31b), while
W;e&k is an increasing function of log 0"2 (Fig.10.31a).
The criterion being based on the concept of internal friction, the plastic flow rule
is not associated, the plastic strain increment being parallel to the direction of the
shear which induces the slippage.
The plastic potential 9p is therefore not identical to the yield locus. In Lade's
model, the function proposed for gp is of the type
gp
Ir 
[27
+ 7]2
( ~;
m] 13
(10.138)
The choice of this function derives directly from experimental observations. Its
form is relatively similar to the yield locus (10.134), but the angles at the apex in a
triaxial plane are greater than those of the yield locus.
which finally
231
10
rrrrrrrr:
..1 ,.,
(a)
4~~~~
(bl
0.3
0.1
L __
'
0.3
0'''1
0
(<Tz'Pal
10
15
(0'2'Pa)
peak
of Wp
and q with
pressure
(after
Lade. 1977)
(10.136)
p _
Cj 
ogp
(10.139)
Ap OO'j
(10.137)
IS
is W;&k and q.
lO.31b), while
In Lade's
(10.138)
dWp
Ap 
3gp
+ m"12
(
~;
)m 13
(10.143)
232
10.30.3
In the case of a I
( 10.144)
Similarly, in the
Experience show
ponential form of th
C and p being t
diagram. Caleulatio
that is
hydrostatic
axis
10.31
Fig. 10.32. Complete yield surface
a triaxial
SHAO
in
plane.
in which I: (radius of the sphere), is~ second hardening parameter. Under the effect
of loading, the radius increases, but this mechanism does not give rise to a possible
rupture. Only plasticity is considered here.
Let us now study the plastic flow rule. The material being assumed to be isotropic,
under hydrostatic loading, strains are identical in all directions. The associated plastic
flow rule will be such that
Furthermore,
th
(10.145)
As was already the case for the deviatoric mechanism, let us assume an isotropic
hardening as a function of the plastic strain work We
(10.146)
of material strain
233
tatic loading
centred on the
has an interest.
(Fig. 10.32) by
The equation of
with df:~
to
= de;
au/ K.
Wc = Uf:v
Similarly, in the case of hydrostatic
n2n
PaU

(10.148)
(2 _ n)Ki
one is led
Ie
is reduced to
(10.149)
(10.144)
by an ex(10.150)
C and p being two hardening variables. They are easily measurable in a loglog
diagram. Calculation of the plastic multiplier is carried out in the same way as before,
that is
(10.151)
10.31
This model which is specifically adapted to chalk differs from Lade's model mainly
in the choice of the hardening variable which is no longer the plastic strain work but
the scalar quantity ~p,c such that
(10.153)
Furthermore,
(10.145)
e an isotropic
(10.146)
x, 881
(J'i
1,2,3
(10.155)
234
Chapter 10. ~
2:, O";dcf
100WPJ
= ,xc 2:
a; ~ I.
.
uO",
(10.156)
68
,x _
The determination
of
,xc
48
dWc
c
S8
(10.157)
Ie
38
28
(10.158)
18
For the deviatoric mechanism, the yield locus is identical to that of the Lade model
[Eq. (10.134)] that is
1(0"1,0"2,0"3)
If
)
( 13  27
(h)m
P
= Ip(~p)
(10.159)
38
(nonassociated
25
gp =
If 
2713
(10.160)
28
=0
(10.161)
18
5
8
12
(10.162)
v(%)
which makes it possible to determine the plastic multiplier such that
(10.163)
that is
(10.164)
10.32
The hardening law of this second mechanism is different from that proposed by
Lade (hyperbolic Duncan law)
(10.165)
where Do and b are material constants.
Shao and Henry's model contains therefore eight constants which can easily be
determined by conventional tests. Some examples of comparisons between numerical
and experimental results are presented in Fig. 10.33.
TA~
RES.
To take into~
stress space al
normal stresses
0):1
.~
.,
Tisama~
of material strain
235
/(Jt(J21(MPa)
laKMPa)
28
68
(10.156)
51"
EXP
58
_51"
EXP
15
40
(10.157)
18
30
28
IU215l1Pa
(10.158)
18
0
18
12
14
11
12
h(%)
Ev(%)
12
El(%)
(10.159)
lata
IO"C0"21(MPa)
I(MPa)
78
38
expression is
(10.160)
51"
EXP
25
IUj"4"ttPa
S8
28
51"
EXP
S8
48
15
38
(10.161)
18
28
luz1Bt1Pa
:5
18
8
(10.162)
12
Ev(%)
El(%)
Ev(%)
(10.163)
12
12
12
El(%)
between experimental
on a porous chalk
(10.164)
10.32
(10.165)
To take into account material cohesion, a translation is carried out in the principal
stress space along the hydrostatic axes (Fig. 10.34) by adding a constant T to the
normal stresses such that
0:;
= +T
U;
= 1,2,3
(10.166)
236
10.33
to take
Chapter 10. Th
account
to traction.
LB.,
BURLAND,
of wet clay, in
F., 1987.
DARVE,
The deviatoric mechanism of Lade's model deriving from a nonassociated flow rule
the application of the principle of effective plastic stresses is theoretically not allowed.
However theoretical forecasts are excellent particularly under undrained conditions if
one admits the plastic effective stress principle.
Under undrained conditions (incompressible fluid and grains) any volume change
is zero whatever the loading. In the specific case of Lade's model this is expressed by
the condition
(10.167)
Under undrained conditions a rise in interstitial pressure tlp takes place such that
condition (10.167) is respected.
The results obtained by Lade show a remarkable concordance between the simulated tests (continuous line) and the experimental points (Fig. 10.3.5).
de lois de com
des ponts et dulllli!ll
G., el
DEBANDE,
research pro
DESPAX,
D.,
phase, internal
A., I
DRAGON,
of Poitiers.
HILL,
R., 1950,
JAEGER,
J.e.,
P.V., 1
surfaces, Int. J.
,. material strain
237
J: ..
....bN3
::....
b'"'2
.: ... ~.. J
30
20
10
E1(%)
Fig. 10.35. Comparison
numerical
sand
[after
results
between
of undrained
experimental
tests
and
on a loose
Lade. 1978).
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BURLAND, I.B., and ROSCOE, K.H., 1968, On the generalized stress strain behaviour
of wet clay, in "Engineering Plasticity", Cambridge, HeymanLeckie.
.ated flow rule
y not allowed.
conditions if
DARVE, F., 1987, L 'Ecriture incremeutale des lois rheoloqiques ei les gran des classes
de lois de comportement, in "Manuel de rheologie des geomateriaux" , Ecole nationale
des ponts et chaussees press.
DEBANDE, G., et aI., 1985, Mechanical
research program, phase I, Stavanger.
DESPAX, D., 1987, Alwyn, Stability
phase, internal report TOTAL CFP.
(10.167)
of inclined
 Plasticite
theory of plasticity,
1979, Fundamentals
of the Chalk
 Endommagement,
Oxford University
of rock mechanics,
University
Press.
Chapman
238
engi
de rheologie
in chalk, Symposium
des
of the Chalk
PAUL, B., 1968, Macroscopic criteria for plastic flow and brittle fractures, in "Fracture, an advanced treatise", Academic Press New York, San Francisco, London.
ROSCOE, K.H., SCHOFIELD, A.N., and WROTH,
soils, Geotechnique 9, p.71.
C.P.,
of
RUDNICKI, J .W., 1984, Effects of dilatant hardening on the development of concentrated shear deformation in fissured rock masses, JGR, Vol. 89 B 11, pp.92599270.
RUDNICKI, J.W., and RICE, J.R., 1975, Conditions for the localization of deformation in pressuresensitive
dilatant materials, J. Mech. Phys. Solid, Vol. 23, pp.371394.
SHAO, J.F., HENRY, J.P., and GUENOT, A., 1988, An adaptative constitutive
for soft porous rocks (Chalk), in Proceedings of the XXIXth U.S. Symposium
questions in rock mechanics" Univ. of Minnesota, Mineapolis, Ed. Balkema.
model
"Key
Part III
Mechanisms
of material cohesion loss
CHAPTER
11
Fissuring
11.1
HETEROGENEITY OF MATERIAL
The rheological mechanisms studied in the previous chapters only relate to homogeneous materials. In other words, homogeneously loaded materials strained in a
homogeneous manner.
In fact, actual materials are profoundly heterogeneous: impurities, inclusions,
pores, strain incompatibilities of neighbouring grains, are inherent in all materials
and represent their heterogeneity. This may be referred to in the broad sense as
defects.
Emphasis should be laid on the fact that these defects preexist any loading. The
fissuring process takes its origin from this structural heterogeneity. Indeed, by the
action of loading some defects will progress as cracks along discontinuities where
material has been destroyed by rupture of the bonds preexisting the process: we have
then what is called material cohesion loss.
There exist two distinct fissuring mechanisms: brittle rupture and ductile rupture.
Brittle rupture only involves ruptures of bonds, without any appreciable plastic strains. Total energy is concentrated in a process that leads to very large fractures, propagating rapidly through the material. For ductile rupture, on the other
hand, energy is primarily dissipated plastically; crack evolution will progress much
less quickly than in brittle materials.
Since in the majority of cases the fissuring behaviour of rocks is brittle, we shall
limit the scope of our study to this single type of mechanism. Readers interested by
ductile rupture are referred to the works listed in the bibliography.
11.2
242
of material
cohesion loss
2. Among all the defects some are subjected to much greater stresses than others.
This will be particularly the case for those with a shape factor close to zero
(infinitely flattened ellipses). We shall therefore specially refer to this type of
geometric disturbance as a defect.
3. The continuous material containing these defects is assumed to be linear elastic.
4. Under a system of increasing external loading the initial defect can extend to
neighbouring material through rupture of the preexisting bonds (Fig.ll.l).
,
!
model
Goodier. 1968).
The layers of particles are linked by elastic springs whose strength has a limit.
Beyond this limit, there is rupture of the bond and therefore irreversible separation
of the two layers (Fig.Il.2).
Fissuring reveals the concept of a threshold: if this
threshold is not reached, there can be no fissuring.
This simple model shows us that fissuring (brittle or ductile) is an irreversible
process in the thermodynamic sense. We shall study this concept in detail later.
243
loading
amax
""',.".".,
,"..,
interparticulate
distance
V
rnax
11.3
elastic
loss
fissuring.
Before studying the conditions for crack extension (one also speaks of propagation)
under the effect of external loadings, it is essential to study the disturbed stress
field around the crack. The material being linear elastic, the problem can be solved
considering the' solution of the infinite plate with an elliptical cavity of semi axes a
and b under uniaxial tension (J' (Fig. 11.3).
2a
1I
a
Fig. 11.3. Infinite
hole.
244
This calculation has been developed in Chapter 5 and has shown the state of stress
along the major axis of the ellipse (that is y
0 and Ixl ~ a) was the superposition of
a trivial problem (medium without cavity) and an auxiliary problem (pressure equal
to (1' on the surface of the ellipse)
{1'xx
l+m
+ {1'yy
2{1'
+ (1'
p m
(11.1)
{1'yy 
{1'xx
1{1'(
m2
m
)2
1 + p2
+2
p2(1 _ p2)]
2
p m
+ {1'
x(l
+ m)
acosO
+
(a
(11.2)
= 0 that
is m
1) the stress
2{1'
{1'yy
Furthermore,
for 0 = 0, (that is y
= 0)
= {1'+2p  1
= 0) and
{1'yy
along y
(11.3)
m = 1, one obtains
(11.4)
+0
with
(11.5)
(11.6)
coordinate
= a + r)
(11.3) can be
(11.8)
with
(11.9)
Equation (11.8) shows that the linear elastic solution is singular at the crack tip
0).
(that is for r
245
I(r
= (j.J'2r + 1(1
(11.10)
= r+O
lim(jyy.J'2r
(11.11)
(jyy
== V2T
+
(11.12)
1(1 represents the intensity of the singularity. It depends on the geometry of the
problem (here a) and of the loading o, For obvious reasons it is known as stress
intensity factor.
11.4
Irwin (1957) generalized the concept of stress intensity factor in the case of any
loading by no longer considering the crack as a particular type of cavity but as a local
discontinuity in the displacement field.
By decomposing the displacement discontinuity vector [il] into its three elementary
components one can describe any movement of the crack lips by three elementary
kinematic modes (Fig. 11.4).
opening
mode
shearing
kinematic
lily]
I 0
mode
modes
tearing
associated
with a crack.
mode
246
Each of these kinematic modes corresponds to a different type of stress with which
is associated a stress field in the vicinity of the crack tip. By limiting the study to
modes I and II (we shall not develop mode III in the scope of this book), the calculation
can be dealt with in plane elasticity. The asymptotic stress field at the crack tip is
then such that
J{/
cos(211'r)~
. 8 . 38
1 smsm2
2
. 8
38
sm cos'2
. 8 . 38
+ sin 2Slll2
. () [
3()]
 sm  2 + cos  cos 2
2
2
J{II
. 8 SIn
. 38]
cos 8 [1  sm
222
+.
(21I'r) 2
(::)
J{/
2G
J{II
r ) ~ ( cos ~
211'
+2G (2.)
=
(c 
1 + 2sin2~)
. 2
8 ( II:+ 1  2 cos282)
sin
~ (sin~
[1I:+1+2COS2~]
w,~
[.12'in'~l
where II: 3  4/1 (plane strain) and G is the shear modulus of the material.
In these expressions rand 8 are the polar coordinates centred on the crack tip
(Fig. 11.5), J{/ and J{II the stress intensity factors associated respectively with the
elementary kinematic modes I and II. They are function of the geometry of the problem and of the loading parameters. Let us insist once again on the fact that these
equations are only valid at the crack tip for the reasons set out in the previous paragraph.
Chapter
247
11. Fissuring
11.5
system
at the cr ac k tip.
PHYSICAL SIGNIFICANCE
INTENSITY FACTORS
OF THE STRESS
The stress intensity factors reveal their physical significance through the displacement discontinuities. For this purpose, let us calculate for example the crack opening
[u]y such that (Fig. 11.6)
[Uy]
= v [r, e = 7r] 
= 7r]
v [r, ()
(11.14)
+7r
t>+I~
_7r
discontinuity
at the crack
tip.
_ ] = 8I<f(1 
uy
v2) fr
V~
(11.15)
248
cohesion loss
The stress intensity factors can be understood as the image of the displacement
discontinuities at the crack tip associated with each of the elementary kinematic
modes. The fundamental quantities associated with a crack are no longer stresses and
strains (or displacements) but stress intensity factors and displacement discontinuities.
One can also write Eqs (11.15) and (11.16) in terms of stresses.
Indeed, at the crack tip and for e = 0
[{I
<u
= ,
(211"1')2
<Txy
= (21lT)~
(11.17)
[{II
Eliminating
[{I
and
[{II
(11.18)
_
lux]
8(1  v2)
E
r
8(1 E
v2)
t
<Tyy
(11.19)
<Txy
(11.20)
Through these equations clearly appears the decoupling of the two modes: a
normal stress creates only an opening, and a shearing parallel to the crack creates
only a slippage.
11.6
11.6.1
If the crack is inclined at an angle f3 with respect to the direction of x axis, the
stress intensity factors are such that (Fig. 11.7)
tc,
[{II
<T sin
f3Fa
f3cos f3Fa
"
(11.21)
249
,
y
a
Fig. 11.7. Inclined
11.6.2
crack
under
uniaxial
loading.
Let us observe in Eqs (11.21) that O'cos2 f3 and O'sinf3cosf3 represent the normal
and tangential projections of 0' on the crack plane. Therefore this particular case can
be generalized to any loading '. If ii is the normal to the crack, the stress intensity
factors become!
I (' . ii) . t I Fa
11.6.3
(11.22)
P (a+b)~
ab
Fa
Q
(a + b)~
Fa ab
1KJI
(11.23)
250
loads
on a crack
(ofter Sih.1973).
11.6.4
crack and
One can easily extend the previous solution to the case of a continuous loading
normal O"yy(x,O) and tangential O"xy(x,O).
At any point of the crack, a system of
selfbalanced localized forces acts that is
O"yy(x,O)dx
0"
(11.24)
xy( x, O)dx
l+
l+
1
t::
y7l'a
1
t::
y 7ra
11.7
a
O"xx(x,O)
a
O"xy(x,O)
(a+ x)t
(a+ X)t

ax

a x
dx
(11.25)
dx
When the external forces system is such that at the crack tip the bonds between
grains reach their ultimate resistance, the initial crack begins to grow. This condition
is known as propagation criterion. The singular form of the stress field at the crack
tip does not allow one to approach this problem in terms of ultimate stress. /'Therefore
it is preferable to use a thermodynamic approach.
'
251
11.7.1
if + 1< = Pert + Q 
w.
(11.26)
In Eq, (11.26), W. is an additional term that did not appear for continuous media.
It characterizes the fact that the boundary is evolutive and represents the dissipated
energy by the cohesion loss mechanism.
11. 7.2
1I
i
1
:
in which it is the displacement velocity field at any point of the solid. If the solid
contains a crack of length a which propagates by an increment da under the action
of an external constant stress field, expression (11.27) can be written
J{
1 2
= _pa
2
1({r)2
.
aa
dV
(11.28)
252
In other words "under a given loading, a crack can only grow if the kinetic energy
of the system increases during the transformation" which can be summarized by the
inequality
I<~O
{::::::::}a=O
K>O
{::::::::}a>O
11.7.3
a<0
(11.31)
Griffith criterion
The energy balance (11.26) makes it possible to express condition (11.31) in the
form
k = Pext + Q  W$  U > 0 {::::::::}
a>0
(11.32)
Each of the terms of (11.32) can be clarified. The expressions of Pext and
already been developed in Chapter 3
Pext
is
fadS
have
(11.33)
in which S is the external surface, f the external loads and 11the displacements
the external surface (external surface plus crack), and [see Eq. (3.48)]
of
(11.34)
The term W$ is, we may recall, the dissipated energy in the mechanism of cohesion
loss. It depends therefore on the crack surface created during the transformation.
In
Griffith's hypothesis, this energy is proportional to the surface increment created
during the time increment that is
(11.35)
W. = 2ra
r being the surface energy of the material, independent of loading and geometry, and
the factor 2 originating from the fact that the total area created is not da but 2da
(newly created upper face and lower face).
Replacing (11.33), (11.34) and (11.35) in (11.32), taking account of the fact that
the material is elastic one is led to the expression
is
fadS 
Wet 
(11.36)
(1
S
fJiidS  aWel F
aa
aa
2)'r
>
0 {::::::::}
a. > 0
(11.37)
253
then by writing
9
r FEN'dS
_ aWel
aa
aa
(11.38)
is
(11.39)
2,
Wet
(11.40)
oWe1 = ~
oa
2
isr
of
Ba+ u oa)
(Fou
dS
(11.41)
=~
2
(11.42)
dS
When only forces are prescribed on the external surface (11.42) reduces to
}.
I
~
,
1
I
11.8
r fOUaa dS
is
(11.43)
The Griffith criterion tells us about the initiation conditions (the external loading
must be such that 9 > 2,), but Eq. (11.39) does not solve the extension problem.
Let us consider a material containing a crack of arbitrary length a subjected on
its external surface to a loading f (tractions) with which is associated a displacement
field U.
The energy release rate associated with this loading and "this configuration is such
that (since only forces are prescribed on the external surface)
gda
=~
=~
is
(Fdu)dS
(11.44)
< 2,), the initial crack cannot grow (a = 0) and Eq. (11.36)
(11.45)
254
The material behaviour remains purely elastic (the work of the external forces is
wholly transformed into elastic strain energy) and the stress path can be represented
in diagram f, il by a straight line OA whose slope (in other words the modulus) is
lower the greater the length of the crack (Fig. Il.9).
~~========~~
Fig. 11.9. Growth of a defect (after
Bui.1978).
This slope is moreover limited between a maximum value corresponding to the case
of a continuous medium (no initial crack) and a zero slope (u axis) corresponding to
a medium completely crossed by the crack.
Given A the representative loading point for which 9
2,. A, defines therefore the
boundary between purely elastic loading and loading for which propagation occurs.
For other initial crack lengths, the limit point f, ii will be different. The set of limit
points forms a curve of equation 9
2, in the diagram f, il. This curve is comprised
between two asymptotes, corresponding to the two extrema defined just above.
If the loading point crosses the limit curve, 9 becomes greater than 2, and the
initial crack is propagated. This propagation can have two aspects however.
11.8.1
If, starting from point A, one controls the loading so that 9 exceeds only very
slightly 2" the rate of kinetic energy remains low, the consequence of this being a
slow advance of the crack (a small) hence the name quasistatic given to it. Quasistatic
propagation implies therefore as a first approximation that 9 is at any moment equal
to 2, which prescribes the representative loading point to evolve on the limit curve.
Thus starting from a crack of initial length corresponding to the slope OA, once the
equilibrium curve is reached, the representative loading point will evolve on the limit
curve from A towards B.
Chapter
255
11. Fissuring
During this phase, the crack will grow. To be convinced of this fact, it is sufficient
to carry out in D an unloading according to the elastic path OD whose slope is
less than OA. A geometrical interpretation of the surfaces subtended by the limit
curve shows that the energy dissipated during loading path OADO is equal to the
curvilinear triangle OAD. This energy is assumed to dissipate exclusively in surface
energy. One has in this, means of determining experimentally the surface energy 2,.
11.8.2
Uncontrolled
or dynamic rupture
Let us now consider the case in which after elastic loading OA, the representative
point crosses the equilibrium curve as far as G (therefore such that 9 largely exceeds
2,), then follows the path GEBF, where the crack stops.
As previously, the crack begins to be propagated in A. At point E, the crack is of
exactly equal length to that which corresponded to point D in the quasistatic case.
Since OAD was equal to the energy exclusively dissipated in an additional element
of crack surface, AGED represents therefore the energy excess (g  2,)da, in other
words the kinetic energy variation of the system which will moreover be maximum at
point B (equal to area AGEB). This kinetic energy must now be dissipated in order
to bring the system back into an equilibrium state. Various dissipative processes can
come into play: heat, acoustic energy but also new crack growth. The representative
point comes back to the elastic domain but the crack continues to be propagated
before finally stopping at point F where it is of a length corresponding to the slope
OH.
Only a part of the kinetic energy AGEB is therefore dissipated in the form of
new surface after point B: namely area BH F. The process leads therefore to a nonuniqueness of the solution: the division of the kinetic energy in the form of additional
new surface or in the form of another dissipative process not being known a priori,
the final propagation length is not known either.
Generally, to solve the problem, one assumes that fissuring is the only source
of dissipation. In this case there is equality between areas AGEB and BF H which
makes it possible to determine graphically the final point F. The rest of the exposition
will be made on a quasistaticity hypothesis, but one must keep in mind that in rock
a lot of rupture phenomena are dynamic (earthquakes for example).
11.9
OF PROPAGATION
subjected
(11.46)
256
of material
cohesion
loss
1. Either
g(a
+ da,
F)
< g(a, F)
(1l.47)
The defect
2. Or
g(a
+ da,
F) > g(a, F)
(ll.48)
and the Griffith criterion will again be satisfied after infinitesimal crack growth.
The rupture becomes unstable and only a decrease in the external loading can
stop the growth.
A crack is therefore unstable if and only if
og(a) > 0
oa
It can easily be verified that the instability
in the rate of kinetic energy. Indeed
ic = (g
(11.49)
condition corresponds
to an increase
 21')ci
(11.50)
21'
(11.51)
The crack will then be propagated at increasingly high velocities which can reach
orders of magnitude of 1000 m/s. It can however be shown that the propagation
velocity is limited to that of longitudinal waves in the material (Berry, 1960).
Application: Experimental propagation of a crack
As we have just seen, the stability of a brittle process depends strongly on the
boundary conditions.
Let us consider two specific cases:
11.9.1
When the initiation point is reached (in A or A'), one maintains the force F
constant. In this case the crack cannot evolve in a stable manner because one remains
constantly in the domain 9 > 21'.
257
\ __
OL
11.9.2
Rupture
unstable
11.10
CRITERION
258
The initial state is thus identical to the final one but, in the initial state, increment
AB (which appears this time to be part of the external surface) is loaded by surface
(]'(1)ii in which ii is the external normal to increment AB.
forces F
After propagation on AB one has
(11.53)
The energy release rate associated with the initial configuration will be written
g
11
= 2
_OF)
(ail
F  uoa
oa
dS
11AB ( e
+
_OF)
F  uoa
oa
dS
(11.54)
since the initial crack is not loaded. Taking account of (11.53) and of the fact that
remains constant on the external surface S, one is led to
that is by writing il
crack)
2gda
= f (Fdil)dS +
+ dil
= iJ<2) (displacement
Js
JAB
q;(l)ii(il
(11.55)
= f (Fdil)dS + f
is
JAB
2gda
+ dil)dS
q;(1)iia(2)dS
(11.56)
The first term of (11.56) represents the work of the forces on the external surface
S, while the second represents the work of the forces on the potential crack increment.
The first term being of a lower order than the second, one can neglect it so that
(11.57)
AB+ and AB being the upper and lower faces of the crack increment AB.
Eq. (11.57) can be analytically expounded in the case of cracks growing in their own direction (Fig. 11.11) by replacing q;(1) and iJ<2) by their asymptotic expressions (11.13).
~a  x)
If only mode I plays a role in the process one has (r
(1) _
(]'
yy
J{[
(27rX)
(2)_
and
uy
1\[
",+1
2G
(~ax)2
27r
(11.58)
,/
g 
K,
+ 1J{2
8G
(11.60)
259
O"yy(I)
uf2)
0= 7r)
+7r
Lla ",
,
,
,
O+.+OL~
x
Llax
in
If both mode I, mode II had been considered, one would have obtained in the same
way
K+l
2
2)
9
sc;(J(I + J(1I
(11.61)
The Griffith criterion can therefore be expressed in terms of stress intensity factors.
For mode I only, it is written
+ 1 ....
= sc;AI
= 2,
K
or
(11.62)
J(I
(~6Z~)
'i
= f{JC
(11.63)
[(II
= Kttc
(11.64)
We shall see in the next paragraph that the latter equation poses a problem and
that mode II does not have an obvious physical meaning.
11.11
EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF
TOUGHNESS FOR ROCKS
This problem has been dealt with in detail by Ouchterlony. Numerous methods
exist at the present time. We shall describe merely two of them.
260
11.11.1
Determination of K/C
from a three points bending test
,,
:w
4W
OLJ....II~y
a)Totally
unstable
propagation.
b)Unstable
propagation
by a stable
followed
propagation.
points.
(11.65)
in which B is the width of the beam, W its height, a the depth of the initial notch
and F (a/W) a polynomial function such that
11.58
C~)~18.4~C~)
7
150.66 ( ; ).,
Once
[{IC
+ 87.18
9
(;)
~
(11.66)
+ 154.30 (;;, ) .,
261
11.11.2
Triaxial tests
Influence of confining pressure on I<IC
. =="==",..
..........
Klc(Mpa*v1i)
DJ~~~~..~~~
o
10
20
30
40
so
60
Confining pressure(MPa)
r___1
R
H=72 mm
R=18 mm
5.3<a<II.3
mm
0.295 <alR<O.630
H/2R=2
of confining
pressure
on toughness
Biret.1987).
262
The deviatoric load (Uh Uti) at rupture makes it possible to determine the critical
stress intensity factor at rupture by equation
]{IC
= (1
ii
fo
1222
(R)a ~ 
1777
(Ii)a
(11.67)
7r~~2
+ 0740 (R)
0184
(R)a
~]
(1168)
a being the depth of the notch and R the radius of the standardized core according
to the dimensions in Fig. 11.13. This type of test enables one to demonstrate the
influence of mean pressure on ]{IC, and the independence of the mechanism with
respect to the dimensions of the notch (Fig. 11.13).
This dependence appears to be linked to the microstructure and not to the porosity
of the rock, but no theory exists at the present time to quantify the phenomenon.
11.12
real
path
()
theoretical
mode II path
to a shear.
In other words, if the crack were propagated in its own direction, only mode II
should come into play by a relative slippage of the two faces of the crack.
Chapter
263
11. Fissuring
The reality does not correspond to this process, and experience shows that the
initial fracture branches in a direction forming an angle () with that of the initial
crack: the fracture is said to branch and () is known as branching angle (Fig.Il.15).
plates
with initial
tests
on
defects
1985)
The physical explanation of this phenomenon has been provided by Mandel. The
latter assumes that a critical state is reached around the crack when, on a circle of
radius p = TO (from the crack tip), the stress (188 reaches a threshold value (Fig. 11,16).
,
fI()()
.:
~....
~
~
.:/ \'.a
"!,.'
:
,. p=ro'
~~
7
:
...
()(J
zone associated
with
The fracture tends therefore to be propagated along a path normal to the direction
of the maximum value of (188. In other words, although a shearing stress is the engine
of the growth, only opening mode prevails and not mode II as conventional theory
would have led one to suppose.
In the case of any stress field (1xx, (1YY' (1xy, the branching angle can easily be
determined by calculating the polar stress state in the vicinity of the initial crack that
is [see Eq. (2.34)]
(1xx
(1yy
(1xx)
2(1xy
sin 6 cos 6
(1l.70)
264
K1
(.

4J27Tr
3KII
()
3 cos  + cos 2
2
()
solution (11.13).
Replacing (11.13)
[(1
4v'271T
the asymptotic
one is led to
[(II
(.
()
(11.71)
(()
4J2irr
in matrix form
(11.72)
with
1(
()
3())
3 cos
. 3e)
 3 (.SIll () + SIll
422
(11.73)
. 3())
1 (.SIll e + SIll
4
2
2
1 (()
 cos422
The angle eM for which 0"99 is maximum
+3cos
3())
is such that
80"99
=O~e=eM
8e
(11.74)
that is
tc\.1ae
8K?1
8KP2 = 0 ==:} e = eM
+ tc\.11ae
that is after substitution
K1
4
of (11.73) in (11.75)
. 3()M)
SIll eM + SIll
2
2
(.
(11.75)
[(II
+ 4
3()M)
cos eM + 3 cos 2
2
=0
(11.76)
In other words, the path for which 0"99 is maxirnum is identical to that
for which 0" p9 is zero.
II
Chapter
11.13
I
I
\
...
265
11. Fissuring
11.13.1
Determination of the stress intensity factors associated with nonrectilinear configuration is a very complex problem from the analytical point of view except when
the initial branching crack is infinitesimal (in other words small with respect to the
initial crack length).
This problem has been calculated by Bui et al. He has shown that the stress
intensity factors kl and k2 associated with the final configuration (Fig. 11.17) are
such that
(11.77)
dl
2a
initial
___
configuration
2a__
final
LJJ)
configuration
in which the 1(;j are functions of (), and J{/, J{II the stress intensity factors associated
with the initial configuration (Fig. 11.17) under the same loading.
The J{ij can be expanded in Taylor series, whose first term is largely preponderant
with respect to the others and is finally very close to the completed solution.
These first terms 1(fj are analytically expressible and furthermore rigorously equal
to the 1(fj of Eqs (11.73).
11.13.2
The Mandel criterion can now be replaced by a criterion in terms of the stress
intensity factor
BUBB
B()
=0
or
or
(11.78)
In other words, the crack always chooses the configuration for which kl (which, it
should be remembered, is the kl after branching) is maximum, or, which comes down
to the same, the configuration for which k2
O.
266
11.14
When the branching length is no longer infinitesimal, there are no longer any exact
analytical solutions for the stress intensity factors.
Steiff's solution is an original
example of approximate solutions.
Let us consider a solid S (Fig. 11.1B) containing a crack oflength 2a (forming an
angle f3 with x axis) and two branching cracks of length I each at an angle f3 + ()with
the same x axis. On the solid boundary S (assumed to be infinite) a surfacic force
field is applied.
.
F
.
n~~8
oV:::
t
branch
crack.
and this
(11.79)
ki'O and k~'o being the stress intensity factors associated with the branching cracks
if the latter were isolated cracks of same length and k~nJI and k;nJI being the differences between the actual kl and k2 and the isolated contributions
kl'o and k;o.
The isolated contributions are given by Eqs (11.22), that is
(l1.BO)
267
ii' being the normal to the branching crack. The quantities k~nJI and k;nJI characterize the influence of the movements of the main crack on the stress field at the
branchs tip. Indeed, the stress field projections on the main crack such that
17
= (q:ii)ii
and
= (#)t
(11.81)
)(
in which f3ij are indeterminate
(11.82)
functions of 8.
crack
main
tip
crack
[U;]
I
discontinuities
at the branching
poinl.
[uy) and [uxJ are computed approximately. If the whole crack was rectilinear
(of length 2a + 2C) subjected to a shearing T and a normal stress 17, the associated
displacement discontinuities at the branching point (that is for r = C) would be such
that (Eqs (11.15) and (11.16))
(11.83)
= n/7r(a
+ C)
268
of material
cohesion loss
(11.84)
We may observe that when + 00 (large wing with respect to the initial crack),
the influence becomes negligible and the factors k~nfl and k~nfl tend towards zero.
On the contrary, when + 0 (incremental branching) solution (11.85) is equal to
solution (11.77) with J{/ = (J"y'7W. and J{II = ry'7W..
By identifying (11.85) and (11.77) with + 0 one obtains
/311
( /321
(11.86)
( :: ) =
(J"'
I ( ::)
+~
[va + 
Vi] ( ~~~:
11.15
11.15.1
The problem has already been dealt with in Chapter 3. We showed that an elliptical cavity in an infinite plate subjected to a uniaxial compression (J" (perpendicularly
to the major axis of the ellipse) closed for a value (J"c such that [Eq. (6.11)]
(J"c
aE
2(1 _
1I2)
(11.88)
Chapter
269
11. Fissuring
11.15.2
If the crack is inclined with respect to the stress field 2, the analysis is equivalent
to that of a crack loaded by 17 and T, respectively normal and tangential projections
of Q' on the crack plane.
Let us analyse separately the effect of these two components. The normal component 17 closes the crack and induces a nil stress intensity factor K/. Furthermore, a
frictional force is created due to the contact of the two lips. In Coulomb's hypothesis,
this frictional force is proportional to 17, that is
TF
(11.89)
J1.17
KII
=
=0
such that
TMFa
>0
<=> TM < 0
<=>
TM
(11.91 )
11.15.3
If the material is subjected to a biaxial stress field and if the initial crack is inclined
of an angle /3 with the direction of 172, Eq. (11.90) will be written (11711> 1(721)
TM
+ (72) + ~(171
(11.92)
The driving force being a shearing, before branching, only KII is different from
zero so that the stress intensity factor in mode I after branching will be written
[Eq. (11.77)]
(11.93)
270
of material
cohesion loss
()
t
Fig. 11.20. Inclined crack under biaxial compression
stress field.
According to the Mandel criterion, the crack will branch in a direction for which
kl is maximum, that is in a direction ()M such that (TM being independent of ())
[)J{P2
= 0 ===> () = (}M
(11.94)
This angle (}M is constant whatever the loading and the orientation (3 of the initial
crack and is equal to 70.53, a value wholly in accord with experience. The stress
intensity factor associated with the branching configuration is therefore such that
(11.95)
kl (()M) is a function of {3(by means of TM).
{3
in other words for
= (3M
(3M =  arctan
2
(II,
It is maximum for
(1)

jJ
+7r2
(11.96)
kl((}M,{3M)
is therefore the maximum value of kl that can be found for a loading
(12 and a crack of initial length a.
Initiation is thus only possible if the initial crack length is greater than amin such
that
(11.97)
that is if
(11.98)
Chapter
271
11. Fissuring
a> amin
Writing
C=
1
Ul  U2
+ (2)
Jl(Ul
2f{IC
(11.100)
 1155Fa
'
.
1ra
(11.102)
Approximate
length
Steiff's approximate solution enables one to calculate the branching length. From
Eq. (11.87), the stress intensity factor kl after branching is such that
(11.103)
with
(lull> I(21)
a'
TM
 1
1
= ("n')n'
= 2(Ul
+ (2) + '2(Ul
T 
Jllul
~(U2
+ Jl
[~(
Ul
+ (2) + ~(Ul
(11.lO4)
in a direction OM such
(11.105)
272
11.16
THERMODYNAMIC
OF FISSURING
FORMULATION
Without considering any thermal and plastic process, the inequality of Clausius
Duhem becomes [see Eq. (3.53)] ('Ij; is a volumic quantity)
: ~e
_ ~
2: 0
(11.107)
In the case of fissuring, the thermodynamic potential 'Ij; can be described by two
state variables: the elastic deformation fe and the crack length a such that
.i.
'P
= (O'lj;)
..
O'lj;) .
0 fe . + 0 a a
e
(11.108)
By introducing (11.108) into (11.107) and taking account of the first law of thermoelasticity [see Eq, (3.60)], the inequality of ClausiusDuhem is reduced to
(11.109)
In the case of an elastic cracked material (see Chapter 6) the thermodynamic
potential 'Ij; is a quadratic form whose rigidity matrix ~{a) is a function of the crack
iength.
If one considers a volume V of material subjected to a constant external loading
F on its external surface S the elastic strain energy contained in V is such that
'Ij;
= ~ [(f
~(a) : f)dV
(11.110)
oa from
Of)
da = (O~
oa :  + (A:
= oa
d
Extracting
oMoa
o'lj;
oa
(11.112)
273
since according to equilibrium Y'!! and Y'(d!!) are nil. Applying to the last integral
the divergence theorem and taking account of the boundary condition and of the fact
that f is constant on S one finally obtains
 a~
= ~ { fail
aa
2 }s
Ba
dS
=g
(11.113)
The energy release rate is thus the thermodynamic force associated with the dual
variable a.
The inequality of ClausiusDuhem is finally written
(11.114)
The thermodynamic formulation of fissuring is thus very close to that of plasticity. The evolution of the internal variable a can be computed from a complementary
formalism: the dissipation potential <p or its conjugate <p* such that
.
a
=
a<p*
ag
(11.115)
Brittle fracture can then be compared with ideal plasticity with a yield locus such
that
(11.116)
/(g) = g  2,
If the energy release rate (Fig. 11.21) is less than 2" the crack length remains
constant whereas when g reaches 2, there is a "brute rupture" that is
/<0
/=0
/=0
/<0
/=0
(dg
< 0)
(dg
= 0)
(11.117)
ideal plasticity
fracture.
a=~a/
ag
=~
since
(11.118)
274
of material
cohesion loss
By assuming a linear quasistatic process, one allows the loading point to move
outside the yield locus (Fig. 11.22) otherwise than by an incremental quantity (since
before releasing the process, the energy release rate can largely exceed 2}) which is
theoretically prohibited by the plasticity theory.
g(F+~F.a)
g(F+~F.a+~a)
=g(F.a)
2'Y
~
~___________
11.17
elastic
process.
CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY
M., BUI, H.D., and BANG VAN, K., 1979, Analytical asymptotic solutions
of the kinked crack problem, C.R. acado Sc. Paris, serie B 289; pp. 99102.
AMESTOY,
BERRY,
J.P., 1963, J. App. Phys., 3462.
 1960, J. Mech. Phy. Solids, 8/194.
275
behaviour
COTTERELL, B., and RICE, J .R., 1980, Slightly curved cruces, International
of Fracture, Vol. 16 No2, pp.155169.
ERDOGAN, F., 1968, Crack propagation
Vol. II, Academic Press.
GOODIER, J.N., 1968, Mathematical
advanced treatise", Vol. II, Academic
GRIFFITH, A.A.,
classics.
theories, in "Fracture,
theory of equilibrium
Press.
of
Journal
an advanced
treatise" ,
cracks, in "Fracture,
an
geostatique
par l'etude
JAEGER, J .C., 1966, Brittle fracture of rocks, in "Failure and breakage of rocks", 8th
Symposium on Rock Mechanics, 1517 September 1966, Minneapolis, Port City Press,
Baltimore.
MANDEL, J., 1966, Mecanique
des milieux
of fracture,
in "Fracture,
SIH, G.C., and LIEBOWITZ, H., 1968, Mathematical theory of brittle fracture,
"Fracture, an advanced treatise", Vol. II, Academic Press.
STEIFF, P., 1984, Crack extension under compressive
mechanics", Vol. 20, No 3, pp.463473.
loadings, "Engineering
in
fracture
CHAPTER
12
Introduction to damage
theory
Let us consider once more, the case of a triaxial test, but let us in crease the
deviatoric loading beyond the elastic domain.
The radial and longitudinal stress strain curves are both analyzed (Fig. 12.1).
One can easily see that after a linear part, cor. csponding to purely elastic behaviour, there is an inflection of the stress strain curves, much more obvious on the
radial direction than on the longitudinal one.
This phenomenon is clearly explained if one remembers the Mandel criterion
(Chapter 11): "Under compressive loading, each crack has a tendency to align itself
parallelly to the minimal component of the stress tensor (compressions are negative!)
but, the propagation lengths are limited by friction. Furthermore only a certain quantity of flaws (those inclined with respect to the principal stresses) will be active".
Damage by microcracking is therefore only sensitive to the deviatoric component
of the stress tensor but insensitive to the mean stress which does not induce any shear
on the crack lips.
Macroscopically, damage corresponds to a gradual decreasing of the rigidity matrix
of the material more particularly, of its shear modulus since damage is insensitive to
the mean stress. Furthermore, damage is generally accompanied with other dissipative
processes such as plasticity or friction.
There are two categories of damage models.
The first one is called phenomenological since its foundations are based on purely
macroscopic considerations of the material during damage irrespective of microscopic
effects. It is based on an irreversible reduction of the rigidity matrix during the
process.
The second category of models consists in analyzing the microscopic damage effects
then in substituting for the heterogeneous solid an equivalent homogeneous solido We
propose to analyse precisely both in the following paragraphs.
278
re =
0.9
of material
cohesion loss
150 BARS
0.8
~ 0.7
.o
....
Ol\!
0.6
'"
'O
O..... ~
1
~ 0.5
;::l
o
.<::
t:
0.4
0.3
0.2
Indonesian
sandstone
THEORETICAL
BASES
This model is the simplest one since it introduces a single scalar state variable. It
neglects sliding and friction: the only dissipative mechanism considered is damage.
The free energy 'Ij; is defined by a single elastic term (no blockedup energy). The
elasticity matrix depends on a damage variable d
(12.1)
In the original model, the initial elastic isotropy is preserved during the irreversible
damage process. Following experimental considerations one is led here to damage
exclusively the shear modulus
(12.2)
where
eij
= ij
kk
3Dij
(12.3)
279
The constitutive
= 007j; =
+ 2G(1
I:kkij
 d)eij
. (12.4)
ij
The thermodynamic
(12.5)
Since damage is the only irreversible phenomenon
inequality of Clausius Duhem reduces to
gd '? O
(12.6)
If one compares relation (12.6) with Eq. (11.114) of the previous chapter one can
associate 9 with the energy release rate and d with the crack velocity a.
One can therefore generalize Griffith's criterion to damage process by defining the
yield locus I(g) such that
I(g, d)
=9
k(d)
= Geijeij
 k(d)
= 1(1l, d)
(12.7)
Iis, d) < O
d=O
I(g,d)
=O
j(g, d) < O
=> d=O
I(g,d)
=O
j(g, d) = O
=> d>O
incremental
(12.8)
(12.9)
To complete the constitutive relation, the damage evolution law has to be calculated. Assuming normality, it is written
(12.9b)
To calculate the plastic multiplier one has to consider the consistency condition
that is
01
01
0ll : Il + od d
=O
(12.10)
280
is nonnegative
(no restoration
of the damage).
Substituting
to
O"ij = !<ikkij
[2G(1
ekl
(12.12)
d)ij]
(12.14)
[2G(1
with
12.2
=O
0=0
ifd
0=1
ifd>
EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION
OF DAMAGE HARDENING LAW
law k(d) such that
= "2ko[l + 2md]
k(d)
(12.15)
The two constants ko and m depend on the material and have to be determined
experimentally
by triaxial tests for instance.
During the deviatoric phase of a triaxial test", (increasing 0"1 and confining pressure 0"2 constant), the Eqs (12.4) are written taking account of (12.3)
+ 4G(1
d)]
cd3J(  2G(1
d)]
cd3J(
of
C2
+ c2[6J(  4G(1
+ c2[6J( + 2G(1
 d)]
(12.16)
 d)]
to
3
+ d(2v
3E(1d)
 1)
O<d<l
(12.17)
0"1
0"2
to damage
281
theory
By subtracting
El 
E2
0"1 
0"2
2G(1 _ d)
(12.20)
0"2)2(1 + v)
(1 d)2E
(12.21)
1 (0"1
9=
:3
=
+ L1l22i2 + L1l33i3
"2= L2211il + L2222i2 + L2233i3
"l
Llllli1
Let us use Eq. (12.14) to compute the different coefficients. Taking account of the
fact that i2
i3, it is easily shown that,
L1l22
L2222
(12.22)
= L1l33
= L2233 + 2G(1
(12.23)
 d)
that is
(12.24)
or using again (12.14)
Lllll
L2211
Lll22  L2233
d)  k'(d) (2G)2el(el
2G(1
 k'(d) (2G)2e2(el
 e2)
(12.25)
 e2)
Since
(12.26)
ez
= :3(E2
El)
282
oE material
cohesion loss
Let us consider now the stress strain curve (Fig. 12.2) and the two particular points
A and B corresponding respectively to the beginning of non linearity (d
O) and to
the peak. For these points, the following conditions are fullfilled:
point A
0"1 
0"2
point B
0"1 
0"2
= Do
= DR
/

Id=dR
/, I
DO
d=O

Al
= PR
=:r:
secant slope
DR
d=O
lB
I
/
/
/
/
R
E~
1
2g
= ko
d=O
(12.28)
283
to damage theory
0"1 
0"2
= DR.
12.3
(12.33)
where <l>8 and <l>~ are respectively the initial non connected and connected porosities.
During the nonlinear phase, progressive microcracking of the material modifies
the initial data and connected porosity in creases while total porosity is supposed to
remain constant.
At the peak (i.e. for d
dR) porosity is wholly connected. Let us consider a
linear process, where <l>c (connected porosity) evolves with damage (Fig.12.3a)
<l>c = <l>~
+ d<l>g
(12.34)
= df d
!l'
!l'o
+ (1 
!l'o)d
(12.35)
One understands more clearly here the dependence of the effective stress on the
rheological behaviour of rocks: the elastic effecti ve stress !2"+!l'op[ is not valid anymore
when damage appears and tends gradually towards the effective plastic stress !2"+ p],
Equations (12.34) and (12.35) define a simplified damage process of a porous
medium and, as a consequence, aII the thermoporous parameters depending on <l>c
and !l' such that B, Ku, TI, !l'u and L wiII be functions of damage while the other
parameters such that KB, Kf, s, !l'f, !l'M wiII remain constant.
Determination of the incremental law is very similar to that of the previous paragraph. However, to simplify the calculations one will consider the case of an isothermal porous medium. Taking into consideration thermal effects does not induce any
additional difficulty.
284
oi material
cohesion loss
In these conditions,
1jJ
the thermodynamic
1jJo
+ 21
(m)2
Po
a(d)1](d)([
Frorn this potential
potential
[Ku(d)Skk
 2
+1](d)
2
+ 2GB(1
can be written
 ddR)eijeij
+crz.o :s+gOm
m
(12.36)
: ~) (:)
= (~~)
P  Po =
law
(12.37)
T,m,d
and eliminating
such that
material.
n [aSkk
:J
(12.38)
the constitutive
force ~ssociated
with
is such that
(12.40)
g =  (~~) T m e
, '
= 21[2 Skk
{OKod
+ a 201]
od
O)}
 2GBdReijeij
 2a od(a1]
1 0'fJ (p  Po) 2
[01] a
O
 =  =(a'fJ)2 od
'fJ2
od 'fJ
od
20ne derives first expression (12.36) with respect to
not a state variable.
J (p 
1
'fJ
J
(12.41)
PO)Skk
285
to damage theory
B(d)
(C o)
2K1B
;
<PoCl"
+ 2B1
(1
2 )
KB  Ku
(1 
Cl"o)
(12.43)
(12.45)
\.
I
!
=g
(12.46)
k(d)
(12.47)
i
I
= O is the
(12.48)
(12.49)
with
(p  po)2 B'(d)
(p  Po)(l 2(p  po)B(d)
+ k'(d)
(12.50)
Cl"o)
 (1 
Cl"o)kk
(12.51 )
286
The incremental law is determined in the same way as in the previous paragraph
by calculating the derivative of (12.39)
+ 2GB(1
I<Bikkbij
 ddR)eij
 2GBdReijd
(12.52)
by (12.49)
(12.53)
with
,
[I'.B
+ (1 
'3GB(l
PH2]
Q'.o) Hl
ddR)bijbkl
 Hl [2GBdReij
Mij = [~:2GBdR]
bjbkl
+ 2GB(1
2GBH2dR
Hl
ejbkl
ddR)bikbjl
(12.54)
+ (1 Q'.0)pbij][2GBdRek)
ej
B. HOMOGENIZATION
0'] bij
(12.55)
OF
A FISSURED SOLID
12.4
INTRODUCTION
12.5
287
to damage theory
MACROSCOPIC
of stress
a cavity
(12.56)
in the representative
cell.
= ~ ii
on S
(12.57)
If the cavity is opened, the normal displacement Un is not nul but, Un (normal
stress companent on the crack lips) is zero everywhere (since the cavity is not loaded);
if it is closed (un = O) then Un f. O. These two conditions can be summarized
on Sz
(12.58)
lz itj n = O
on Sz
(12.59)
288
cohesion Ioss
displacement
r (V9.:)dV = O
lv.
which can also be written,
theorem
j;
(12.61 )
ls
(9.:)iJdS=
field;
ls
the divergence
(~)i7dS
(12.62)
= ~.
since on S, 9.:
Applying to the last integral the divergence theorem and taking account of the
fact that ~ and f are homogeneous, one is led finally to
(12.63)
since 9.:is nil inside the cavity when V differs from zero (cavity opened).
12.6
MACROSCOPIC
FIELDS
Let us consider any strain field f and let us extend it in the cavity. If is the local
displacement field associated with f on S, one can write (since ~ is homogeneous)
~1aoas =
19.:iJdS
(12.64)
= 19.:iJdS
(~ : f)dV
Let us write
= ~
(12.65)
lf
dV
=> V(~: )
(12.66)
= 19.:iJdS
(12.67)
(12.67) express es the equivalence between the macroscopic strain energy and the
work done on the external surface S. Expression (12.66) can be developed snce f has
been defined arbitrarily in the cavity, that is
~[l.
fdV
~ [i.fdV
h
+ ~lz
+
fdV]
[( )
(12.68)
+ t(
)]dS]
289
Writing
(12.69)
..,l'
> +p
(12.70)
f
!
12.7
EXPRESSION
OF <I>
IN THE CASE OF A CRACK
When the cavity is reduced to a crack, one can expound Eq. (12.69) for the upper
and lower lips taking account of the fact that the normals are in an opposite direction.
If + and ir: are the displacements respectively associated with the upper and the
lower lips, p will be written
(12.71)
p can
be finalIy written
p = a( 0 i)5 + /3( 0
(12.74)
290
oE material
cohesion loss
The description of the cell state requires therefore that beside ffl an additional
information be added about the displacement discontinuities across the crack by introducing two internal variables a (slipping variable) and /3 (opening variable). The
description of the state is incomplete however since no variables characterize a possible
damage of the cell by crack propagation.
12.8
E] 
a, a[ i = t or n
(12.75)
to
k;7ra2
a,/3= ~
7rkid
= 8
(12.77)
4a2 / f.2, f. being the dimension of the repreafter having introduced the variable d
sentative plane cell (V
f.2).
By replacing (12.77) in (12.75) one obtains
(12.78)
A new state variable d characterizing the relationship between the dimension of
the representative cell and that of the crack appears in the process. Its evolution
(always positive) characterizes the irreversible deterioration of the cell.
12.9
We will now determine the expression of the free energy 'I/;(ffl, a, /3,d) [Andrieux
(1983)].
The problem consists in applying on the external boundary of the cell a macroscopic stress field ~ and on the crack lips displacement discontinuities [t] and [n].
291
We may also recall that is the macroscopic strain field while !!, f and are the corresponding local fields. To calculate the expression of the thermodynamic potential 'I/J,
let us decompose the global problem into two elementary problems (Fig. 12.5).
Em2:
'" '"
local
local
fields
fields
local fields
U,E,\?
rvrv
I
of the global
prob lern.
1. That of the nonmicrocracked cell loaded with a homogeneous stress field ~'
If it is assumed that the material is linear elastic (with an elastic matrix A)
and if Em is the macrocospic uniform strain field within the nonmicrocrack;d
cell, one will have (Hooke's law)
~=A:E
....
==
and
'l/Jm
where
m
'l/Jm
= E
: A: E
2 m ". m
(12.79)
(12.80)
O)
2. That of the microcracked cell stressfree on the external boundary (~d
but subjected to displacement discontinuities [t], [un] on Z. Given !!d' fd
and Ud the various local fields, the free energy is such that
(12.81)
The external surface S being stressfree, we have
(12.82)
'l/Jd
292
(12.84)
Taking account of relationships
in which
7'
is the distance between the crack tip and a point of coordinate x (Fig. 12.6).
y
a
x

system
at the crack
tipo
tPd
4E(
71"2[2(1
+ (32) 2
v2)d
{a
(a
+ x )dx +
a
(a
+ x )dx
(12.86)
to
. hK
wit
\.0 =
(12.87)
tPd = ~K(cI> : 1 : cI
2
2E
2( 1 v 2)
71"
==
Ko
wit. l}r
1 \. = =d
(12.88)
The total free energy is the sum of the elementary thermodynamic potentials tPm
and tPd. By introducing instead of m in (12.80) (= m +~) one finally obtains
(12.89)
Chapter
12. Introduction
12.10
293
to damage theory
INEQUALITY OF CLAUSIUSDUHEM
ASSOCIATED THERMODYNAMIC FORCES
+ B /3 + gd. 2: o
(12.90)
/3
a, and d being the time derivatives of internal variables and A, B and g the
thermodynamic forces associated with the internal variables and such that
8'1/;
B = _8'1/;
8(3
The thermodynamicforces
[Eq. (12.89)]
(12.91)
g=.
8d
8'1/;
8~
= [(~ E): A+ KI : ~l: =
..
'"  8a
8'1/;
8~
B =  8(3 = [(p.fd):
~+ Ar: p]: 8/3
=  8a
(12.92)
=
8'1/;
8d
1 ic;
= 2d
[p:
(12.93)
l; : p]
(12.94)
Replacing (12.92), (12.93) and (12.94) in (12.90) and taking account of the fact
that ~  E
Em and E
= A E one obtains
::::m
8~. + (E 
(E  K 1 : ~)
: !:l  a
va
K 1 : ~) : !:l(3 (3

Ko
[~:
.. 1 :~]
) 'd> O
(12.95)
(12.97)
294
Vle shall now derive from Eq. (12.97) four specific constitutive
following cases:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
O).
Open crack (f3 # O) without damage (d
Closed crack (f3 = O) without damage (d = O).
Open crack (f3 # O) with damage ((1 # O).
Closed crack (f3 = O) with damage (d # O).
12.11
NO DAMAGE.
OPEN CRACK
(d
= O),
the process is therefore purely reversible and Eq. (12.96) becomes an equality
which leads to (since , and j3 # O)
f3
2E:
J{ 
( :'S
2E:
J{
( )
')
(12.98)
Equations
..
A: (t)s
!j
A: ( )
(12.99)
'"
(12.100)
f3
In these expressions, the righthand terms containing J{ and ~ are of the second
order in d [see Eqs (12.74), (12.77) and (12.88)] while those containing only J{ are of
the first order in d. As d is small (a f) one can limit oneself to the terms of the
first order and write
1
a ~ }.?E:T
\.
(12.101)
f3
1
J{!2:!j
Taking account of (12.74), (12.89), (12.98) and (12.99) the free energy
equal to
'1j;
will be
(12.102)
to damage
295
theory
1/J =
(12.103)
1/J=E:A
2
ti = ~ 
with
:E
'" J(l(T
(12.104)
T+
N ~D
12.12
NO DAMAGE.
CLOSED CRACK
of Clausius
occurred)
(12.105)
1/Jd =
a2
J(o=
(12.106)
1/Jd represents a blockedup energy in the friction process. This energy is stored
in the elastic matrix as in a spring and can be recovered if friction is inverted. The
thermodynamic potential is no longer sufficient to describe the material behaviour:
one has to introduce into the formalism a slippage criterion that of Coulomb for
example, that is
if
if IUtl = J.l.Un
:1 O
[t]
(12.107)
i.e. slippage
on S
on Sz
~= ~
[n]
=O
[t]
8~
7rd
Ja
everywhere in V,
2 
"V~
x2
=O
[Eq. (12.78)]
(12.108)
296
oE material
cohesion loss
~tKa
(12.109)
Un
~n
and ~n being the normal and tangential projections of ~ on the crack lips.
Replacing (12.109) in (12.107), one defines a convex domain f(~, a) such that
~t
f(~,a)
(12.110)
This convex can be expressed with respect to the global macroscopic strain gby
introducing the elastic directional tensors T and J:!
(~){=
~t
(~)

~: (
i)s
= ~:
= ~ : ( ) = A : E

= T:
m : ( i)s
: ( )
m
=:::
= N:

(12.111)
E
since p [Eq. (12.73)] contains a which is of the first order in d [Eq. (12.77)] whereas
and Ka are of order zero in d. Replacing (12.111) in (12.110), one obtains
f(, a) = (T: + J.lJ:!:  Ka)(T:
 J.lJ:!:  Ka)
(12.112)
= O (no
f(, a)
<O
f(, a)
=O
and j(, a)
<O
= O (no slip)
f(, a) = O
and j(, a)
=O
T:
i=
slip)
(12.113)
O (slip)
f=O, ()=1
Ka
...""'j,.'~
f=O, () =1
closed
crack
~~
open
crack
Equation
damage.
(}= 1
{ (}= 1
(12.114)
297
to damage theory
=o
(12.116)
Replacing (12.116) in (12.115) and taking account of the first Eq. (12.111), leads
to
(tJ;f: fd)a ~ O
(12.117)
e a
a~
which shows (since J;f: fd < Othe crack being closed) that if = 1 is always positive.
Similarly one could show in the same way that if = 1,
O.
Let us now calculate the evolution of the sliding parameter ex by expressing the
consistency condition
f
The derivative of
af
af
af.
(12.118)
al}d:E
(12.119)
o = 1, the
= tJ;f:
fd
(12.120)
..
l}d)('[: l}d+tJ;f: l}d)
af
: E = (2tN:
al}d

E)(T:

..
E+ u.N: li'I
r" ';;;1
0=1
~~a
= (2tJ;f:
l}d)(Ka)
0=1
~~ a
= (2tJ;f:
l}d)(K a)
0=1
(12.121)
Ka
=O{
0=1
0=1
(12.122)
298
The evolution of
a will be
a = ~[T:
1.
B.. 
E+ O/lN: E]
. {:.'

(12.123)
0=1
When a varies, the two straight lines of the yield locus move along the axis '[': J};
as shown in Fig.12.7. This is a sort kinematic hardening. We should note lastly that
the plastic strain increment ~ is such that [see Eq. (12.74)]
(12.124)
~ is parallel to the '[': J}; axis (direction of slip). The plastic flow rule is therefore
not associated since the normality principle is not respected.
12.13
DAMAGE
k(d)
=O
(12.125)
<O
if F
=O
=O
if F
12.13.1
d=O
and
F<
and F
d=O
=O
d>O
(12.126)
~(~:
,8
~(E : ( ))
K
d (N: E)
Ko 
F(J};,d)
= 2J<Q [('[:
(12.128)
Chapter
12. Introduction
In space
l:
299
to damage theory
k(d)
(Fig.12.8).
T:E
"''''
N:E
~+~ "''''
open
crack
closed
crack
d = Kok'(d)
1
E) + (N:
[(T: E)(T:

Ko (l: )
f3
12.13.2
Ko (1j: )
E)]
E)(N:
(12.130)
obtains
d
+ Ko (l: )
.
(12.131)
+ ko (1j:
f(!2, a, d)
F(d,a)
T: !2+
!Ko
2
p
8J1.!j:
a2 _
!2 K(d)a
k(d)
(12.132)
300
Let us assume separately a non negative dissipation condition for each mechanism.
The "plastic" conditions are
a =1 o
d>o
{:::::::>
= o and j = o
{:::::::>
= o and F = o
(12.133)
F
and
= O => a = ac(d) = d
.
F
aF.
= O => ~a+
va
(12.134)
aF.:...
O
=d=
ad
Ko (
2
md
. )+
aa
since
(12.135)
with
Equation (12.134) shows that for the damage to evolve, one has reach a c:itical
of dissipation
conditions
(i.e. Aa
value ac. The independence
do es not induce the independence
of the two mechanisms.
The conditions (12.133) can be replaced by
O)
j=O
(12.136)
aa>
The evolution of a can be calculated from the first consistency condition that is
al . E al.
ald  o
f  a
.  + aa a + ad 
(12.137)
= BK(d)a + BK'(d)ad
(12.138)
with
= el: + Id!:
or, replacing K(d),
K'(d)
(12.139)
Chapter
12. Introduction
301
to damage theory
which can also be written in the form (after a relatively long calculation)
= ~o es [kl(d) + ~d)
d
{l 05g(a)}]
(12.140)
dm
md
a = k'(d)d
+ k(d)[l
dO'+
_ 8Sg(a)] J{o (O
<
(12.141)
f=O,M=l
______________
~~~~~L___
~:~
Ka
f=O.M=1
open
crack
closed
crack
of a
When the first criterion (that is f = O) is reached, there is some slip without
axis,
damage, and the two straight lines defining the slip criterion move along the
until one of the straight lines merges with F = O. At that moment, damage begins
(d > O), and ac evolves. The two straight lines F = O (a = ac or a = ac) then
move in the direction indicated by the slip, which creates a dissymmetric evolution
of the damage criterion with respect to its initial state .
The sense of this dissymmetry must be physically understood through the frietion process: the blockedup energy due to friction makes it more easy to reach the
critical value ac if the sliding is reversed. Analogy of Fig.12.1O clearly shows the
phenomenon.
r: ~
302
oEmaterial coheaion
1055
ROCK
The e ncr gy stored in the
spring m ake s it e aster
lo bre ak lhe
glue.
lhc sliding.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ANDRIEUX, S., 1983, Un modele de matriau
au bton, Thesis ENPC, Paris.
microfissur.
Application
aux roches ei
ANDRIEUX, S., BAMBERGER, Y., and MARIGO, J.J., 1986, Un modele de matriau
microfissur pour les btons et les roches, J. Mcanique Theor Appl, Vol. 5, pp. 471513.
CHARLEZ, PH., DESOYER, T., and DRAGON, A., 1989, Etude de la tenue mcanique
des parois rocheuses autour des forages. Intgration de l'endommagement,
CNRSTOTAL CFP report, "Stabilit des forages profonds" .
DRAGON, A., 1988, Homognisation.
Endommagement
par microfissuration.
Bifurcaton par localisation de la dformation, Conferences TOTAL CFP, unpublished.
DRAGON, A. and DESOYER, T., 1989, Endommagement
par microfissuration
accompagn d'effets de type plastique d aux microfrotiemenis, Etude de la tenue mcanique
des parois rocheuses auiour des forages profonds, TOTAL CFP report, CNRS Project
"Stabilit des parois" , unpublished.
DRAGON, A., 1988, Plasticit
Poitiers, ENSMA.
et endommagement,
de
DRAGON, A., and MROZ, Z" 1979, A continuum model for plastic briitle behaviour
of rock and concrete, lnt. J. Engineering Science, Vol. 17, pp. 121137.
KACHANOV, M.L. (Jr), 1982, A microcrack
chanics of materials", 1, pp. 2941.
KACHANOV, L.M., 1986, Introduction
jhoff.
to continuum
damage mechanics,
1982, Plasticit
et homognisation,
partII.
Martines
"MeNi
Thesis Universit
Paris VI.
CHAPTER
13
Appearance of shearing
bands in geomaterials
A. INTRODUCTION
BASIC CONTRADICTION
Appearance of shearing bands in geomaterials (and particularly in rocks) remains a poorly understood phenomenon.
The main problem lies in the fact that there is a contradiction between the microstructural and the macroscopic behaviour with regard to rupture. Indeed under
compressive loading single cracks will always tend to align themselves with the minor
component of the stress tensor (compressions are assumed to be negative) by propagating in mode I (Fig. 13.1a). If this reasoning is extrapolated for material containing
numerous defects, any sample should therefore develop a macroscopic crack parallel
to this same minor stress and break into pillars (Fig. 13.1b).
This rupture mode is clearly observed under uniaxial compression. On the contrary
under biaxial (or, which is the same, triaxial revolution) compression, a "shearing
band" (Fig. 13.1c) inclined with respect to 0'1 appears. Aside from any kinematic
consideration the observed fracture threshold seems very closely linked to the cracking
mode: while at high confining pressure, the intrinsic curve is practically linear (and
consequently equivalent to a MohrCoulomb straight line) under low mean stress,
the material seems much less resistant than forecast by extrapolation of the MohrCoulomb slope (Fig. 13.2).
The stress area can therefore be separated into two distinct zones I and II corresponding respectively to the nonlinear part of the intrinsic curve, on the one hand
(zone I) and to the linear part on the other (zone II). The two kinematics described
previously can be associated (qualitatively at least) with zones I and II: in zone lone
is more likely to observe columntype fractures, in zone II, shearing bands.
304
a
Fig. 13.1. Fundamental
behaviour
contradiction
cohesion loss
between
of a shear
the microscopic
band.
crack
ZI
Z2
(J
curve.
B. THE MOHRCOULOMB
THE CONVENTIONAL
305
CRITERION
MACROSCOPIC
APPROACH
normal
fault
Fig. 13.3. The three
thrust
fault
types of elementary
transcurrent
fault
faults
306
C. THE MICROSTRUCTURAL
of material
cohesion loss
APPROACH
13.1
r
,
,
,
,
<,
/
/
<,
/
/
,
,
,
,
<,
<,
,"
,
"
<,
<,
<,
"''tl~
model of a geomaterial.
F(a)
= ~[A
< a]
H(a)
= ~[B
< a]
G({3)
= ~[C
< {3]
(13.1)
Before any loading, the material is considered as isotropic; the orientation of the
cracks is thus equiprobable in all directions (varying by symmetry between 0 and 7f /2
only), that is
(13.2)
Chapter
13. Appearance
307
in which g(f3) is the probability density associated with f3. The equiprobability
dependence of g(f3) with respect to (3) enables one to write
2
g(f3) = 
I
~
(in
(13.3)
7r
The lengths distribution can be determined by taking account of the fact that
among a set of cracks identically oriented the longest will be the most critical under
an identical loading. One therefore seeks to find the distribution of the longest cracks
contained in V.
One can show in this case that a follows an exponentialtype distribution (see
Freudenthal, 1968) such that
~[A
~
~
[_ (~)
or]
(13.4)
in which 'Yand u are intrinsic characteristics of the material. u represents the modal
value of the distribution and 'Ythe dispersion around this modal value. It can easily
be verified that (13.4) respects the boundary conditions
F(oo)
F(O)
< 0] = 0
By deriving (13.4) with respect to a one obtains the probability density associated
with a that is
(13.5)
1
\/.
The openings (or shape coefficients) distribution can be determined by a compressibility test and is limited to a maximum value aM. The knowledge of h( a) makes it
possible to calculate the number of cracks which remain open under a given state of
stress by the equation [see Eqs (6.37) and (6.40)]
NT
N
10F"
with
f3cr = arcsin
13.2
1
;h(a)[7r
0'1 + aI(
(13.6)
E
I(
= 2(1 v2)
Since the crack is small with respect to the elementary mesh size (of volume Vo),
calculations can be made under the hypothesis of an infinite medium.
308
We saw in the chapter devoted to fissuring that a closed crack under a compressive
biaxial loading initiated [Eqs (11.98) to (11.102)] if two conditions were observed,
namely
(13.7)
with
= 2 arctan
13M
(1)

Jl
+7r2
and
(13.8)
with
In the more general case for which the crack is open, these equations have to be
corrected because of the fact that the actual normal stress is the difference between
the critical closing stress (equal to exl{) and the previous one.
Consequently, the driving shear stress acting on the crack is equal to
k
k
= 1 closed crack
= 0 open crack
(13.9)
with
13M
(1)
= 2 arctan
7r
13M =4

if k
+7r2
=0
if k
=1
closed crack
open crack
(13.10)
and
(a)
~f3
Cr
with
= 13c1,
132
Cr
= arctan
~v'_1_,(C_2_,kJl_2....:..)
(13.11)
309
(13.12)
Assuming, to simplify, a constant average value for a, and taking account of (13.3)
and (13.5), we obtain
~R[0"1'0"2]
=~
7r
('0
,u'Yil,Bcr(a)a('Y+1)exp {_
(~)"f}
da
(13.13)
amin
By writing
(13.14)
the integral (13.13) becomes
(13.15)
with
Zmin
= exp { 
Y}
u(amin)'
(13.16)
(13.15) by the mean formula,
(13.17)
FT
=F
(0"1'0"2,fL
Fc
=F
[0"1, 0"2,fL:/=
13.3
1
1
= O,,BM =~)
O,,BM
= ~ + ~arctan
COLLAPSE OF A SAMPLE
CONCEPT OF REFERENCE
probability
FT to open
open cracks
(13.18)
(};)]
closed cracks
VOLUME
310
1. The Weibull model based on the "weakest link concept" which assumes that
instability "of a single mesh" is sufficient to collapse the sample. This is
therefore a "serial model" (Fig. 13.5).
Fig. 13.5.
model.
2. The J ayatilaka model based on the "bundle concept" which on the contrary
assumes that the collapse results in the coalescence of several critical cracks.
This model can therefore be idealized by a structure in parallel (Fig. 13.6).
statistical
model.
In fact neither of these two models adequately accounts for rupture under compressive stress fields. Indeed damage does not progress homogeneously through the
sample. For example, under biaxial loading, the shearing band, which is the most intense damage zone does not affect the entire sample (Fig. 13.7), but remains localized
in a small volume VR (known as reference volume) greater than Va but much smaller
than V.
Moreover, outside VR, the material is only slightly damaged and even completely
sound. These considerations lead us to build a mixed model by decomposing the
total volume V into a certain number of NR reference volumes, each containing N
elementary cells of volume Va. The model assumes that the collapse of volume V is
reached with the destruction of a single reference volume. So, if HR(Tl, (T2) represents
the rupture probability of any reference volume, the fracture probability of the sample
of volume V will be such that
(13.19)
since the state of stress is assumed to be homogeneous, i.e. identical in any reference
volume.
311
shear
b andfd amaged
zone)
/
v
VR containing
N dcfccts
The fracture probability of the reference volume under a given loading 0"1, 0"2 is
obtained by considering all the cases for which at least Nf cracks (among the N
contained in the reference volume) are critical.
Since the loading is fixed, one applies a constant fracture probability FT to every
open mesh and a probability Fe to every closed mesh.
Let us consider for example the case in which i open cracks (among NT) and j
closed cracks (among Ne) are critical. With such a configuration is associated the
probability (product of two binomials)
NT!
F,i (1 F )Nri
Ne!
Fi (1 F. )Nci
(NT  i)!i! T  T
(Ne _ j)!j!
e  e
(13.20)
since (NT  i) open cracks and (Ne  j) closed cracks are not critical. The fracture
probability of the reference volume is obtained by considering all possible cases (that
is i varying from 0 to NT and j varying from 0 to N e) giving rise to rupture (that is
i + j ~ NJ), in other words
=
(13.21)
=
=
312
u=1
Nf/N=26%
VO=0.000125cc
p.,=0.68
J.L=0.6
0.8
V=100cc
....
0
300
a=0.49
,D
0.6
'Y=1.510~3
tIl
"0
'"
tIl
::>
0.4
..::
~'
0.2
o
o
0.4
0.2
0.6
0.8
1001(thousands
Fig. 13.8. Computed
(the
Mohr circles
inlrinsic
are taken
Obar
curve
1.2
75bar
1.4
1.6
1.8
of bar)
CFP model
probability).
200bar
500bar
0.9
0.8
l!.
l!.
0.7
50bar
0.6
+<>
"
l!.
C....0.5
P::
l!.
0.4
l!.
0.3
0.2
0.1
O~~rL.~~~.~r"...~~'r~
0.2
0.6
1.4
1.8
2.2
2.6
10011(thousands of bar)
Fig. 13.9. Prediction
sandstone
model
for Vosges
It can be observed that for high confining pressure, the intrinsic curve
with a slope of 0.68 i.e. very close to the microfriction coefficient /1.
IS
linear
Chapter
13. Appearance
313
The micromechanical model takes complete account of the nonlinear part of the
intrinsic curve at low confining pressure (compare the diameter of Mohr's circle at 0
bar with the extrapolation of the linear part of the intrinsic curve).
Figure 13.9 shows that a proper set of parameters makes it possible to fit very
closely experimental results with this model except at 50 bar confining pressure which
corresponds in that particular case to the transition between nonlinear and linear
parts of the computed intrinsic curve: for this value, the model underestimates the
resistance considered. Physically speaking this means that at 50 bar there are no
longer any open microcracks although the model still envisages a certain number.
This shows moreover that the effect of open cracks is considerable on the quality of
the model prediction at low confining pressure.
13.4
In the case of a heterogeneous state of stress, the structure is divided into a certain
number of reference volumes but, since in each point the state of stress varies, the
rupture probability of each reference volume will be different. If
is the rupture
probability of the reference volume localized at a point i, the rupture probability of
the structure will be such that
Hk
(13.22)
13.5
PSEUDOTHREEDIMENSIONAL EXTENSION
AND SHAPE OF THE FAILURE ENVELOPE
TM
T 
Illul
(13.23)
with
(13.24)
a
= (~.ii).ii
(13.25)
P(~)
s:
!!
= 2" f f f
7r Jo Jo Jo
1i[K/(i[)
 K/cldOdrpdFa
the
(13.26)
314
;;;>;~
()
x
Fig. 13.10. Tridimensional
function
1i( x)
crack.
such that
=1
1i(x)=O
if
x ~ 0
if
x<O
800
600
400
200
1000
model
envelope
(after
Charlez
obtained
with
et al, 1991).
315
and dFa the differential of the distribution of lengths [Eq. (13.5)). In this way,
Eq. (13.26) takes account only of the cases for which !{J(q:) ~ !{JC in other words
all the cases for which there is crack initiation. The calculation of a 3D !{J('Z) raising considerable analytical problems, one contents oneself in this model with Bui's
twodimensional expression [expression (11.93)).
.
This pseudothreedimensional
extension makes it possible to display in the principal stress space the failure envelope (Fig. 13.11) which is relatively similar to that of
MohrCoulomb, namely a more or less strained pyramid around the hydrostatic axis.
This model leads therefore to very coherent results. However, it can be criticized
for globally disregarding kinematics and for viewing failure as a purely statistical
phenomenon.
13.6
i
~
I.
NEMAT NASSER'S
MICROMECHANICAL
MODEL
316
of material
.L a1
, (I'
h;<I>
//
,
,
: / ()
i/
,I
~'Y
~I,
/:

2c
,
i
i
i
i
i
I
I
.I
I
,,
/t
Fig. 13.12. Nemat
Nasser's
micromechanical
model.
l/e
2
~""""'o
<I>
12".
(221
.161'
(29")
Nasser's
.2".
136"1
of the rupture
micromechanical
stress
model.
cohesion loss
Chapter
13. Appearance
D. APPEARANCE
317
OF A SHEARING BAND
SEEN AS A BIFURCATION
Another approach is to consider the shearing band as a zone in which there is
localization of strain leading to a macroscopic instability of the material. Mathematically speaking, this leads to a loss of uniqueness of the boundary solution in other
words to a bifurcation.
13.7
318
axial load(N)
3000
I
_4,
2000
1000
volume variation
1 <,
,o
/,0; 0I
10
20
13.8
30
axial displacement
40
(mm)
50
from a stereophotogrammetry
of
method
Desrues. 1987).
MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION
OF LOCALIZATION
Although Hill (1962) put forward the idea oflocalization, it was Rudniki and Rice
(1975) who offered a clear formulation of the problem. The following paragraph is
therefore built on the basis of their work.
Chapter
13. Appearance
319
(13.28)
healthy
material
(~
,!O)
av
ax
(Jxy
healthy
of the deformation
in a shear
material
band.
In the shear band, localization prescribes therefore a velocity gradient such that
ee (aJ)
ax = ax
(aJ)
+ ~ ax
(13.29)
In the healthy part, ~ (au/ax) is clearly zero. Can the velocity gradient (13.29)
exist, in other words is it kinematically, statically and rheologically admissible?
320
If so, two solutions will exist concomitantly: the homogenous solution fo which
shall remain valid and the bifurcated alternative solution; the boundary problem
would therefore no longer be unique. To verify the existence of such a solution, one
has to write certain supplementary conditions.
13.8.1
Kinematic condition
with
Dij
=0
if
i =f. j
Dij
=f. 0
if
=j=2
(13.30)
6.4: = ~ [Ui
13.8.2
ii)
+ t(g
ii)]
(13.32)
Static condition
The stress vector (or stress ratio) must be continuous when passing the bounda
of the band which is written
(13.3
Qo and Q being the stress rates respectively in the healthy part and the band.
13.8.3
Rheological condition
The constitutive
law must be identical in the band and the healthy part, that is
u=

..
matrix.
Le
=:
(13.34
iif;(i  io) = 0
(13.35
Chapter
13. Appearance
321
which can also be written taking account of the kinematic condition (13.32)
(13.36)
...
The condition for bifurcated solution is presented therefore in the form of a homogeneous linear system of three equations in the three unknowns ss, g2, g3.
This system admits on the one hand the trivial solution gl
g2
g3
0 which
corresponds to the homogeneous strain io (no localization). To obtain localization,
(gk nonzero) determinant of the matrix Aj k has to be zero
det
I~I= 0
A=n.L.n
'"
(13.37)
13.9
ELASTICITY
AND BIFURCATION
In the case of linear isotropic elasticity, the constitutive matrix is loading independent (no memory of the material) and the constitutive law is written (Chapter 4)
u=Ai
 ::::
(13.38)
with
Aijkl
= >'DijDkl
+ G(DikDjl + DilDjk)
(13.39)
Replacing (13.39) in (13.37) one easily shows that ~ can be written in the form.
~ = (>.
+ G)n n + Gf
(13.40)
where>. and G are the Lame's constants. The determinant of A can never be zero
(given the term
The appearance of a shearing band is therefore not possible in linear elasticity,
since only the trivial solution exists.
GD.
13.10
Rather than adopt a very general approach we shall seek the conditions for localization in the specific case of Rudniki and Rice's elastoplastic model. Indeed, in
accordance with the values of f3 and p,*, it will be possible to analyze the effect of the
associativeness of the law on possible bifurcation.
322
Given an element of material subjected to a stress state 0"1, 0"2, and 0"3 with respect
to its principal directions 1, 2, 3 and given II a potential localization plane (a priori
unknown) (Fig. 13.16) normal to a direction whose cosine directors are nl, n2, n3,
with respect to the reference frame 1, 2, 3. Let us consider lastly, the reference frame
x, y, z such that coordinate y is merged with normal ii. The elastoplastic matrix is
written [Eq. (10.125)]
G(DmkDnt
(~Skt
+ DmlDkn) +
+ (3KOkl)
H
(I< 
2;)
DktDmn
+ Kp.*Dmn)
(~smn
.,
(13.41)
+G + p.*K(3
localization
pl anc
I
Fig.
.,
l3.16.
Reference
frame
and localization
plane.
We should remember that in this equation, G and K are respectively the elastic
shear modulus and the hydrostatic bulk modulus, p.* the friction coefficient [in fact
this is not exactly the MohrCoulomb internal friction coefficient (equal to tan cp) but
p.* = sin cp] and (3, the dilatancy coefficient.
H is the hardening modulus. The stresses intervening in (13.41) have also been
defined previously such that
T
Sij
[~SijSij
O"ij 
DijU
(13.42)
_
O"kk
0"=
Chapter
13. Appearance
323
The condition for localization (13.37) will therefore be expressed given the specific
choice of the system Oxyz (Oy == ii)
det
161 = 0
(13.43)
(Gsyy
+ j3K"f)(Gsyy +
J.t*
H=
1'2
K"f)
+ (~G +
(~G + 1<)
(13.44)
The value of H is a function of the orientation of the future localization plane and
of the stress state. The question that may be asked is "for a fixed stress state, what is
the direction of the first plane on which localization is observed?" H being a decreasing
function of incremental strain, one has therefore to seek the orientation for which H
is maximum. For this purpose, one has to express each of the components Uyy, uyx
and uyz as well as r in the principal reference frame 1,2,3 (Fig. 13.16). By using the
matrix of axis change [Eq. (2.34)], one obtains the equalities (Ul < U2 < U3 < 0)
..,
+ n~s2 + n~s3
sr + s~ + s~
nrSl
n122+
sl
n222+
s2
22 n3s3
(13.45)
Syy
.,
(~G+ 1<) G
r2 (~G + f{)
(13.46)
[n~s~  (n~sk)2]
1
= ni + n~ + n5 =
(13.47)
The search for a stationary point of H subjected to the constraint (13.47) can be
carried out using the method of Lagrange multipliers. The value of ii which maximizes
H is solution of the three equations
oH _ oX oj = 0
j
onk
onk
k = 1, 2, 3
(13.48)
k = 1,2,3
(13.49)
324
with
,X*
=~
and
X
G
Three cases can be discussed:
(f3+fl*)(I+v)
3(1v)
Syy
(13.4gb)
r(lv)
1st case
None of the
unknown X
nk
(13.50)
This system has no solutions, X not being able to be chosen so that (13.50) is
satisfied. Therefore, at least one of the nk is zero.
2nd case
Two of the nk are zero. Although the solution is mathematically admissible, this
configuration has no physical sense, the shear band never originating in a principal
plane (in other words in a zero shear plane). The only physical solution corresponds
therefore to that in which the shear band is parallel to one of the principal directions.
3rd case
Only one of the nk is zero. Let us assume for example (this choice is arbitrary
for the moment) that n2
O. In this case the localization plane is parallel to n2.
Given that the localization plane intersects the plane 1  3 according to a straight
line whose normal makes an angle 0 with direction 3 (major principal stress, in other
words minimum compression) (Fig. 13.17). In this case, the director cosines of the
normal are such that
nl
= sinO
n3
= cos 0
(13.51)
'\
trace
/"
()
219""~
1J.
Chapter
13. Appearance
and condition
325
whose solution
is such that
(13.53)
that is since Sa
=0
(13.54)
by replacing
cos 80
X in (13.49b)
~Nm
NM  Nm
and taking
~ 
sin 80 = N
m
account
NM
N
of (13.45),
(13.55)
with
~= (1+v)(,B+tL*)
3
Nm = ~
(13.56)
N = ~
Replacing
N(1v)
NM = ~
,''
. t
(13.57)
From expressions (13.55) and (13.57) one obtains therefore both the orientation
of the shear band and the critical "bifurcation" hardening modulus.
This argument is conditioned however by the arbitrary choice of the direction of
the localization plane: this choice, which was made parallel to 0"2, could have been
made identically with respect to 0"1 or 0"3. In these cases, the condition of the type
(13.54) would have been
X=~
'f
T
S3
0"1
0"3
(13.58)
and the corresponding hardening modulus would have been obtained by substituting
in (13.57) N by Nm or NM. Knowing the three values of the critical hardening
modulus one has to compare them, which leads to the following inequalities (since H
normally decreases with loading)
H~r
H;r
> H;r
3
<==>,B+ tL* > 2(N
+ NM)
band parallel to 3
+Nm)
band parallel to 1
(13.59)
326
(0'1
of material
cohesion loss
Equations (13.59) can be clearly studied in the case of a compression triaxial test
< 0'2 = 0'3) for which
NM
= N = ..;3
and
n.; =  ..;3
(since NM
+ N + N, = 0)
(13.60)

,"
Substituting
H~r
> H;r
H1cr
H2cr
>
'
..;3 < 0
=}
(3 + Jl*
<
=}
(3 + Jl *
V3
> 2"
plane parallel to
0'3
(13.61)
I
pane
para IIe1 to
OJ
0'1
The first condition (13.62) can never be satisfied since (3 and Jl* are always positive.
Furthermore, the orders of magnitude encountered for (3 (often very small for
geomaterials) and Jl* show that the second condition is almost never respected (3
0, Jl* > 0.87). In a more or less systematic way, the Rudnicki and Rice model schedules
therefore a shearing band parallel to the intermediate component 0'2. Bifurcation
is therefore
in agreement
with the MohrCoulomb
criterion.
13.11
Equation (13.57) shows that, in the case of an associated plastic flow rule (3 = Jl*),
bifurcation appears for a negative hardening modulus, in other words after the peak.
On the contrary, for a nonassociated plastic flow rule localization can appear during
the positive phase of hardening; this is what is known as prebifurcation. This second
case is generally much more realistic.
13.12
DISCONTINUOUS BIFURCATION
"
In what precedes we assumed that the shear bands and the healthy parts were
identically loaded. In reality, experience clearly shows that the material in the healthy
part (in other words external to the localized zone) is unloaded elastically after bifurcation.
'\
13.13
Chapter
13. Appearance
327
BIBLIOGRAPHY
CHAMBON, R., 1986, Bifurcation par localisation en bande de cisaillement,
proche avec des lois incremenialement
non lineaires, JMTA, Vol. 5.
une ap
CHAMBON, R., and DESRUES, J., 1984, Quelques remarques sur le probleme
localisation en bande de cisaillement, Mech. Res. Comm., Vol. 11, pp.145153.
de la
CHARLEZ, PH., SEGAL, A., PERRIE, F., and DESPAX, D., 1991, Microstatistical
behaviour of brittle rocks, submitted to the Int. J. of Rock Mech. and Min. Sci. and
Geomech. Abstr.
COTTERELL, E., and RICE, J.R., 1980, Slightly curved of kinked cracks, International
Journal of fracture, Vol. 16, No 2, pp. 155169.
DESRUES, 1984, Localisation de la deformation
D Thesis, IMG Grenoble, June 1984.
qranulaires,
Ph.
phenomena
HORII, H. and NEMAT NASSER, S., 1985, Compression induced microcrack growth in
brittle solids: axial splitting and shear failure, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.
90, No 84, pp. 31053125.
JACQUIN, G., 1985, Caractere fracial des rescaux de discontinuite
IFP Report, ref. 33699 .
.~
Rheologie
Grenoble.
a partir
ei Med'essais
PAUL, E., 1968, Macroscopic criteria for plasticfiow and brittle fracture, In "Fracture
an advanced treatise", Vol. II, Academic press, New York, San Francisco, London.
RICE, J .R., 1973, The initiation
and Soils MechanicS~ridge
on Plasticity
328
Theoretical
and Applied
of
RUDNICKI, J.W., and RICE, J.R., 1975, Conditions for the localization of deformation
in pressure sensitive dilatant materials, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, Vol. 23, pp. 371394.
VARDOULAKIS, 1., GOLDSCHEIDER, M., and GUDEHUS, Q.G., 1978, Formation of
shear bands in sand bodies as a bifurcation problem, Int. J. Num. Anal. Meth.
Geom. 2, pp. 99128.
VARDOULAKIS, I., 1979, Bifurcation
Mechanica 32, pp. 3554.
VARDOULAKIS, I., 1980, Shear band inclinaison and shear modulus of sand in biaxial
tests, Int. J, Num. Anal. Meth. Geom. 4, pp. 103109.
VARDOULAKIS, I., 1981, Rigid granular constitutive model for sand and the influence
of the deviatoric flow rule, Mech. Res. Comm. 8, pp. 275280.
VARDOULAKIS, I., and GRAF, B., 1982, Imperfection sensitivity
dry sand, IUTAM conf. Def. Fail. Grand. Media, Delft.
WEIBULL, W., 19.51, A statistical
Mech.,18.
distribution
function
of wide applicability,
J. Appl.
Index
. ~:
Airy's potential
definition, 86
for infinite plates, 87, 89
for finite plates, 94, 96
in complex variables, 100
Analytical
functions,
98
'i
Betty's reciprocity
theorem, 83, 138
Belt rarniMit.chall
equations
of continuous media, 80
of porous media, 153
Bifurcation,
198, 317
Biot
coefficient of, 137, 143, 175, 283
modulus of, 144
Boundary
condition, 30
integral, 105
Brittle, 241
Bui,265
Bulk modulus
definition, 78
effective, 111, 115
drained, 135, 173
matrix, 136, 175
undr~ned, 143, 168
Cambridge, 194
Cauchy
stress tensor, 29
CauchyRieman cond., 50, 98
integral, 105
Chalk, 225, 233
ClausiusDuheIn
(inequality
of)
of solids, 51
of porous media, 128
in poroplasticity, 187
of a damaged material, 293
Cohesion
coefficient of, 214
Complex
variable, 98
potentials, 100
boundary integrals, 105
Compressibility
fluid, 50
coefficient of a clay, 196
Confining pressure,
159
mapping, 102
Conformal
Consolidation
isothermal equation of, 153
coefficient of, 156, 167
second phase of, 173
of a clay, 195, 204
overconsolidation, 208
Constitutive
law
of solids, 51
standard, 65
of thermoporous media, 130
of poroplasticity, 183
Modified CamClay, 194,224
MohrCoulomb, 214, 224
Rice and Rudnicki, 222
Lade, 225
Shao and Henry, 233
Lemaitre, 278
Weibull,310
Jayatilaka, 310
CFP, 311
Convection,
133, 153
Coulomb, 214, 269, 295
330
Crack
stress field of a, 243
initiation of a, 251
infinitesimal branching, 265
finite branching, 266
Criterion
MohrCoulomb,214
Griffith, 250
Mandel, 262
Critical state, 198
Damage
experimental, 277
of porous materials, 283
variable, 290
Darcy, 132, 151
Darve, 193
Desrues, 317
Diffusion
of fluid, 132
of heat, 132
Diffusivity
equations
of fluid, 132
of heat, 132
in poroelasticity, 151, 152
of CamClay, 207
Displacement
definition, 9
discontinuity of, 247, 289
Dissipation
potential of, 58
intrinsic, 129
thermohydraulic, 129
Drained
bulk modulus, 135
elastic modulus, 137
Poisson's ratio, 137
thermal expansion, 145
Elasticity
definition, 45, 57
constant of, 77
uniquiness of solution, 81
plane, 85
Index
in polar coordinates, 87
of thermoporous media, 131
Energy
kinetic, 32, 127, 251
internal, 43, 127
free, 46
specific, 47
elastic, 82
of an elliptic hole, 109
of a cavity, 111
specific surface, 252
release rate, 253, 273
blockedup, 301
Enthalpy
definition, 46
free, 46
specific, 47, 128
in poroelasticity, 147
in poroplasticity, 186
Entropy
definition, 44
specific, 47, 129
expression for a fluid, 51
in poroelasticity, 145
in poroplasticity, 185
Eulerian
definition, 2
strain tensor, 17
Expansion
coefficient
of fluid, 50, 144
drained, 145
undrained, 144
of the matrix, 150
measurement of, 175
of a clay, 197
Griffith,
250
Index
331
Hardening
modulus, 64, 188, 191
concept of, 188
kinematic, 190
modulus of CamClay, 202
damage law, 280
modulus of localization, 325
Heat
specific, 49, 146, 180
rate, 52, 128
diffusion, 131
latent, 147
Hill
principle of, 65
theorem of, 66
localization of, 318
Homogenization,
286
Hooke's law
of continuous media, 57, 73
isotropic, 74, 79
in cylindric. coord., 84
of a porous medium, 135
Incremental
plastic matrix
definition, 62, 191, 193
of CamClay, 202
Intrinsic
curve
definition, 220
nonassociativiness, 221
Irwin, 245
Kirsch'problem,
89
Lagrangian
definition, 2
strain tensor, 13
convective transports, 10, 12, 124
stress tensor, 36
descr. of porous media, 124
Latent heat, 147, 150
Localization
general formulation of, 317
Rudnicki and Rice model, 321
Momentum
linear, 4
kinetic, 5, 33
balance, 31
Mandel, 262, 265, 289
Mass
balance, 52, 125
variation of fluid, 141
Muschelishvili,98
Microcrack
definition, 113
closure of a, 119, 123
population of, 306
Mohr
circle, 38
Coulomb criterion, 214, 305
Morlier, 116
NematNasser,
315
Normality
(concept of), 58
Oedometric
test, 205
Permeability
definition, 132
measurement of, 167
Plasticity
definition, 45, 57, 59
plastic flow rule, 62, 191, 202, 221
plastic multiplier, 64, 188, 230, 233,
234
plastic work, 65
Plate
infinite, 87
with circular hole, 89
finite, 92
with elliptical hole, 106
Poisson's
ratio
of continuous media, 78
drained, 137
undrained, 142
Porosity
definition, 122
relative variation of, 140
332
Pressure
of a fluid, 46
interstitial pore, 128
Propagation
(of a crack)
quasistatic, 253
dynamic, 255
stable and unstable, 256
Reference
frame
definition, 1
change of, 35
Rudniki and Rice, 222, 321
Saleh,92
Saturation
(of a sample), 165
Shape coefficient, 115
Shear
stress, 30
modulus, 78
band, 303, 306, 315, 317
Skempton's
coefficient
definition, 141
measurement, 168
Softening, 188
State variable
definition, 43
observable, 54, 130
concealed, 55, 130
Statistical
distribution,
306
Sneiff, 266
Strain
Lagrangian sate of, 13
tensor, 17
diagonal, 19
non diagonal, 19
plane state of, 21
in cylindrical coord., 23
measurements of, 162
homogeneized, 288
Stress
vector, 27
tensor, 29
principal state of, 35
Lagrangian state of, 36
plane state of, 38
elastic effective, 137
Index
310
333
Index
Yield locus
definition, 59, 61
of modified CarnClay, 200
MohrCoulomb,216
,)
/'
Young's modulus
of continuous media, 77
drained, 137, 173
undrained, 142,174