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PROCESS CONTROL

Consider the generalized IMC-PID


method for PID controller tuning
of time-delay processes
This simple analytical method provides PID parameters
to give a desired closed-loop response while available
for any class of time-delay processes
Y. LEE, GS-Caltex Corp., Yeochon, Korea; S. PARK, KAIST,
Daejon, Korea; and M. LEE,* Yeungnam University, Kyongsan, Korea

ecause the PID controller finds widespread use in the


process industries, a great deal of effort has been directed
at finding the best choices for the controller gain, integral and derivative time constants for various process models.
Among the various PID tuning methods, IMC-PID''- has
gained widespread acceptance in the chemical process industries because of its simplicity, robustness and successful practical applications.
In most time-delay process cases, the ideal controller that
gives the desired closed-loop response is more complicated than
a PID controller. In the IMC-PID tuning methods, this problem is solved by using clever approximations of the time-delay
term in such a way that the controller form can be reduced to
that of a PID controller, or a PID controller cascaded with a
first- or second-order lag. The approach often causes performance degradation of resulting PID controllers due to approximation inaccuracies and introduces an unnecessary additional
lag filter. Furthermore, the tuning rule is available only for a
restricted class of process models that yield the PID structures
by the approximations.
Lee, et al.,' suggested the generalized IMC-PID tuning
method to cope with any class of time-delay process models under the unified framework. In the proposed method,
the PID parameters are obtained by approximating the ideal
controller with a Maclaurin series in the Laplace variable.
Therefore, the generalized IMC-PID method proposed has no
restriction on the class of process models. In addition, it turns
out that the PID parameters so obtained provide somewhat
better closed-loop responses than those obtained previously.
The analytical form of the resulting tuning rules is also practically very attractive.
In this article, tuning rules based on the generalized IMCPID tuning method are presented for various processes such
as stable, unstable and integrating processes. Tuning rules for
cascade systems are also presented.
Generalized IMC-PID method. A classicalfeedbackdiagram
is shown in Fig. 1. The process response to inputs is:

' Corresponding author

Disturbance

d
Setpoint
filter

Controller

Go
Process

,r

Output

R C . 1 ' Feedback control system.

C =

1 + G^-

(I)

where R denotes the setpoint and q, denotes the setpoint filter.


In Eq. 1, the process model can be generally represented as:
(2)
where/',,,(j) - the portion of the model inverted by the controller,
pAi^) - the portion of the model not inverted by the controller
(time delay, inverse process) and p^ (0) = 1.
Our aim is to design the controller (^(^ of Fig. 1 insuchaway
as to give the desired closed-loop response of:
C
R

(3)

The term l/CKs + \y functions as a filter with an adjustable


time constant, X, and an order, r, is chosen so that the controller,
Gc^ is realizable. Note that \ is analogous to the closed-loop time
constant.
The controller Gc that gives the desired loop response given
by Eq. 3 perfectly is then written by:
Continued
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING JANUARY 2006 87

PROCESS CONTROL
(6)

The controller given by Eq. 5 can be approximated to the PID


controller by using only the first three terms: 1/j, 1 and s in Eq.
6 and truncating all other high-order terms [s^, j ^ , ...). The first
three term.s oFthe expansion can be interpreted as the standard
PID controller given by:

1 I
'/'

If'
11

11

jl

1
50

(7)

Smith

Ii

1
100

Oesired response
Proposed

/here

K^-^ f'{o)

(8a)

150

250

200

300

(8b)

350

Time

3)

(8c)

Closed-loop responses to a unit step change in setpoint for


the Eq. 9 model. \ = 15 (proposed), A = 15 (Smith).

1.2
--DePa()randO'Malley
- - Rotstein and Lewin
,'\ --Huang and Chen
f / \ - -Proposed
' ' Proposed (with setpoint filter)

1,0
0.8
;
i \ ',

0.6
0,4
0.2
0.0

i-0.2
-0.4
-0.6

Tuning rules for any class of process mode! can then be obtained
from Eq. 8 in a straightforward manner. The integral and/or derivative
time constants, T/, T^j, from Eq. 8 ustaally have positive values. A few processes have strong lead terms
and thus show significant overshoots in response to
DePaorandO'Malley
- Rotstein and Lewin
step changes in the input. In this case, it might be
- - Huang and Chen
extremely difficult for the process to give a desired
- -Proposed
overdamped response with a simple PID controller
Proposed (with setpoint filter)
alone. Therefore, tbe PID controller cascaded with
a low-pass filter such as \l(as+ 1) or l/Cai,^ + Of|j +
1) is recommended to compensate for the effect of
the lead term. Tuning rules for the PID parameters
and the filter time constants for tbis case are also
available based on the proposed approach (see Lee,
et al.,-^ for more details).

-0,8

FKS. 3

10
Time

15

20

Closed-loop responses by the proposed method with \ = 0.5 and existing


methods for the Eq. 10 model.

(4)

Tuning rules for FOPDT and SOPDT models. Tbe most commonly used approximate models for chemical processes are the first-order plus
dead-time {FOPDT) model and/or the secondorder plus dead-time (SOPDT) model given as:

FOPDT:
SOPDT: G{s) =

Ke'

The controller can also be obtained from the IMC relations:

- q/{l-Gq)\q

= the IMC controller =

^ (h +1)' 1

as well.
Although the resulting controller is physically realizable, it
does not have the standard PID form. Therefore, the main issue
for developing a PID tuning rule is how to find the PID controller
that approximates the ideal controller given by Eq. 4 most closely
over the control relevant frequency range. In the generalized
IMC-PID method, it is solved using the approximation based on
a Maciaurin series.
The controller G^ can be approximated to a PID controller by
first noting that it can be expressed with the integral term as:

Expanding G(i,s) in a Maciaurin series in s gives:


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JANUARY 2006 HYDROCARBON PROCESSING

Tuning rules for the two typical models are shown in Table 1
where (^r= ^- Note that the tuning rule for the SOPDT model
is available not only to the overdamped systems but also to tbe
underdamped systems.
In this method, tbe closed-loop time constant, X,, is used as a tuning parameter to adjust the speed and robtistness of the closed-loop
system. Extensive simulation has been done to find the best value
of X/6 in the senses of robustness and performance. As a result, \ / 6 =
0.5 is recommended as a practical guideline for a good starting \'alue.
Eor small H/T (typically less than 0.2), a detuning might be considered
to account for constraints on manipulated variables. As the model
uncertainty increases, X should increase accordingly. Note that the
closed-loop response becomes sluggish as \ increases.
E x a m p l e . As an example, consider a process with the SOPDT
model as:

PROCESS CONTROL
G{s) =

(9)

L2

Fig. 2 compares the closed-loop responses by the generalized


IMC-PID and Smith'* methods. The resulting PID controller by
the proposed method performs better than the controller tuned
by the Smith method.
Tuning rules for other complicated time-delay models. One of the main advantages of [he proposed method is that it
has no restriction on the class of process models. Tuning rules by the
generalized IMC-PID method for the several complicated process
models such as integrating processes, distributed parameter processes
jnd inverse processes with time delays are also listed in Table 2.
Tuning rules for unstable systems. Many unstable processes
still exist in chemical plants, even though most chemical processes are

R1

FIG. 4

Cascade control system.

open-loop stable. The most common example is the batch chemical


reactor, which has a strong instability due to the heat generation term
in the energy balance. Tvi/o representati\'e types of time-delayed unstable processes are the first-order delayed unstable process (FODUP)
and the second-order delayed tinstable process (SODUP).

T A B L E 1 . Generalized IMC-PID tuning rules for FOPDT and SOPDT processes


Process model

K^

r,

TQ

e^ L e l

Ke"'
K{X+Q)

TS-l-1

FOPDT

S{X + Q)[

2{X+Q)

^
SOPDT

K(X+Q)

(X^S^+2^X5-M)

Note: Desired closed-loop response "

6(^-1-9),
T.

TJ

e'
d.\A + KJ)

I'^+l)' , r- 1 and 2 fot the FOPDT and SOPDT model, respectively.

T A B L E 2 . Generalized IMC-PID tuning rules for various complicated processes


Process

Process model

Kc

T/

9^

1
Integrating
Drocess 1

1
Integrating
Drocess 2

Distributed
Darameter
arocess

x-i---

s{xs+1)

/C(X-h9)

(T'S'+25-CS+1)

2T

X 1

^-.9^6

^'

1
Inverse
Drocess 1

2J

9^

(^\^\]

/C{-v+1)e-

/c(x+e+2xj

(TS + 1)

X,

X-He-H2x^
1 J

1
Inverse
arocess 2

X 1

X'
Inverse
process 3

'

s(xs+l)

(X-h9-.2xJ

(xV-.2^xs-e1)
C

Note: Desired closed-ioop response

^ "

^ f\^^'0
2

X-h9-f-2x I 6
J

1 -

^ , I W - M + ^W
a

(-TJ+1)e'"
( V + ' X ' ^ + l' for the inverse processes.

Continued
HYDROCARBON PROCESSiNG JANUARY 2006 89

PROCESS CONTROL
Ke'

FODUP:

Ts-\
SODUP: G{S) =

xs \){as + l

The generalized IMC-PID approach can be extended to integrating and unstable processes.'' Additionally, a setpoint filter,
(f,., shown in Fig. 1 is designed not to give overshoots in servo
problems. Most unstable processes in the process industries can
be modeled unstable processes with one RHP po!e (FODUP and
SODUP), unstable processes with two RHP poles and integrating unstable processes. Tuning rules based on the generaHzed
IMC-PID method for these processes are listed in Table 3. In the
case where the offset by the tunmg rules ni Table 2 is critical for
integrating processes, consider the tuning rules in Table 3 because
we can design the PID controllers by considering the integrating
processes as the FODUP or SODUP model (see Lee, er al.,^ for
more details). An extensive simulation indicates X/9 = 1-2 as a
practical guideline for X.
Example. As an example, the following process is considered:^'

Proposed (Pl/P mode)

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

Time
FIG. 5 '

Closed-loop response due to a load change of the inner


loop for the Eq. 11 model. A, = 30.85, ^2 = '^^^

(10)

Tuning rules for cascade systems. Cascade control

Figs. 3a and 3b show the closed-loop responses of the unstable process given by Eq. 10 to a unit step change in setpoint,
R, and load, ^. The results shown in the figures illustrate the
superior performance of the generalized IMC^^-PID method.

as shown in Fig. 4 is one of the most successful methods for


enhancing single-loop control performance, particularly when
the disturbances are associated with the manipulated variable
or when the final control element exhibits nonlinear behavior.
This important benefit has led to the extensive use of cascade

TABLE 3. Generalized IMC-PID tuning rules for FOPUP and SODUP processes
Process

Process
model

Kc

^|

To

Setpoint filter

-xa
V+ae-9^/2
2>. + 9-a

Ke"'
FODUP

TS-1

-K{2X^Q~a)

1
(XS + 1

ZArf -l- 9 Ct

-x+a + a Ke''
SODUP (a)

(TS-IKas-Kl) -K{2X + Q-a)

A -f (Xo D / i

i/j -l- H (X

as+1

2X-fe-a
,

4A -l-D(X,-l-o / o Ot.U

/i

4A. + D Ct
1

Ke"
SODUP (b)

where a T I ( X / T + 1) 6 ' " T J : desired closed-loop response is CI R = e

DA ~O(,+Ot,D D / /

4>.+e-a,

{a/+a,s+l)

in FODUP and SODUP(a); u;, , values are calculated by solving 1 - ^"'^ +a,S+ )e

{Xs +1}'
desired closed-loop response is C//? = e " ' " / ( X ^ - f 1)' in SODUP(b).
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JANUARY 2006 HYDROCARBON PROCESSING

PROCESS CONTROL
TABLE 4 . Generalized IMC-PID tuning rules for cascade control systems
Process

Process
model

FOPDT
(innerloop)

Reference
trajectory

fc

/c,(?.,-fe,)

TjS + 1

SOPDT

^^^

^,
^'''"^''2(x,+e,)
/D

FOPDT
(outer-

x,s+l

/c,(x,-.e,-He,)

loop)

SOPDT
(T,S + 2 ^ , 1 , 5 - . 1)

''

b(A, -l- DjJ

(innerloop)

(outerloop)

'^2(x,+ej

T,

(3 ''M

D,

'2(X,+e,)

1 O \2

'''-='2a,+e,+9.)

^,
1

V +1

control in the chemical process industries. The generalized IMCPiD method was extended to cascade control systems.^ Tuning
rules based on the generalized IMC-PID method for FOPDT
and SOPDT in cascade control systems are shown in Table 4.
X.i/(B| + 61) = *^-5 and XI/ST = 0.5 are recommended as a practical guideline for k.
Example. As an example to evaluate the robustness against a
structural mismatch in the plant model, the following complicated process was tested:

Closed-Loop Responses for SISO Systems," AlChEJoumdL 44(1), p. 106,1998.


* Smith, C, L., A, B. Corripio and J, Martin, Jr., "Controller Tuning from
Simple Process Models," Instrum. TechnoL. 22(12), p. 39, 1975,
"^ Lee, Y.,J.LceandS. Park, "PID Controller Tuning for Integrating and Unstable
Processes with Time Delay," Chem. Eng. Sci., 55(17). p, 3481,2000,
Huang, H. P and C, C, Chen, "Control System Synthesis tor Open Loop
Unstable Process with Time Delay," IEIL Process Control Theory and Application,
Vol. 144, p, 334, 1997.
^ Lee, Y., M. Lee and S. Park, "PID Conttoller Tuning To Obtain Desired
Closed-Loop Responses for Cascade Control Systems," Ind Eng. Chem. Res.,
Vol. .37, p. 1859, 1998,
" Krishnaswamy, P. R. and G. P, Rangaiah, "When to Use Cascaded Control,"
Irtd. Eng. Chem. Res.. Vol, 29, p. 2163, 1990,

13.35+1

+ 20s + \

100S +

(IIJ

We added white noises to C2 and C] to reflect the noise effect


from real process measurements. We identified the processes
both in the inner and the outer loops with the FOPDT model.
The reduced models were obtained hy mmimizing squared error
between the process output data and the model output data. We
obtained the reduced process models as:
0..., =

10.2f"
66.49J

2.988^ -3,66i

(12)

The PID controllers were tuned by the proposed method with


X, = 30.85 and \2 - 1-83.
Fig. 5 shows the closed-loop responses tuned by the generalized
IMC-PID method and the ITAE^ method for load changes in L2.
The superior performance of che generalized IMC-PID method
is readily apparent. HP

Y o n g h o L e e is a manager of operations planning in GSCaltex Corp., Korea. He holds BS, MS and PhD degrees in chemical
engineenng from KAiST, Dr. Lee began his professional career as
a process engineer and designed fine chemical, hydrocarbon and
gas processes. His industriai experience has focused on modeling,
optimization and control of refinery and petrochemical plants. He can be reached at
e-mail: cl 5959@9scaltex,co,kr,

M o o n y o n g L e e is a professor m the school of chemical engineering and technology at Yeungnam University, Korea, He holds a
BS degree in chemical engineering from Seoul National University,
and MS and PhD degrees in chemical engineering from KAIST.
Dr. Lee had worked in the refinery and petrochemical plant of SK
company for 10 years as a design and control specialist Since joining the university
in 1994, his areas of specialization have included modeling, design and control of
chemical processes. He is the corresponding author and can be reached at e-mail,
mynlee@yu.ac.kr.

S u n w o n P a r k is a professor in the chemical and biomolecular


engineering department, KAIST, Korea He holds a BS degree from
Seoul National University, an MS degree from Oklahoma State University, a PhD degree from the University of Texas at Austin and an
LITERATURE CITED
MBA from the University of Houston-Clear Lake. Dr, Park worked
' Rivera, D.E., M, Morari and S. Skogesiad, "Internal Model Control, 4. PID
for Celanese Chemicals in the US from 1979 to 1988 as a systems engineer, senior
Coniroller Deiign," In^. Bng. Proc. Des. Dev.. Vol. 25. p. 252. 1986.
process control engineer and staff engineer He joined KAIST in 1988, His research
^ Morari, M, and E, Zafiriou. Robust Process Control, Prentice Hall. Englewood interests include process control, process optimization, process modeling, planning
and scheduling, supply chain management, bioinformatics, life-cycle assessment and
Cliffs, New Jersey, 1989.
valuation of chemical industries. He can be reached at e-mail: sunwon@kaist.ac.kr.
' Lee, Y,, M, Lee, S. Park a]id C. Brosilow, "TID Controller Tuning for Desired
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING JANUARY 2006 91