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Aikido: A Martial Way

To understand Aikido and its benefits, it must be said that as a traditional Japanese martial art,
Aikido is more than simply an efficient method of self-defense. It is a form of Budo - a
"martial way". The word do in Japanese is the same as the Chinese word tao. It denotes a path
of understanding, a way of life, and the Way of the universe itself.
In Japanese history, as in many cultures, the warrior arts were considered uniquely suited not
only for practical use during times of war, but for the refinement and development of the
human character. The qualities and principles of the ideal warrior - courage, decisiveness,
strength, clarity of mind, compassion - are also the ideal qualities of the human being. In this
way, the Japanese martial tradition, like European chivalry, has always stressed the
applicability of martial principles to daily life. This understanding is the meaning of budo. A
related word, Bushido ("the way of the warrior") also expresses this. A warrior's way of life is
not simply fighting, but is the constant striving for self-perfection in all things.
The knightly ideal in European cultures was that of a powerful warrior who also possessed
sensitivity and mercy. Likewise, the ideal of the samurai, the warriors of Japan, was not a
simple fighter. It was a balanced human being, a warrior embodying the motto Bun Bu Ryodo:
"The martial and the intellectual ways as one." Balanced in this way, one could truly be useful
and of service to others.
These traditions today are carried on in the martial ways like Aikido. Everything in Aikido
training is meant to develop not only a strong individual, but one with the wisdom and energy
to positively benefit society. A true martial artist views conflict not merely as a contest with
others, but as an opportunity to forge oneself and overcome our true enemies, which are
within. A life lived fully in this manner naturally becomes shugyo: the deepest possible
spiritual training. A favorite saying of Morihei Ueshiba O-Sensei, the founder of Aikido, was
Masakatsu, Agatsu: "True victory is self-victory." This truly is the spirit of Aikido.
Physical Benefits

Of course, the philosophy and internal benefits of Aikido are accompanied by concrete
physical benefits. Aikido training is an excellent program for all-around physical fitness,
flexibility, and relaxation.
The human body in general can exert power in two ways: contractive and expansive. Many
fitness activities, for example weight-lifting, emphasize the former, which means that specific
muscles or muscle groups are isolated and worked to improve tone, mass, and power. The
disadvantage of this, however, is that whole body movement and coordination are rarely
stressed. Thus, while muscle size and power may increase, there is no teaming of the ways in
which to use those muscles together most efficiently. Also, this sort of training tends to
increase tension, decrease flexibility, and stress the joints. The result may be aesthetically
pleasing, but when done to excess it is ultimately useless, and actually detrimental to overall
The second type of power, expansive, is mostly stressed in activities such as dance or
gymnastics. In these activities, the body must learn to move in a coordinated manner and with
relaxation. Aikido, also, mostly stresses this sort of training.
While both types of power are important, it is interesting to note that a person who masters the
second type of power can, in a martial context, often overcome a person who is much bigger
or stronger. The reason for this is that the contractive power which most persons know is only
as great as the mass and power of your individual muscles. Expansive power, however, as

used in Aikido, can be much greater than your size may lead you to believe. This is because
you move with your whole body.
Rather than stressing and tensing only a few muscles, you learn to relax and move from the
center of your body, where you are most powerful. Power is then extended out naturally
through the relaxed limbs, which become almost whip like in their motion.
So Aikido develops the body in a unique manner. Aerobic fitness is obtained through vigorous
training. Flexibility of the joints and connective tissues is developed through various
stretching exercises and through the techniques themselves. Relaxation is learned
automatically, since without it the techniques will not function. And a balanced use of
contractive and expansive power is mastered, enabling even a small person to generate
enormous energy and self-defense skill.
Psychological Benefits

Aikido training does not view the body and mind as separate. The condition of one will affect
the other.
For this reason, the physical relaxation learned in Aikido naturally becomes mental relaxation.
Likewise, the perseverance and confidence that develop mentally are manifested in a body
that moves and holds itself confidently and strongly. Any psychological or spiritual insight
must be reflected in the body, or else it tends to be little more than intellectualization; under
pressure, such insights disappear, and the person reverts to previously ingrained habits and
Aikido training requires the student to squarely face conflict, not to run away from it. Through
this very concrete, physical experience, an Aikido practitioner learns to face the situations of
life in a proactive, constructive manner. Patterns of avoidance and fear are broken. The tense,
defensive reactions to pressure and conflict which so often only create more violence are
recognized and deconstructed. A new person - straightforward, brave yet humble, able to be
both strong and yielding as circumstances require - can emerge from this training.
Today, Aikido has become known in psychological and business circles as a highly useful
metaphor in devising conflict resolution strategies. People everywhere are using Aikido
philosophy to improve the quality of their lives.
Self Defense

In Japan, a nation of many martial arts, Aikido is the one chosen for instruction to the elite
Tokyo Metropolitan Riot Police and Secret Police. The reason for this may be the extreme
flexibility inherent in the art.
Unlike other arts, Aikido technique can be applied at varying levels of severity, in a continuum
from the most gentle controlling techniques to the most severe countermeasures. Aikido is
therefore ideal for application to a wide range of defensive situations, including lawenforcement/security/corrections, medical/mental-health environments, civilian self-defense,
women's self-defense, and children's self- defense. Aikido can be flexibly adapted to whatever
situation arises; this is the legacy of the samurai, who devised these techniques to face a
bewildering array of assaults by single or multiple attackers. Today, we continue this tradition
by instructing Aikido and specialized Aikido-derived technique to a wide-range of
organizations which need decisive, effective defensive skills.
Aikido in Daily Life

The practice of Aikido ultimately must become the practice of our daily lives, moment to

moment. Every moment of life involves some sort of conflict - with others, with our
environments, with our bodies, with ourselves. And yet, it is our choice to see this conflict as
something to be avoided and struggled with, or as the creative force of change which makes
true growth and learning possible.
In order to develop the true human potential, some sort of discipline and refinement is
necessary. In order to develop awareness, decisiveness, inner power and compassion, we must
experience the hardship and work of facing life squarely. Life itself must be used to forge
ourselves. This philosophy of Aikido means that, ultimately, our dojo (training hall) is much
more than a building where we practice. Our true dojo is our life itself. And, Aikido consists
of a unified training methodology designed to bring about this realization and put it to good
Viewed in this way, life becomes rich and filled with meaning. Every situation is used as a
springboard to greater growth. We learn to open ourselves to experience, rather than shunning
unpleasant aspects of life. Our minds expand, and we become strong.
This is the legacy of the martial ways, and the true value of Aikido training. The dream of OSensei was of all the peoples of the world, training together in peace for mutual benefit.
Stressing the positive values of the martial ways, Aikido continues to grow and spread across
the globe, fulfilling this vision.
Aikido: A Way Martial
Untuk memahami Aikido dan manfaatnya, harus dikatakan bahwa sebagai seni bela diri
tradisional Jepang, Aikido adalah lebih dari sekedar metode yang efisien untuk membela diri.
Ini adalah bentuk Budo - "jalan bela diri". Kata yang dalam bahasa Jepang adalah sama
dengan kata tao Cina. Ini menunjukkan jalan pemahaman, cara hidup, dan Jalan alam semesta
itu sendiri.
Dalam sejarah Jepang, seperti dalam banyak budaya, seni prajurit dianggap unik cocok tidak
hanya untuk penggunaan praktis selama masa perang, tetapi untuk perbaikan dan
pengembangan karakter manusia. Kualitas dan prinsip-prinsip dari prajurit yang ideal keberanian, ketegasan, kekuatan, kejernihan pikiran, kasih sayang - juga kualitas ideal dari
manusia. Dengan cara ini, tradisi bela diri Jepang, seperti ksatria Eropa, selalu menekankan
penerapan prinsip-prinsip bela diri untuk kehidupan sehari-hari. Pemahaman ini adalah makna
dari budo. Sebuah kata yang berhubungan, Bushido ("jalan prajurit") juga mengungkapkan hal
ini. Sebuah cara pejuang kehidupan yang tidak hanya berjuang, tetapi konstan berjuang untuk
kesempurnaan diri dalam segala hal.
Cita-cita ksatria dalam budaya Eropa adalah bahwa seorang pejuang yang kuat yang juga
memiliki sensitivitas dan belas kasihan. Demikian juga, cita-cita samurai, para prajurit Jepang,
bukanlah seorang pejuang yang sederhana. Itu adalah manusia yang seimbang, seorang
prajurit mewujudkan moto Bun Bu Ryodo: ". The bela diri dan cara-cara intelektual sebagai
salah satu" Seimbang dengan cara ini, seseorang benar-benar dapat berguna dan melayani
orang lain.
Tradisi-tradisi saat ini dijalankan di cara bela diri seperti Aikido. Semuanya dalam pelatihan
Aikido dimaksudkan untuk mengembangkan tidak hanya individu yang kuat, tapi dengan
kebijaksanaan dan energi untuk positif menguntungkan masyarakat. Seorang seniman sejati
konflik pandangan bela diri bukan hanya sebagai kontes dengan orang lain, tetapi sebagai
kesempatan untuk menempa diri dan mengatasi musuh sejati kita, yang berada dalam. Sebuah
kehidupan yang dijalani penuh dengan cara ini secara alami menjadi shugyo: pelatihan
spiritual terdalam mungkin. Sebuah pepatah favorit Morihei Ueshiba O-Sensei, pendiri

Aikido, adalah Masakatsu, Agatsu: "kemenangan yang sejati adalah diri kemenangan." Ini
benar-benar adalah semangat Aikido.
Fisik Manfaat
Tentu saja, manfaat filsafat dan internal Aikido yang disertai dengan manfaat fisik beton.
Pelatihan Aikido merupakan program yang sangat baik untuk semua-sekitar fisik, fleksibilitas
relaksasi kebugaran, dan.
Tubuh manusia secara umum dapat mengerahkan kekuatan dalam dua cara: kontraktif dan
ekspansif. Banyak kegiatan kebugaran, misalnya angkat berat, menekankan mantan, yang
berarti bahwa otot-otot tertentu atau kelompok otot yang terisolasi dan bekerja untuk
meningkatkan nada, massa, dan kekuasaan. Kerugian ini, bagaimanapun, adalah bahwa
seluruh gerakan tubuh dan koordinasi jarang stres. Jadi, sementara ukuran otot dan kekuatan
dapat meningkatkan, tidak ada teaming satu cara di mana untuk menggunakan otot-otot
bersama-sama yang paling efisien. Juga, ini semacam pelatihan cenderung meningkatkan
ketegangan, mengurangi fleksibilitas, dan stres sendi. Hasilnya mungkin estetis, tetapi bila
dilakukan secara berlebihan itu akhirnya sia-sia, dan benar-benar merugikan kesehatan secara
Tipe kedua kekuasaan, ekspansif, sebagian besar ditekankan dalam kegiatan seperti menari
atau senam. Dalam kegiatan ini, tubuh harus belajar untuk bergerak secara terkoordinasi dan
dengan relaksasi. Aikido, juga, sebagian besar menekankan pelatihan semacam ini.
Sementara kedua jenis kekuasaan yang penting, menarik untuk dicatat bahwa orang yang
menguasai kedua jenis kekuasaan dapat, dalam konteks bela diri, sering mengatasi orang yang
jauh lebih besar atau lebih kuat. Alasan untuk ini adalah bahwa kekuatan kontraktif yang
kebanyakan orang tahu adalah hanya sebagai besar sebagai massa dan kekuatan otot pribadi
Anda. Kekuatan ekspansif, namun, seperti yang digunakan dalam Aikido, bisa jauh lebih besar
dari ukuran Anda dapat mengarahkan Anda untuk percaya. Hal ini karena Anda bergerak
dengan seluruh tubuh Anda.
Daripada menekankan dan tegang hanya beberapa otot, Anda belajar untuk rileks dan bergerak
dari pusat tubuh Anda, di mana Anda paling kuat. Power kemudian diperpanjang keluar secara
alami melalui anggota badan rileks, yang menjadi hampir cambuk seperti dalam gerakan
Jadi Aikido mengembangkan tubuh dengan cara yang unik. Kebugaran aerobik diperoleh
melalui pelatihan yang kuat. Fleksibilitas sendi dan jaringan ikat dikembangkan melalui
latihan peregangan berbagai melalui teknik sendiri. Relaksasi yang dipelajari secara otomatis,
karena tanpa itu teknik tidak akan berfungsi. Dan penggunaan kekuatan yang seimbang
kontraktif dan ekspansif dikuasai, memungkinkan bahkan orang kecil untuk menghasilkan
energi yang sangat besar dan pertahanan diri keterampilan.
Psikologis Manfaat
Pelatihan aikido tidak melihat tubuh dan pikiran secara terpisah. Kondisi satu akan
mempengaruhi yang lain.
Untuk alasan ini, relaksasi fisik yang dipelajari di Aikido secara alami menjadi relaksasi
mental. Demikian juga, ketekunan dan keyakinan yang berkembang secara mental diwujudkan
dalam tubuh yang bergerak dan memegang sendiri percaya diri dan kuat. Setiap wawasan
psikologis atau spiritual harus tercermin dalam tubuh, atau yang lain itu cenderung sedikit
lebih dari intelektualisasi, di bawah tekanan, wawasan tersebut menghilang, dan orang itu
kembali kepada kebiasaan sebelumnya tertanam dan pola.

Aikido pelatihan mengharuskan mahasiswa untuk jujur menghadapi konflik, bukan untuk
melarikan diri dari itu. Melalui pengalaman ini, sangat konkret fisik, seorang praktisi Aikido
belajar untuk menghadapi situasi kehidupan dengan cara, proaktif konstruktif. Pola
penghindaran dan ketakutan yang rusak. The, tegang reaksi defensif terhadap tekanan dan
konflik yang begitu sering hanya menciptakan lebih banyak kekerasan diakui dan
didekonstruksi. Seseorang baru - langsung, berani namun rendah hati, mampu untuk menjadi
kuat dan menghasilkan sebagai kondisi yang membutuhkan - dapat muncul dari pelatihan ini.
Hari ini, Aikido telah menjadi dikenal di kalangan psikologi dan bisnis sebagai metafora yang
sangat berguna dalam merumuskan strategi penyelesaian konflik. Orang-orang di mana-mana
menggunakan filosofi Aikido untuk meningkatkan kualitas hidup mereka.
Diri Pertahanan
Di Jepang, sebuah negara seni bela diri banyak, Aikido adalah salah satu yang dipilih untuk
instruksi kepada Kepolisian Tokyo Metropolitan elit Kerusuhan dan Polisi Rahasia. Alasan
untuk ini mungkin fleksibilitas ekstrim yang melekat dalam seni.
Tidak seperti seni lainnya, Aikido Teknik dapat diterapkan pada berbagai tingkat keparahan,
dalam sebuah kontinum dari teknik pengendalian yang paling lembut untuk penanggulangan
yang paling parah. Aikido karena itu ideal untuk aplikasi untuk berbagai macam situasi
defensif, termasuk law-enforcement/security/corrections, medis / kesehatan mental
lingkungan, sipil pertahanan diri, perempuan membela diri, dan anak-anak membela diri.
Aikido dapat secara fleksibel disesuaikan dengan situasi apa pun muncul, ini adalah warisan
dari samurai, yang merancang teknik ini untuk menghadapi membingungkan serangan oleh
penyerang tunggal atau ganda. Hari ini, kami melanjutkan tradisi ini dengan menginstruksikan
Aikido Aikido dan khusus yang diturunkan teknik untuk berbagai-organisasi yang perlu
menentukan, keterampilan defensif yang efektif.
Aikido di Kehidupan Sehari-hari
Praktek Aikido akhirnya harus menjadi praktek kehidupan sehari-hari, saat ke saat. Setiap saat
dalam kehidupan melibatkan semacam konflik - dengan orang lain, dengan lingkungan kita,
dengan tubuh kita, dengan diri kita sendiri. Namun, itu adalah pilihan kita untuk melihat
konflik ini sebagai sesuatu yang harus dihindari dan berjuang dengan, atau sebagai kekuatan
kreatif dari perubahan yang membuat pertumbuhan sejati dan belajar mungkin.
Dalam rangka mengembangkan potensi manusia yang sejati, semacam disiplin dan perbaikan
yang diperlukan. Dalam rangka untuk mengembangkan kesadaran, ketegasan, kekuatan batin
dan kasih sayang, kita harus mengalami kesulitan dan kerja menghadapi hidup jujur. Hidup itu
sendiri harus digunakan untuk menempa diri kita sendiri. Ini filosofi Aikido berarti bahwa,
pada akhirnya, dojo kami (training hall) jauh lebih dari sebuah bangunan di mana kita berlatih.
Dojo sejati kita adalah hidup kita sendiri. Dan, Aikido terdiri dari metodologi pelatihan
terpadu yang dirancang untuk membawa tentang realisasi ini dan meletakkannya untuk
digunakan baik.
Dilihat dengan cara ini, hidup menjadi kaya dan penuh dengan makna. Setiap situasi
digunakan sebagai batu loncatan untuk pertumbuhan yang lebih besar. Kita belajar untuk
membuka diri untuk mengalami, daripada menghindari aspek kehidupan yang tidak
menyenangkan. Pikiran kita berkembang, dan kami menjadi kuat.
Ini adalah warisan dari cara bela diri, dan nilai sebenarnya dari pelatihan Aikido. Mimpi OSensei adalah semua bangsa di dunia, pelatihan bersama dalam damai untuk saling
menguntungkan. Menekankan nilai-nilai positif dari cara bela diri, Aikido terus tumbuh dan
menyebar di seluruh dunia, memenuhi visi ini

Basic Treatment For Aikido Related Injuries:

by Charles T. Taft

First and Foremost, the Disclaimer:

I am not a medical doctor, I am a licensed massage therapist and a certified neuromuscular therapist
in the State of Fla. The information I give here is intended as basic treatment for common martial
arts injuries. If the injury causes any immediate swelling and bruising, causes a joint to be obviously
dislocated, shows any evidence of a broken bone then immediately seek medical attention. If you re
not sure of what is wrong seek medical attention. It is your body, it s your choice.

The Bruise, or the reward for a regretful moment of unskillfullness:

Bruises come in all sizes, shapes and colors, just like people. From the small, perfectly round,
uniquely brown yonkyo bruise to the grapefruit size, multicolored lump in your thigh caused when
an elbow came from the sky and landed point first in your leg, like people, some are just a pain and
others can be dangerous.
First Aid for bruises is, ( remember this, you will see it again ), R.I.C.E., Rest-Ice-CompressionElevation. Rest: I shouldn't have to explain this one. Ice: A wonderful thing for all types of soft
tissue problems. It penetrates the body quickly, the application of cold to the body causes the blood
vesicles to constrict, slowing the leakage of fluid, blood etc., into the surrounding tissue. It s
primary use is to control swelling. Compression: Time for the old ace bandage you keep in your
dogi bag. Wrap from the side of the bruise farthest from your heart first working toward the heart.
Make the wrap as tight as is almost comfortable, if the body parts below the bruise start to go numb
or turn blue, IT S too tight, loosen it alittle. Elevation: This is pretty simple, try to keep the affected
part raised above the heart. This helps the return flow of blood to the heart and helps control
Please remember that a bruise the size of your fist, think in 3D, can be very serious. The rule of
thumb is, that size bruise means about a pint of blood has leaked into the muscle tissue. You only
have a few pints, get medical attention for this one.
Age and medical condition also play an important part in the treatment of brusies. The problem of
blood clots in the tissue entering the blood stream and causing blockage of vessels in other
important parts of the body, like the heart or brain, is a serious problem for older people and people
with other heart/circulatory problems.If you are reading this as an instructor or dojo owner, KNOW
your students history in this area.
Please, use common sense. If you have a bruise on your arm, and you can't open or close your
fingers, it s not a good thing. The damage that caused the bruise can also cause damage to the
nerves in that area also. Keep aware of your body, if you have problems that bother you in any way,
see your doctor.

Sprains,Strains and overzealous nages:

Sprain: When a joint is extended beyond it s normal range of motion, without any dislocation of
the affected joint. There will be soft tissue damage, this can be on a microscopic level or look like a
good bruise. The only good bruises I can think of are...oh well, back to the reality of this. Treatment
for sprains is the same as for bruises, R.I.C.E.. Add to that massage, when you can rub the area
without too much discomfort, rub the entire area. Why, you may ask ? The tissue that was damaged
consists of tendon and ligament tissue. This tissue doesn't have a blood supply of it s own, it must
absorb oxygenated blood and nutrients then give off their waste products through the cell walls. If
this sounds like a slow way to recovery, your right, but it s nature s way. So, if it feels good to rub it,

rub it.
Strain: This is a serious one. There are 3 classes of strains. Num.1; the joint is dislocated but
returns to normal position. There will be tissue damage and swelling the tissue damage, in this
class, is moderate normally over stretching the ligaments and tendons. The integrity of the joint has
been compromised and there may be damage to the joint capsule. Compression and ice are very
important and should be applied as soon as possible to control the swelling. Remember R.I.C.E., in
these injuries the more you can control the swelling the quicker you will heal. After the swelling is
over and you can apply pressure to the area, rub hell out of it, it will need all the circulation it can
get. As you can put weight on it make sure you don't feel any grinding sensations as you move it,
like the feeling of bone on bone, if you do see your doctor. If after the swelling is gone the joint
feels locked in place and you can tell it s not muscle related, see your doctor. If there is any thing
you are uncomfortable with, see your doctor.
The remaining two, class 2 and 3, require a doctors attention. They are, 2. the joint remains in an
un- natural position, tendon and ligament damage is severe. There may be detached tendons and
ligaments but normally just some fibers are torn. 3. the joint remains at an un-natural angle and the
ligaments and/or tendons are torn from their attachments. Treatment: Secure the affected joint in the
position it is found in. Do NOT move it to try to straighten it. When it is secure. Apply ice and
transport to the appropriate medical facility.

Rehabilitation of soft tissue injuries, acute and chronic.

I know, I know, this isn't about crunching calcium. I realized that I was getting ahead of what I
wanted. Since most injuries associated with Aikido are soft tissue, I should spend more time here.
There is little anyone can do for broken bones in the dojo, unless you are a board certified
Orthopedic surgeon with your insurance paid up you don't ever want to try to set broken bones at
I have covered acute, fresh, injuries in the previous text. Remember R.I.C.E. There is something I
need to cover about ice. As was said previously, ice penetrates the body quickly. Therefore some
guidelines are necessary, apply ice for a maximum of twenty minutes at a time. You may have
noticed, if you use ice therapy, that the body goes through 3 stages, first cold, then hot, then numb.
When the area becomes numb, it s time to remove the ice for awhile to let the skin warm up. Why?
Because the next stage is frost-bite, this will slow your training allot.
There has been some good advice on the list about shoulder and elbow problems. Most of it has
been about stretching and flexibility and that is most important. There has also been some advice
about strengthening muscles that overlie painful joints in an effort to relieve the discomfort. This
needs some clearing up.
What causes chronic pain, why does it come and go? Inquiring minds want to know.
Any time a muscle is damaged it sends a signal to the spinal cord, telling it that the muscle is in
trouble. The nervous system, in it s infinite wisdom, sends a signal back causing the muscle to
contract. This is to protect it from being over stretched and torn. What happens in the muscle tissue
The blood supply to the tissue is restricted due to the contracted tissue around the veins, capillaries,
etc. As a result, the veinous return is restricted. This causes the bodies ability to clean the tissue of
dead cells and waste products to be greatly impaired. As a result the muscle tissue is irritated,
causing a signal to the spinal cord, over the same nerve path as the original, telling it that the muscle
is in trouble. The spinal cord sends back a message to contract the muscle to protect it. And the
whole process starts all over again.
If nothing is done about the problem, i.e.: stretching and/or massage, eventually the discomfort will

drop below your bodies pain threshold and it won't bother you again. Until, something causes more
stimulus to affect the muscle then normal. This will push the irritation back over the bodies pain
threshold and it will hurt again. This cycle will continue, each time it will take less and less stimulus
to return the discomfort.
As you can see, making the muscle contract more, by strengthening techniques, will perpetuate the
The first thing that must be done to repair the problem is to get the muscle fiber back to its normal
anatomical length. Stretching and massage work very well, the most important thing is to return the
muscle its normal length, what ever works for you. When everything is back to normal and there is
no more discomfort, then start to rehabilitate the muscle how ever you choose to do it. Just start
I know, this kind of says that you shouldn't train when you re injured. Maybe you shouldn't, it s all
up to you. If you choose to train the recovery will take longer, you will most likely fix the problem
but it will take longer.
While I ve been writing this section I have decided not to go ahead with the first aid for broken
bones. If anyone has any questions about that or anything about this post please Email me direct and
I will try to help as much as I can.

Dasar Perawatan Untuk Cedera Aikido Terkait:

oleh Charles T. Taft
Pertama dan paling utama, Penyanggahan:
Saya bukan seorang dokter, saya seorang terapis pijat berlisensi dan terapis bersertifikat
neuromuskuler di Negara Bagian Florida Informasi yang saya berikan di sini dimaksudkan sebagai
pengobatan dasar untuk umum cedera seni bela diri. Jika cedera menyebabkan setiap
pembengkakan dan memar langsung, menyebabkan sendi menjadi jelas terkilir, menunjukkan bukti
patah tulang kemudian segera mencari perhatian medis. Jika Anda tidak yakin apa yang salah
mencari perhatian medis. Ini adalah tubuh Anda, itu s pilihan Anda.
The Bekam, atau hadiah untuk saat menyesal dari unskillfullness:
Memar datang dalam semua, bentuk ukuran dan warna, seperti manusia. Dari kecil, bulat sempurna,
memar unik yonkyo coklat dengan ukuran jeruk, benjolan warna-warni di paha Anda disebabkan
ketika siku datang dari langit dan mendarat titik pertama di kaki Anda, seperti orang-orang,
sebagian lagi hanya rasa sakit dan lain-lain bisa berbahaya .
Pertolongan Pertama untuk memar adalah, (ingat ini, Anda akan melihatnya lagi), BERAS, RestIce-Compression-Elevation. Istirahat: Saya tidak perlu menjelaskan satu ini. Ice: Sebuah hal yang
luar biasa untuk semua jenis masalah jaringan lunak. Ini menembus tubuh dengan cepat, penerapan
dingin ke tubuh menyebabkan vesikel darah menyempit, memperlambat kebocoran cairan, dll
darah, ke dalam jaringan di sekitarnya. Penggunaan utama itu adalah untuk mengendalikan
pembengkakan. Kompresi: Waktu untuk perban ace lama Anda menyimpan dalam tas dogi Anda.
Bungkus dari sisi memar terjauh dari hati Anda pertama kali bekerja menuju jantung. Buatlah
bungkus sekencang hampir nyaman, jika bagian tubuh bawah memar mulai pergi mati rasa atau
membiru, itu s terlalu ketat, tidak lengket alittle. Elevation: Ini sangat sederhana, cobalah untuk
menjaga bagian yang terkena dinaikkan di atas jantung. Ini membantu aliran kembalinya darah ke
jantung dan membantu pembengkakan kontrol.

Harap diingat bahwa memar ukuran kepalan tangan Anda, berpikir dalam 3D, bisa sangat serius.
Aturan praktis adalah, bahwa memar ukuran berarti sekitar setengah liter darah telah bocor ke
dalam jaringan otot. Anda hanya memiliki beberapa gelas, mendapatkan perhatian medis untuk
yang satu ini.
Usia dan kondisi medis juga memainkan peranan penting dalam pengobatan brusies. Masalah
pembekuan darah di jaringan memasuki aliran darah dan penyumbatan yang menyebabkan
pembuluh di bagian penting lain dari tubuh, seperti jantung atau otak, adalah masalah serius bagi
orang tua dan orang dengan lainnya jantung / peredaran darah problems.If Anda membaca ini
sebagai pemilik atau instruktur dojo, TAHU sejarah siswa di daerah ini.
Silakan, gunakan akal sehat. Jika Anda memiliki memar di lengan Anda, dan Anda tidak dapat
membuka atau menutup jari-jari Anda, itu s bukan hal yang baik. Kerusakan yang menyebabkan
memar juga dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada saraf-saraf di daerah itu juga. Jauhkan menyadari
tubuh Anda, jika Anda memiliki masalah yang mengganggu Anda dengan cara apapun, dokter
Keseleo, Strain dan Nages terlalu bersemangat:
Keseleo: Ketika sendi diperpanjang di luar jangkauan normal s gerak, tanpa dislokasi sendi yang
terkena. Akan ada kerusakan jaringan lunak, hal ini dapat berada pada tingkat mikroskopis atau
terlihat seperti memar yang baik. Satu-satunya memar yang baik saya bisa pikirkan adalah ... oh
well, kembali ke realitas ini. Pengobatan untuk keseleo adalah sama seperti untuk memar, BERAS.
Tambahkan untuk pijat itu, ketika Anda dapat menggosok daerah tanpa terlalu banyak
ketidaknyamanan, menggosok seluruh area. Mengapa, Anda mungkin bertanya? Jaringan yang
rusak terdiri dari tendon dan jaringan ligamen. Jaringan ini tidak memiliki suplai darah itu sendiri,
harus menyerap darah beroksigen dan nutrisi kemudian melepaskan produk limbah mereka melalui
dinding sel. Jika ini terdengar seperti cara yang lambat untuk pemulihan, hak Anda, tapi s alam s
cara. Jadi, jika rasanya enak untuk menggosok, gosok.
Strain: Ini adalah salah satu yang serius. Ada 3 kelas strain. Num.1, sendi terkilir namun kembali ke
posisi normal. Akan ada kerusakan jaringan dan pembengkakan kerusakan jaringan, di kelas ini,
adalah moderat biasanya lebih peregangan ligamen dan tendon. Integritas sendi telah diganggu dan
mungkin ada kerusakan pada kapsul sendi. Kompresi dan es yang sangat penting dan harus
diterapkan sesegera mungkin untuk mengontrol pembengkakan. Ingat BERAS, dalam luka semakin
Anda dapat mengontrol pembengkakan semakin cepat Anda akan sembuh. Setelah pembengkakan
selesai dan Anda dapat menerapkan tekanan ke daerah, gosok neraka keluar dari itu, ia akan
membutuhkan semua sirkulasi itu bisa. Seperti yang Anda dapat menempatkan beban di atasnya
pastikan Anda tidak merasakan sensasi grinding saat Anda memindahkannya, seperti perasaan
tulang pada tulang, jika Anda melihat dokter Anda. Jika setelah pembengkakan hilang sendi terasa
terkunci di tempatnya dan Anda dapat memberitahu itu s bukan otot yang terkait, lihat dokter Anda.
Jika ada hal yang Anda merasa tidak nyaman dengan, dokter Anda.
Dua sisanya, kelas 2 dan 3, membutuhkan perhatian dokter. Mereka adalah, 2. sendi tetap dalam
posisi un-alami, tendon dan ligamen kerusakan parah. Mungkin ada tendon dan ligamen terpisah
tetapi biasanya hanya beberapa serat yang robek. 3. sendi tetap pada sudut un-alami dan ligamen
dan / atau tendon yang robek dari lampiran mereka. Pengobatan: Amankan sendi yang terkena
dalam posisi itu ditemukan masuk JANGAN memindahkannya untuk mencoba meluruskannya.
Ketika itu aman. Terapkan es dan transportasi ke fasilitas medis yang sesuai.
Rehabilitasi cedera jaringan lunak, akut dan kronis.
Saya tahu, saya tahu, ini bukan tentang berderak kalsium. Saya menyadari bahwa saya mendapatkan

depan apa yang saya inginkan. Karena cedera yang paling terkait dengan Aikido adalah jaringan
lunak, saya harus menghabiskan lebih banyak waktu di sini. Ada orang kecil bisa lakukan untuk
patah tulang di dojo, kecuali Anda adalah seorang ahli bedah ortopedi papan bersertifikat dengan
asuransi Anda disetor Anda tidak pernah ingin mencoba untuk mengatur patah tulang di rumah.
Saya telah tertutup akut, segar, cedera dalam teks sebelumnya. Ingat R.I.C.E. Ada sesuatu yang
harus saya untuk menutupi tentang es. Seperti dikatakan sebelumnya, es menembus tubuh dengan
cepat. Oleh karena itu beberapa panduan yang diperlukan, gunakan es selama maksimal dua puluh
menit pada suatu waktu. Anda mungkin telah menyadari, jika Anda menggunakan terapi es, bahwa
tubuh melewati 3 tahapan, dingin pertama, kemudian panas, kemudian mati rasa. Ketika daerah
menjadi mati rasa, waktu itu s untuk menghapus es untuk sementara membiarkan kulit pemanasan.
Kenapa? Karena tahap selanjutnya adalah es-gigitan, hal ini akan memperlambat membagikan
pelatihan Anda.
Ada beberapa nasihat yang baik pada daftar tentang masalah bahu dan siku. Sebagian besar telah
tentang peregangan dan fleksibilitas dan yang paling penting. Ada juga telah beberapa saran tentang
memperkuat otot-otot yang menimpa nyeri sendi dalam upaya untuk meringankan
ketidaknyamanan. Hal ini perlu kliring beberapa up.
Apa yang menyebabkan sakit kronis, mengapa hal itu datang dan pergi? Bertanya pikiran ingin
Setiap kali otot rusak mengirimkan sinyal ke sumsum tulang belakang, mengatakan bahwa otot
adalah dalam kesulitan. Sistem saraf, dalam kebijaksanaan yang tak terbatas itu s, mengirim sinyal
kembali menyebabkan otot berkontraksi. Hal ini untuk melindunginya dari yang lebih menggeliat
dan robek. Apa yang terjadi dalam jaringan otot adalah;
Suplai darah ke jaringan dibatasi karena jaringan dikontrak sekitar pembuluh darah, kapiler, dll
Akibatnya, pengembalian veinous dibatasi. Hal ini menyebabkan kemampuan tubuh untuk
membersihkan jaringan dari sel-sel mati dan produk limbah yang akan sangat terganggu. Akibatnya
jaringan otot teriritasi, menyebabkan sinyal ke sumsum tulang belakang, melalui jalur saraf yang
sama seperti aslinya, mengatakan bahwa otot adalah dalam kesulitan. The sumsum tulang belakang
mengirim kembali pesan untuk kontrak otot untuk melindunginya. Dan seluruh proses dimulai lagi.
Jika tidak ada yang dilakukan tentang masalah, yaitu: peregangan dan / atau pijat, akhirnya
ketidaknyamanan ini akan turun di bawah ambang nyeri tubuh Anda dan tidak akan mengganggu
Anda lagi. Hingga, sesuatu yang menyebabkan stimulus lebih untuk mempengaruhi otot maka
normal. Hal ini akan mendorong iritasi kembali atas ambang nyeri tubuh dan akan terluka lagi.
Siklus ini akan terus berlanjut, setiap kali akan mengambil stimulus kurang dan kurang untuk
kembali ketidaknyamanan.
Seperti yang Anda lihat, membuat kontrak otot, dengan memperkuat teknik, akan melanggengkan
Hal pertama yang harus dilakukan untuk memperbaiki masalah ini adalah untuk mendapatkan serat
otot kembali ke panjang anatomi normal. Peregangan dan kerja pijat sangat baik, hal yang paling
penting adalah untuk mengembalikan otot panjang normal, apa yang pernah bekerja untuk Anda.
Ketika semuanya kembali normal dan tidak ada ketidaknyamanan lebih, kemudian mulai
merehabilitasi otot bagaimana pernah Anda memilih untuk melakukannya. Hanya mulai perlahanlahan.
Saya tahu, ini jenis mengatakan bahwa Anda tidak harus melatih ketika Anda sedang terluka.

Mungkin Anda tidak boleh, itu s semua terserah Anda. Jika Anda memilih untuk melatih pemulihan
akan memakan waktu lebih lama, Anda kemungkinan besar akan memperbaiki masalah tetapi akan
memakan waktu lebih lama.
Sementara saya sudah pernah menulis bagian ini saya telah memutuskan untuk tidak pergi ke depan
dengan bantuan pertama untuk patah tulang. Jika seseorang memiliki pertanyaan tentang itu atau
apa-apa tentang posting ini silahkan Email saya langsung dan saya akan mencoba untuk membantu
sebanyak yang saya bisa.

Aikido in the Training of Psychotherapists

by David Lukoff and Beth Tabakin
The moon does not think to be reflected
nor does the water think to reflect
in the Hirowasa Pond.
Many of us who are psychologists have found that our Aikido training increases our ability to
"read" bodies and improves our sensitivity to social/emotional issues that are embodies in our
students and clients. Aikido is also invaluable to our attempts to re-balance ourselves physically,
spiritually, and emotionally.
While most graduate programs in psychology (and other mental health disciplines) do not
incorporate training in mind-body practices, a few do. Some well-respected Aikido senseis are also
prominent psychologists who have discussed the application of Aikido techniques in therapy.
This article explores how Aikido has been incorporated into psychotherapy training programs and
how it is used in psychotherapy.
Aikido in Therapist Training
As a mind-body-spirit discipline, Aikido cultivates many of the core attributes of a somatically
based therapy.
Mind and body must be coordinated in Aikido. This trains the attention and brings about other
changes in conscousness central to creating the healing presence that is important in therapy. A
therapist who can maintain a calm state of mind, free from fears and illusions of the past and of an
imaged future, can relate to others emphathetically. But psychotherapists cannot simply adopt
relaxation, blending, and sensitivity as items of philosophy. They must also train the body.
Aikido's widespread influence on the training of therapists has been particularly prominent in the
field of transpersonal psychology: Robert Frager, who studied Aikido with O-Sensei, later founded
the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology (ITP) where students spend two years practicing Aikido
four times a week as part of a mind-body healing course. Charles Tart has also incorporated some
of the concepts and practices of Aikido into his influential theoretical work. George Leonard's
programs at Esalen and his books (such as The Way of Aikido: Life Lessons from an American
Sensei) have served to bring discourse about Aikido to therapists, as have Wendy Palmer's books
(such an Intuitive Body: Aikido As a Clairsentient Practice) and her classes at JFKU and
workshops using principles drawn from Aikido. One of us--David Lukoff--has taught Aikido
techniques at Saybrook Graduate School to provide training in the psychospiritual dimensions of

What makes Aikido ideal for therapist training? It involves a mind-body-spirit practice that is
usually performed with a partner, and its interactions often mimic therapist-client interactions. For
example, issues of projection and transference, as well as ways of dealing with conflict and
closeness, arise in Aikido. For therapists, particularly during training, this provides an opportunity
for self-examination, skill development, and growth.
Humanistic therapists have emphasized the importance of being fully present in the existential
encounter of therapy. For example, James Bugental describes the therapist's need to be "totally in
the situation--in body, in emotions, in relating, in thoughts, in every way." This is an excellent
description of being centered in Aikido. It also resembles Rollo May's "total relationship," Carl
Rogers' "being present," and Freud's "evenly suspended attention"--which have been identified as
fundamental to psychotherapy.
Patrick Faggianelli interviewed eight advanced Aikidoists who were also therapists for his doctoral
dissertation at Saybrook Graduate School: Aikido and psychotherapy: A study of psychotherapists
who are Aikido practitioners. Faggianelli found that these therapists brought experiences from their
training on the mat into their consulting rooms. "The participants reported that Aikido practice has
powerfully affected their ability to be present and effective in therapy," he reports.
The therapists in Faggianelli's study described how they apply the key Aikido concept of "blending
with the attack" to the resistance of clients during therapy. One therapist described "getting off the
line" (out of the way of the attack) when a client had an emotional outburst not meant for him. "It
needs to come out," he said. "I can step aside emotionally and just witness the emotion going by."
Another theme that emerged in Faggianelli's study relates to the Aikido concept of takemusu, which
involves spontaneously dealing effectively, safely, and compassionately with conflict. The
therapists reported that takemusu "transfers directly to the ability to be relaxed, present, flexible,
and spontaneous in therapy."
Aikido and Spirituality
Spirituality is now accepted as an important component of cultural competence for mental health
professionals. But it is also an area that mental health training programs have difficulty
incorporating. Here again Aikido can help.
Aikido can be described as "moving meditation"; it requires stilling of the mind even as the body is
in action. As with meditation, the practice of Aikido can lead to the experience of higher states of
consciousness. The physical practices in Aikido induce states of harmony (ai) and spirit (ki) that
can be described as flow or sometimes peak experiences. Thus, as Wendy Palmer points out,
Aikido can provide therapists with an experiential grounding in spirituality: "I have found the body
to be the most revealing and rewarding focal point for exploring the ecumenical nature of the
spiritual path, for it is through the body that an individual manifests the ideas or inspirations of this
path" (from The Practice of Freedom: Aikido Principles as a Spiritual Guide).
The therapists in Faggianelli's study reported that "Aikido has provided an embodied, practical, and
spiritually-based model for them to contextualize and understand their own experience."
Clinical Applications of Aikido
At times, Aikido can be directly applied in clinical situations. Richard Heckler used Aikido in his
work with children diagnosed as emotionally disturbed. He worked with their issues somatically-teaching them how to move and experience their bodies differently. He began by teaching them to
stand in an Aikido way to find a position that is balanced, solid, and relaxed. The Aikido
movements themselves were used to create change.
As Heckler's young people learned Aikido, their ability to feel and sense was awakened. "I believe
this work is as valuable, if not more valuable than traditional talking therapy," Heckler writes.
"Through the Aikido training these children deal with issues of competition, aggression, intimacy
and contact while they learn to unify their minds and bodies."

Heckler's book Aikido and the New Warrior contains other examples of Aikido techniques used with
people in a coma, in family therapy, and in other therapeutic contexts.
Experiencing the difference between being off balance and in balance and the enjoyment of learning
to "roll with the punches" and return to a centered stance is a practice of resilience and learned
optimism. Think about it -- we pay money and, at times, drive long distances for the opportunity to
be thrown to the ground and get up again so that we can learn to respond to an attack in a way that
maintains safety for both the attacker and the attacked. The same concern for safety and stillness is
required from all therapists. We need to become the Hirowasa Pond in order to reflect accurately
and empathetically the many moons and moods of our clients.
Therapists interested in exploring the interface of Aikido and therapy can contact Aiki-Extensions
( ).
David Lukoff is a Professor of Psychology at Saybrook Graduate School, co-president of the
Association for Transpersonal Psychology, and a director of Aiki-Extensions. He maintains a
website of resources on spirituality at .
Beth Tabakin, a psychologist and Reiki Master in Marin, California, is Director of Clinical
Psychology at Bright Minds Institute in San Francisco and founder of Life After Breakfast, which
incorporates a mind-body-spirit approach to healthy weight loss.
Aikido dalam Pelatihan psikoterapis
oleh David Lukoff dan Beth Tabakin

Bulan tidak berpikir akan tercermin

juga tidak berpikir air untuk mencerminkan
di Kolam Hirowasa.
- Tesshu
Banyak dari kita yang psikolog telah menemukan bahwa kami pelatihan Aikido meningkatkan
kemampuan kita untuk "membaca" tubuh dan meningkatkan kepekaan kita terhadap isu-isu sosial /
emosional yang mewujudkan pada siswa kami dan klien. Aikido juga berharga bagi upaya kita
untuk kembali menyeimbangkan diri kita secara fisik, spiritual, dan emosional.
Sementara sebagian besar program pascasarjana dalam psikologi (dan disiplin kesehatan mental)
tidak memasukkan pelatihan dalam pikiran-tubuh praktik, beberapa lakukan. Beberapa dihormati
Aikido senseis juga psikolog terkemuka yang telah membahas penerapan teknik Aikido dalam
Artikel ini mengeksplorasi bagaimana Aikido telah dimasukkan ke dalam program pelatihan
psikoterapi dan bagaimana ia digunakan dalam psikoterapi.
Aikido dalam Pelatihan Therapist

Sebagai suatu disiplin pikiran-tubuh-jiwa, Aikido memupuk banyak atribut inti dari terapi berbasis
Pikiran dan tubuh harus dikoordinasikan di Aikido. Ini melatih perhatian dan membawa perubahan
lain dalam conscousness pusat untuk menciptakan kehadiran penyembuhan yang penting dalam
terapi. Seorang terapis yang bisa mempertahankan ketenangan pikiran, bebas dari ketakutan dan
ilusi masa lalu dan masa depan yang dicitrakan, dapat berhubungan dengan orang lain
emphathetically. Namun psikoterapis tidak bisa hanya mengadopsi relaksasi, blending, dan
sensitivitas sebagai item filsafat. Mereka juga harus melatih tubuh.
Pengaruh luas Aikido pada pelatihan terapis telah sangat menonjol di bidang psikologi
transpersonal: Robert Frager, yang mempelajari Aikido dengan O-Sensei, kemudian mendirikan
Institute of Transpersonal Psychology (ITP) di mana siswa menghabiskan dua tahun berlatih Aikido
empat kali minggu sebagai bagian dari kursus penyembuhan pikiran-tubuh. Charles Tart telah juga
dimasukkan beberapa konsep dan praktek Aikido ke dalam pekerjaan berpengaruh teoretisnya.
Program George Leonard di Esalen dan buku-bukunya (seperti The Way of Aikido: Hidup Pelajaran
dari Sensei Amerika) telah melayani untuk membawa wacana tentang Aikido ke terapis, karena
memiliki buku-buku Wendy Palmer (seperti Badan Intuitif: Aikido Sebagai Praktek Clairsentient)
dan dia kelas di JFKU dan lokakarya dengan menggunakan prinsip-prinsip yang diambil dari
Aikido. Salah satu dari kami - David Lukoff - telah diajarkan teknik Aikido di Graduate School
Saybrook untuk memberikan pelatihan dalam dimensi psychospiritual psikoterapi.
Apa yang membuat Aikido yang ideal untuk pelatihan terapis? Ini melibatkan praktik pikiran-tubuhroh yang biasanya dilakukan dengan pasangan, dan interaksi yang sering meniru terapis-klien
interaksi. Misalnya, masalah proyeksi dan transferensi, serta cara menangani konflik dan kedekatan,
muncul dalam Aikido. Untuk terapis, terutama selama pelatihan, ini memberikan kesempatan bagi
pemeriksaan diri, pengembangan keterampilan, dan pertumbuhan.
Terapis humanistik telah menekankan pentingnya sepenuhnya hadir dalam pertemuan terapi
eksistensial. Misalnya, James Bugental menggambarkan kebutuhan terapis untuk menjadi "benarbenar dalam situasi -. Dalam tubuh, emosi, dalam berhubungan, dalam pikiran, dalam segala hal"
Ini merupakan penjelasan yang sangat baik yang berpusat di Aikido. Hal ini juga menyerupai
"hubungan total," Rollo May Carl Rogers '"yang hadir," dan Freud "perhatian merata ditangguhkan"
- yang telah diidentifikasi sebagai dasar untuk psikoterapi.
Patrick Faggianelli mewawancarai delapan aikidoists canggih yang juga terapis untuk disertasi
doktoralnya di Saybrook Graduate School: Aikido dan psikoterapi: Sebuah studi psikoterapis yang
praktisi Aikido. Faggianelli menemukan bahwa terapis membawa pengalaman dari pelatihan
mereka di tikar ke kamar konsultasi mereka. "Para peserta melaporkan bahwa praktek Aikido telah
kuat mempengaruhi kemampuan mereka untuk hadir dan efektif dalam terapi," lapornya.
Para terapis dalam studi Faggianelli menggambarkan bagaimana mereka menerapkan konsep
Aikido kunci dari "pencampuran dengan serangan" untuk perlawanan dari klien selama terapi. Satu
terapis dijelaskan "turun garis" (keluar dari jalan dari serangan) ketika klien memiliki ledakan
emosi tidak berarti baginya. "Ini perlu untuk keluar," katanya. "Saya bisa menyingkir emosional dan
hanya menyaksikan emosi yang akan."
Tema lain yang muncul dalam studi Faggianelli ini berkaitan dengan konsep Aikido dari takemusu,
yang melibatkan spontan berurusan secara efektif, aman, dan penuh kasih dengan konflik. Para
terapis melaporkan bahwa takemusu "transfer langsung ke kemampuan untuk menjadi santai, hadir,
fleksibel, dan spontan dalam terapi."

Aikido dan Spiritualitas

Spiritualitas kini diterima sebagai komponen penting dari kompetensi budaya bagi para profesional
kesehatan mental. Tapi itu juga merupakan daerah bahwa program kesehatan mental pelatihan
mengalami kesulitan menggabungkan. Di sini sekali lagi Aikido dapat membantu.
Aikido dapat digambarkan sebagai "meditasi bergerak", membutuhkan stilling pikiran bahkan
seperti tubuh itu dalam tindakan. Seperti dengan meditasi, praktek Aikido dapat mengarah pada
pengalaman negara-negara kesadaran yang lebih tinggi. Praktek-praktek fisik di Aikido mendorong
negara harmoni (ai) dan roh (ki) yang dapat digambarkan sebagai aliran atau pengalaman terkadang
puncak. Dengan demikian, seperti Wendy Palmer menunjukkan, Aikido dapat memberikan terapis
dengan landasan pengalaman dalam spiritualitas: "Saya telah menemukan tubuh menjadi titik fokus
paling mengungkapkan dan bermanfaat untuk menjelajahi sifat ekumenis dari jalan spiritual, untuk
itu adalah melalui tubuh bahwa seseorang memanifestasikan ide-ide atau inspirasi dari jalan ini
"(dari The Practice of Freedom: Aikido Prinsip sebagai Panduan Spiritual).
Para terapis dalam studi Faggianelli melaporkan bahwa "Aikido telah memberikan diwujudkan,
praktis, dan model berbasis spiritual bagi mereka untuk mengontekstualisasikan dan memahami
pengalaman mereka sendiri."
Aplikasi Klinis dari Aikido
Kadang-kadang, Aikido dapat langsung diterapkan dalam situasi klinis. Richard Heckler digunakan
Aikido dalam karyanya dengan anak-anak didiagnosis sebagai gangguan emosional. Dia bekerja
dengan isu-isu mereka somatically - mengajar mereka bagaimana untuk bergerak dan mengalami
tubuh mereka berbeda. Dia mulai dengan mengajarkan mereka untuk berdiri dengan cara Aikido
untuk menemukan posisi yang seimbang, kuat, dan santai. Gerakan Aikido itu sendiri digunakan
untuk membuat perubahan.
Sebagai orang muda yang belajar Aikido Heckler, kemampuan mereka untuk merasakan dan rasa
terbangun. "Saya percaya pekerjaan ini adalah sebagai berharga, jika tidak lebih berharga daripada
terapi bicara tradisional," tulis Heckler. "Melalui pelatihan Aikido anak-anak ini menghadapi
masalah persaingan, keintiman agresi, dan kontak sementara mereka belajar untuk menyatukan
pikiran dan tubuh mereka."
Buku Heckler ini Aikido dan Warrior New mengandung contoh-contoh lain dari teknik Aikido
digunakan dengan orang-orang dalam keadaan koma, dalam terapi keluarga, dan dalam konteks
terapi lainnya.
Mengalami perbedaan antara menjadi kehilangan keseimbangan dan keseimbangan dan kenikmatan
belajar untuk "roll dengan pukulan" dan kembali ke sikap berpusat merupakan praktek ketahanan
dan optimisme belajar. Pikirkan tentang hal ini - kami membayar uang dan, di kali, berkendara jarak
jauh untuk kesempatan yang akan dilempar ke tanah dan bangun lagi sehingga kita dapat belajar
untuk menanggapi serangan dengan cara yang mempertahankan keamanan untuk kedua penyerang
dan yang diserang. Perhatian yang sama untuk keamanan dan ketenangan yang diperlukan dari
semua terapis. Kita perlu menjadi Pond Hirowasa untuk mencerminkan secara akurat dan empati
yang banyak bulan dan suasana hati dari klien kami.

Terapis tertarik untuk menjelajahi antarmuka Aikido dan terapi dapat menghubungi Aiki-Ekstensi

David Lukoff adalah Profesor Psikologi di Saybrook Graduate School, co-presiden dari Asosiasi
Psikologi Transpersonal, dan direktur Aiki-Extensions. Dia memelihara website sumber daya pada
spiritualitas di
Beth Tabakin, seorang psikolog dan Reiki Master di Marin, California, adalah Direktur Klinis
Psikologi di Institut Minds cerah di San Francisco dan pendiri Kehidupan Setelah sarapan, yang
menggabungkan pendekatan pikiran-tubuh-semangat untuk penurunan berat badan yang sehat.

Introduction to
Beginning the Journey

Table of Contents
Table of Contents
A Personal Note
History of Aikido
Aikido and Combat Effectiveness
Weapons Training
About Bowing
Training the Mind in Aikido
A Note on Ki
Ranking in Aikido
Basic Aikido Vocabulary
Common Attacks
Basic Techniques
The Essence of Aikido
A Brief History of Japan
Aikido Kanji Dictionary

Dojo Etiquette

A Personal Note
Much of this document was originally The Aikido Primer by Eric Sotnak
( The following is Mr. Sotnaks introduction:
Introductory notice:
Please feel free to copy and distribute this primer to fellow aikidoists, non-aikidoists, friends, enemies, or
people who just need something to put them to sleep. Should you wish to customize it for your own dojo, you
may do so, but do, please, endeavor to make any changes commensurate with the overall spirit of the thing. If
you want to avoid being blamed for any mistakes in this document or for the content, you could include this
introductory notice or attach my name somewhere else within the document. I hereby disclaim any
responsibility for the content or for errors within any versions of this document not modified by myself.
I have adopted the Western convention for personal names in this document, i.e., first name first, family name
This version is dated September 1999.

Most of the remainder of this document was culled from resources on the Internet. Particular thanks
to Jun Akiyama for his wonderful website, AikiWeb ( All photographs
herein contained are the copyrighted property of their respective copyright holders.
And there is a very small part of this document that comes from my personal experience as an
Aikidoka. I do plan to update/rewrite this document frequently to include more of my personal
observations. I also plan to eventually add diagrams of techniques.
Good luck, and may you find peace and happiness on your journey.
Steven M. Fellwock
Lincoln, Nebraska
September 2000

An Introduction to Aikido

Although Aikido is a relatively recent innovation within the
world of martial arts, it is heir to a rich cultural and
philosophical background. Morihei Ueshiba (1883-1969)
created Aikido in Japan. Before creating Aikido, Ueshiba
trained extensively in several varieties of jujitsu, as well as
sword and spear fighting. Ueshiba also immersed himself in
religious studies and developed an ideology devoted to
universal socio-political harmony. Incorporating these
principles into his martial art, Ueshiba developed many
aspects of Aikido in concert with his philosophical and
religious ideology.
Aikido is not primarily a system of combat, but rather a
means of self-cultivation and improvement. Aikido has no
tournaments, competitions, contests, or sparring. Instead,
all Aikido techniques are learned cooperatively at a pace
commensurate with the abilities of each trainee. According to
the founder, the goal of Aikido is not the defeat of others, but
the defeat of the negative characteristics which inhabit ones
own mind and inhibit its functioning.
At the same time, the potential of Aikido as a means of self-defense should not be ignored. One
reason for the prohibition of competition in Aikido is that many Aikido techniques would have to be
excluded because of their potential to cause serious injury. By training cooperatively, even
potentially lethal techniques can be practiced without substantial risk.
It must be emphasized that there are no shortcuts to proficiency in Aikido (or in anything else, for
that matter). Consequently, attaining proficiency in Aikido is simply a matter of sustained and
dedicated training. No one becomes an expert in just a few months or years.

An Introduction to Aikido

History of Aikido
Aikidos founder, Morihei Ueshiba, was born in Japan on December
14, 1883. As a boy, he often saw local thugs beat up his father for
political reasons. He set out to make himself strong so that he could
take revenge. He devoted himself to hard physical conditioning and
eventually to the practice of martial arts, receiving certificates of
mastery in several styles of jujitsu, fencing, and spear fighting. In
spite of his impressive physical and martial capabilities, however, he
felt very dissatisfied. He began delving into religions in hopes of
finding a deeper significance to life, all the while continuing to
pursue his studies of budo, or the martial arts. By combining his
martial training with his religious and political ideologies, he created
the modern martial art of Aikido. Ueshiba decided on the name
Aikido in 1942 (before that he called his martial art aikibudo and
On the technical side, Aikido is rooted in several styles of jujitsu
(from which modern judo is also derived), in particular daitoryu(aiki)jujitsu, as well as sword and spear fighting arts. Oversimplifying
somewhat, we may say that Aikido takes the joint locks and throws
from jujitsu and combines them with the body movements of sword and spear fighting. However,
we must also realize that many Aikido techniques are the result of Master Ueshibas own
On the religious side, Ueshiba was a devotee of one of Japans so-called new religions, Omoto
Kyo. Omoto Kyo was (and is) part neo-Shintoism, and part socio-political idealism. One goal of
Omoto Kyo has been the unification of all humanity in a single heavenly kingdom on earth where
all religions would be united under the banner of Omoto Kyo. It is impossible sufficiently to
understand many of O-Senseis writings and sayings without keeping the influence of Omoto Kyo
firmly in mind.
Despite what many people think or claim, there is no unified philosophy of Aikido. What there is,
instead, is a disorganized and only partially coherent collection of religious, ethical, and
metaphysical beliefs which are only more or less shared by Aikidoka, and which are either
transmitted by word of mouth or found in scattered publications about Aikido.
Some examples: Aikido is not a way to fight with or defeat enemies; it is a way to reconcile the
world and make all human beings one family. The essence of Aikido is the cultivation of ki [a
vital force, internal power, mental/spiritual energy]. The secret of Aikido is to become one with
the universe. Aikido is primarily a way to achieve physical and psychological self-mastery. The
body is the concrete unification of the physical and spiritual created by the universe. And so forth.
At the core of almost all philosophical interpretations of Aikido, however, we may identify at least
two fundamental threads: (1) A commitment to peaceful resolution of conflict whenever possible.
(2) A commitment to self-improvement through Aikido training.

Aikido practice begins the moment you enter the dojo! Trainees ought to endeavor to observe
proper etiquette at all times. It is proper to bow when entering and leaving the dojo, and when
coming onto and leaving the mat. Approximately 3-5 minutes before the official start of class,
trainees should line up and sit quietly in seiza (kneeling) or with legs crossed.
The only way to advance in Aikido is through regular and continued training. Attendance is not
mandatory, but keep in mind that in order to improve in Aikido, one probably needs to practice at
least twice a week. In addition, insofar as Aikido provides a way of cultivating self-discipline, such
self-discipline begins with regular attendance.
Your training is your own responsibility. No one is going to take you by the hand and lead you to
proficiency in Aikido. In particular, it is not the responsibility of the instructor or senior students to
see to it that you learn anything. Part of Aikido training is learning to observe effectively. Before
asking for help, therefore, you should first try to figure the technique out for yourself by watching
Aikido training encompasses more than techniques. Training in Aikido includes observation and
modification of both physical and psychological patterns of thought and behavior. In particular, you
must pay attention to the way you react to various sorts of circumstances. Thus part of Aikido
training is the cultivation of (self-)awareness.
The following point is very important: Aikido training is a cooperative, not competitive, enterprise.
Techniques are learned through training with a partner, not an opponent. You must always be
careful to practice in such a way that you temper the speed and power of your technique in
accordance with the abilities of your partner. Your partner is lending his/her body to you for you to
practice on it is not unreasonable to expect you to take good care of what has been lent you.
Aikido training may sometimes be very frustrating. Learning to cope with this frustration is also a
part of Aikido training. Practitioners need to observe themselves in order to determine the root of
their frustration and dissatisfaction with their progress. Sometimes the cause is a tendency to
compare oneself too closely with other trainees. Notice, however, that this is itself a form of
competition. It is a fine thing to admire the talents of others and to strive to emulate them, but care
should be taken not to allow comparisons with others to foster resentment, or excessive selfcriticism.
If at any time during Aikido training you become too tired to continue or if an injury prevents you
from performing some Aikido movement or technique, it is permissible to bow out of practice
temporarily until you feel able to continue. If you must leave the mat, ask the instructor for
Although Aikido is best learned with a partner, there are a number of ways to pursue solo training in
Aikido. First, one can practice solo forms (kata) with a jo or bokken. Second, one can shadow
techniques by simply performing the movements of Aikido techniques with an imaginary partner.
Even purely mental rehearsal of Aikido techniques can serve as an effective form of solo training.
It is advisable to practice a minimum of two hours per week in order to progress in Aikido.

Aikido and Combat Effectiveness

Many practitioners of Aikido (from beginners to
advanced students) have concerns about the practical
self-defense value of Aikido as a martial art. The attacks
as practiced in the dojo are frequently unrealistic and
may be delivered without much speed or power. The
concerns here are legitimate, but may, perhaps, be
In the first place, it is important to realize that Aikido
techniques are usually practiced against stylized and
idealized attacks. This makes it easier for students to
learn the general patterns of Aikido movement. As
students become more advanced, the speed and power of
attacks should be increased, and students should learn to
adapt the basic strategies of Aikido movement to a
broader variety of attacks.
Many Aikido techniques cannot be performed
effectively without the concomitant application of atemi
(a strike delivered to the attacker for the purpose of
facilitating the subsequent application of the technique). For safetys sake, atemi is often omitted
during practice. It is important, however, to study atemi carefully and perhaps to devote some time
to practicing application of atemi so that one will be able to apply it effectively when necessary.
Aikido is sometimes held up for comparison to other martial arts, and Aikido students are frequently
curious about how well a person trained in Aikido would stand up against someone of comparable
size and strength who has trained in another martial art such as karate, judo, ju jutsu, or boxing. It is
natural to hope that the martial art one has chosen to train in has effective combat applications.
However, it is also important to realize that the founder of Aikido deliberately chose to develop his
martial art into something other than the most deadly fighting art on the planet, and it may very well
be true that other martial arts are more combat effective than Aikido. This is not to say that Aikido
techniques cannot be combat effective there are numerous practitioners of Aikido who have
applied Aikido techniques successfully to defend themselves in a variety of life-threatening
situations. No martial art can guarantee victory in every possible circumstance. All martial arts,
including Aikido, consist in sets of strategies for managing conflict. The best anyone can hope for
from their martial arts training is that the odds of managing the conflict successfully are improved.
There are many different types of conflict, and many different parameters that may define a conflict.
Some martial arts may be better suited to some types of conflict than others. Aikido may be ill
suited to conflicts involving deliberate provocation of an adversary to fight. While there are some
who view this as a shortcoming or a liability, there are others who see this as demonstrating the
foolhardiness of provoking fights.
Since conflicts are not restricted to situations that result in physical combat, it may be that a martial
art which encodes strategies for managing other types of conflict will serve its practitioners better in
their daily lives than a more combat-oriented art. Many teachers of Aikido treat it as just such a
martial art. One is more commonly confronted with conflicts involving coworkers, significant
others, or family members than with assailants bent on all-out physical violence. Also, even where
physical violence is a genuine danger, many people seek strategies for dealing with such situations,
which do not require doing injury. For example, someone working with mentally disturbed
individuals may find it less than ideal to respond to aggression by knocking the individual to the

ground and pummeling him or her into submission. Many people find that Aikido is an effective
martial art for dealing with situations similar to this.
In the final analysis, each person must decide individually whether or not Aikido is suited to his or
her needs, interests, and goals.

Weapons Training
Some dojo hold classes which are devoted almost exclusively
to training with to jo (staff), tanto (knife), and bokken (sword);
the three principal weapons used in Aikido. However, since the
goal of Aikido is not primarily to learn how to use weapons,
trainees are advised to attend a minimum of two non-weapons
classes per week if they plan to attend weapons classes.
There are several reasons for weapons training in Aikido. First,
many Aikido movements are derived from classical weapons
arts. There is thus a historical rationale for learning weapons
movements. For example, all striking attacks in Aikido are
derived from sword strikes. Because of this, empty-handed
striking techniques in Aikido appear very inefficient and
lacking in speed and power, especially if one has trained in a
striking art such as karate or boxing.
Second, weapons training is helpful for learning proper ma ai,
or distancing. Repeatedly moving in and out of the striking
range of a weapon fosters an intuitive sense of distance and
timing something which is crucial to empty-hand training as
Third, many advanced Aikido techniques involve defenses against weapons. In order to ensure that
such techniques can be practiced safely, it is important for students to know how to attack properly
with weapons, and to defend against such attacks.
Fourth, there are often important principles of Aikido movement and technique that may be
profitably demonstrated by the use of weapons.
Fifth, training in weapons kata is a way of facilitating understanding of general principles of Aikido
Sixth, weapons training can add an element of intensity to Aikido practice, especially in practicing
defenses against weapons attacks.
Seventh, training with weapons provides Aikidoka with an opportunity to develop a kind of
responsiveness and sensitivity to the movements and actions of others within a format that is
usually highly structured. In addition, it is often easier to discard competitive mindsets when
engaged in weapons training, making it easier to focus on cognitive development.
Finally, weapons training is an excellent way to learn principles governing lines of attack and
defense. All Aikido techniques begin with the
defender moving off the line of attack and then
creating a new line (often a non-straight line) for
application of an Aikido technique.

About Bowing
It is common for people to ask about the practice

of bowing in Aikido. In particular, many people are concerned that bowing may have some religious
significance. It does not. In Western culture, it is considered proper to shake hands when greeting
someone for the first time, to say please when making a request, and to say thank you to
express gratitude. In Japanese culture, bowing (at least partly) may fulfill all these functions. Bear
in mind, too, that in European society only a few hundred years ago a courtly bow was a
conventional form of greeting.
Incorporating this particular aspect of Japanese culture into our Aikido practice serves several
It inculcates a familiarity with an important aspect of Japanese culture in Aikido
practitioners. This is especially important for anyone who may wish, at some time, to travel
to Japan to practice Aikido. There is also a case to be made for simply broadening ones
cultural horizons.
Bowing may be an expression of respect. As such, it indicates an open-minded attitude and a
willingness to learn from ones teachers and fellow students.
Bowing to a partner may serve to remind you that your partner is a person not a practice
dummy. Always train within the limits of your partners abilities.
The initial bow, which signifies the beginning of formal practice, is much like a ready, begin,
uttered at the beginning of an examination. So long as class is in session, you should behave in
accordance with certain standards of deportment. Aikido class should be somewhat like a world
unto itself. While in this world, your attention should be focused on the practice of Aikido.
Bowing out is like signaling a return to the ordinary world.
When bowing either to the instructor at the beginning of practice or to ones partner at the
beginning of a technique it is considered proper to say onegai shimasu (lit. I request a favor)
and when bowing either to the instructor at the end of class or to ones partner at the end of a
technique it is considered proper to say domo arigato gozaimashita (thank you).

Training the Mind in Aikido

The founder (Morihei Ueshiba) intended Aikido to be far more than a system of techniques for selfdefense. His intention was to fuse his martial art to a set of ethical, social, and dispositional ideals.
Ueshiba hoped that by training in Aikido, people would perfect themselves spiritually as well as
physically. It is not immediately obvious, however, just how practicing Aikido is supposed to result
in any spiritual (= psycho-physical) transformation. Furthermore, many other arts have claimed to
be vehicles for carrying their practitioners to enlightenment or psychophysical transformation. We
may legitimately wonder, then, whether, or how, Aikido differs from other arts in respect of
transformative effect.
It should be clear that any transformative power of Aikido, if such exists at all, cannot reside in the
performance of physical techniques alone. Rather, if Aikido is to provide a vehicle for selfimprovement and psychophysical transformation along the lines envisioned by the founder, the
practitioner of Aikido must adopt certain attitudes toward Aikido training and must strive to
cultivate certain sorts of cognitive dispositions.
Classically, those arts, which claim to provide a transformative framework for their practitioners,
are rooted in religious and philosophical traditions such as Buddhism and Taoism (the influence of
Shinto on Japanese arts is usually comparatively small). In Japan, Zen Buddhism exercised the
strongest influence on the development of transformative arts. Although Morihei Ueshiba was far
less influenced by Taoism and Zen than by the new religion, Omoto Kyo, it is certainly possible
to incorporate aspects of Zen and Taoist philosophy and practice into Aikido. Moreover, Omoto
Kyo is largely rooted in a complex structure of neo-Shinto mystical concepts and beliefs. It would

be wildly implausible to suppose that adoption of this structure is a necessary condition for
psychophysical transformation through Aikido.
So far as the incorporation of Zen and Taoist practices and philosophies into Aikido is concerned,
psychophysical transformation through the practice of Aikido will be little different from
psychophysical transformation through the practice of arts such as karate, kyudo, and tea ceremony.
All these arts have in common the goal of instilling in their practitioners cognitive equanimity,
spontaneity of action/response, and receptivity to the character of things just as they are (shinnyo).
The primary means for producing these sorts of dispositions in trainees is a two-fold focus on
repetition of the fundamental movements and positions of the art, and on preserving mindfulness in
The fact that Aikido training is always cooperative provides another locus for construing personal
transformation through Aikido. Cooperative training facilitates the abandonment of a competitive
mind-set that reinforces the perception of self-other dichotomies. Cooperative training also instills a
regard for the safety and well being of ones partner. This attitude of concern for others is then to be
extended to other situations than the practice of Aikido. In other words, the cooperative framework
for Aikido practice is supposed to translate directly into a framework for ethical behavior in ones
daily life.
Furthermore, it should be clear that if personal transformation is possible through Aikido training, it
is not an automatic process. This should be apparent by noticing the fact that there are Aikido
practitioners with many years of experience who still commit both moral and legal infractions.
Technical proficiency and broad experience in the martial arts is by no means a guarantee of ethical
or personal advancement. This fact often comes as a great disappointment to students of Aikido,
especially if they should discover that their own instructors still suffer from a variety of
shortcomings. In fact, however, this itself constitutes a valuable lesson: Technical proficiency is an
easier goal to attain than that of personal improvement. Although both of these goals may require a
lifetime of commitment, it is considerably easier to make the sort of sacrifices and efforts required
for technical proficiency than it is to make the sacrifices and efforts required for substantive
personal transformation and improvement.
The path to self-improvement and personal transformation must begin somewhere, however.
Perhaps the most important (and easily forgotten) starting point for both students and teachers of
Aikido is to bear constantly in mind that the people one is training with are one and all human
beings like oneself, each with a unique perspective, and capable of feeling pain, frustration and
happiness, and each with his or her own goals of training.
If one takes seriously the notion that part of ones Aikido training should aim towards selfimprovement, one may sometimes have to consider how one will be viewed by others. Someone
may have superb technical ability and yet be viewed by others as a self-centered and inconsiderate

A Note on Ki
The concept of ki is one of the most difficult associated with the
philosophy and practice of Aikido. Since the word Aikido
means something like the way of harmony with ki, it is hardly
surprising that many Aikidoka are interested in understanding just
what ki is supposed to be. Etymologically, the word ki derives
from the Chinese chi. In Chinese philosophy, chi was a concept
invoked to differentiate living from non-living things. But as
Chinese philosophy developed, the concept of chi took on a wider
range of meanings and interpretations. On some views, chi was
held to be the most basic explanatory material principle the

metaphysical energy out of which all things were made. The differences between things depended
not on some things having chi and others not, but rather on a principle (li, Japanese = ri) which
determined how the chi was organized and functioned (the view here bears some similarity to the
ancient Greek matter-form metaphysic).
Modern Aikidoka are less concerned with the historiography of the concept of ki than with the
question of whether or not the term ki denotes anything real, and, if so, just what it does denote.
There have been some attempts to demonstrate the objective existence of ki as a kind of energy or
stuff that flows within the body (especially along certain channels, called meridians). So far,
however, there are no reputable studies that conclusively demonstrate the existence of ki.
Traditional Chinese medicine appeals to ki/chi as a theoretical entity, and some therapies based on
this framework have been shown to produce more positive benefit than placebo, but it is entirely
possible that the success of such therapies is better explained in ways other than supposing the truth
of ki/chi theory. Many people claim that certain forms of exercise or concentration enable them to
feel ki flowing through their bodies. Since such reports are subjective, they cannot constitute
objective evidence for ki as stuff. Nor do anecdotal accounts of therapeutic effects of various ki
practices constitute evidence for the objective existence of ki anecdotal evidence does not have
the same evidential status as evidence resulting from reputable double-blind experiments involving
strict controls. Again, it may be that ki does exist as an objective phenomenon, but reliable evidence
to support such a view is so far lacking.
There are a number of Aikidoka who claim to be able to demonstrate the (objective) existence of ki
by performing various sorts of feats. One such feat, which is very popular, is the so-called
unbendable arm. In this exercise, one person extends her arm while another person tries to bend
the arm. First, she makes a fist and tightens the muscles in her arm. The other person is usually able
to bend the arm. Next, she relaxes her arm (but leaves it extended) and extends ki (since
extending ki is not something most newcomers to Aikido know precisely how to do, is often
simply advised to think of her arm as a fire-hose gushing water, or some such similar metaphor).
This time, the other person finds it far more difficult to bend the arm. The conclusion is supposed to
be that it is the force/activity of ki that accounts for the difference. However, there are alternative
explanations expressible within the vocabulary or scope of physics (or, perhaps, psychology) that
are fully capable of accounting for the phenomenon here (subtle changes in body positioning, for
example). In addition, the fact that it is difficult to filter out the biases and expectations of the
participants in such demonstrations makes it all the more questionable whether they provide reliable
evidence for the objective existence of ki.
Not all Aikidoka believe that ki is a kind of stuff or energy. For some Aikidoka, ki is an expedient
concept a blanket-concept that covers intentions, momentum, will, and attention. If one eschews
the view that ki is an energy that can literally be extended, to extend ki is to adopt a physically and
psychologically positive bearing. This maximizes the efficiency and adaptability of ones
movement, resulting in stronger technique and a feeling of affirmation both of oneself and ones
Irrespective of whether one chooses to take a realist or an anti-realist stance with respect to the
objective existence of ki, there can be little doubt that there is more to Aikido than the mere
physical manipulation of another persons body. Aikido requires sensitivity to such diverse variables
as timing, momentum, balance, the speed and power of an attack, and especially to the
psychological state of ones partner (or of an attacker).
In addition, to the extent that Aikido is not a system for gaining physical control over others, but
rather a vehicle for self-improvement (or even enlightenment [see satori]), there can be little doubt
that cultivation of a positive physical and psychological bearing is an important part of Aikido.
Again, one may or may not wish to describe the cultivation of this positive bearing in terms of ki.

Ranking in Aikido
Policies governing rank promotions may vary, sometimes dramatically, from one Aikido dojo or
organization to another. According to the standard set by the International Aikido Federation (IAF)
and the United States Aikido Federation (USAF), there are 6 ranks below black belt. These ranks
are called kyu ranks. In the IAF and USAF, colored belts do not usually distinguish kyu ranks.
Other organizations (and some individual dojo) may use some system of colored belts to signify
kyu ranks, however. There are a growing number of Aikido organizations and each has its own set
of standards for ranking.
Eligibility for testing depends primarily (though not exclusively) upon accumulation of practice
hours. Other relevant factors may include a trainees attitude with respect to others, regularity of
attendance, and, in some organizations, contribution to the maintenance of the dojo or dissemination
of Aikido.
Whatever the criteria for rank promotion, it is important to keep in mind that rank promotion does
not necessarily translate into ability. The most important accomplishments in Aikido or any other
martial art are not external assessments of progress, but rather the benefits of your training to

Basic Aikido Vocabulary

Agatsu Self victory. According to the founder, true victory (masakatsu) is the victory one
achieves over oneself (agatsu). Thus one of the founders slogans was masakatsu agatsu The
true victory of self-mastery.
Aikido The word Aikido is made up of three Japanese characters: ai = harmony, ki = spirit,
mind, or universal energy, do = the Way. Thus Aikido is the Way of Harmony with Universal

However, aiki may also be interpreted as accommodation to circumstances. This latter
interpretation is somewhat nonstandard, but it avoids certain undesirable metaphysical
commitments and also epitomizes quite well both the physical and psychological facets of Aikido.
Aikidoka A practitioner of Aikido.
Aikikai Aiki association. A term used to designate the organization created by the founder for
the dissemination of Aikido.
Ai hanmi Mutual stance where uke and nage each have the same foot forward (right-right, leftleft).
Ai nuke Mutual escape. An outcome of a duel where each participant escapes harm. This
corresponds to the ideal of Aikido according to which a conflict is resolved without injury to any
party involved.
Ai uchi Mutual kill. An outcome of a duel where each participant kills the other. In classical
Japanese swordsmanship, practitioners were often encouraged to enter a duel with the goal of
achieving at least an ai uchi. The resolution to win the duel even at the cost of ones own life was
thought to aid in cultivating an attitude of single-minded focus on the task of cutting down ones
opponent. This single-minded focus is exemplified in Aikido in the technique, ikkyo, where one
enters into an attackers range in order to affect the technique.
Ashi sabaki Footwork. Proper footwork is essential in Aikido for developing strong balance and
for facilitating ease of movement.

Atemi (lit. Striking the Body.) Strike directed at the attacker for purposes of unbalancing or
distraction. Atemi is often vital for bypassing or short-circuiting an attackers natural responses to
Aikido techniques. The first thing most people will do when they feel their body being manipulated
in an unfamiliar way is to retract their limbs and drop their center of mass down and away from the
person performing the technique. By judicious application of atemi, it is possible to create a
window of opportunity in the attackers natural defenses, facilitating the application of an Aikido
Bokken = bokuto Wooden sword. Many Aikido movements are derived from traditional Japanese
fencing. In advanced practice, weapons such as the bokken are used in learning subtleties of certain
movements, the relationships obtaining between armed and unarmed techniques, defenses against
weapons, and the like.
Budo Martial way. The Japanese character for bu (martial) is derived from characters
meaning stop and (a weapon like a) halberd. In conjunction, then, bu may have the
connotation to stop the halberd. In Aikido, there is an assumption that the best way to prevent
violent conflict is to emphasize the cultivation of individual character. The way (do) of aiki is thus
equivalent to the way of bu, taken in this sense of preventing or avoiding violence so far as possible.
Chiburi Shake off blood. A sword movement where the sword is quickly drawn to one side at
the end of a strike. Thus chiburi migi = shake off blood to the right.
Chokusen Direct. Thus chokusen no irimi = direct entry.
Chudan Middle position. Thus chudan no kamae = a stance characterized by having ones
hands or sword in a central position with respect to ones body.
Chushin Center. Especially, the center of ones movement or balance.
Dan Black belt rank. In IAF Aikido, the highest rank it is now possible to obtain is 9th dan. There
are some Aikidoka who hold ranks of 10th dan. These ranks were awarded by the founder prior to
his death, and cannot be rescinded. White belt ranks are called kyu ranks.
Do Way/path. The Japanese character for do is the same as the Chinese character for Tao (as in
Taoism). In aiki-do, the connotation is that of a way of attaining enlightenment or a way of
improving ones character through aiki.
Dojo Literally place of the Way. Also place of enlightenment. The place where we practice
Aikido. Traditional etiquette prescribes bowing in the direction of the shrine (kamiza) or the
designated front of the dojo (shomen) whenever entering or leaving the dojo.
Dojo cho The head of the dojo. A title. Currently, Moriteru Ueshiba (grandson of the founder) is
dojo cho at World Aikido Headquarters (hombu dojo) in Tokyo, Japan.
Domo arigato gozaimasta Japanese for thank you very much (for something that has already
taken place). At the end of each class, it is proper to bow and thank the instructor and those with
whom youve trained.
Domo arigato gozaimasu Japanese for thank you very much (for something that is currently
taking place).
Doshu Head of the way (currently Moriteru Ueshiba, grandson of Aikidos founder, Morihei
Ueshiba). The highest official authority in IAF Aikido.
Douitashimashite Japanese for you are welcome.
Engi Interdependent origination (Sanskrit = pratityasamutpada). In Buddhist philosophy,
phenomena have no unchanging essences. Rather, they originate and exist only in virtue of material
and causal conditions. Without these material and causal conditions, there would be no phenomena.
Furthermore, since the material and causal conditions upon which all phenomena depend are
continually in flux, phenomena themselves are one and all impermanent. Since whatever is

impermanent and dependent for existence on conditions has no absolute status (or is not absolutely
real), it follows that phenomena (what are ordinarily called things) are have no absolute or
independent existential status, i.e., they are empty. To cultivate a cognitive state in which the empty
status of things is manifest is to realize or attain enlightenment. The realization of enlightenment, in
turn, confers a degree of cognitive freedom and spontaneity that, among other (and arguably more
important) benefits, facilitates the performance of martial techniques in response to rapidly
changing circumstances. (See ku.)
Fudo shin Immovable mind. A state of mental equanimity or imperturbability. The mind, in this
state, is calm and undistracted (metaphorically, therefore, immovable). Fudomyo is a Buddhist
guardian deity who carries a sword in one hand (to destroy enemies of the Buddhist doctrine), and a
rope in the other (to rescue sentient beings from the pit of delusion, or from Buddhist hell-states).
He therefore embodies the two-fold Buddhist ideal of wisdom (the sword) and compassion (the
rope). To cultivate fudo shin is thus to cultivate a mind which can accommodate itself to changing
circumstances without compromise of principles.
Fukushidoin A formal title whose connotation is something approximating assistant instructor.
Furi kaburi Sword-raising movement. This movement in found especially in ikkyo, irimi-nage,
and shiho-nage.
Gedan Lower position. Gedan no kamae is thus a stance with the hands or a weapon held in a
lower position.
Gi (dogi) (keiko gi) Training costume. Either judo-style or karate-style gi is acceptable in most
dojo, but they should be white and cotton. (No black satin gi with embroidered dragons, please.)
Gomen nasai Japanese for Excuse me, I am sorry.
Gyaku hanmi Opposing stance (if uke has the right foot forward, nage has the left foot forward,
if uke has the left foot forward, nage has the right foot forward).
Hakama Divided skirt usually worn by black-belt ranks in Aikido and
Kendo. In some dojo, the hakama is also worn by women of all ranks,
and in some dojo by all practitioners. The hakama has seven pleats. The
seven pleats symbolize the seven virtues of budo, O-Sensei said. These
are jin (benevolence), gi (honor or justice), rei (courtesy and etiquette),
chi (wisdom and intelligence), shin (sincerity), chu (loyalty), and koh
(piety). We find these qualities in the distinguished samurai of the past.
The hakama prompts us to reflect on the nature of true bushido. Wearing
it symbolizes traditions that have been passed down to us from generation
to generation. Aikido is born of the bushido spirit of Japan, and in our
practice we must strive to polish the seven traditional virtues.
Hanmi Triangular stance.
Most often Aikido techniques
are practiced with uke and
nage in pre-determined
stances. This is to facilitate
learning the techniques and certain principles of
positioning with respect to an attack. At higher levels,
specific hanmi cease to be of importance.
Hanmi handachi Position with nage sitting, uke
standing. Training in hanmi handachi waza is a good way
of practicing techniques as though with a significantly
larger/taller opponent. This type of training also
emphasizes movement from ones center of mass (hara).

Happo 8 directions, as in happo-undo (8 direction exercise) or happo-giri (8 direction cutting

with the sword). The connotation here is really movement in all directions. In Aikido, one must be
prepared to turn in any direction in an instant.
Hara Ones center of mass, located about 2 below the navel. Traditionally this was thought to be
the location of the spirit/mind/source of ki. Aikido techniques should be executed as much as
possible from or through ones hara.
Hasso no kamae Figure-eight stance. The figure eight does not correspond to the Arabic
numeral 8, but rather to the Chinese/Japanese character which looks more like the roof of a house.
In hasso no kamae, the sword is held up beside ones head, so that the elbows spread down and out
from the sword in a pattern resembling this figure-eight character.
Heijoshin Abiding peace of mind. Cognitive equanimity. One goal of training in Aikido is the
cultivation of a mind that is able to meet various types of adversity without becoming perturbed. A
mind that is not easily flustered is a mind that will facilitate effective response to physical or
psychological threats.
Henka waza Varied technique. Especially beginning one technique and changing to another in
mid-execution. Ex. beginning ikkyo but changing to irimi-nage.
Hombu Dojo A term used to refer to the central dojo of an organization. Thus this usually
designates Aikido World Headquarters. (See Aikikai.)
Hidari Left.
Irimi (lit. Entering the Body.) Entering movement. Many Aikidoka think that the irimi
movement expresses the very essence of Aikido. The idea behind irimi is to place oneself in relation
to an attacker in such a way that the attacker is unable to continue to attack effectively, and in such a
way that one is able to control effectively the attackers balance. (See shikaku.)
Jinja A (Shinto) shrine. There is an aiki jinja located in Iwama, Ibaraki prefecture, Japan.
Jiyu waza Free-style practice of techniques. This usually involves more than one attacker who
may attack nage in any way desired.
Jo Wooden staff about 4-5 in length. The jo originated as a walking stick. It is unclear how it
became incorporated into Aikido. Many jo movements come from traditional Japanese spear
fighting, others may have come from jojutsu, but many seem to have been innovated by the founder.
The jo is usually used in advanced practice.
Jodan Upper position. Jodan no kamae is thus a stance with the hands or a weapon held in a high
Kachihayabi Victory at the speed of sunlight. According to the founder, when one has achieved
total self-mastery (agatsu) and perfect accord with the fundamental principles governing the
universe (especially principles covering ethical interaction), one will have the power of the entire
universe at ones disposal, there no longer being any real difference between oneself and the
universe. At this stage of spiritual advancement, victory is instantaneous. The very intention of an
attacker to perpetrate an act of violence breaks harmony with the fundamental principles of the
universe, and no one can compete successfully against such principles. Also, the expression of the
fundamental principles of the universe in human life is love (ai), and love, according to the founder,
has no enemies. Having no enemies, one has no need to fight, and thus always emerges victorious.
(See agatsu and masakatsu.)
Kaeshi waza Technique reversal (uke becomes nage and vice-versa). This is usually a very
advanced form of practice. Kaeshi waza practice helps to instill a sensitivity to shifts in resistance
or direction in the movements of ones partner. Training so as to anticipate and prevent the
application of kaeshi waza against ones own techniques greatly sharpens Aikido skills.

Kaiso The founder of Aikido (i.e., Morihei Ueshiba).

Kamae A posture or stance either with or without a weapon. Kamae may also connote proper
distance (ma ai) with respect to ones partner. Although kamae generally refers to a physical
stance, there is an important parallel in Aikido between ones physical and ones psychological
bearing. Adopting a strong physical stance helps to promote the correlative adoption of a strong
psychological attitude. It is important to try so far as possible to maintain a positive and strong
mental bearing in Aikido.
Kami A divinity, living force, or spirit. According to Shinto, the natural world is full of kami,
which are often sensitive or responsive to the actions of human beings.
Kamiza A small shrine, frequently located at the front of a dojo, and often housing a picture of
the founder, or some calligraphy. One generally bows in the direction of the kamiza when entering
or leaving the dojo, or the mat.
Kansetsu waza Joint manipulation techniques.
Kata A form or prescribed pattern of movement, especially with the jo in Aikido. (But also
Katame waza Hold-down (pinning) techniques.
Katana What is vulgarly called a samurai sword.
Katsu jin ken The sword that saves life. Practitioners became increasingly interested in
incorporating ethical principles into their discipline as Japanese swordsmanship became more and
more influenced by Buddhism (especially Zen Buddhism) and Taoism. The consummate master of
swordsmanship, according to some such practitioners, should be able not only to use the sword to
kill, but also to save life. The concept of katsu jin ken found some explicit application in the
development of techniques which would use non-cutting parts of the sword to strike or control ones
opponent, rather than to kill him/her. The influence of some of these techniques can sometimes be
seen in Aikido. Other techniques were developed by which an unarmed person (or a person
unwilling to draw a weapon) could disarm an attacker. These techniques are frequently practiced in
Aikido. (See setsu nin to.)
Keiko Training. The only secret to success in Aikido.
Ken Sword.
Kensho Enlightenment. (See mokuso and satori.)
Ki Mind. Spirit. Energy. Vital force. Intention. (Chinese = Chi) For many Aikidoka, the primary
goal of training in Aikido is to learn how to extend ki, or to learn how to control or redirect the ki
of others. There are both realist and anti-realist interpretations of ki. The ki-realist takes ki to be,
literally, a kind of energy, or life force, which flows within the body. Developing or increasing ones
own ki, according to the ki-realist, thus confers upon the Aikidoka greater power and control over
his/her own body, and may also have the added benefits of improved health and longevity.
According to the ki-anti-realist, ki is a concept which covers a wide range of psycho-physical
phenomena, but which does not denote any objectively existing energy. The ki-anti-realist believes,
for example, that to extend ki is just to adopt a certain kind of positive psychological disposition
and to correlate that psychological disposition with just the right combination of balance, relaxation,
and judicious application of physical force. Since the description extend ki is somewhat more
manageable, the concept of ki has a class of well-defined uses for the ki-anti-realist, but does not
carry with it any ontological commitments beyond the scope of mainstream scientific theories.
Kiai A shout delivered for the purpose of focusing all of ones energy into a single movement.
Even when audible kiai are absent, one should try to preserve the feeling of kiai at certain crucial
points within Aikido techniques.

Kihon (Something which is) fundamental. There are often many seemingly very different ways of
performing the same technique in Aikido. To see beneath the surface features of the technique and
grasp the core common is to comprehend the kihon.
Ki musubi ki no musubi Literally knotting/tying-up ki. The act/-100process of matching
ones partners movement/intention at its inception, and maintaining a connection to ones partner
throughout the application of an Aikido technique. Proper ki musubi requires a mind that is clear,
flexible, and attentive. (See setsuzoku.)
Kohai A student junior to oneself.
Kokoro Heart or mind. Japanese folk psychology does not distinguish clearly between the
seat of intellect and the seat of emotion, as does Western folk psychology.
Kokyu Breath. Part of Aikido is the development of kokyu ryoku, or breath power. This is the
coordination of breath with movement. A prosaic example: When lifting a heavy object, it is
generally easier when breathing out. Also breath control may facilitate greater concentration and the
elimination of stress. In many traditional forms of meditation, focus on the breath is used as a
method for developing heightened concentration or mental equanimity. This is also the case in
Aikido. A number of exercises in Aikido are called kokyu ho, or breath exercises. These
exercises are meant to help one develop kokyu ryoku.
Kotodama A practice of intoning various sounds (phonetic components of the Japanese language)
for the purpose of producing mystical states. The founder of Aikido was greatly interested in Shinto
and neo-Shinto mystical practices, and he incorporated a number of them into his personal Aikido
Ku Emptiness. According to Buddhism, the fundamental character of things is absence (or
emptiness) of individual unchanging essences. The realization of the essenceless-ness of things is
what permits the cultivation of psychological non-attachment, and thus cognitive equanimity. The
direct realization of (or experience of insight into) emptiness is enlightenment. This shows up in
Aikido in the ideal of developing a state of cognitive openness, permitting one to respond
immediately and intuitively to changing circumstances. (See mokuso.)
Kumijo jo matching exercise or partner practice.
Kumitachi Sword matching exercise or partner practice.
Kuzushi The principle of destroying ones partners balance. In Aikido, a technique cannot be
properly applied unless one first unbalances ones partner. To achieve proper kuzushi, in Aikido,
one should rely primarily on position and timing, rather than merely on physical force.
Kyu White belt rank. (Or any rank below shodan.)
Ma ai Proper distancing or timing with respect to ones partner. Since Aikido techniques always
vary according to circumstances, it is important to understand how differences in initial position
affect the timing and application of techniques.
Mae Front. Thus mae ukemi = forward fall/roll.
Masakatsu True victory. (See agatsu and kachihayabi.)
Michibiki An aspect of Aikido movement that involves leading, rather than pushing or pulling,
ones partner. As with many other concepts in Aikido, there are both physical and cognitive
dimensions to michibiki. Physically, one may lead ones partner through subtle guiding or
redirection of the attacking motion. Psychologically, one may lead ones partner through baiting
(presenting apparent opportunities for attack). Frequently both physical and cognitive elements are
employed in concert. For example, if uke reaches for nages wrist, nage may move the wrist just
slightly ahead of ukes grasp, at such a pace that uke is fooled into thinking s/he will be able to seize
it, thus continuing the attempt to grab and following the lead where nage wishes.

Migi Right.
Misogi Ritual purification. Aikido training may be looked upon as a means of purifying oneself;
eliminating defiling characteristics from ones mind or personality. Although there are some specific
exercises for misogi practice, such as breathing exercises, in point of fact, every aspect of Aikido
training may be looked upon as misogi. This, however, is a matter of ones attitude or approach to
training, rather than an objective feature of the training itself.
Mokuso Meditation. Practice often begins or ends with a brief period of meditation. The purpose
of meditation is to clear ones mind and to develop cognitive equanimity. Perhaps more importantly,
meditation is an opportunity to become aware of conditioned patterns of thought and behavior so
that such patterns can be modified, eliminated or more efficiently put to use. In addition, meditation
may occasion experiences of insight into various aspects of Aikido (or, if one accepts certain
Buddhist claims, into the very structure of reality). Ideally, the sort of cognitive awareness and
focus that one cultivates in meditation should carry over into the rest of ones practice, so that the
distinction between the meditative mind and the normal mind collapses.
Mudansha Students without black-belt ranking.
Mushin Literally no mind. A state of cognitive awareness characterized by the absence of
discursive thought. A state of mind in which the mind acts/reacts without hypostatization of
concepts. Mushin is often erroneously taken to be a state of mere spontaneity. Although spontaneity
is a feature of mushin, it is not straightforwardly identical with it. It might be said that when in a
state of mushin, one is free to use concepts and distinctions without being used by them.
Musubi Tying up or uniting. One of the strategic objectives in applying Aikido techniques in
to merge with (= musubi) and redirect the aggressive impulse (= ki) of an attacker in order to gain
control of it. Thus ki musubi or ki no musubi is one of the goals of Aikido. There is a cognitive
as well as a physical dimension to musubi. Ideally, at the most advanced levels of Aikido, one learns
to detect signs of aggression in a potential attacker before a physical assault has been initiated. If
one learns to identify aggressive intent and defuse or redirect it before the attack is launched, one
may achieve victory without physical confrontation. Also, by developing heightened sensitivity to
the cues that may precede a physical attack, one thereby gains a strategic advantage, making
possible pre-emptive action or, perhaps, escape. This heightened sensitivity to aggressive cues is
only possible as a result of training ones awareness as well as ones technical abilities.
Nagare Flowing. One goal of Aikido practice is to learn not to oppose physical force with
physical force. Rather, one strives to flow along with physical force, redirecting it to ones
Nage The thrower.
Obi A belt.
Omote The front, thus, a class of movements in Aikido in which nage enters in front of uke.
Omoto Kyo One of the so-called new-religions of Japan. Omoto Kyo is a syncretic amalgam of
Shintoism, neo-Shinto mysticism, Christianity, and Japanese folk religion. The founder of Aikido
was a devotee of Omoto Kyo and incorporated some elements from it into his Aikido practice. The
founder insisted, however, that one need not be a devotee of Omoto Kyo in order to study Aikido or
to comprehend the purpose or philosophy of Aikido.
Onegai shimasu I welcome you to train with me, or literally, I make a request. This is said to
ones partner when initiating practice.
Osaewaza Pinning techniques.
O-Sensei Literally, Great Teacher, i.e., Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido.
Randori Free-style all-out training. Sometimes used as a synonym for jiyu waza. Although

Aikido techniques are usually practiced with a single partner, it is important to keep in mind the
possibility that one may be attacked by multiple aggressors. Many of the body movements of
Aikido (tai sabaki) are meant to facilitate defense against multiple attackers.
Reigi Etiquette. Observance of proper etiquette at all times (but especially observance of proper
dojo etiquette) is as much a part of ones training as the practice of techniques. Observation of reigi
indicates ones sincerity, ones willingness to learn, and ones recognition of the rights and interests
of others.
Satori Enlightenment. In Buddhism, enlightenment is characterized by a direct realization or
apprehension of the absence of unchanging essences behind phenomena. Rather, phenomena are
seen to be empty of such essences phenomena exist in thoroughgoing interdependence (engi). As
characterized by the founder of Aikido, enlightenment consists in realizing a fundamental unity
between oneself and the (principles governing) the universe. The most important ethical principle
the Aikidoist should gain insight into is that one should cultivate a spirit of loving protection for all
things. (See ku and shinnyo.)
Sensei Teacher. It is usually considered proper to address the instructor during practice as
Sensei rather than by his/her name. If the instructor is a permanent instructor for ones dojo or for
an organization, it is proper to address him/her as Sensei off the mat as well.
Seiza Sitting on ones knees. Sitting this way requires acclimatization, but provides both a stable
base and greater ease of movement than sitting cross-legged.
Sempai A student senior to oneself.
Setsu nin to The sword that kills. Although this would seem to indicate a purely negative
concept, there is, in fact, a positive connotation to this term. Apart from the common assumption
that killing may sometimes be a necessary evil which may serve to prevent an even greater evil,
the concept of killing has a wide variety of metaphorical applications. One may, for example, strive
to kill such harmful character traits as ignorance, selfishness, or (excessive) competitiveness.
Some misogi sword exercises in Aikido, for example, involve imagining that each cut of the sword
destroys some negative aspect of ones personality. In this way, setsu nin to and katsu jin ken (the
sword that saves) coalesce.
Setsuzoku Connection. Aikido techniques are generally rendered more efficient by preserving a
connection between ones center of mass (hara) and the outer limits of the movement, or between
ones own center of mass and that of ones partner. Also, setsuzoku may connote fluidity and
continuity in technique. On a psychological level, setsuzoku may connote the relationship of actionresponse that exists between oneself and ones partner, such that successful performance of Aikido
techniques depends crucially upon timing ones own actions and responses to accord with those of
ones partner. Physically, setsuzoku correlates with leverage and with the most efficient application
of force to the task of controlling ones partners balance and mobility.
Shidoin A formal title meaning, approximately, instructor.
Shihan A formal title meaning, approximately, master instructor. A teacher of teachers.
Shikaku Literally dead angle. A position relative to ones partner where it is difficult for
him/her to (continue to) attack, and from which it is relatively easy to control ones partners
balance and movement. The first phase of an Aikido technique is often to establish shikaku.
Shikko Samurai walking (knee walking). Shikko is very important for developing a strong
awareness of ones center of mass (hara). It also develops strength in ones hips and legs.
Shinkenshobu Lit. Duel with live swords. This expresses the attitude one should have about
Aikido training, i.e., one should treat the practice session as though it were, in some respects, a lifeor-death duel with live swords. In particular, ones attention during Aikido training should be singlemindedly focused on Aikido, just as, during a life-or-death duel, ones attention is entirely focused

on the duel.
Shinnyo Thusness or suchness. A term commonly used in Buddhist philosophy (and
especially in Zen Buddhism) to denote the character of things, as they are experienced without
filtering the experiences through an overt conceptual framework. There is some question whether
pure uninterpreted experience (independent of all conceptualization/categorization) is possible
given the neurological/cognitive makeup of human beings. However, shinnyo can also be taken to
signify experience of things as empty of individual essences (see ku).
Shinto The way of the gods. The indigenous religion of Japan. The founder of Aikido was
deeply influenced by Omoto Kyo, a religion largely grounded in Shinto mysticism. (See kami.)
Shodan First degree black belt. (Nidan = second degree black belt, followed by sandan, yondan,
godan, rokudan, nanadan, hachidan, kyudan, judan.)
Shomen Front or top of head. Also the designated front of a dojo.
Shoshin Beginners mind. Progress in Aikido training requires that one approach ones training
with a mind that is free from unfounded bias. Although we can say in one respect that we frequently
practice the same techniques over and over again, often against the same attack, there is another
sense in which no attack is ever the same, and no application of technique is ever the same. There
are subtle variations in the circumstances of every interaction between attacker and defender. These
small differences may sometimes translate into larger differences. To assume that one already
knows a technique constitutes a locking in of the mind to a pre-set dispositional pattern of
response, resulting in a corresponding loss of adaptability. Prejudgment also may deprive one of the
opportunity to learn new principles of movement. For example, it is common for people upon
seeing a different way of performing a technique to judge it to be wrong. This judgment is
frequently based on a superficial observation of the technique, rather than an appreciation of the
underlying principles upon which the technique is based.
Shugyo Discipline. Traveling in pursuit of Truth. To pursue Aikido, or any martial art, as a path to
self-improvement involves more than training. The word shugyo connotes a continual striving for
technical and personal excellence. Keiko, or training, is only one component of such striving. To
pursue Aikido as a Way requires a continual reexamination and correction of oneself, ones
attitudes, reactions, dispositions to like or dislike, etc.
Soto Outside. Thus, a class of Aikido movements executed, especially, outside the attackers
arm(s). (See uchi.)
Suburi Repetitive practice in striking and thrusting with jo or bokken. Such repetitive practice
trains not only ones facility with the weapon, but also general fluidity of body movement that is
applicable to empty-hand training.
Sukashi waza Techniques performed without allowing the attacker to complete a grab or to
initiate a strike. Ideally, one should be sensitive enough to the posture and movements of an attacker
(or would-be attacker) that the attack is neutralized before it is fully executed. A great deal of both
physical and cognitive training is required in order to attain this ideal.
Suki An opening or gap where one is vulnerable to attack or application of a technique, or where
ones technique is otherwise flawed. Suki may be either physical or psychological. One goal of
training is to be sensitive to suki within ones own movement or position, as well as to detect suki in
the movement or position of ones partner. Ideally, a master of Aikido will have developed his/her
skill to such an extent that he/she no longer has any true suki.
Sutemi Literally to throw-away the body. The attitude of abandoning oneself to the execution
of a technique (in judo, a class of techniques where one sacrifices ones own balance/position in
order to throw ones partner). (See aiuchi.) In Aikido, sutemi may connote an attitude of
fearlessness by which one enters into an attackers space with no thought of preserving ones own
safety. Far from being simple recklessness, however, sutemi is based upon an absolute commitment

to a strategy for neutralizing the attack. Techniques in Aikido cannot be applied tentatively if they
are to be effective. Rather, one must respond instantly to a threat and take decisive action. Thus, in a
manner of speaking, sutemi requires not only throwing away the body, but throwing away the self
as well.
Suwari waza Techniques executed with both uke and nage in a seated position. These techniques
have their historical origin (in part) in the practice of requiring all samurai to sit and move about on
their knees while in the presence of a daimyo (feudal lord). In theory, this made it more difficult for
anyone to attack the daimyo. But this was also a position in which one received guests (not all of
whom were always trustworthy). In contemporary Aikido, suwari waza is important for learning to
use ones hips and legs.
Tachi A type of Japanese sword (thus tachi-tori = sword-taking). (Also standing position.)
Tachi waza Standing techniques.
Taijutsu Body arts, i.e., unarmed practice.
Tai no henko tai no tenkan Basic blending practice involving turning 180 degrees.
Tai sabaki Body movement.
Takemusu aiki A slogan of the founders meaning infinitely generative martial art of aiki.
Thus, a synonym for Aikido. The scope of Aikido is not limited only to the standard, named
techniques one studies regularly in practice. Rather, these standard techniques serve as repositories
of more fundamental principles (kihon). Once one has internalized the kihon, it is possible to
generate a virtually infinite variety of new Aikido techniques in accordance with novel conditions.
Taninsugake Training against multiple attackers, usually from grabbing attacks.
Tanto A dagger.
Tegatana Hand sword, i.e. the edge of the hand. Many Aikido movements emphasize extension
through ones tegatana. Also, there are important similarities obtaining between Aikido sword
techniques, and the principles of tegatana application.
Tenkan Turning movement, esp. turning the body 180 degrees. (See tai no tenkan.)
Tenshin A movement where nage retreats 45 degrees away from the attack (esp. to ukes open
Tsuki A punch or thrust (esp. an attack to the midsection).
Uchi Inside. A class of techniques where nage moves, especially, inside (under) the attackers
arm(s). (But also a strike, e.g., shomen uchi.)
Uchi deshi A live-in student. A student who lives in a dojo and devotes him/herself both to
training and to the maintenance of the dojo (and sometimes to personal service to the sensei of the
Ueshiba Kisshomaru The son of the founder of Aikido and second Aikido doshu.
Ueshiba Morihei The founder of Aikido. (See O-Sensei and kaiso.)
Ueshiba Moriteru The grandson of the founder and current Aikido doshu.
Uke Person being thrown (receiving the technique). At high levels of practice, the distinction
between uke and nage becomes blurred. In part, this is because it becomes unclear who initiates the
technique, and also because, from a certain perspective, uke and nage are thoroughly
Ukemi Literally receiving [with/through] the body, thus, the art of falling in response to a
technique. Mae ukemi are front roll-falls, ushiro ukemi are back roll-falls. Ideally, one should be
able to execute ukemi from any position and in any direction. The development of proper ukemi

skills is just as important as the development of throwing skills and is no less deserving of attention
and effort. In the course of practicing ukemi, one has the opportunity to monitor the way one is
being moved so as to gain a clearer understanding of the principles of Aikido techniques. Just as
standard Aikido techniques provide strategies for defending against physical attacks, so does ukemi
practice provide strategies for defending against falling (or even against the application of an Aikido
or Aikido-like technique).
Ura Rear. A class of Aikido techniques executed by moving behind the attacker and turning.
Sometimes ura techniques are called tenkan (turning) techniques.
Ushiro Backwards or behind, as in ushiro ukemi or falling backwards.
Waza Techniques. Although in Aikido we have to practice specific techniques, Aikido as it might
manifest itself in self-defense may not resemble any particular, standard Aikido technique. This is
because Aikido techniques encode strategies and types of movement that are modified in
accordance with changing conditions. (See kihon.)
-tori (-dori) Taking away , e.g. tanto-tori (knife-taking).
Yoko Side.
Yokomen Side of the head.
Yudansha Black belt holder (any rank).
Zanshin Lit. remaining mind/heart. Even after an Aikido technique has been completed, one
should remain in a balanced and aware state. Zanshin thus connotes following through in a
technique, as well as preservation of ones awareness so that one is prepared to respond to
additional attacks. Zanshin has both a physical and a cognitive dimension. The physical dimension
is represented by maintaining correct posture and balance even when a technique has been
completed. The cognitive dimension consists partly in preserving the same overall mindset at all
phases of technique application there is nothing any more special about having completed a
technique than there is about beginning or continuing it. Also, upon completing a technique, ones
state of cognitive readiness is not abandoned: one remains ready either for a renewed attack by the
same opponent, or for an attack from another direction by a new attacker.
Zen A school or division of Buddhism characterized by techniques designed to produce
enlightenment. In particular, Zen emphasizes various sorts of meditative practices, which are
supposed to lead the practitioner to a direct insight into the fundamental character of reality (see ku
and mokuso). Practitioners of many martial arts, including Aikido, believe that adopting a mindful
attitude towards martial arts training can promote some of the same insights as more traditional
meditative practices.
Zori Sandals worn when off the mat to help keep the mat clean!

Common Attacks
Katate tori (also katate mochi) One hand
holding one hand.
Kosa dori (also naname mochi) One hand
holding one hand, cross-body.
Morote tori Two hands holding one hand.
Kata tori Shoulder hold.
Ryokata tori Grabbing both shoulders.
Ryote tori Two hands holding two hands.

Mune dori One or two hand lapel hold.

Hiji tori Elbow grab.
Ushiro tekubi tori (ushiro ryote tori / ushiro ryokatate tori) Wrist grab from the back.
Ushiro ryokata tori As above from the back.
Ushiro kubi shime Rear choke.
Shomen uchi Overhead strike to the head.
Yokomen uchi Diagonal strike to the side of the head.
Tsuki Straight thrust (punch), esp. to the midsection.

Basic Techniques
Ikkyo (ikkajo / ude osae) omote and ura (irimi and tenkan); arm pin
Nikyo (nikajo / kote mawashi) omote and ura (irimi and tenkan); wrist turn
Sankyo (sankajo / kote hineri) omote and ura (irimi and tenkan); wrist twist
Yonkyo (yonkajo / tekubi osae) omote and ura (irimi and tenkan); wrist pin
Gokyo (ude nobashi) omote and ura (irimi and tenkan); arm stretching

Irimi nage (also kokyu nage) Entering throw
(20 year technique).
Juji nage (juji garami) Arm entwining throw.
Kaiten nage Rotary throw. Uchi and soto, omote
and ura (irimi and tenkan).
Kokyu nage Breath throws.
Koshi nage Hip throw.
Kote gaeshi Wrist turn-out.
Shiho nage Four direction throw.
Sumiotoshi Corner drop. Omote and ura (irimi
and tenkan).
Tenchi nage Heaven and earth throw. Omote and ura (irimi and tenkan).

A aardvark


U blue
E egg
O bone

In order to count up to 99, all you need to know is the Japanese terms for 1 through 10.
one = ichi
two = ni
three = san
four = yon (or shi)
five = go
six = roku
seven = nana (or shichi)
eight = hachi
nine = kyu
ten = jyu
Above ten, we would say something to the effect of 10 and 2 to stand for 12. Therefore,
11 = ten (and) one = jyu ichi
12 = ten (and) two = jyu ni
13 = ten (and) three = jyu san
14 = ten (and) four = jyu shi or jyu yon
15 = ten (and) five = jyu go
16 = ten (and) six = jyu roku
17 = ten (and) seven = jyu nana or jyu shichi
18 = ten (and) eight = jyu hachi
19 = ten (and) nine = jyu kyu
For numbers from 20 through 99, you would say something like 3 tens and 6 to mean 36.
36 = 3 tens and 6 = san jyu roku
43 = 4 tens and 3 = yon jyu san
71 = 7 tens and 1 = nana jyu ichi
99 = 9 tens and 9 = kyu jyu kyu
Counting higher is basically the same.
100 = hyaku
1000 = sen
10000 = man
101 = hundred (and) one = hyaku ichi
201 = two hundred (and) one = ni hyaku ichi
546 = five hundred (and) four tens (and) six = go hyaku yon jyu roku
3427 = san zen yon hyaku ni jyu nana (or shichi) (note that sen becomes zen after a voiced

consonant line n)
23456 = ni man san zen yon hyaku go jyu roku
Some anomalies:
Use shi for four only in the single digit column. So, you can use shi or yon in 3654, but use
yon for 40, 400, 4000, etc.
Use shichi for seven only in the single digit column. So, you can use shichi or nana in
9607, but use nana for 70, 700, 7000, etc.
600 = roppyaku (not roku hyaku)
800 = happyaku (not hachi hyaku); 8000 = hassen (not hachi sen)

The Essence of Aikido

The following are some of O-Sensei Ueshibas teachings concerning the essence of Aikido:
Aikido is a manifestation of a way to reorder the world of humanity as though everyone were of one
family. Its purpose is to build a paradise right here on earth.
Aikido is nothing but an expression of the spirit of Love for all living things.
It is important not to be concerned with thoughts of victory and defeat. Rather, you should let the ki
of your thoughts and feelings blend with the Universal.
Aikido is not an art to fight with enemies and defeat them. It is a way to lead all human beings to
live in harmony with each other as though everyone were one family. The secret of Aikido is to
make yourself become one with the universe and to go along with its natural movements. One who
has attained this secret holds the universe in him/herself and can say, I am the universe.
If anyone tries to fight me, it means that s/he is going to break harmony with the universe, because I
am the universe. At the instant when s/he conceives the desire to fight with me, s/he is defeated.
Nonresistance is one of the principles of Aikido. Because there is no resistance, you have won
before even starting. People whose minds are evil or who enjoy fighting are defeated without a
The secret of Aikido is to cultivate a spirit of loving protection for all things.
I do not think badly of others when they treat me unkindly. Rather, I feel gratitude towards them for
giving me the opportunity to train myself to handle adversity.
You should realize what the universe is and what you are yourself. To know yourself is to know the

A Brief History of Japan

Modern knowledge about the first peoples to inhabit the Japanese archipelago has been pieced
together from the findings of archaeologists and anthropologists and from the myths of ancient
Japan. Although the date of the first human habitation is not known, anthropologists have identified
one of the earliest cultures in Japan as the Jomon culture, which dates from about 8000 BC. A
hunting and gathering culture, it used stone and bone tools and made pottery of distinctive design.
In the 3rd century BC, a new people, known as Yayoi, who probably emigrated from continental
Asia, disrupted Jomon culture. They introduced rice cultivation, primitive weaving, wheel-made
pottery, domesticated horses and cows, and simple iron tools. Yayoi culture overlaid and fused with
the earlier Jomon culture.

Early Historical Period

The earliest written Japanese histories, the Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters, 712) and the Nihon
Shoki (Chronicles of Japan, 720), include legends about the origins of the Japanese people and
attribute the foundation of the state to a mythological emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. Another legend
concerns the empress Jingo (AD c.169-269), who allegedly conquered Korea. These records
provide more reliable chronicles of Japanese history from the 5th century.

Yamato Period
Beginning in the 3rd or 4th century AD a new culture appeared either from within Yayoi society
or from the Asian mainland. Its leaders left massive tombs with pottery, figurines, armor, jewelry,
weapons, and other evidence that they were mounted warriors with long iron swords and bows.
From this culture emerged rulers from the Yamato plain in the southern part of the main Japanese
island of Honshu; they claimed descent from the sun goddess and achieved political unity
apparently in the mid-4th century. By placing the sun goddess at the head of the Shinto deities the
hereditary Yamato emperor reinforced his leadership position. Initially, the emperors ruled through
alliances with other tribal chieftains, but the latter were gradually subordinated by a system of court
ranking. This development was influenced by Chinese concepts of statecraft, learned through
Japans military endeavors in Korea. Japan also adopted Chinese script, and Buddhism was
introduced from Korea about 538.
In the 6th century the centralized control of the Yamato court began to break down. At the end of
the century, however, the regent Prince Shotoku Taishi reasserted court authority. He promulgated
(604) a 17-article constitution based on the Chinese political theory of centralized imperial
government, redefining the sovereigns position in Chinese terms. Imperial authority was further
asserted by the Taika reforms of 646, by which, following Chinese precedent, the emperor claimed
all land and an elaborate taxation system was initiated. In 702 the Taiho Laws, comprising new civil
and penal codes, were promulgated.

Nara Period
The first permanent capital was built at Nara in 710. In the following century a hereditary court
aristocracy replaced tribal elites, and status became the basis for official influence. Japan was thus
transformed from a tribal into an aristocratic culture. Court patronage made Buddhism a major
force, which in turn reinforced state power. Nara was the center not only of government but also of
the major Buddhist temples; in 752 the statue of the Great Buddha (Daibutsu) was dedicated there.
Buddhist priestly intrusion in state affairs provoked a reaction, however. Finally, Emperor Kammu
(r. 781-806) asserted imperial independence and established a new capital at Heian (modern Kyoto)
in 794.

Heian and the Fujiwaras

In Heian, safe from Buddhist interference, imperial authority increased; however, the simplification
of government that accompanied the move to Heian allowed the Fujiwara family to assert great
influence. The Fujiwara had the privilege of intermarriage with the imperial house, and many
emperors were married to Fujiwara women or were their sons. Fujiwara men proved capable
administrators, and they used their family ties to dominate the government. In 858, Fujiwara
Yoshifusa (804-72) had his grandson, the infant Emperor Seiwa, placed on the throne and made
himself regent. Until the end of the 11th century the Fujiwara used the position of regent to
dominate the emperors, adults as well as children.
Under imperial patronage two new Buddhist sects emerged in Heian. Tendai and Shingon, more

Japanese in spirit than earlier Buddhist sects, ended the monopoly of the Nara Buddhist
establishment. A reassertion of tribal, or clan, authority also accompanied the move to Heian. The
imperial land system established by the Taika reforms decayed, and land increasingly fell into
private hands. Aristocrats and religious institutions assembled huge tax-free estates (shoen). Private
armies were created, and a class of rural warriors (Samurai) emerged.
Notable among the samurai class were the Taira and Minamoto families. Initially local military
leaders, both clans were drawn into court politics. In 1156 they applied military force to settle a
court dispute, and a war in 1159-60 left the Taira as the effective rulers. The Taira dominated court
politics by force and by marital ties with the imperial line. In 1180, Taira Kiyomori placed his
grandson Antoku on the throne, briefly reviving the Fujiwara practice of using the regency to
dominate the government.

The Shogunates
In 1180 the Minamoto revolted against the Taira and in the Gempei War (1180-85) defeated them
and established the Kamakura shogunate, the first of the military governments that would rule Japan
until 1868.

Kamakura Period
The shogun Minamoto Yoritomo (r. 1192-99) assigned military governors and military land
stewards to supplement the civil governors and estate officials. While establishing military
authority, however, Yoritomo failed to ensure the effective succession of his own family. His sons
were first dominated, and then eliminated, by the Hojo clan, which from 1203 held the position of
shikken (shogunal regent).
After 1221, when the retired emperor Go-Toba failed in his attempt to overthrow the shogunate,
military authority was increased. Warriors, while largely illiterate and unskilled in administration,
proved effective governors. The Hojo upheld the military virtues on which the shogunate had been
founded and proved apt successors to Yoritomo.
In 1274 and 1281 the shogunate was tested by two Mongol invasions. The Japanese warriors,
assisted by storms that came to be described as divine winds (kamikaze), drove away the invaders.
The Kamakura period was also one of spiritual awakening. Buddhism was simplified, and new sects
Pure Land Buddhism, True Pure Land, and Lotus guaranteed salvation to all believers.
By the early 14th century, however, political and social stability were breaking down. In 1334 the
Kamakura shogunate was destroyed when Emperor Go-Daigo reasserted imperial authority (the
Kemmu Restoration). Many powerful military families such as the Ashikaga flocked to assist the
emperor. He failed to reward them properly, however, and in 1336 he was driven from Kyoto and
replaced by another puppet emperor. Go-Daigo established a rival court in Yoshino, and for 56 years
there were two imperial courts.

Ashikaga Period
In 1338, Ashikaga Takauji was made shogun, creating the Ashikaga shogunate. The Ashikaga
reached the height of their power under the third shogun, Yoshimitsu (r. 1368-94). He controlled the
military aspirations of his subordinates and ended (1392) the schism within the imperial house.
The shogunate rested on an alliance with local military leaders (shugo), who gradually became
powerful regional rulers. The great shugo, however, became increasingly involved in the politics of
the shogunate, and by the mid-15th century many had lost control of their provincial bases. Their
weakness became apparent in the Onin War of 1467-77. Beginning as a dispute over the shogunal
succession, it turned into a general civil war in which the great shugo exhausted themselves fighting

in and around Kyoto, while the provinces fell into the hands of other shugo and eventually under the
control of new lords called daimyo. The war effectively destroyed Ashikaga authority. The shogun
Yoshimasa (r. 1440-73) simply turned his back on the troubles; he retired (1473) to his estate on the
outskirts of Kyoto, where he built the Silver Pavilion (Ginkaku) and became the patron of a
remarkable artistic flowering.
The Onin War marked the beginning of a century of warfare called the Epoch of the Warring
Country. In the provinces new feudal lords, the daimyo, arose. Independent of imperial or shogunal
authority, their power was based on military strength. They defined their domains as the area that
could be defended from military rivals. Ties were fixed by vassalage, and land holdings were
guaranteed in return for military service. The daimyo concentrated their vassals in castle towns and
left the villagers to administer themselves and pay taxes. The castle towns became market and
handicraft industrial centers, and a new style of urban life began to develop.
This was the Japan found by the Europeans who began to visit the country after 1543. The
Portuguese began trade in 1545, and in 1549 the Jesuit missionary Saint Francis Xavier introduced
Roman Catholicism. Christianity conflicted with feudal loyalties, however, and was completely
banned after 1639. At that point all Europeans, except the Dutch, were also excluded from Japan.

Period of Unification
Between 1560 and 1600, Japan was reunified by a succession of three great daimyo: Oda
Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Nobunaga began the military process in
1560 and by 1568 had extended his influence to Kyoto. He set up a puppet shogun and established
control over central Japan. After Nobunagas death (1582) during a rebellion, Hideyoshi continued
the military unification of the country, completing the process in 1590. The use of firearms
(supplied initially by the Europeans), the construction of fortified castles, the disarmament of the
peasants, and a major land survey were the chief tools of pacification. When Hideyoshi died in
1598, centralized authority was secure, and the warrior class had been segregated from other
members of society.
The third great unifier, Tokugawa Ieyasu, was a military leader who emerged as the guarantor of
Hideyoshis young heir, Hideyori. In 1600, Ieyasu defeated his military rivals at Sekigahara and
asserted his predominance. He was appointed shogun in 1603, but in 1605 he turned that office over
to his son and devoted the rest of his life to consolidating Tokugawa control. In 1615, Hideyori was
attacked and finally eliminated, and when Ieyasu died the following year, the Tokugawa held
unchallenged feudal supremacy over the whole country.

Tokugawa Period
From their castle town of Edo (modern Tokyo), the Tokugawa ruled Japan as shoguns until 1867. A
careful distribution of land among their vassal daimyo, relatives, and outside daimyo ensured their
control of the major cities Kyoto, Osaka, and Nagasaki and the chief mines. Thus they
controlled the main economic centers and strategic military points, while unrelated daimyo
administered some 250 autonomous domains. The daimyo spent half their time in Edo attending the
shogun and left their families as hostages when they returned to their domains.
The Tokugawa period saw the flowering of urban culture and a monetized commodity economy.
Edo had a population of over 1 million, and both Kyoto and Osaka had more than 400,000 people.
The samurai stood at the top of a legally established four-class system. From illiterate warriors they
were transformed into military bureaucrats who served both the shogunal and daimyo governments.
Below them were the peasants, artisans, and merchants. Although despised, merchants became
essential to urban life. A national market system developed for textiles, food products, handicrafts,
books, and other goods. Osaka was the center of the national rice market, where daimyo exchanged
their rice for cash to support their Edo residences and the traveling back and forth to their domains.

After 1639 the Tokugawa pursued a policy of almost total seclusion from the outside world.
Nagasaki, where the Chinese and the Dutch were allowed trading quarters (the Dutch on an offshore
island), was the only point of contact with foreign countries.
By the 19th century considerable ferment existed in Japanese society. Peasant uprisings had become
commonplace, and the samurai and even the daimyo were badly indebted to the merchant class.
Thus the old socioeconomic system had virtually collapsed, while the shogunal government
displayed increasing extravagance and inefficiency. In the early 1840s the national government
attempted a series of reforms to improve economic conditions, but they were largely ineffectual.
The shogunate, therefore, was already in a discredited position when U.S. Commodore Matthew
Perry forced Japan to abandon its seclusionist policy in 1854.
With the arrival of Perrys ships the Tokugawa shogun turned to the daimyo for advice and thereby
undermined shogunal control over foreign policy. The imperial house, long excluded from politics,
was drawn into the controversy, and the slogan revere the emperor, expel the barbarians was soon
heard in the expanding political debate. In 1858 the shogun signed disadvantageous commercial
treaties with the United States and several European countries. Tokugawa leadership was
questioned, and numerous samurai attacks were made on the foreigners now allowed to enter Japan.
By 1864 most activists realized that the foreigners military power prevented their exclusion, and
they turned against the Tokugawa instead. Samurai from the domains of Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa,
and Hizen played major roles in pushing for reforms. In 1867 they finally forced the resignation of
the shogun, and imperial government was restored under the young Meiji emperor in 1868.

The Meiji Period

In less than half a century Japan was transformed from a secluded feudal society into an
industrialized world power. During the Meiji period, corresponding to the reign (1868-1912) of
Emperor Meiji, centralized bureaucracy replaced the balance of power between the Tokugawa and
the autonomous domains. A conscript army replaced the military authority of the samurai.
Restrictions on residence and employment were abolished, and people flocked to Edo, now
renamed Tokyo and adopted as the imperial capital. The government imported foreign advisors and
technology for industrial, commercial, and educational purposes. Official missions were sent to
examine modern Western societies. Adopting the slogan rich country, strong army, Japan
determined to gain a position of equality with the West.
Government stability was crucial to this objective. In 1873 a new tax system provided a secure
revenue base and abolished the feudal land system. In 1877 the conscript army defeated a major
samurai revolt led by Saigo Takamori, a leading figure in the imperial restoration. Inflation reduced
the value of government revenues, and between 1881 and 1885 a rigorous deflation policy initiated
by Matsukata Masayoshi stabilized the currency. Education was basic to Japans emergence.
Beginning with 40 percent male and 15 percent female literacy, the Meiji government required
primary education for all children and established (1872) a centralized school system.
In 1881 domestic political pressure forced the oligarchical government to promise a constitution by
1889 and representative government by 1890. The statesman Ito Hirobumi took charge of drafting
the new constitution. A cabinet was established in 1885, a peerage was created, and in 1889 the
constitution was promulgated as a gift from the emperor.
Japan thus became a constitutional monarchy, with a bicameral legislature (Diet) composed of a
house of peers and an elected lower house. Suffrage was very limited, however; only 1 percent of
the population was eligible to vote in the 1890 election. Moreover, the prime minister and cabinet
were responsible only to the emperor, who was still regarded as a divine figure. Representative
government evolved slowly, but the Diet had some control of the budget and gradually increased its
Conflict between the Diet and the government leaders ceased during the Sino-Japanese War of

1894-95, in which Japan displayed its military superiority over the Chinese and secured control of
Korea. The victory added to Japanese prestige, and in 1902, Japan concluded an alliance with
Britain as an equal power.
In 1904-05, Japan and Russia fought over Manchuria and Korea. Victorious in this Russo-Japanese
War, the Japanese added southern Sakhalin to their empire of Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands; and
in 1910 they formally annexed Korea. By 1905, therefore, Japan was a major military power in East
Asia and an industrialized nation. When Japan entered World War I as an ally of Britain, the strains
of industrialization were apparent in Japanese society.

World War I and the Interwar Years

During World War I, Japan seized several of the German holdings in East Asia, including Chinese
territory on the Shandong peninsula. When the Chinese demanded its return, the Japanese
government responded with the Twenty-one Demands of January 1915, forcing Chinese acceptance
of extended Japanese influence in China. In 1917, Japan extracted further concessions of rights in
Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, setting the stage for its later open aggression against China.
In 1918, Hara Takashi became prime minister in the first cabinet based on a party majority in the
Diet. Although the political parties were essentially controlled by business interests, they were a
major step toward more democratic forms of government a trend that was continued by the
expansion of the electorate in 1925 to include all males over 25.
Although repressive toward the growing labor movement, the party governments of the 1920s and
after attempted modest reforms, cutting back the army and enacting some social legislation. They
also pursued a less aggressive foreign policy than that of prewar Japan. At the Washington
Conference of 1921-22, Japan signed a naval arms limitation treaty that replaced the AngloJapanese alliance and established a balance of power in the Pacific. In 1930 further naval limitations
were agreed to at the London Naval Conference.
The Japanese military felt, however, that the politicians were compromising the nations security
and the emperors right to supreme command. As the World Depression of the 1930s set in, the
discontented began to rally to the cry of the militarists that the civilian governments were corrupt
and that military expansion and the acquisition of new markets and sources of raw materials would
cure Japans economic ills. Right-wing terrorism increased (3 of Japans 11 prime ministers
between 1918 and 1932 were assassinated), and in 1931 Japanese officers in Manchuria acted
without government authorization in precipitating the Mukden Incident and occupying Manchuria.
Unable to stop the army, the civilian government accepted the establishment of the puppet state of
Manchukuo in February 1932. Three months later military and civilian bureaucrats replaced party
politicians in leading the government. From then until August 1945, the succession of cabinets and
the young emperor Hirohito, who had succeeded to the throne in 1926, were essentially the tools of
the military extremists.

World War II
Japanese economic and political penetration of northern China proceeded against minimal Chinese
resistance until 1937. In July 1937, however, the Second Sino-Japanese War began with a clash at
the Marco Polo Bridge near Beijing (Peking). By 1940 the Japanese controlled eastern China and
had established a puppet regime at Nanjing (Nanking). In the same year Japan allied with the Axis
powers of Germany and Italy, which were already at war in Europe.
Having occupied the northern part of French Indochina in 1940, Japanese troops moved into
southern Indochina in July 1941. The United States and Britain reacted to this move by imposing a
total trade embargo on Japan. Faced with economic strangulation, Japan had the choice of
withdrawing from Indochina, and possibly China, or continuing its expansion in order to secure oil

supplies from the Dutch East Indies. The latter alternative would mean war with the United States,
and Prime Minister Konoe Fumimaro negotiated to avoid that contingency. In October 1941,
however, the more militant Gen. Tojo Hideki replaced Konoe. On Dec. 7, 1941, Japanese forces
launched simultaneous attacks on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, the Philippines, Hong Kong, and Malaya.
The United States immediately declared war, and World War II entered its worldwide phase.
At first the Japanese forces achieved great success, conquering the Philippines, the Dutch East
Indies, Malaya and Singapore, and Burma. The tide turned in June 1942, however, with the defeat
of a Japanese fleet by the U.S. Navy at Midway Island in the Pacific. A war of attrition now began
to force the Japanese back to their home islands. Japanese merchant shipping was disrupted, and
industrial production declined as industries and cities were subjected to Allied bombing raids.
Shortages of food and supplies increased along with military defeats. The atomic bombings of
Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, and the Soviet declaration of war on
Aug. 8, 1945, were the final blows. Emperor Hirohito intervened and ordered the army to surrender
unconditionally on Aug. 14, 1945.

Postwar Japan
The Allied occupation, under the command of U.S. Gen. Douglas Macarthur, lasted from 1945 to
1952 and resulted in political, social, and economic reforms. The emperor denied his divinity and
was placed in a symbolic role. Government was democratized, and a new constitution with a bill of
rights went into effect in 1947. Women received the vote and rights to property and divorce. The
peerage was abolished, war criminals punished, and a massive purge of right-wing extremists (and
later of Communists) conducted. The great zaibatsu concentrations of economic power were broken
up, a major land reform was carried out, and education was liberalized. Article 9 of the constitution
renounced the right to use force in foreign policy.
As millions of soldiers and civilians were repatriated from overseas, the devastated country
experienced acute shortages of food, housing, clothing, and other goods and services. The
government under Yoshida Shigeru worked to implement reforms and achieve economic recovery.
The outbreak of the Korean War (1950-53) aided that recovery by increasing Japanese exports. It
also prompted the United States to press for rapid conclusion of a Japanese peace treaty. In 1951,
Japan signed not only a peace treaty but also a mutual defense treaty with the United States. It
resumed full sovereignty in 1952 but continued to be very much under U.S. protection.
From 1954 until 1972 the Japanese economy expanded rapidly; the gross national product increased
at a rate of over 10 percent annually. Building on its prewar industrial base, Japan imported modern
technology and machinery. Factories were replaced, and economic development was the main focus
of national policy. Central planning helped the government control the structure of the economy.
Labor, resources, and capital were used where the growth potential was greatest, and by the early
1970s Japan was the worlds largest producer of ships and a leader in the production of cars, steel,
and electronic equipment.
The 1972 return to Japan of Okinawa, which had been under U.S. occupation since 1945, signaled
the end of Japanese subordination to the United States. Japan handled the U.S. rapprochement with
Communist China by establishing its own diplomatic ties with that long-time enemy in 1972.
Highly dependent on imported petroleum, Japan also weathered the crisis caused by Arab cutbacks
in oil exports in the 1970s.
The Liberal-Democrats, the conservative party that has dominated Japanese politics since 1954, has
emphasized economic growth. Scandals led to the resignations of Prime Ministers Tanaka Kakuei
(in 1974) and Takeshita Noboru and Uno Sosuki (in 1989). The party lost its majority in the upper
house of parliament in July 1989, although it regained control in February 1990 elections under
Prime Minister Kaifu Toshiki. In October 1991, after Kaifu lost the support of Takeshita, Miyazawa
Kiichi replaced him as party leader and prime minister. The death of long-reigning Hirohito in

January 1989 marked the end of an era; his son Akihito succeeded him.
In the 1980s and into the 1990s, Japan played an increasingly visible role in global affairs,
becoming the worlds largest provider of development aid in 1988. It has been the leading exporter
of manufactured goods since 1985. Japan has close links to the United States and Western Europe
and is more dependent on Middle Eastern oil than any other country. It gave financial aid to the
anti-Iraq coalition in the Persian Gulf War in 1991. In 1992, Japan agreed to send troops abroad for
the first time since World War II as part of UN peacekeeping operations.

Aikido Kanji Dictionary





Strike to a vital point


A punch to the abdominal region


Downward punch


Any reverse strike


Punching with the rear hand


Upper strike


Counter thrust


One-handed strike


Strike to head

Mune tsuki

Thrust toward knot on obi


A step-punch

Shomen uchi

Overhead strike to the head.


In Aikido, usually a Chudan Oi-zuki


Inside; strike

Yokomen uchi

Diagonal strike to the side of the head.


A sideward strike


To grasp with one's hand reversed; to grasp and opponents

right wrist with your left hand

Katate dori

One hand holding one hand.


hand grab (katatedori ai-hanmi)

Morote dori

Two hands holding one hand.

Kata dori

Shoulder hold

Ryokata dori

Grabbing both shoulders.

Ryote dori

Two hands holding two hands.

Mune dori

One or two hand lapel hold.

Hiji dori

Elbow grab

Sode dori

Sleeve grab

Ushiro eri-dori

Neck grab from the back (usually the collar :-)

Ushiro tekubi dori

Wrist grab from the back.

Ushiro ryote dori

As above from the back.

Ushiro ryokata dori

As above from the back.

Ushiro kubi shime

Rear choke.
Body Parts:


The abdomen, stomach


The ribs










Atemi point between the eyes


The thigh


Atemi point at the floating ribs


Pressure point behind the ear


The elbow


Lapel; collar


Atemi point just above inside of knee


The face


Pressure point below lower lip


Pressure point in fleshy area between thumb and forefinger


Back of the hand




Back of forearm




Atemi point on inside of elbow




An one-knuckle fist


Pressure point on upper lip below nose


The body


Vital points on the human body


The kidney area


Atemi point on the upper lip


The heel of the foot


Back of the wrist (for a strike)




One hand


Atemi point on back of neck


Shoulder blades




Area between thumb and forefinger






Atemi point at base of skull


Vital point on body


The thigh; the groin




Atemi at corner of jaw




Both hands


Atemi point in middle of shin




Pressure points on each side of neck behind collar bone


Pressure point on inside of ankle


Ends of stiffened fingers


Lower abdomen


Front of fist


The spine


The back of the body


The body

Shita hara

Lower abdomen




Back of the hand


Edge of hand






Tips of toes (for kicking)


Bottom of heel


Edge of foot




The arm as sword


Heel of the hand




Palm of hand


Atemi point on top of head


Hammer fist


Inside of wrist


The arm


Back of fist


Side; armpit


Atemi point in armpit


Side of the head






The entire body


Commands in the dojo:


Move back






Be careful






Turn around


Close the eyes, meditation


Sit down









Yuru yaka ni


Shinzen ni rei

Bow to shrine

Sensei ni rei

Bow to sensei

Joseki ni rei

Bow to the high section of the dojo

Kamiza ni rei

Bow to kamiza (gods)

Otagai ni rei

Bow to each other




Thank you (informal)


Thanks (informal)

Domo arigato

Thank you (formal)

Domo arigato

Thank you very much (very formal) (for something that is


Domo arigato

Thank you very much (very formal) (for something that has
just ended)


Please go ahead


You are welcome

Gomen nasai

Excuse me, I'm sorry


Please (when asking for something, usually as in Please lets

practice together)


Excuse me (to attract attention)






I understand








Rearward, behind
















Right angles




Straight ahead






Straight ahead




Horizontal, to the side


Over there


Reverse, opposite, inverted


The other way around




Coming close or drawing near.


There, that position


In the opposite direction


The eight sides; in all directions


A straight line


A straight line



Naka ni

To the center


Side; armpit



Uchi deshi

A live-in student


Martial way


The way of harmony with ki


Lit. way place


lit. remaining spirit, balanced and aware state


A shout delivered for the purpose of focusing all of one's





purification ceremony


Ending, conclusion, union


Training, pursuit of knowledge




Receiver of the technique (attacker)


Doer of the technique (defender)


Wooden sword


Wooden sword


Short staff (~130 cm length)


Bamboo sword


Moving and turning freely




Duty; What you have to do


To be totally aware of ones surroundings


Pull; tug


A twist


Blending with motion of attack




Techniques practiced from seiza


In one breath; instantly








The axis of rotation of a technique




To tie up; to arrest


An entanglement


Light, easy practice


Continuous attack




Spirit, will, heart, intuition, mood


Mental attitude


Backward leaning


Old style




Springing in to attack


To dodge an attack


Combat engagement distance


Taking the initiative; Attacking the instant your opponent

thinks about it


Wrapped around


A turn; a rotation

Moku roku

A catalog of techniques



Munen mushin

Striking without conscience

Munen muso

The goal of zazen




What you have to do


Possessive particle of speech


Stretched out




A response


Press; push; to immobolize


Free style


Etiquette; also reishiki


Hard work on basics


A standing bow


Body motion


The left direction




An opening for an attack




The initiative; also 1000




Seizing initiative just as opponents initiates attack


The person who takes the initiative


A (samurai) person


Ceremony, style, form


On one's knees


Mind and body

Shinshin shugyo

Mind and body training

Shinshin toitsu

Mind and body unified




Of the lower part


Safe spot




Beginners mind










Body contact


External power (muscle)


Body motion


Body art


Reversing the body's position


Practicing with multiple attackers


To tip over


Multiple attackers


Practicing with multiple attackers


Fighting with multiple attackers




To seize (and immobilize)


Distance where you can strike by taking a single step


The inside of the throw


The attacker




Positive principle of nature


Sideward motion


A bow (archery)




Abdominal breathing


A breathing method featuring a long exhalation, followed by a

short cough to clear lungs


Internal (quiet) breathing


Breathing method featuring long exhalation with sharp gasp


Standing meditiation


External (power) breathing



Half forward stance.


Equal stance, feet parallel forward

Iai goshi

Hips lowered, stable position.

Iai hiza, Tate hiza

Kneeling on one calf.


Posture, stance.


Kneeling, but up on the toes.


Kneeling on both calves.




Middle kamae, sword in middle, seigan is a chudan gamae.


Lower level, sword pointed down.

Hasso gamae

Figure 8 stance, sword by side of head. Usually hasso hidari,

sword on right, left foot forward.


Upper level, sword above head. Usually hidari jodan, left foot


like waki gamae, blade horizontal.


Arms crossed over to hide technique (mountain mist).


Blade vertical in front of face.


Natural step, fundamental kamae.

Waki gamae

Sword pointed down and back, for a sutemi (sacrifice) waza.

Usually sword on right side (migi waki gamae), left foot
forward. Other purpose - hiding length of sword, especially in
case of a broken one.


1. principle = oshi taoshi, ude osae


2. principle = kote mawashi, kotemaki


3. principle = kote hineri, shibori-kime


4. principle = tekubi osae


5. principle = kuji-osae


6. principle = hiji-kime-osae or waki-katame or ude-hishigi.


7. principle = Yonkyo applied to back of wrist


8. principle = kote-ori-kakae-kimi, kuji-dori = Nikyo in which

his elbow is in your armpit and his hand is pulled forward;
Pinning their hand with your foot


9. principle = Inverted nanakyo


Irimi nage

Entering throw (20 year technique)

Juji nage, juji


Arm entwining throw (No. 10 throw, since the arms form

the Japanese sign for 10 +. arms crossed, elbows locked)

Kaiten nage

Rotary throw. uchi-kaiten nage and soto-kaiten nage (inside

and outside)

Kokyu ho

morotetori kokyu nage or ryotemochi kokynage ude-oroshi


Kokyu nage

Breath throw (There are a zillion of these in Aikido. Most of

them just variations of the basic techniques)

Koshi nage

Hip throw

Kote gaeshi

Wrist turn-out

Shiho nage

Four direction throw

Tenchi nage

Heaven and earth throw

Aiki otoshi

entering more deeply and picking up uke's off-side leg

Maki otoshi

nage ends up down on one knee, having thrown uke over

nage's shoulder

Sumi gaeshi

corner throw

Sumi otoshi

Corner drop

Tai-atari uchi

from yokomen-uchi, entering and blocking, uke gets thrown


Ushiro udoroshi

pull down from behind

Kokyu dosa

Breath-power movement (from seiza)

Ganseki otoshi

Arm bar with elbow braced over shoulder


A variation of Kaiten nage where you lock your opponents

shoulder and bring him directly to the ground in a lock
Ranks and titles:


Junior student


Senior student




A senior teacher, properly used within the school only, when

outside, use sensei


Student grade, from 10 up to 1, the highest: jukyu, kukyu,

hachikyu, nanakyu, rokyu
, gokyu
, yonkyu
, nikkyu
, ikkyu


More advanced grades, from 1 to 10: shodan

, sandan
, yondan
, godan
, nanadan
, hachidan
, kudan


Members with dan grades


Members with kyu grades


Highest title from ZNKR, must be 55 or older and 8 dan.


Middle title from ZNKR, must be 7th dan.


Title bestowed from ZNKR in addition to Dan ranks.


Head of style (actually head of family, unifier of gods and



Head of the way (currently Moriteru Ueshiba, grandson of O


, nidan
, rokudan
, judan


Owner of school (organization) eg. Sei Do Kai

Owner of school (building, hall) eg. Yugen Kan
Leader of a dojo

O Sensei

Great Teacher (Ueshiba, Morihei)



Lit. receiving with the body


Sword partnership practice


Staff partnership practices

Tachi dori

Sword takeaways

Tanto dori

Knife takeaways


Techniques to strike a vital point


Techniques from escaping from holds; also known as hazushiwaza


One person standing, one person sitting techniques

Henka waza

Varied technique. Especially beginning one technique and

changing to another in mid-execution

Hitori waza

invisible partner practice

Jiju waza

Free-style practice of techniques. Usually a set of attacks or

techniques. It is different from Randori where everything is


Counter techniques


Dislocation techniques


Grappling techniques; consisting of osae waza, kensetsu waza,

and shime waza


Fundamental techniques

Nagashi waza

Flowing from one technique to next

Ne waza

Grappling techniques

Oji waza

To block and then counterattack

Omote waza

Techniques that are revealed to the public

Osae waza

Pinning techniques.

Shi waza

A counter technique

Sukashi waza

Techniques performed without allowing the attacker to

complete a grab or to initiate a strike.

Sutemi waza

a technique accomplished by sacrificing your body

Suwari waza

Techniques executed with both uke and nage in a seated


Tachi waza

Standing techniques.


Hand techniques (as opposed to weapons)


Striking techniques


Techniques from rear attacks


Blocking techniques
The uniform:


Small hand cloth to wipe face. Also worn under the helmet in

Keiko gi, do gi, gi

Practice uniform.

Embu gi

Demonstration top / uniform.


Lapel / part of monk's costume hanging from left shoulder.


Family crests on uniform


Wide sleeved top with mon on chest, sleeve and back.


Sleeve, on practice top.


Large sleeves on formal tops.

Uwa gi

Practice top.


Chest patch embroidered with own name and dojo name.


Belt (White belt


Split skirt, wide legged pants.


Peg in back of hakama.


Split in side of hakama.


Back plate on hakama.


Japanese sock-slippers used in dojo.


Japanese sandals for use outside dojo.

, Black belt

The Ten Formal Kata of Iaido: The Seitei Gata Techniques

Mae Nuki-Uchi (Front nuki-uchi cut): A draw directed at a forward opponent from a seated
posture (the opponent is also seated).


Ushiro Nuki-Uchi (Rearward nuki-uchi cut): A draw directed at an opponent seated behind
the swordsman, who is also in seiza (seated).


Uke Nagashi (Deflection. Literally means "to receive and wash away"): A rising block
followed by a kesagiri cut.


Tsuka-ate (Striking with the butt end of the sword): A strike with the butt end of the sword
hilt (the kashira) to a facing opponent followed by a thrust to a rearward opponent followed by
a kiri otoshi cut against the front opponent.


Kesagiri (Cutting on a diagonal): named after the cut, a kata involving both a kesagiri cut
and a gaku (reversed) kesagiri cut. Executed in tachi (standing).


Morote-tsuki (Two-handed thrust): A forward kasume giri cut, followed by a thrust forward,
after which a kiri otoshi cut is made against opponents located first to the rear and then to the


Sampo Giri (Three-directional cutting): Involves cuts directed at opponents located to the
right, left, and front of the swordsman.


Gammen-ate (Face strike): A forward strike with the butt end (kashira) of the katana,
followed by a rearward thrust and then a forward kiri otoshi.


Soete Tsuki (Joined hands thrust): Opponent attacks from the left with an overhead cut
which is avoided and responded to by a one-handed kesagiri cut and a forward thrust.


Shiho Giri (Four directional cutting): A kata that deals with opponents at four angles of

Dojo Etiquette
In Aikido, as well as all other forms of martial arts, there are certain forms of etiquette that are
important to follow. The purpose of these rituals is to show respect, not only for your instructors
and fellow students, but also to show your commitment to the path that you have decided to follow,
the path of Aikido. Although some of these Japanese forms may be unfamiliar at first they will, over
time, become comfortable expressions of courtesy and help each student to reach a higher level of
It is important to realize that there are likely to be slight variations on these forms in each dojo, but
the following is an overview of the most common forms of etiquette that should be observed. If you
are new to your dojo, or traveling to another part of the country or world, you will be fine as long as
you pay close attention and observe what the other people around you are doing.

The most important form of Japanese etiquette is the bow. This is the most basic form of
respect and gratitude, whether it is directed towards an individual or an object. There are a number
of times in practice when you should bow in Aikido and the first is upon entering (and leaving) the
dojo. At this time make a standing bow towards the picture of O-Sensei, which is located at the
front of the practice mat. This shows your respect to the founder of Aikido.

Before moving into the dojo take off your shoes at the door and place them on the shoe rack
if one is provided, if not, place them to the side of the door so that they are out of the way of those
entering behind you.

Out of respect to your fellow students make sure that your training clothes are freshly
laundered for each session. If you are attending a seminar remember to bring along several changes
of dogi. Also, remove all jewelry and make sure that your fingernails and toenails are kept short and
well manicured.

When stepping on and off the mat, always make a bow from seiza toward the picture of OSensei; again, this is a show of respect and confirms your commitment to your studies. In some dojo
a standing bow is made.

Always try to arrive early so that you can be ready and waiting on the mat, about 5 minutes
before the scheduled beginning of practice. This will allow you to sit and meditate and clear your
mind of the distractions of the outside world and prepare for your training. It is important to be
completely focused on your studies, as this is the only way to fully absorb all that you are being

Once the class is ready to start you should be sitting with your fellow students in seiza in a
straight line. Follow the custom of your dojo or host dojo with regard to possible ranked seating. It
is important never to sit with your back to the shomen, or pass between the shomen and instructor.

The bowing-in ceremony will then take place, usually consisting of a bow, two handclaps, a
second bow, and a mutual bow between the instructor and the students. This ceremony can vary
from dojo to dojo so always follow the example of the instructor and other students.

The correct way to be seated on the mat is in seiza. A cross-legged tailors position is
acceptable if seiza is impossible due to injury.

If for some unavoidable reason you are late, do not immediately join the practice session.
Instead sit in seiza on the edge of the mat until acknowledged by the instructor, and then perform a
seated bow toward the shomen. Wait until an appropriate time to find a partner and then join in the
training. Once you have entered onto the mat, it is important to clear your mind of the outside
world. Without this it can be difficult to concentrate on your studies.

When the instructor is demonstrating a technique you should sit in seiza and listen and
watch attentively. Once the demonstration is completed, bow to the instructor and your partner, and
then begin to practice. During the demonstration of a technique, no one should enter or leave the

Talking should be kept to a minimum - learn through experience. If neither you nor your
partner understands a technique, sit in seiza and watch the other students or wait until the instructor
offers you assistance. Never call out for assistance.

Remember to follow the instructors directions quickly and precisely. Injuries can occur with
hesitation or delay.

If the instructor is personally instructing students nearby, sit and watch in order to allow
enough room for the technique to be demonstrated effectively and safely. If the technique is being
demonstrated to you and your partner, bow to the instructor before resuming practice.

Mutual respect is a keystone of training. Respect those more experienced than you and learn
from them. Respect those less experienced than you and learn from them. Do not press your ideas
on others.

The most important thing to remember is to enjoy what you are learning. All of your
experiences and knowledge can be used outside of the dojo to make your life, and the lives of those
you touch, more rewarding and fulfilling.
Awal Journey
Daftar Isi
Daftar Isi
Sebuah Catatan Pribadi
Sejarah Aikido
Aikido dan Efektivitas Tempur
Senjata Pelatihan
Tentang Membungkuk
Pelatihan Mind di Aikido
Sebuah Catatan tentang Ki
Peringkat di Aikido

Dasar Aikido Kosakata

Serangan Umum
Dasar Teknik
The Essence of Aikido
Sejarah Singkat Jepang
Aikido Kanji Dictionary
Iaido / Iaijutsu
Dojo Etiket

Sebuah Catatan Pribadi

Sebagian dari dokumen ini awalnya The Primer Aikido oleh Eric Sotnak
( Berikut ini adalah pengenalan Mr Sotnak ini:
Pengantar pemberitahuan:
Silahkan untuk menyalin dan mendistribusikan primer ini untuk aikidoists sesama, non-aikidoists,
teman, musuh, atau orang-orang yang hanya perlu sesuatu untuk menempatkan mereka untuk tidur.
Jika Anda ingin menyesuaikannya untuk dojo sendiri, Anda dapat melakukannya, tapi jangan,
tolong, berusaha untuk membuat perubahan sepadan dengan semangat keseluruhan hal. Jika Anda
ingin menghindari disalahkan untuk setiap kesalahan dalam dokumen ini atau untuk konten, Anda
dapat menyertakan pemberitahuan pengantar atau melampirkan nama saya di tempat lain dalam
dokumen. Saya dengan ini tidak bertanggung jawab atas isi atau kesalahan dalam setiap versi dari
dokumen ini tidak dimodifikasi sendiri.
Saya telah mengadopsi konvensi Barat untuk nama pribadi dalam dokumen ini, yaitu, nama
pertama, nama keluarga kedua.
Versi ini tanggal September 1999.
Sebagian besar dari sisa dokumen ini diambil dari sumber di Internet. Khusus terima kasih ke Jun
Akiyama untuk website indah nya, AikiWeb ( Semua foto yang
terkandung di sini adalah milik hak cipta dari masing-masing pemegang hak cipta.
Dan ada bagian yang sangat kecil dari dokumen ini yang berasal dari pengalaman pribadi saya
sebagai seorang Aikidoka. Saya berencana untuk memperbarui / menulis ulang dokumen ini sering
untuk mencakup lebih dari pengamatan pribadi saya. Saya juga berencana untuk akhirnya

menambahkan diagram teknik.

Good luck, dan mungkin Anda menemukan kedamaian dan kebahagiaan dalam perjalanan Anda.

Steven M. Fellwock
Lincoln, Nebraska
September 2000

An Introduction to Aikido
Meskipun Aikido adalah inovasi yang relatif baru dalam dunia seni bela diri, itu adalah pewaris
latar belakang budaya dan filosofis yang kaya. Morihei Ueshiba (1883-1969) menciptakan Aikido
di Jepang. Sebelum membuat Aikido, Ueshiba dilatih secara ekstensif dalam beberapa varietas
jujitsu, serta pedang dan tombak pertempuran. Ueshiba juga menenggelamkan diri dalam studi
agama dan mengembangkan sebuah ideologi yang ditujukan untuk umum sosio-politik harmoni.
Memasukkan prinsip-prinsip ini menjadi seni bela diri, Ueshiba mengembangkan banyak aspek dari
Aikido dalam konser dengan ideologinya filsafat dan agama.
Aikido tidak terutama sistem tempur, melainkan sarana budidaya diri dan perbaikan. Aikido tidak
memiliki turnamen, kompetisi, kontes, atau Sebaliknya, semua teknik Aikido dipelajari kooperatif
pada kecepatan sepadan dengan kemampuan masing-masing peserta pelatihan "sparring.". Menurut
pendiri, tujuan Aikido bukanlah kekalahan dari orang lain, tetapi kekalahan dari karakteristik
negatif yang menghuni pikiran seseorang dan menghambat fungsinya.
Pada saat yang sama, potensi Aikido sebagai alat pertahanan diri tidak boleh diabaikan. Salah satu
alasan untuk larangan persaingan di Aikido Aikido adalah bahwa banyak teknik harus dikeluarkan
karena potensi mereka untuk menyebabkan cedera serius. Dengan pelatihan kooperatif, teknik
bahkan berpotensi mematikan dapat dipraktekkan tanpa risiko yang besar.
Harus ditekankan bahwa tidak ada jalan pintas untuk kemahiran dalam Aikido (atau dalam hal lain,
dalam hal ini). Akibatnya, mencapai kemahiran dalam Aikido adalah hanya masalah pelatihan
berkelanjutan dan berdedikasi. Tidak ada yang menjadi seorang ahli hanya dalam beberapa bulan
atau tahun.
An Introduction to Aikido
Sejarah Aikido
Pendiri Aikido itu, Morihei Ueshiba, lahir di Jepang pada tanggal 14 Desember 1883. Sebagai anak
laki-laki, ia sering melihat preman memukuli ayahnya karena alasan politik. Dia berangkat untuk
membuat dirinya kuat sehingga ia bisa membalas dendam. Ia mengabdikan dirinya untuk
pengkondisian fisik yang berat dan akhirnya ke praktek seni bela diri, menerima sertifikat

penguasaan dalam beberapa gaya jujitsu, pagar, dan pertempuran tombak. Meskipun kemampuan
mengesankan fisik dan bela diri, bagaimanapun, ia merasa sangat tidak puas. Dia mulai menggali
agama dengan harapan akan menemukan arti hidup yang lebih dalam, sambil terus melanjutkan
studinya dari budo, atau seni bela diri. Dengan menggabungkan pelatihan bela diri dengan ideologi
politik dan agama, ia menciptakan seni bela diri Aikido modern. Ueshiba memutuskan nama
"Aikido" pada tahun 1942 (sebelum itu ia disebut seni bela diri "aikibudo" dan "aikinomichi").
Di sisi teknis, Aikido berakar pada beberapa gaya jujitsu (dari mana judo modern juga berasal),
khususnya daitoryu-(aiki) jujitsu, serta seni pedang dan tombak pertempuran. Menyederhanakan
agak, kita dapat mengatakan bahwa Aikido mengambil kunci bersama dan lemparan dari jujitsu dan
menggabungkan mereka dengan gerakan tubuh pedang dan tombak pertempuran. Namun, kita juga
harus menyadari bahwa teknik Aikido banyak hasil inovasi sendiri Guru Ueshiba.
Di sisi religius, Ueshiba adalah pemuja salah satu dari apa yang disebut Jepang "agama baru,"
Omoto Kyo. Omoto Kyo adalah (dan) bagian neo-Shinto, dan bagian sosial politik idealisme. Salah
satu tujuan dari Omoto Kyo telah penyatuan seluruh umat manusia di "kerajaan surgawi di bumi"
tunggal di mana semua agama akan bersatu di bawah panji Omoto Kyo. Tidak mungkin cukup
untuk memahami banyak tulisan O-Sensei dan ucapan tanpa menjaga pengaruh Omoto Kyo tegas
dalam pikiran.
Meskipun apa yang banyak orang berpikir atau klaim, tidak ada filosofi Aikido terpadu. Apa yang
ada, sebaliknya, adalah kumpulan terorganisir dan hanya sebagian koheren agama, keyakinan etis,
dan metafisik yang hanya lebih atau kurang dimiliki oleh Aikidoka, dan yang baik ditularkan dari
mulut ke mulut atau ditemukan dalam publikasi yang tersebar tentang Aikido.
Beberapa contoh: ". Aikido bukanlah cara untuk melawan dengan atau mengalahkan musuh, itu
adalah cara untuk mendamaikan dunia dan membuat semua manusia satu keluarga" "adalah Esensi
dari Aikido budidaya ki [kekuatan vital, daya internal , mental / spiritual energi] "." adalah Rahasia
Aikido untuk menjadi satu dengan alam semesta. "" Aikido terutama cara untuk mencapai fisik dan
psikologis penguasaan diri. "" Tubuh adalah penyatuan konkret dari jasmani dan rohani diciptakan
oleh alam semesta "Dan. sebagainya.
Pada inti dari hampir semua interpretasi filosofis Aikido, namun, kami dapat mengidentifikasi
setidaknya dua benang dasar: (1) Suatu komitmen untuk penyelesaian damai konflik bila
memungkinkan. (2) Komitmen untuk perbaikan diri melalui pelatihan Aikido.
Praktek Aikido dimulai saat Anda memasukkan dojo! Trainee harus berusaha untuk mengamati
etiket yang tepat setiap saat. Hal ini tepat untuk membungkuk ketika memasuki dan meninggalkan
dojo, dan ketika datang ke dan meninggalkan tikar. Sekitar 3-5 menit sebelum memulai resmi kelas,
peserta harus berbaris dan duduk diam di Seiza (berlutut) atau dengan kaki disilangkan.
Satu-satunya cara untuk maju dalam Aikido adalah melalui pelatihan rutin dan berkelanjutan.
Kehadiran tidak wajib, namun perlu diingat bahwa dalam rangka meningkatkan di Aikido, salah
satu mungkin perlu berlatih setidaknya dua kali seminggu. Selain itu, sejauh Aikido menyediakan
cara budidaya disiplin diri, disiplin diri tersebut dimulai dengan pertemuan rutin.
Pelatihan Anda adalah tanggung jawab Anda sendiri. Tidak ada yang akan membawa Anda dengan
tangan dan menuntun Anda untuk kemahiran dalam Aikido. Secara khusus, itu bukan tanggung
jawab instruktur atau siswa senior untuk memastikan bahwa Anda belajar sesuatu. Bagian dari
pelatihan Aikido adalah belajar untuk mengamati secara efektif. Sebelum meminta bantuan, karena
itu, Anda harus terlebih dahulu mencoba untuk mencari teknik untuk diri sendiri dengan menonton

orang lain.
Pelatihan Aikido mencakup lebih dari teknik. Pelatihan Aikido meliputi pengamatan dan modifikasi
pola baik fisik dan psikologis pemikiran dan perilaku. Secara khusus, Anda harus memperhatikan
cara Anda bereaksi terhadap berbagai macam keadaan. Jadi bagian dari pelatihan Aikido adalah
budidaya (self-) kesadaran.
Titik berikut ini sangat penting: pelatihan Aikido adalah, koperasi tidak kompetitif, perusahaan.
Teknik yang dipelajari melalui pelatihan dengan mitra, bukan lawan. Anda harus selalu berhati-hati
untuk berlatih sedemikian rupa sehingga Anda meredam kecepatan dan kekuatan teknik Anda sesuai
dengan kemampuan dari pasangan Anda. Pasangan Anda meminjamkan / badannya untuk Anda
bagi Anda untuk berlatih - itu tidak masuk akal untuk mengharapkan Anda untuk merawat apa yang
telah dipinjamkan Anda.
Pelatihan Aikido kadang-kadang jadi sangat frustasi. Belajar untuk mengatasi frustrasi ini juga
merupakan bagian dari pelatihan Aikido. Praktisi perlu mengamati diri mereka dalam rangka untuk
menentukan akar frustrasi dan ketidakpuasan dengan kemajuan mereka. Kadang-kadang
penyebabnya adalah kecenderungan untuk membandingkan diri terlalu dekat dengan trainee
lainnya. Perhatikan, bagaimanapun, bahwa ini sendiri merupakan bentuk kompetisi. Ini adalah hal
yang baik untuk mengagumi bakat orang lain dan berusaha untuk meniru mereka, tapi harus
berhati-hati untuk tidak memungkinkan perbandingan dengan orang lain untuk mendorong
kebencian, atau berlebihan kritik-diri.
Jika setiap saat selama pelatihan Aikido Anda menjadi terlalu lelah untuk melanjutkan atau jika
cedera mencegah Anda melakukan beberapa gerakan atau teknik Aikido, diperbolehkan untuk
mengundurkan diri dari praktek sementara sampai Anda merasa mampu untuk melanjutkan. Jika
Anda harus meninggalkan tikar, meminta instruktur izin.
Meskipun Aikido paling baik dipelajari dengan pasangan, ada sejumlah cara untuk mengejar
pelatihan solo di Aikido. Pertama, seseorang dapat berlatih bentuk solo (kata) dengan jo atau
bokken. Kedua, seseorang dapat "bayangan" teknik dengan hanya melakukan gerakan teknik Aikido
dengan mitra imajiner. Bahkan latihan mental murni teknik Aikido dapat berfungsi sebagai bentuk
efektif dari pelatihan solo.
Disarankan untuk berlatih minimal dua jam per minggu untuk kemajuan dalam Aikido.
Aikido dan Efektivitas Tempur
Banyak praktisi Aikido (dari pemula hingga mahasiswa tingkat lanjut) memiliki keprihatinan
tentang nilai pertahanan diri praktis Aikido sebagai seni bela diri. Serangan seperti yang dilakukan
di dojo sering tidak realistis dan dapat disampaikan tanpa banyak kecepatan atau kekuasaan.
Kekhawatiran di sini adalah sah, tetapi mungkin, mungkin, bisa diatasi.
Pada tempat pertama, adalah penting untuk menyadari bahwa teknik Aikido biasanya dilakukan
terhadap serangan bergaya dan ideal. Hal ini membuat lebih mudah bagi siswa untuk mempelajari
pola-pola umum dari gerakan Aikido. Sebagai siswa menjadi lebih maju, kecepatan dan kekuatan
serangan harus ditingkatkan, dan siswa harus belajar untuk menyesuaikan strategi dasar gerakan
Aikido untuk berbagai luas serangan.
Banyak teknik Aikido tidak dapat dilakukan secara efektif tanpa aplikasi seiring atemi (serangan
dikirim ke penyerang untuk tujuan memfasilitasi penerapan selanjutnya teknik). Demi keamanan,
atemi sering diabaikan selama latihan. Hal ini penting, namun, untuk mempelajari atemi hati-hati

dan mungkin untuk mencurahkan waktu untuk berlatih penerapan atemi sehingga seseorang akan
mampu menerapkan secara efektif bila diperlukan.
Aikido kadang-kadang diadakan untuk dibandingkan dengan seni bela diri lainnya, dan Aikido
siswa sering penasaran tentang seberapa baik seseorang terlatih dalam Aikido akan berdiri melawan
seseorang dengan ukuran yang sebanding dan kekuatan yang telah terlatih dalam seni bela diri lain
seperti karate, judo, ju jutsu, atau tinju. Adalah wajar untuk berharap bahwa salah satu seni bela diri
telah memilih untuk melatih di memiliki aplikasi tempur yang efektif. Namun, juga penting untuk
menyadari bahwa pendiri Aikido sengaja memilih untuk mengembangkan seni bela diri ke dalam
sesuatu selain seni pertempuran paling mematikan di planet ini, dan mungkin sangat baik menjadi
benar bahwa seni bela diri lain yang lebih efektif daripada memerangi Aikido . Ini bukan untuk
mengatakan bahwa teknik Aikido tidak bisa tempur efektif - ada banyak praktisi Aikido yang telah
menerapkan teknik Aikido berhasil mempertahankan diri dalam berbagai situasi yang
membahayakan jiwa. Tidak ada seni bela diri dapat menjamin kemenangan dalam setiap keadaan
yang mungkin. Semua seni bela diri, termasuk Aikido, terdiri dalam set strategi untuk mengelola
konflik. Yang terbaik siapa pun bisa berharap untuk dari pelatihan seni bela diri mereka adalah
bahwa kemungkinan mengelola konflik berhasil ditingkatkan. Ada berbagai jenis konflik, dan
parameter yang berbeda yang mungkin mendefinisikan konflik. Beberapa seni bela diri mungkin
lebih cocok untuk beberapa jenis konflik daripada yang lain. Aikido dapat sakit cocok untuk konflik
yang melibatkan provokasi yang disengaja dari musuh untuk melawan. Meskipun ada beberapa
orang yang melihat ini sebagai kekurangan atau kewajiban, ada orang lain yang melihat ini sebagai
menunjukkan kenekatan perkelahian memprovokasi.
Karena konflik tidak terbatas pada situasi yang hasil dalam pertempuran fisik, itu mungkin bahwa
seni bela diri yang mengkode strategi untuk mengelola jenis lain dari konflik yang akan melayani
para praktisi yang lebih baik dalam kehidupan sehari-hari mereka daripada seni lebih berorientasi
tempur. Banyak guru Aikido memperlakukannya hanya sebagai seni bela diri seperti. Salah satunya
adalah lebih sering dihadapkan dengan konflik yang melibatkan rekan kerja, orang lain yang
signifikan, atau anggota keluarga dibandingkan dengan penyerang bertekad habis-habisan
kekerasan fisik. Juga, bahkan di mana kekerasan fisik adalah bahaya yang nyata, banyak orang
mencari strategi untuk menghadapi situasi seperti itu, yang tidak memerlukan melakukan cedera.
Misalnya, seseorang yang bekerja dengan individu yang terganggu mentalnya mungkin merasa
kurang dari ideal untuk menanggapi agresi dengan mengetuk individu ke tanah dan pukulan dia
menjadi tunduk. Banyak orang menemukan bahwa Aikido adalah seni bela diri yang efektif untuk
menghadapi situasi seperti ini.
Dalam analisis akhir, setiap orang harus memutuskan apakah secara individual atau tidak Aikido
cocok untuk kebutuhan nya, minat, dan tujuan.
Senjata Pelatihan
Beberapa dojo mengadakan kelas yang dikhususkan hampir secara eksklusif untuk pelatihan dengan
untuk jo (staf), tanto (pisau), dan bokken (pedang), tiga senjata utama yang digunakan dalam
Aikido. Namun, karena tujuan dari Aikido tidak terutama untuk belajar bagaimana menggunakan
senjata, peserta disarankan untuk menghadiri minimal dua non-senjata kelas per minggu jika
mereka berencana untuk menghadiri kelas-kelas senjata.
Ada beberapa alasan untuk pelatihan senjata di Aikido. Pertama, banyak gerakan Aikido berasal
dari seni klasik senjata. Ada demikian alasan historis untuk belajar gerakan senjata. Sebagai contoh,
semua serangan mencolok di Aikido berasal dari sambaran pedang. Karena itu, dengan tangan
kosong teknik mencolok di Aikido tampil sangat tidak efisien dan kurang dalam kecepatan dan
kekuatan, terutama jika seseorang telah terlatih dalam seni mencolok seperti karate atau tinju.

Kedua, senjata pelatihan sangat membantu untuk pembelajaran yang tepat ma ai, atau menjauhkan.
Berulang kali bergerak masuk dan keluar dari jangkauan mencolok dari senjata menumbuhkan rasa
intuitif jarak dan waktu - sesuatu yang sangat penting untuk tangan kosong pelatihan juga.
Ketiga, banyak maju Aikido teknik melibatkan pertahanan terhadap senjata. Dalam rangka untuk
memastikan bahwa teknik tersebut dapat dilakukan dengan aman, penting bagi siswa untuk
mengetahui bagaimana menyerang dengan baik dengan senjata, dan untuk mempertahankan
terhadap serangan tersebut.
Keempat, ada prinsip-prinsip yang sering penting dari gerakan Aikido dan teknik yang mungkin
menguntungkan ditunjukkan oleh penggunaan senjata.
Kelima, pelatihan senjata kata adalah cara memfasilitasi pemahaman tentang prinsip-prinsip umum
dari gerakan Aikido.
Keenam, senjata pelatihan dapat menambahkan elemen intensitas praktek Aikido, terutama dalam
berlatih pertahanan terhadap serangan senjata.
Ketujuh, pelatihan dengan senjata menyediakan Aikidoka dengan kesempatan untuk
mengembangkan jenis respon dan kepekaan terhadap gerakan dan tindakan orang lain dalam format
yang biasanya sangat terstruktur. Selain itu, sering lebih mudah untuk membuang pola pikir
kompetitif ketika terlibat dalam pelatihan senjata, sehingga lebih mudah untuk fokus pada
pengembangan kognitif.
Akhirnya, senjata pelatihan adalah cara terbaik untuk mempelajari prinsip-prinsip yang mengatur
garis serangan dan pertahanan. Semua teknik Aikido dimulai dengan bek bergerak dari garis
serangan dan kemudian membuat baris baru (sering garis non-lurus) untuk aplikasi dari teknik
Tentang Membungkuk
Hal ini umum bagi orang untuk bertanya tentang praktek membungkuk di Aikido. Secara khusus,
banyak orang khawatir bahwa membungkuk mungkin memiliki beberapa makna keagamaan. Ini
tidak. Dalam budaya Barat, itu dianggap tepat untuk berjabat tangan saat menyapa seseorang untuk
pertama kalinya, untuk mengatakan "tolong" ketika membuat permintaan, dan untuk mengatakan
"terima kasih" untuk mengucapkan terima kasih. Dalam budaya Jepang, membungkuk (setidaknya
sebagian) dapat memenuhi semua fungsi tersebut. Ingatlah juga, bahwa dalam masyarakat Eropa
hanya beberapa ratus tahun yang lalu busur santun adalah bentuk konvensional ucapan.
Menggabungkan aspek tertentu dari budaya Jepang dalam praktek Aikido kami melayani beberapa
Ini menanamkan keakraban dengan aspek penting dari budaya Jepang dalam praktisi Aikido. Hal
ini terutama penting bagi siapa saja yang mungkin ingin, pada suatu waktu, melakukan perjalanan
ke Jepang untuk berlatih Aikido. Ada juga kasus yang harus dibuat untuk sekedar memperluas
cakrawala budaya seseorang.
Membungkuk mungkin merupakan ekspresi hormat. Dengan demikian, itu menunjukkan sikap
terbuka dan kemauan untuk belajar dari guru seseorang dan sesama siswa.
Tunduk pada pasangan dapat berfungsi untuk mengingatkan Anda bahwa pasangan Anda adalah
orang - bukan boneka praktek. Selalu melatih dalam batas-batas kemampuan pasangan Anda.
Busur awal, yang menandakan awal dari praktik formal, jauh seperti "siap, dimulai," diucapkan
pada awal pemeriksaan. Selama kelas sedang berlangsung, Anda harus bersikap sesuai dengan

standar tertentu laku. Aikido kelas harus agak seperti dunia tersendiri. Sementara dalam "dunia,"
perhatian Anda harus difokuskan pada praktek Aikido. Membungkuk keluar adalah seperti sinyal
kembali ke dunia "biasa".
Ketika membungkuk baik kepada instruktur di awal praktik atau salah satu pasangan di awal teknik
dianggap tepat untuk mengatakan "Onegai shimasu" (lit. "Saya meminta bantuan") dan ketika
membungkuk baik kepada instruktur di akhir kelas atau pada pasangan seseorang di akhir teknik
dianggap tepat untuk mengatakan "domo arigato gozaimashita" ("terima kasih").
Pelatihan Mind di Aikido
Pendiri (Morihei Ueshiba) dimaksudkan Aikido menjadi jauh lebih dari sebuah sistem teknik untuk
membela diri. Tujuannya adalah untuk memadukan seni bela diri untuk satu set cita-cita etika,
sosial, dan disposisional. Ueshiba berharap bahwa dengan pelatihan Aikido, orang akan
menyempurnakan diri secara rohani maupun fisik. Hal ini tidak segera jelas, Namun, betapa berlatih
Aikido seharusnya menghasilkan apapun transformasi (= psiko-fisik) spiritual. Selain itu, seni lain
telah diklaim sebagai kendaraan untuk membawa mereka ke praktisi pencerahan atau transformasi
psikofisik. Kami sah mungkin bertanya-tanya, kemudian, apakah, atau bagaimana, Aikido berbeda
dari seni lainnya sehubungan dengan efek transformatif.
Harus jelas bahwa setiap kekuatan transformatif Aikido, jika seperti itu ada sama sekali, tidak bisa
berada dalam kinerja teknik fisik semata. Sebaliknya, jika Aikido adalah untuk menyediakan
kendaraan untuk perbaikan diri dan transformasi psikofisik sepanjang garis dibayangkan oleh
pendiri, para praktisi Aikido harus mengadopsi sikap tertentu terhadap pelatihan Aikido dan harus
berusaha untuk menumbuhkan jenis tertentu disposisi kognitif.
Klasik, orang-orang seni, yang mengklaim untuk menyediakan kerangka kerja transformatif bagi
para praktisi mereka, yang berakar dalam tradisi agama dan filsafat seperti Buddhisme dan Taoisme
(pengaruh Shinto di Jepang seni biasanya relatif kecil). Di Jepang, Zen Buddhisme dilaksanakan
pengaruh kuat pada perkembangan seni transformatif. Meskipun Morihei Ueshiba adalah jauh lebih
sedikit dipengaruhi oleh Taoisme dan Zen dibandingkan dengan "agama baru," Omoto Kyo, tentu
saja mungkin untuk menggabungkan aspek filosofi Zen dan Taoisme dan praktek dalam Aikido.
Selain itu, Omoto Kyo sebagian besar berakar pada struktur kompleks neo-Shinto konsep mistik
dan kepercayaan. Ini akan menjadi liar tidak masuk akal untuk menganggap bahwa adopsi struktur
ini adalah kondisi yang diperlukan untuk transformasi psikofisik melalui Aikido.
Sejauh penggabungan praktek Zen dan Taoisme dan filosofi Aikido ke yang bersangkutan,
transformasi psikofisik melalui praktek Aikido akan sedikit berbeda dari transformasi psikofisik
melalui praktek seni seperti karate, kyudo, dan upacara minum teh. Semua seni memiliki kesamaan
tujuan menanamkan dalam praktisi mereka keseimbangan kognitif, spontanitas aksi / respon, dan
penerimaan terhadap karakter hal-hal seperti mereka (Shinnyo). Cara utama untuk memproduksi
semacam ini di disposisi trainee adalah fokus dua kali lipat pada pengulangan gerakan-gerakan
dasar dan posisi seni, dan menjaga kesadaran dalam praktek.
Fakta bahwa pelatihan Aikido selalu kooperatif memberikan sebuah lokus lain untuk menafsirkan
transformasi pribadi melalui Aikido. Pelatihan Koperasi memfasilitasi ditinggalkannya kompetitif
mind-set yang memperkuat persepsi diri lainnya dikotomi. Pelatihan Koperasi juga menanamkan
memperhatikan keselamatan dan kesejahteraan pasangannya. Sikap kepedulian terhadap orang lain
ini kemudian akan diperluas ke situasi selain praktek Aikido. Dengan kata lain, kerangka kerja sama
untuk praktek Aikido seharusnya menerjemahkan langsung ke kerangka kerja bagi perilaku etis
dalam kehidupan sehari-hari.
Selain itu, harus jelas bahwa jika transformasi pribadi yang mungkin melalui pelatihan Aikido, itu

bukan suatu proses otomatis. Ini harus jelas dengan memperhatikan fakta bahwa ada praktisi Aikido
dengan pengalaman bertahun-tahun yang masih melakukan pelanggaran baik moral dan hukum.
Kemampuan teknis dan pengalaman yang luas dalam seni bela diri ini tidak berarti jaminan
kemajuan etis atau pribadi. Kenyataan ini sering datang sebagai kekecewaan besar kepada siswa
Aikido, terutama jika mereka harus menemukan bahwa instruktur mereka sendiri masih menderita
dari berbagai kekurangan. Pada kenyataannya, bagaimanapun, ini sendiri merupakan sebuah
pelajaran berharga: kemahiran teknis adalah tujuan lebih mudah untuk mencapai daripada perbaikan
pribadi. Walaupun kedua tujuan mungkin memerlukan masa komitmen, itu jauh lebih mudah untuk
membuat semacam pengorbanan dan upaya yang diperlukan untuk kemampuan teknis daripada
untuk membuat pengorbanan dan upaya yang diperlukan untuk transformasi pribadi substantif dan
Jalan menuju perbaikan diri dan transformasi pribadi harus dimulai di suatu tempat, namun.
Mungkin yang paling penting (dan mudah lupa) mulai bagi siswa dan guru Aikido adalah untuk
menanggung selalu diingat bahwa orang-orang yang satu dengan pelatihan adalah satu dan semua
manusia seperti diri sendiri, masing-masing dengan perspektif yang unik, dan mampu merasakan
sakit, frustrasi dan kebahagiaan, dan masing-masing dengan tujuan sendiri pelatihan.
Jika seseorang mengambil serius gagasan bahwa bagian dari pelatihan Aikido seseorang harus
bertujuan menuju perbaikan diri, satu kadang-kadang mungkin harus mempertimbangkan
bagaimana seseorang akan dilihat oleh orang lain. Seseorang mungkin memiliki kemampuan teknis
yang luar biasa dan belum dilihat oleh orang lain sebagai pengganggu yang egois dan tidak
Sebuah Catatan tentang Ki
Konsep ki adalah salah satu yang paling sulit terkait dengan filosofi dan praktek Aikido. Karena
kata "Aikido" berarti sesuatu seperti "jalan harmoni dengan ki," itu tidak mengherankan bahwa
Aikidoka banyak tertarik untuk memahami apa ki seharusnya. Secara etimologis, kata "ki" berasal
dari Cina Dalam filsafat Cina "chi.", Chi adalah sebuah konsep yang dipanggil untuk membedakan
hidup dari non-makhluk hidup. Tapi seperti filsafat Cina berkembang, konsep chi mengambil lebih
luas makna dan interpretasi. Pada beberapa pandangan, chi diadakan sebagai prinsip paling dasar
materi jelas - metafisik "energi" dari mana segala sesuatu diciptakan. Perbedaan antara hal-hal yang
tidak bergantung pada beberapa hal memiliki chi dan yang lain tidak, tetapi lebih pada prinsip (li,
Jepang = ri) yang ditentukan bagaimana chi diselenggarakan dan berfungsi (pandangan di sini
beruang beberapa kesamaan dengan Yunani kuno materi-form metafisika).
Aikidoka modern yang kurang peduli dengan historiografi konsep ki dibandingkan dengan
pertanyaan apakah atau tidak istilah "ki" menunjukkan sesuatu yang nyata, dan, jika demikian,
hanya apa itu tidak menunjukkan. Ada beberapa upaya untuk menunjukkan eksistensi tujuan ki
sebagai semacam "energi" atau "barang" yang mengalir dalam tubuh (terutama di sepanjang saluran
tertentu, yang disebut "meridian"). Namun, sejauh ini, tidak ada penelitian terkemuka yang secara
meyakinkan menunjukkan keberadaan ki. Banding obat tradisional Cina untuk ki / chi sebagai
entitas teoritis, dan beberapa terapi berdasarkan kerangka kerja ini telah terbukti untuk
menghasilkan manfaat lebih positif daripada plasebo, tetapi sangatlah mungkin bahwa keberhasilan
terapi tersebut lebih baik dijelaskan dengan cara lain selain ibaratnya kebenaran ki / chi teori.
Banyak orang mengklaim bahwa beberapa bentuk latihan atau konsentrasi memungkinkan mereka
untuk merasakan ki mengalir melalui tubuh mereka. Karena laporan tersebut bersifat subjektif,
mereka tidak dapat merupakan bukti objektif untuk ki sebagai "barang." Tidak juga rekening
anekdot efek terapi praktek berbagai ki merupakan bukti bagi keberadaan tujuan ki - bukti yang
bersifat anekdot tidak memiliki status bukti yang sama sebagai bukti yang dihasilkan dari reputasi
double-blind percobaan yang melibatkan kontrol yang ketat. Sekali lagi, mungkin ki yang tidak ada
sebagai fenomena obyektif, namun bukti yang dapat diandalkan untuk mendukung pandangan

seperti itu sejauh kurang.

Ada beberapa Aikidoka yang mengklaim dapat menunjukkan keberadaan (tujuan) dari ki dengan
melakukan berbagai macam prestasi. Salah satu prestasi tersebut, yang sangat populer, adalah apa
yang disebut "lengan unbendable." Dalam latihan ini, satu orang meluas lengannya sementara orang
lain mencoba untuk menekuk lengan. Pertama, dia membuat kepalan tangan dan mengencangkan
otot-otot di lengannya. Orang lain biasanya mampu menekuk lengan. Selanjutnya, dia melemaskan
lengannya (tapi daun itu diperpanjang) dan "meluas ki" (karena "memperluas ki" bukanlah sesuatu
yang pendatang baru paling Aikido tahu persis bagaimana melakukannya, seringkali hanya
disarankan untuk memikirkan lengannya sebagai selang kebakaran- tercurah air, atau metafora
serupa seperti). Kali ini, orang lain menemukan itu jauh lebih sulit untuk menekuk lengan.
Kesimpulannya seharusnya bahwa itu adalah kekuatan / aktivitas ki yang bertanggung jawab atas
perbedaan. Namun, ada penjelasan alternatif dinyatakan dalam kosakata atau ruang lingkup fisika
(atau, barangkali, psikologi) yang sepenuhnya mampu akuntansi untuk fenomena sini (perubahan
halus dalam posisi tubuh, misalnya). Selain itu, fakta bahwa sulit untuk menyaring bias dan harapan
dari para peserta dalam demonstrasi tersebut membuat semua lebih dipertanyakan apakah mereka
memberikan bukti yang dapat diandalkan untuk keberadaan tujuan ki.
Tidak semua Aikidoka percaya bahwa ki adalah semacam "barang" atau energi. Untuk beberapa
Aikidoka, ki adalah konsep bijaksana - selimut-konsep yang mencakup niat, momentum, akan, dan
perhatian. Jika salah satu mengorbankan yang pandangan bahwa ki adalah energi yang benar-benar
dapat diperpanjang, untuk memperpanjang ki adalah dengan menerapkan bantalan fisik dan
psikologis positif. Ini memaksimalkan efisiensi dan kemampuan beradaptasi gerakan seseorang,
sehingga teknik yang kuat dan perasaan penegasan baik dari diri sendiri dan pasangan seseorang.
Terlepas dari apakah seseorang memilih untuk mengambil realis atau sikap anti-realis sehubungan
dengan adanya tujuan ki, bisa ada sedikit keraguan bahwa ada lebih banyak Aikido daripada
manipulasi fisik belaka dari tubuh orang lain. Aikido membutuhkan kepekaan terhadap variabel
yang beragam seperti waktu, momentum, keseimbangan, kecepatan dan kekuatan serangan, dan
terutama ke negara mitra psikologis seseorang (atau seorang penyerang).
Selain itu, sampai-sampai Aikido bukanlah sebuah sistem untuk mendapatkan kontrol fisik atas
orang lain, melainkan sebuah kendaraan untuk perbaikan diri, bisa ada sedikit keraguan bahwa (atau
bahkan pencerahan [lihat satori]) budidaya positif fisik dan psikologis bantalan adalah bagian
penting dari Aikido. Sekali lagi, orang mungkin atau mungkin tidak ingin menggambarkan
budidaya ini bantalan positif dalam hal ki.
Peringkat di Aikido
Kebijakan yang mengatur promosi pangkat dapat bervariasi, kadang-kadang secara dramatis, dari
satu Aikido dojo atau organisasi yang lain. Menurut standar yang ditetapkan oleh International
Aikido Federation (IAF) dan Amerika Serikat Aikido Federation (USAF), ada 6 peringkat bawah
sabuk hitam. Peringkat ini disebut barisan kyu. Dalam IAF dan USAF, sabuk berwarna biasanya
tidak membedakan peringkat kyu. Organisasi-organisasi lain (dan beberapa dojo individual) dapat
menggunakan beberapa sistem sabuk berwarna untuk menandakan peringkat kyu, namun. Ada
semakin banyak organisasi Aikido dan masing-masing telah menetapkan sendiri standar untuk
Persyaratan untuk pengujian tergantung terutama (meskipun tidak secara eksklusif) pada akumulasi
jam praktek. Faktor-faktor yang relevan lain mungkin termasuk sikap trainee dengan hormat kepada
orang lain, keteraturan kehadiran, dan, dalam beberapa organisasi, kontribusi terhadap pemeliharaan
dojo atau penyebaran Aikido.

Apapun kriteria kenaikan pangkat, penting untuk diingat bahwa kenaikan pangkat tidak selalu
diterjemahkan ke dalam kemampuan. Pencapaian paling penting dalam Aikido atau seni bela diri
lain yang tidak penilaian eksternal kemajuan, melainkan manfaat dari pelatihan Anda kepada diri
Dasar Aikido Kosakata
Agatsu - ". Kemenangan Diri" Menurut pendiri, kemenangan sejati (Masakatsu) adalah
kemenangan yang mencapai lebih dari diri sendiri (agatsu). Demikian salah satu pendiri "slogan"
adalah Masakatsu agatsu - "Kemenangan sejati penguasaan diri."
Aikido - Kata "Aikido" terdiri dari tiga karakter Jepang: ai = harmoni, ki = jiwa, pikiran, atau energi
universal, lakukan = Jalan. Jadi Aikido adalah "Jalan Harmony dengan Energi Universal."
Namun, aiki juga dapat diartikan sebagai tafsiran kedua ini agak tidak standar "akomodasi dengan
keadaan.", Tapi menghindari komitmen tertentu metafisik yang tidak diinginkan dan juga
melambangkan cukup baik baik aspek fisik dan psikologis dari Aikido.
Aikidoka - Seorang praktisi Aikido.
Aikikai - "Aiki asosiasi." Suatu istilah yang digunakan untuk menunjuk organisasi diciptakan oleh
pendiri untuk penyebaran Aikido.
Ai hanmi - sikap Reksa mana uke dan Nage masing-masing memiliki kaki yang sama ke depan
(kanan-kanan, kiri-kiri).
Ai nuke - "melarikan diri Mutual." Sebuah hasil dari duel di mana setiap peserta lolos bahaya. Hal
ini sesuai dengan cita-cita Aikido sesuai dengan yang konflik diselesaikan tanpa cedera kepada
pihak yang terlibat.
Ai uchi - "Saling bunuh." Sebuah hasil dari duel di mana setiap peserta membunuh yang lain.
Dalam ilmu pedang Jepang klasik, praktisi sering didorong untuk masuk duel dengan tujuan
mencapai setidaknya uchi ai. Resolusi untuk memenangkan duel bahkan dengan biaya hidup sendiri
diperkirakan untuk membantu dalam memupuk sikap single-minded fokus pada tugas menebang
lawan. Ini fokus tunggal berpikiran dicontohkan di Aikido dalam teknik, ikkyo, di mana seseorang
memasuki ke kisaran penyerang untuk mempengaruhi teknik.
Ashi sabaki - Footwork. Footwork yang tepat sangat penting dalam Aikido untuk mengembangkan
keseimbangan yang kuat dan untuk memfasilitasi kemudahan gerakan.
Atemi - (lit. Mencolok Tubuh.) Mogok diarahkan pada penyerang untuk tujuan ketidakseimbangan
atau gangguan. Atemi sering penting untuk melewati atau "hubungan arus pendek" respon alami
penyerang untuk teknik Aikido. Hal pertama yang kebanyakan orang akan lakukan ketika mereka
merasa tubuh mereka dimanipulasi dengan cara yang asing adalah untuk menarik kembali anggota
badan mereka dan menjatuhkan mereka pusat massa turun dan menjauh dari orang yang melakukan
teknik ini. Dengan aplikasi bijaksana atemi, adalah mungkin untuk menciptakan sebuah "jendela
kesempatan" di pertahanan alami penyerang, memfasilitasi penerapan teknik Aikido.
Bokken = bokuto - pedang kayu. Banyak gerakan Aikido berasal dari pagar tradisional Jepang.
Dalam praktek canggih, senjata seperti bokken digunakan dalam belajar seluk-beluk gerakan
tertentu, hubungan antara teknik memperoleh bersenjata dan tidak bersenjata, pertahanan terhadap
senjata, dan sejenisnya.
Budo - ". Cara Martial" Karakter Jepang untuk "bu" (bela diri) berasal dari karakter yang berarti

"berhenti" dan (senjata seperti) ". Tombak" Dalam hubungannya, kemudian, "bu" mungkin
memiliki konotasi "untuk menghentikan tombak "Dalam Aikido., ada asumsi bahwa cara terbaik
untuk mencegah konflik kekerasan adalah untuk menekankan budidaya karakter individu. Cara
(lakukan) dari aiki demikian setara dengan jalan bu, diambil dalam arti mencegah atau menghindari
kekerasan sejauh mungkin.
Chiburi - "Menyingkirkan darah." Sebuah gerakan pedang mana pedang dengan cepat ditarik ke
satu sisi pada akhir pemogokan. Jadi chiburi migi = melepaskan darah ke kanan.
Chokusen - Langsung. Jadi chokusen no Irimi = langsung masuk.
Chudan - "Posisi Tengah." Jadi chudan no kamae = sikap ditandai dengan memiliki satu tangan atau
pedang dalam posisi sentral sehubungan dengan tubuh seseorang.
Chushin - Pusat. Terutama, pusat gerakan seseorang atau keseimbangan.
Dan - Hitam peringkat sabuk. Dalam IAF Aikido, pangkat tertinggi sekarang mungkin untuk
mendapatkan adalah 9 dan. Ada beberapa Aikidoka yang memegang jajaran Dan 10. Peringkat ini
diberikan oleh pendiri sebelum kematiannya, dan tidak dapat dibatalkan. Putih peringkat sabuk
disebut jajaran kyu.
Do - Way / path. Karakter Jepang untuk "melakukan" adalah sama dengan karakter Cina untuk Tao
(seperti dalam "Taoisme"). Dalam aiki-do, konotasi adalah bahwa cara mencapai pencerahan atau
cara untuk meningkatkan karakter seseorang melalui aiki.
Dojo - Secara harfiah ". Tempat Jalan" Juga "tempat pencerahan." Tempat di mana kita berlatih
Aikido. Etiket tradisional mengatur membungkuk ke arah kuil (kamiza) atau bagian depan ditunjuk
(shomen) dojo setiap kali memasuki atau meninggalkan dojo.
Dojo cho - Kepala dojo. Judul. Saat ini, Moriteru Ueshiba (cucu pendiri) adalah dojo cho di Dunia
Aikido Markas Besar (Hombu dojo) di Tokyo, Jepang.
Domo arigato gozaimas'ta - Jepang untuk "terima kasih banyak" (untuk sesuatu yang sudah terjadi).
Pada akhir masing-masing kelas, itu layak untuk tunduk dan terima kasih kepada instruktur dan
orang-orang dengan siapa Anda sudah terlatih.
Domo arigato gozaimasu - Jepang untuk "terima kasih banyak" (untuk sesuatu yang sedang
Doshu - Kepala cara (saat Moriteru Ueshiba, cucu pendiri Aikido itu, Morihei Ueshiba). Otoritas
resmi tertinggi di IAF Aikido.
Douitashimashite - Jepang untuk "Anda dipersilakan."
Engi - saling originasi (Sansekerta = pratityasamutpada). Dalam filsafat Buddha, fenomena tidak
memiliki esensi yang tidak berubah. Sebaliknya, mereka berasal dan hanya ada dalam kebajikan
material dan kondisi kausal. Tanpa kondisi material dan kausal, tidak akan ada fenomena. Selain itu,
karena material dan kondisi kausal di mana semua fenomena bergantung secara terus menerus
dalam fluks, fenomena itu sendiri adalah satu dan tidak kekal semua. Karena apa pun yang tidak
kekal dan tergantung pada kondisi untuk eksistensi tidak memiliki status absolut (atau tidak benarbenar nyata), berikut bahwa fenomena (apa yang biasanya disebut "hal-hal") yang tidak memiliki
status eksistensial mutlak atau independen, yaitu, mereka kosong. Untuk menumbuhkan keadaan

kognitif di mana status kosong hal terwujud adalah untuk mewujudkan atau mencapai pencerahan.
Realisasi pencerahan, pada gilirannya, menganugerahkan gelar kebebasan kognitif dan spontanitas
yang, antara lain (dan bisa dibilang lebih penting) manfaat, memfasilitasi kinerja teknik bela diri
dalam menanggapi situasi yang berubah dengan cepat. (Lihat ku.)
Fudo shin - "pikiran Teguh." Sebuah keadaan ketenangan mental atau ketenangan. Pikiran, di
negara ini, tenang dan tanpa gangguan (kiasan, oleh karena itu, "tak tergoyahkan"). Fudomyo
adalah Buddha wali dewa yang membawa pedang di satu tangan (untuk menghancurkan musuh dari
doktrin Buddha), dan tali yang lain (untuk menyelamatkan makhluk hidup dari jurang kebodohan,
atau dari Buddha neraka-negara). Karena itu ia mewujudkan cita-cita dua kali lipat Buddha
kebijaksanaan (pedang) dan kasih sayang (tali). Untuk membudidayakan Fudo shin demikian untuk
menumbuhkan pikiran yang dapat mengakomodasi sendiri untuk mengubah keadaan tanpa
kompromi prinsip.
Fukushidoin - Sebuah judul resmi yang konotasi adalah sesuatu yang mendekati "instruktur
Furi kaburi - Pedang-gerakan penggalangan. Gerakan ini ditemukan terutama di ikkyo, Irimi-nage,
dan Shiho-nage.
Gedan - posisi yang lebih rendah. Gedan no kamae demikian sikap dengan tangan atau senjata
dipegang dalam posisi yang lebih rendah.
Gi (dogi) (keiko gi) - Pelatihan kostum. Entah gi judo-gaya atau karate-gaya diterima di dojo
kebanyakan, tetapi mereka harus putih dan kapas. (Tidak ada gi satin hitam dengan bordir naga,
Gomen nasai - Jepang untuk "Permisi, saya minta maaf."
Gyaku hanmi - sikap yang bertentangan (jika uke memiliki kaki kanan ke depan, nage memiliki
kaki kiri ke depan, jika uke memiliki kaki kiri ke depan, nage memiliki kaki kanan ke depan).
Hakama - rok Dibagi biasanya dipakai oleh black-belt jajaran di Aikido dan Kendo. Di dojo
tertentu, hakama juga dipakai oleh perempuan dari semua tingkatan, dan dalam beberapa dojo oleh
semua praktisi. The hakama memiliki tujuh lipatannya. "Ketujuh lipatan melambangkan tujuh
kebajikan budo," kata O-Sensei. "Ini adalah jin (kebajikan), gi (kehormatan atau keadilan), rei
(kesopanan dan etika), chi (kebijaksanaan dan kecerdasan), shin (ketulusan), chu (loyalitas), dan
koh (kesalehan). Kami menemukan kualitas ini dalam samurai dibedakan dari masa lalu. The
hakama mendorong kita untuk merenungkan sifat bushido sejati. Memakainya melambangkan
tradisi yang telah diwariskan kepada kita dari generasi ke generasi. Aikido lahir dari semangat
bushido Jepang, dan dalam prakteknya kita harus berusaha untuk memoles kebajikan tradisional
tujuh. "
Hanmi - sikap Triangular. Paling sering teknik Aikido dipraktekkan dengan uke dan Nage dalam
pra-ditentukan sikap. Hal ini untuk memfasilitasi belajar teknik dan prinsip-prinsip tertentu posisi
sehubungan dengan serangan. Pada tingkat yang lebih tinggi, hanmi spesifik berhenti menjadi
Hanmi handachi - Posisi duduk dengan Nage, berdiri uke. Pelatihan hanmi handachi waza adalah
cara yang baik untuk berlatih teknik seolah-olah dengan lawan secara signifikan lebih besar / tinggi.
Jenis pelatihan juga menekankan gerakan dari satu pusat massa (hara).

Happo - 8 arah, seperti di Happo-undo (8 latihan arah) atau Happo-giri (8 arah memotong dengan
pedang). Konotasi sini benar-benar gerakan ke segala arah. Dalam Aikido, salah satu harus siap
untuk mengubah arah manapun dalam sekejap.
Hara - pusat One massa, terletak sekitar 2 "di bawah pusar. Secara tradisional ini dianggap lokasi
semangat / pikiran / sumber ki. Teknik Aikido harus dieksekusi sebanyak mungkin dari atau melalui
hara seseorang.
Hasso no kamae - "Gambar-delapan" sikap. Angka delapan tidak sesuai dengan angka Arab "8,"
melainkan karakter Cina / Jepang yang tampak lebih seperti atap rumah. Dalam Hasso no kamae,
pedang diadakan di samping kepala seseorang, sehingga siku menyebar ke bawah dan keluar dari
pedang dalam pola menyerupai ini angka delapan karakter.
Heijoshin - "Tinggal ketenangan pikiran." Cognitive keseimbangan batin. Salah satu tujuan dari
pelatihan di Aikido adalah budidaya pikiran yang mampu memenuhi berbagai jenis kesulitan tanpa
menjadi terganggu. Pikiran yang tidak mudah bingung adalah pikiran yang akan memfasilitasi
respon yang efektif terhadap ancaman fisik atau psikologis.
Henka waza - Teknik bervariasi. Terutama mulai satu teknik dan perubahan lain pada pertengahaneksekusi. Ex. mulai ikkyo tapi berubah untuk Irimi-nage.
Hombu Dojo - Sebuah istilah yang digunakan untuk merujuk pada dojo pusat organisasi. Jadi ini
biasanya menunjuk Aikido World Headquarters. (Lihat Aikikai.)
Hidari - Kiri.
Irimi - (lit. "Memasuki Tubuh.") Memasuki gerakan. Aikidoka Banyak berpikir bahwa gerakan
Irimi mengungkapkan esensi dari Aikido. Ide dibalik Irimi adalah untuk menempatkan diri dalam
kaitannya dengan penyerang sedemikian rupa sehingga penyerang tidak dapat terus menyerang
secara efektif, dan sedemikian rupa sehingga seseorang dapat mengendalikan secara efektif
keseimbangan penyerang. (Lihat shikaku.)
Jinja - Sebuah kuil (Shinto). Ada jinja aiki terletak di Iwama, Ibaraki prefektur, Jepang.
Jiyu waza - Free gaya praktek teknik. Hal ini biasanya melibatkan lebih dari satu penyerang yang
dapat menyerang nage dengan cara apapun yang diinginkan.
Jo - Staf Wooden sekitar 4'-5 'panjang. The jo berasal sebagai tongkat berjalan. Tidak jelas
bagaimana menjadi dimasukkan ke dalam Aikido. Banyak jo gerakan berasal dari pertempuran
tombak tradisional Jepang, orang lain mungkin berasal dari jojutsu, tetapi banyak tampaknya telah
inovasi oleh pendiri. The jo biasanya digunakan dalam praktek canggih.
Jodan - posisi atas. Jodan no kamae demikian sikap dengan tangan atau senjata dipegang dalam
posisi tinggi.
Kachihayabi - ". Kemenangan dengan kecepatan sinar matahari" Menurut pendiri, ketika salah satu
telah mencapai kesepakatan penguasaan diri (agatsu) dan sempurna total dengan prinsip-prinsip
dasar yang mengatur alam semesta (terutama prinsip yang meliputi interaksi etika), seseorang akan
memiliki kekuatan dari seluruh alam semesta di pembuangan seseorang, tidak ada lagi menjadi
perbedaan nyata antara diri sendiri dan alam semesta. Pada tahap ini kemajuan spiritual,
kemenangan seketika. Tujuan sangat penyerang untuk memperbuat tindakan kekerasan istirahat
selaras dengan prinsip-prinsip mendasar dari alam semesta, dan tidak ada yang bisa bersaing dengan

sukses melawan prinsip-prinsip tersebut. Juga, ekspresi dari prinsip-prinsip dasar alam semesta
dalam kehidupan manusia adalah kasih (ai), dan cinta, menurut pendiri, tidak memiliki musuh.
Karena tidak ada musuh, seseorang tidak perlu untuk melawan, dan dengan demikian selalu muncul
menang. (Lihat agatsu dan Masakatsu.)
Kaeshi waza - Teknik reversal (uke menjadi nage dan sebaliknya). Ini biasanya merupakan bentuk
yang sangat maju praktek. Kaeshi praktek waza membantu untuk menanamkan kepekaan terhadap
perubahan dalam perlawanan atau arah gerakan pasangannya. Pelatihan sehingga dapat
mengantisipasi dan mencegah penerapan kaeshi waza terhadap teknik sendiri sangat mempertajam
keterampilan Aikido.
Kaiso - Pendiri Aikido (yaitu, Morihei Ueshiba).
Kamae - Sebuah postur atau sikap baik dengan atau tanpa senjata. Kamae juga dapat berkonotasi
jarak yang tepat (ma ai) sehubungan dengan pasangannya. Meskipun "kamae" biasanya merujuk
kepada sikap fisik, ada paralel penting dalam Aikido antara satu fisik dan bantalan psikologis
seseorang. Mengadopsi sikap fisik yang kuat membantu untuk mempromosikan adopsi korelatif
dari sikap psikologis yang kuat. Hal ini penting untuk mencoba sejauh mungkin untuk
mempertahankan bantalan mental yang positif dan kuat dalam Aikido.
Kami - Sebuah keilahian, gaya hidup, atau roh. Menurut Shinto, dunia alam penuh Kami, yang
sering sensitif atau responsif terhadap tindakan manusia.
Kamiza - Sebuah kuil kecil, sering terletak di depan dojo, dan sering perumahan gambar pendiri,
atau kaligrafi. Satu umumnya busur dalam arah kamiza ketika memasuki atau meninggalkan dojo,
atau tikar.
Kansetsu waza - teknik manipulasi Bersama.
Kata - sebuah "bentuk" atau pola pergerakan diresepkan, terutama dengan jo di Aikido. (Tapi juga
Katame waza - "Tahan-down" (menjepit) teknik.
Katana - ". Samurai pedang" Apa yang disebut vulgar
Katsu jin ken - "Pedang yang menyelamatkan hidup." Praktisi menjadi semakin tertarik untuk
menggabungkan prinsip-prinsip etika dalam disiplin mereka sebagai pedang Jepang menjadi lebih
dan lebih dipengaruhi oleh agama Buddha (terutama Zen Buddhisme) dan Taoisme. Master
sempurna dari pedang, menurut beberapa praktisi tersebut, harus mampu tidak hanya menggunakan
pedang untuk membunuh, tetapi juga untuk menyelamatkan hidup. Konsep katsu jin ken
menemukan beberapa aplikasi eksplisit dalam pengembangan teknik yang akan menggunakan nonpemotongan bagian pedang untuk menyerang atau mengendalikan lawan seseorang, bukan untuk
membunuhnya / nya. Pengaruh beberapa teknik kadang-kadang dapat dilihat dalam Aikido. Teknik
lainnya yang dikembangkan oleh orang bersenjata (atau orang tidak mau untuk menarik senjata)
bisa melucuti penyerang. Teknik ini sering dipraktekkan di Aikido. (Lihat setsu nin ke.)
Keiko - Pelatihan. Satu-satunya rahasia untuk sukses dalam Aikido.
Ken - Pedang.
Kensho - Pencerahan. (Lihat mokuso dan satori.)

Ki - Pikiran. Roh. Energi. Vital kekuatan. Niat. (Chinese = Chi) Untuk Aikidoka banyak, tujuan
utama dari pelatihan Aikido adalah belajar bagaimana untuk "memperpanjang" ki, atau untuk
belajar bagaimana mengontrol atau mengarahkan ki orang lain. Ada baik "realis" dan anti-realis
interpretasi ki. The ki-realis mengambil ki menjadi, secara harfiah, semacam energi, atau kekuatan
hidup, yang mengalir dalam tubuh. Mengembangkan atau meningkatkan ki sendiri, menurut kirealis, sehingga diberikannya pada kekuatan Aikidoka yang lebih besar dan kontrol atas / nya
tubuhnya sendiri, dan mungkin juga memiliki manfaat tambahan dari perbaikan kesehatan dan umur
panjang. Menurut ki-anti-realis, ki adalah sebuah konsep yang mencakup berbagai fenomena psikofisik, tetapi tidak menunjukkan setiap energi obyektif yang ada. The ki-anti-realis percaya,
misalnya, bahwa untuk "memperpanjang ki" hanya untuk mengadopsi jenis tertentu disposisi
psikologis yang positif dan untuk mengkorelasikan bahwa disposisi psikologis dengan kombinasi
yang tepat keseimbangan, relaksasi, dan aplikasi bijaksana kekuatan fisik . Karena deskripsi
"memperpanjang ki" agak lebih mudah dikelola, konsep ki memiliki kelas yang terdefinisi dengan
baik untuk menggunakan ki-anti-realis, tetapi tidak membawa dengan itu setiap komitmen ontologis
luar lingkup teori-teori ilmiah mainstream.
Kiai - Sebuah berteriak disampaikan untuk tujuan memfokuskan semua energi seseorang menjadi
gerakan tunggal. Bahkan ketika terdengar kiai yang hadir, seseorang harus mencoba untuk menjaga
perasaan kiai pada titik-titik penting tertentu dalam teknik Aikido.
Kihon - (Sesuatu yang) mendasar. Ada banyak cara yang tampaknya sangat berbeda sering banyak
melakukan teknik yang sama di Aikido. Untuk melihat di bawah permukaan fitur teknik dan
memahami inti umum adalah untuk memahami kihon tersebut.
Ki musubi - ki no musubi - Secara harfiah "knotting / mengikat-up ki." The act/-100process
pencocokan gerakan salah satu pasangan s / niat di awal, dan mempertahankan koneksi ke salah
satu mitra di seluruh penerapan teknik Aikido. Tepat ki musubi membutuhkan pikiran yang jernih,
fleksibel, dan penuh perhatian. (Lihat setsuzoku.)
Kohai - Seorang mahasiswa junior untuk diri sendiri.
Kokoro - "Hati" atau "pikiran." Psikologi rakyat Jepang tidak membedakan secara jelas antara jok
intelek dan kursi emosi, seperti halnya psikologi rakyat Barat.
Kokyu - Nafas. Bagian dari Aikido adalah pengembangan "kokyu Ryoku," atau ini adalah
koordinasi napas dengan gerakan "kekuatan napas.". Contoh prosaik: Ketika mengangkat benda
berat, umumnya lebih mudah saat bernapas keluar. Juga kontrol napas dapat memfasilitasi
konsentrasi yang lebih besar dan penghapusan stres. Dalam bentuk tradisional meditasi, fokus pada
nafas digunakan sebagai metode untuk mengembangkan konsentrasi tinggi atau keseimbangan batin
mental. Ini juga terjadi di Aikido. Sejumlah latihan di Aikido disebut "kokyu ho," atau Latihanlatihan ini dimaksudkan untuk membantu seseorang mengembangkan kokyu Ryoku "latihan
Kotodama - Sebuah praktek melantunkan berbagai suara (komponen fonetik dari bahasa Jepang)
untuk tujuan memproduksi negara mistis. Pendiri Aikido adalah sangat tertarik pada Shinto dan
neo-praktik mistis Shinto, dan ia memasukkan sejumlah mereka dalam praktek pribadinya Aikido
Ku - Kekosongan. Menurut Buddhisme, karakter dasar hal adalah tidak adanya (atau kekosongan)
esensi berubah individu. Realisasi ness essenceless-hal inilah yang memungkinkan budidaya nonlampiran psikologis, dan keseimbangan batin sehingga kognitif. Realisasi langsung (atau

pengalaman wawasan) kekosongan pencerahan. Hal ini muncul dalam Aikido dalam ideal
mengembangkan keadaan keterbukaan kognitif, memungkinkan seseorang untuk segera merespon
dan intuitif dengan perubahan kondisi. (Lihat mokuso.)
Kumijo - jo pencocokan latihan atau praktek mitra.
Kumitachi - Pedang pencocokan latihan atau praktek mitra.
Kuzushi - Prinsip menghancurkan keseimbangan salah satu pasangan itu. Dalam Aikido, teknik
tidak dapat diterapkan dengan benar kecuali mitra pertama unbalances seseorang. Untuk mencapai
kuzushi yang tepat, di Aikido, kita harus mengandalkan terutama pada posisi dan waktu, bukan
hanya pada kekuatan fisik.
Kyu - Putih sabuk peringkat. (Atau peringkat bawah Shodan.)
Ma ai - distancing tepat atau waktu sehubungan dengan pasangannya. Sejak Aikido teknik selalu
bervariasi sesuai dengan keadaan, adalah penting untuk memahami bagaimana perbedaan dalam
posisi awal mempengaruhi waktu dan penerapan teknik.
Mae - Front. Jadi mae ukemi = "maju jatuh / roll."
Masakatsu - "kemenangan yang sejati." (Lihat agatsu dan kachihayabi.)
Michibiki - Sebuah aspek dari gerakan Aikido yang melibatkan terkemuka, daripada mendorong
atau menarik, salah satu pasangan. Seperti konsep lain di Aikido, ada dimensi fisik dan kognitif
untuk michibiki. Secara fisik, seseorang dapat menyebabkan pasangan seseorang melalui
membimbing halus atau pengalihan gerakan menyerang. Secara psikologis, seseorang dapat
menyebabkan pasangan seseorang melalui "umpan" (menyajikan peluang jelas untuk serangan).
Sering kedua elemen fisik dan kognitif bekerja di konser. Misalnya, jika uke meraih pergelangan
tangan nage itu, nage dapat menggerakkan pergelangan tangan hanya sedikit menjelang genggaman
uke ini, di seperti kecepatan yang uke yang tertipu dan berpikir s / dia akan mampu meraihnya,
sehingga melanjutkan upaya untuk merebut dan mengikuti memimpin di mana keinginan nage.
Migi - Benar.
Misogi - pemurnian Ritual. Aikido pelatihan dapat dipandang sebagai sarana untuk memurnikan
diri, menghilangkan karakteristik mencemarkan dari pikiran seseorang atau kepribadian. Meskipun
ada beberapa latihan khusus untuk praktek misogi, seperti latihan pernapasan, dalam kenyataannya,
setiap aspek dari pelatihan Aikido dapat dipandang sebagai misogi. Hal ini, bagaimanapun, adalah
soal sikap seseorang atau pendekatan untuk pelatihan, bukan fitur Tujuan pelatihan itu sendiri.
Mokuso - Meditasi. Praktek sering dimulai atau diakhiri dengan periode singkat meditasi. Tujuan
meditasi adalah untuk menjernihkan pikiran seseorang dan untuk mengembangkan keseimbangan
batin kognitif. Mungkin lebih penting lagi, meditasi adalah kesempatan untuk menyadari pola AC
pemikiran dan perilaku sehingga pola tersebut dapat diubah, dihilangkan atau lebih efisien
dimanfaatkan. Selain itu, meditasi dapat Acara pengalaman wawasan berbagai aspek Aikido (atau,
jika seseorang menerima klaim tertentu Buddha, ke dalam struktur yang sangat realitas). Idealnya,
jenis kesadaran kognitif dan fokus yang satu memupuk dalam meditasi harus terbawa ke seluruh
praktik seseorang, sehingga perbedaan antara "pikiran meditatif" dan "normal pikiran" runtuh.
Mudansha - Siswa tanpa black-belt peringkat.

Mushin - Secara harfiah Sebuah keadaan kesadaran kognitif yang ditandai dengan tidak adanya
pemikiran diskursif "tidak ada pikiran.". Sebuah keadaan pikiran di mana pikiran bertindak /
bereaksi tanpa hypostatization konsep. Mushin sering keliru dianggap sebagai keadaan spontanitas
belaka. Meskipun spontanitas adalah fitur Mushin, tidak tedeng aling-aling identik dengan itu. Ini
bisa dikatakan bahwa ketika dalam keadaan Mushin, ia bebas untuk menggunakan konsep dan
perbedaan tanpa digunakan oleh mereka.
Musubi - "Mengikat" atau "menyatukan". Salah satu tujuan strategis dalam menerapkan teknik
Aikido untuk bergabung dengan (= musubi) dan mengarahkan impuls agresif (= ki) dari penyerang
untuk mendapatkan kontrol itu. Jadi "ki musubi" atau "ki no musubi" merupakan salah satu tujuan
dari Aikido. Ada kognitif serta dimensi fisik musubi. Idealnya, pada tingkat paling maju dari
Aikido, kita belajar untuk mendeteksi tanda-tanda agresi dalam penyerang potensial sebelum
serangan fisik telah dimulai. Jika seseorang belajar untuk mengidentifikasi maksud agresif dan
meredakan atau redirect sebelum serangan diluncurkan, seseorang dapat meraih kemenangan tanpa
konfrontasi fisik. Juga, dengan mengembangkan kepekaan yang meningkat terhadap isyarat yang
dapat mendahului serangan fisik, salah satu sehingga memperoleh keuntungan strategis, yang
memungkinkan tindakan pencegahan atau, barangkali, melarikan diri. Ini kepekaan yang meningkat
terhadap isyarat agresif hanya mungkin sebagai hasil dari pelatihan kesadaran seseorang serta
kemampuan teknis seseorang.
Nagare - Mengalir. Salah satu tujuan dari praktek Aikido adalah belajar untuk tidak menentang
kekuatan fisik dengan kekuatan fisik. Sebaliknya, seseorang berusaha untuk mengalir bersama
dengan kekuatan fisik, mengarahkan untuk keuntungan seseorang.
Nage - The pelempar.
Obi - belt A.
Omote - "Bagian depan," demikian, kelas gerakan di Aikido di mana nage masuk di depan uke.
Omoto Kyo - Salah satu dari apa yang disebut "baru-agama" dari Jepang. Omoto Kyo adalah
amalgam sinkretis mistisisme Shinto, neo-Shinto, Kristen, dan agama rakyat Jepang. Pendiri Aikido
adalah pemuja Omoto Kyo dan dimasukkan beberapa elemen dari itu dalam praktek Aikido nya.
Pendiri bersikeras, bagaimanapun, bahwa orang tidak perlu menjadi pemuja Omoto Kyo untuk
mempelajari Aikido atau untuk memahami tujuan atau filosofi Aikido.
Onegai shimasu - "Saya menyambut Anda untuk berlatih dengan saya," atau secara harfiah, ". Saya
membuat permintaan" ini dikatakan salah satu pasangan ketika memulai latihan.
Osaewaza - teknik menyematkan.
O-Sensei - Secara harfiah, "Guru Besar," yaitu, Morihei Ueshiba, pendiri Aikido.
Randori - Free-style "habis-habisan" pelatihan. Kadang-kadang digunakan sebagai sinonim untuk
jiyu waza. Meskipun teknik Aikido biasanya dilakukan dengan mitra tunggal, penting untuk diingat
kemungkinan bahwa seseorang dapat diserang oleh agresor beberapa. Banyak dari gerakan tubuh
Aikido (tai sabaki) dimaksudkan untuk memfasilitasi pertahanan terhadap beberapa penyerang.
Reigi - Etiket. Kepatuhan pada etiket yang tepat setiap saat (tapi terutama memperhatikan etiket
dojo yang tepat) adalah menjadi bagian dari pelatihan seseorang sebagai praktek teknik.
Pengamatan menunjukkan ketulusan reigi seseorang, keinginan seseorang untuk belajar, dan
pengakuan seseorang hak dan kepentingan orang lain.

Satori - Pencerahan. Dalam Buddhisme, pencerahan ditandai dengan realisasi langsung atau
kekhawatiran tidak adanya esensi berubah balik fenomena. Sebaliknya, fenomena yang dianggap
kosong dari esensi tersebut - fenomena yang ada di saling ketergantungan menyeluruh (insinyur).
Seperti ditandai oleh pendiri Aikido, pencerahan terdiri dalam mewujudkan kesatuan mendasar
antara diri sendiri dan alam semesta (prinsip yang mengatur) tersebut. Prinsip etika yang paling
penting Aikidoist harus mendapatkan wawasan adalah bahwa seseorang harus menumbuhkan
semangat perlindungan penuh kasih untuk semua hal. (Lihat ku dan Shinnyo.)
Sensei - Guru. Hal ini biasanya dianggap tepat untuk mengatasi instruktur selama latihan sebagai
"Sensei" bukan oleh / nya namanya. Jika instruktur adalah instruktur permanen untuk dojo
seseorang atau suatu organisasi, itu adalah tepat untuk mengatasi dia / sebagai "Sensei" off tikar
Seiza - Duduk di lutut seseorang. Duduk cara ini memerlukan aklimatisasi, tetapi memberikan baik
dasar stabil dan lebih mudah gerakan daripada duduk bersila.
Sempai - Seorang mahasiswa senior untuk diri sendiri.
Setsu nin ke - "Pedang yang membunuh." Meskipun hal ini tampaknya menunjukkan sebuah konsep
murni negatif, ada, pada kenyataannya, konotasi positif untuk istilah ini. Terlepas dari asumsi umum
bahwa pembunuhan terkadang menjadi "kejahatan yang diperlukan" yang dapat berfungsi untuk
mencegah kejahatan yang lebih besar, konsep pembunuhan memiliki berbagai macam aplikasi
metafora. Satu mungkin, misalnya, berusaha untuk "membunuh" karakter seperti berbahaya sebagai
kebodohan, keegoisan, atau (berlebihan) saing. Beberapa latihan pedang misogi di Aikido,
misalnya, melibatkan membayangkan bahwa setiap potongan pedang menghancurkan beberapa
aspek negatif dari kepribadian seseorang. Dengan cara ini, setsu nin ke dan katsu jin ken (pedang
yang menyelamatkan) menyatu.
Setsuzoku - Koneksi. Teknik Aikido umumnya diberikan lebih efisien dengan menjaga hubungan
antara pusat seseorang massa (hara) dan batas luar gerakan, atau antara pusat sendiri massa dan
bahwa dari satu pasangan. Juga, setsuzoku dapat berkonotasi fluiditas dan kontinuitas dalam teknik.
Pada tingkat psikologis, setsuzoku dapat berkonotasi hubungan tindakan-respon yang ada antara diri
sendiri dan pasangan seseorang, sehingga kinerja yang sukses dari teknik Aikido sangat bergantung
pada tindakan sendiri waktu seseorang dan tanggapan agar sesuai dengan orang-orang dari satu
pasangan. Secara fisik, setsuzoku berkorelasi dengan leverage dan dengan aplikasi yang paling
efisien kekuatan untuk tugas mengendalikan keseimbangan salah satu pasangan dan mobilitas.
Shidoin - Arti gelar formal, kira-kira, "instruktur."
Shihan - Arti gelar formal, kira-kira, "master instruktur." A "guru guru."
Shikaku - Secara harfiah "dead angle." Posisi relatif terhadap salah satu pasangan di mana sulit
baginya / untuk (terus) menyerang dirinya, dan dari yang relatif mudah untuk mengontrol
keseimbangan mitra seseorang dan gerakan. Tahap pertama dari teknik Aikido sering untuk
membangun shikaku.
Shikko - Samurai berjalan ("berjalan lutut"). Shikko sangat penting untuk mengembangkan
kesadaran yang kuat dari satu pusat massa (hara). Hal ini juga mengembangkan kekuatan dalam
pinggul seseorang dan kaki.
Shinkenshobu - Lit. "Duel dengan pedang hidup." Ini mengungkapkan sikap seseorang harus

memiliki tentang pelatihan Aikido, yaitu, orang harus memperlakukan sesi latihan seolah-olah,
dalam beberapa hal, duel hidup-atau-mati dengan pedang hidup. Secara khusus, perhatian seseorang
selama pelatihan Aikido harus mindedly tunggal terfokus pada Aikido, seperti, saat duel hidup atau
mati, orang yang perhatian sepenuhnya berfokus pada duel.
Shinnyo - "hakiki" atau "suchness." Suatu istilah yang umum digunakan dalam filsafat Buddhis
(dan terutama dalam Zen Buddhisme) untuk menunjukkan karakter hal, karena mereka
berpengalaman tanpa menyaring pengalaman melalui suatu kerangka konseptual yang jelas. Ada
beberapa pertanyaan apakah "murni" Pengalaman ditafsirkan (independen dari semua
konseptualisasi / kategorisasi) yang mungkin diberikan makeup neurologis / kognitif manusia.
Namun, Shinnyo juga dapat diambil untuk menandakan pengalaman hal-hal sebagai kosong dari
esensi individual (lihat "ku").
Shinto - "Cara para dewa." Agama asli Jepang. Pendiri Aikido sangat dipengaruhi oleh Omoto Kyo,
agama yang sebagian besar didasarkan pada mistisisme Shinto. (Lihat Kami.)
Shodan - Gelar sabuk hitam pertama. (Nidan = kedua gelar sabuk hitam, diikuti oleh Sandan,
yondan, Godan, Rokudan, nanadan, Hachidan, kyudan, judan.)
Shomen - Front atau atas kepala. Juga bagian depan yang ditunjuk dari sebuah dojo.
Shoshin - pikiran Pemula. Kemajuan dalam pelatihan Aikido mensyaratkan bahwa pelatihan satu
pendekatan seseorang dengan pikiran yang bebas dari bias berdasar. Meskipun kita dapat
mengatakan dalam satu hal bahwa kita sering berlatih teknik yang sama berulang-ulang, sering
melawan serangan yang sama, ada arti lain di mana serangan tidak ada yang pernah sama, dan tidak
ada penerapan teknik yang pernah sama. Ada variasi halus dalam keadaan setiap interaksi antara
penyerang dan bek. Perbedaan-perbedaan kecil kadang-kadang dapat diterjemahkan ke dalam
perbedaan yang lebih besar. Untuk menganggap bahwa seseorang sudah tahu teknik merupakan
"penguncian dalam" pikiran untuk pola pre-set disposisional respon, mengakibatkan hilangnya
sesuai kemampuan beradaptasi. Prasangka juga dapat menghilangkan salah satu kesempatan untuk
mempelajari prinsip-prinsip baru gerakan. Sebagai contoh, adalah umum bagi orang-orang saat
melihat cara yang berbeda untuk melakukan teknik untuk menilai itu salah. Penilaian ini sering
didasarkan pada pengamatan dangkal teknik, bukan apresiasi terhadap prinsip-prinsip mendasar dari
teknik ini didasarkan.
Shugyo - Disiplin. Perjalanan dalam mengejar Kebenaran. Untuk mengejar Aikido, atau seni bela
diri, sebagai jalan menuju perbaikan diri melibatkan lebih dari pelatihan. Kata "shugyo" berkonotasi
terus-menerus berjuang untuk keunggulan teknis dan personal. Keiko, atau pelatihan, hanya salah
satu komponen tersebut berjuang. Untuk mengejar Aikido sebagai Way membutuhkan pemeriksaan
ulang terus menerus dan koreksi diri sendiri, seseorang sikap, reaksi, disposisi untuk suka atau tidak
suka, dll
Soto - "luar." Dengan demikian, kelas gerakan Aikido dieksekusi, khususnya, di luar lengan
penyerang (s). (Lihat uchi.)
Suburi - praktik berulang dalam mencolok dan menyodorkan dengan jo atau bokken. Praktik
berulang seperti kereta tidak hanya fasilitas seseorang dengan senjata, tetapi juga fluiditas umum
dari gerakan tubuh yang berlaku untuk tangan kosong pelatihan.
Sukashi waza - Teknik yang dilakukan tanpa membiarkan penyerang untuk menyelesaikan ambil
atau untuk memulai pemogokan. Idealnya, orang harus cukup sensitif terhadap postur dan
pergerakan penyerang (atau calon penyerang) bahwa serangan dinetralkan sebelum sepenuhnya

dijalankan. Banyak pelatihan fisik dan kognitif yang diperlukan untuk mencapai ideal ini.
Suki - Sebuah pembukaan atau kesenjangan di mana seseorang rentan terhadap serangan atau
aplikasi dari suatu teknik, atau di mana teknik seseorang jika tidak cacat. Suki mungkin baik fisik
atau psikologis. Salah satu tujuan dari pelatihan adalah untuk peka terhadap suki dalam gerakan
sendiri atau posisi, serta untuk mendeteksi suki dalam gerakan atau posisi dari salah satu pasangan.
Idealnya, seorang guru Aikido akan mengembangkan / nya keterampilan nya sedemikian rupa
bahwa dia / dia tidak lagi memiliki suki benar.
Sutemi - Secara harfiah "membuang-jauhnya tubuh." Sikap meninggalkan diri pada pelaksanaan
teknik (dalam judo, kelas teknik di mana satu mengorbankan keseimbangan sendiri / posisi untuk
membuang salah satu pasangan). (Lihat Aiuchi.) Dalam Aikido, sutemi dapat berkonotasi sikap
keberanian oleh yang satu masuk ke dalam ruang penyerang tanpa memikirkan keselamatan
melestarikan sendiri. Jauh dari kecerobohan yang sederhana, bagaimanapun, sutemi didasarkan
pada komitmen mutlak untuk sebuah strategi untuk menetralisir serangan itu. Teknik Aikido tidak
dapat diterapkan secara tentatif jika mereka menjadi efektif. Sebaliknya, seseorang harus merespon
langsung ancaman dan mengambil tindakan tegas. Dengan demikian, dalam cara berbicara, sutemi
membutuhkan tidak hanya membuang tubuh, tetapi membuang diri juga.
Suwari waza - Teknik dieksekusi dengan baik uke dan Nage dalam posisi duduk. Teknik ini
memiliki asal sejarah mereka (sebagian) dalam praktek membutuhkan samurai semua untuk duduk
dan bergerak pada lutut mereka saat di hadapan seorang daimyo (tuan