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Performance of Simulink based SS-OFDM model for Broadband Wireless Access Network

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for Broadband Wireless Access Network

Umesh P.Akare

Digital Electronics

RCET

Bhilai, India

uakare@rediffmail.com

Sudhir B. Lande

Electronics & Tele

RCET

Bhilai ,India

landed@yahoo.co.in

(OFDM) has emerged as a potential application for the

delivery of broad band wireless access. Both DS and FH

systems reduce the average power spectral density of a signal

and affects by broadband noise. Narrowband interference

impacts severely on an FH signal than a DS signal on the same

channel. The combination of OFDM with Direct Sequence

Spread Spectrum (DS-SS) resulting in SS-OFDM, is suitable

for the design of a multi-user system, robust against channel

impairments. We have simulated the SS-OFDM model with

BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-PSK, 64-PSK and 8-QAM, 16-QAM,

64-QAM modulation techniques. Simulation results for SSOFDM with BPSK modulation is found suitable for short

distance communication whereas 8-PSK modulation can be

used for long distance communication. But we recommend MQAM modulation for SS-OFDM since it gives remarkable

improvement in BER as compared to M-PSK.

Key words: DS-SS; M-PSK; OFD;, SS-OFDM; M-QAM

I.

INTRODUCTION

telecommunications for wireless access to mobile users. The

principles of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

(OFDM) modulation have been in existence for several

decades. These techniques are extensively used now in

modern communications systems. Wireless networking,

data transmission over the phone line, digital radio and

television, are some of the examples of it. Other technique

like CDMA advantages rely in remarkable robustness to

narrowband interference, multiple accesses with low power

spectrum density, so reducing EMC problems. It guarantees

good performance and satisfactory allocation policies with

low complexity receiver. On the other hand, OFDM

technique allows to greatly reduce channel equalizer'

complexity and to increase resistance to narrow-band and

impulsive noise [1]. OFDM has been combined with spread

spectrum

(SS)

techniques

to

provide

reliable

communications on frequency selective channels. For low

symbol rates, this combination is robust enough against

radio channel impairments. For high data rate applications

the technique would highly suffer from interferences. For

these reasons, the number of carriers has to be limited. An

equalization technique is necessary to keep the error rate

Suresh Balpande

Laxman P.Thakre

RCET

Bhilai,India

sbalpande@yahoo.com

Electronics &Tele.

RCET

Bhilai,India

etrcet@yahoo.com

SS-OFDM it is observed that 1) Spreading over the entire

bandwidth mitigates the effect of spectral nulls 2) Guard

intervals are not used because the spreading of the OFDM

would lead to additional interference 3) use of cyclic prefix

eliminates inter symbol interference 4) combination of

orthogonal and pseudo-noise spreading helps to mitigate

intercell interference in cellular environment [3].There are

number of methods of spreading frequency spectrum in

spread spectrum communication systems. Basically, these

methods include Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FH-SS), Time

Hopping Spread Spectrum (TH-SS), and combinations of

these methods. Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiplexing (MB-OFDM) is a scheme of multicarrier

transmission for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication

which employs the frequency hopping technique to spread

its signal spectrum [4]. Both DS and FH systems reduce the

average power spectral density of a signal and affects by

broadband noise. Performance of both systems depends on

the particular application, the space available, power, and

complexity of the receiver. Narrowband interference

impacts severely on an FH signal than a DS signal on the

same channel. Usually DS systems uses power efficient

PSK modulation and FH systems uses less power efficient

FSK. The probability of error, for a given SNR, is better for

PSK. DS is self synchronizing but receiver synchronization

in frequency hoping is more difficult. In DS-SS, higher the

chip rate of PN code, the smaller will be the degradation due

to multipath and in FHSS if the carrier frequency of the

transmitted signal hops fast enough then only multipath

effect will be diminished [5].After studying and comparing

them we have worked upon DS-SS and OFDM system

combination. In a proposed method, each carrier is itself

spread by means of the pseudo-noise sequence. PN

sequence is multiplied with the message data effectively

spreads its bandwidth. This realizes the broad band

spectrum which can be used in wireless communication. We

have designed simulink based SS-OFDM model and tested

it with different digital modulation schemes under PSK and

QAM. We have obtained simulated results and discussed

comparative performance of the model. From this

experimentation it is found that QAM modulation is suitable

1132

(OFDM) modulation have been in existence for several

decades. These techniques are extensively used now in

modern communications systems. Wireless networking, data

transmission over the phone line, digital radio and television,

are some of the examples of it. But OFDM should not be

considered for every communication system because of its

increased complexity and higher transmitter and receiver

demands. Modern digital signal processing techniques now

make it possible to use this modulation system to improve

the reliability of the communications link.

II.

MULTICARRIER MODULATION-OFDM

currently being implemented to keep up with the demand for

more communication capacity. OFDM is especially suitable

for high-speed communication due to its resistance to ISI.

The processing power of modern digital signal processors

has increased to a point where OFDM has become feasible

and economical. With the rapid growth of digital

communication in recent years, the need for high-speed data

transmission has been increased. As communication

systems increase their information transfer speed, the time

for each transmission necessarily becomes shorter. Since the

delay time caused by multipath remains constant, ISI

becomes a limitation in high-data rate communication.

OFDM avoids this problem by sending many low speed

transmissions simultaneously [6]. There is a precise

mathematical relation ship between the frequencies of the

carriers in the system. As long as orthogonality is

maintained, it is still possible to recover the individual

subcarriers signals despite their overlapping spectrums.

Orthogonality can be achieved by properly designing the

carrier spacing. The carrier spacing must be selected to be

equal to the reciprocal of the useful symbol period. Despite

the advantages OFDM can offer, the hardware to implement

it can still make up a sizeable and expensive portion of the

design. Two key points of an OFDM system are the Inverse

Discrete Fourier Transform at the transmitter side and the

Discrete Fourier Transform at the receiver side. By these the

robustness of the sent data over a fading multipath channel

is preserved[7] .OFDM techniques are quickly becoming a

popular method for advanced communications networks.

Advances in VLSI technology have made it possible to

efficiently implement an FFT block in hardware [8]. The Npoint DFT and IDFT are defined as

DFT { x[n]} = X [i ]

1

N

1

IDFT { X [i]} = x[n]

N

N 1

x[n]e

j 2 n

W

N

,0 i N 1

n =0

N 1

X [i]e

n =0

(1)

j 2 n

W

N

,0 i N 1

(2)

Where N is the number of subchannels and W is the

bandwidth in the OFDM system. One can think of the above

expression as complex data symbols mapped to complex

OFDM symbols, which make up the data symbols being sent

on different subchannels. In this way the available spectrum

is divided into several subchannels which are narrowband

and therefore experience almost flat fading during

transmission. The use of FFT technique makes OFDM

computationally more fast and efficient too. Cyclic prefix is

used to reduce the inter-symbol-interference (ISI) as well as

inter-channel-interference (ICI) which is introduced by the

multi-path channel. High data rate is an important goal of

telecommunications for wireless access to mobile users. The

III.

properties. The essential difference between the two systems

is in using spreading sequence. DS-SS uses a binary

spreading sequence of 1s and -ls. But the OFDM-SS

system uses a spreading waveform, consisting of a series of

samples which have non-discrete amplitude values. The

spreading waveform is just like the DS-SS spreading

sequence and has an impulse-like autocorrelation function.

This makes the OFDM signal tolerant of multipath and

interference [9].The basic form of the output signal of DSSS

is given by equation;

s(t ) = a(t )d (t ) cos(c t + )

(3)

d(t) is a sequence of pulses of duration T of the digital data

[5]. If the sequence d(t) is narrowband and a(t) is wideband,

the product signal will have a spectrum nearly equal to that

of a(t) [10].Direct sequence spread spectrum use a spreading

sequence of positive and negative pulses at a very high chip

rate. In this scheme the data signal is multiplied by the

spreading sequence, and then modulated by the required

carrier frequency as shown in equation 1.From Fourier

Transform, we know that multiplication of two unrelated

signals produces a product signal whose spectrum equals

the convolution of the spectra of two individual signals .

The spread signal is to be recovered by applying a despreading sequence at the receiver. The de-spreading

sequence is just identical to the spreading sequence used at

the transmitter. The type of PN sequence used , its length,

and its chip rate, set limits on the capability of the system.

The capability can only be changed by modifying the PN

sequence on above said parameters.In DSSS, we know the

spread bandwidth is actually N times the information

bandwidth. This gives insight to another possibility to

spread the signal. The basic form of it can be seen as in

equation 2;

sm = Abm cos(2 f mt ) PTb (t mTb )

(4)

the signal hops to a new frequency for every bit[5]. The N

hopping frequencies are usually selected according to a

1133

indicated in equation 2, the information sequence, bm, is

used to modulate the phase of the signal. This method of

spreading the signal is called frequency hopping (FH).

Equation 3 depicts a basic form for this case

Where

j 2 pt

) c( ; t )

T

(8)

a complex white gaussian noise process[2]. The choice of

the receiver structure is a consequence of the maximum

likelihood criterion. This approach leads to the computation

of matched filter outputs, for each carrier.

(5)

information frequencies encoding the binary data leads to

generate total of 2N possible frequencies [5].When several

symbols are transmitted on each frequency hop, it is referred

as slow frequency hopping and if the carrier frequency

changes or hop several times during the transmission of one

symbol, it will be referred as fast frequency hopping [6].

IV.

N C 1

n

p

u (t nT ) a (t ) exp(

p = 0 n =

n

p

(10)

received signal by means of a filter with an impulse

response h (t) and sampling the output at the symbol rate,

p

Figure1. Now we will see how spreading help us to improve

the performance over noisy channel. The Shannons

capacity theorem is

C = B log(1 +

PS

)

PN

(11)

j 2 pt

)

T

of spread spectrum system, shown in equation 11.

Where C is the channel capacity, B is the signal bandwidth,

PS the signal power and PN the noise power [4].The amount

of information that can be transmitted over a given channel

is proportional to the product of the channel bandwidth and

the time of operation . This indicates that when the signal to

noise ratio of the transmission system drops in a Gaussian

channel, the channel capacity can remain unchanged by

increasing the transmission bandwidth. Shannon's theory

also indicates that with the presence of Gaussian noise

interference, the optimum signal for reliable communication

(6)

N c 1

r (t ) =

(9)

the variables

x np1pn'' =

Multiplexing (OFDM) with Direct Sequence Spread

Spectrum (DS-SS) is favorable for multi-user system. The

combination named SS-OFDM is found robust against

channel impairments and its power spectrum density

remains constant. This system can also effectively reduce

the peak-to-average power ratio of the transmitted signal

[2]. The SS-OFDM signal characterizes by much wider

bandwidth than that of the conventional OFDM signal. It

has also the characteristics of a white noise therefore it can

realize effective ultra-wideband communication. Wideband

communication efficiently reduces the interference

problems. We can use the wide bandwidth characteristics of

the SS-OFDM signal to control the received signal

bandwidth by designing matched filters. The transmitted

bandwidth can be selected flexibly to suit for different

communication systems under different circumstances [4].

Many current efforts to develop broadband wireless

capability are now concentrating towards developing

systems, technologies, protocols, and even programming

languages. OFDM has been combined with spread spectrum

(SS) techniques to provide reliable communications on

frequency selective channel. Multipath fading is very much

influencing the performance of wireless communication

link. We introduced the spreading scheme as follows:

Random integer data is modulated by base band modulation

scheme like M-PSK and M-QAM. Then we employ

spreading to it by means of the pseudo-noise sequence. This

sequence is the same for all carriers and it is assumed to be

periodical, with period T. According to these considerations,

for BPSK used model the transmitted signal is given by

x (t ) = 2 P

y np = (t )hp (t nT )dt

h p (t nT ) + z (t )

p = 0 n =

(7)

1134

noise. The power spectral density of (both sided signal) a

white noise is

( ) =

No

2

of orthogonal carriers for ofdm modulation. After

multiplexing these, Cyclic prefix is then attached to the

ofdm symbol to combat the inter symbol interference.

Cyclic prefix added to the every OFDM symbol so that it

gives the periodic form to the signal transmitted by the

transmitter. Fig. 2 is illustrating the procedure to generate

SS-OFDM.

(12)

autocorrelation function is

( ) =

1

2

Where

( ) =

( )e

d =

No

( )

2

(13)

1, for =0

0, elsewhere

(14)

function. The signal transmitted on the AWGN channel

should be designed so that its autocorrelation function is an

impulse function, It has been also proved theoretically that

to overcome multipath interference the optimum transmitted

signal is also a signal with the statistical characteristics of a

white noise[8].

V.

AWGN channel is first demodulated by the OFDM

demodulator which is consist of Remove Cyclic Prefix,

FFT, Remove Zero Pad blocks in sequence. Cyclic prefix

which is attached to ofdm signal before transmission is to be

removed by Remove Cyclic Prefix block. Then FFT will

process the data to get the data same as that of input given to

the IFFT block in the SS-OFDM transmitter. After this one

has to remove the zero padding. Now we have to de-spread

the signal to obtain the BPSK modulated data back. BPSK

demodulator is used to demodulate this data to obtain

random integer data transmitted by the random integer

generator block. This is the process of receiving and

decoding the SS-OFDM transmitted

signal by SS-OFDM transmitter. The simulink model for

SS-OFDM receiver is shown in Fig. 3.

IMPLEMENTATION OF SS-OFDM

VI.

Figure 2. SS-OFDM Transmitter using BPSK modulation scheme.

as shown in Fig. 2. Random binary data is generated by

Random Integer block. This randomly transmitted data is

then modulated by BPSK modulator. PN sequence generator

generates the spreading code. This code spreads the BPSK

modulated data effectively and then it is again modulated by

OFDM modulator. Inside the OFDM modulator we have

used zero padding, IFFT blocks and cyclic prefix blocks in

sequence. Zero padding block appends zeros to the specified

dimension if it is not available at the input of IFFT block.

Ultimately it decides the number of subcarriers to be used

modulation. Any number of phases may be used to construct

a PSK constellation but 8-PSK is usually the highest order

PSK constellation deployed. With more than 8 phases, the

error-rate becomes too high and there are better, though

more complex, modulations available such as quadrature

amplitude modulation (QAM). Although any number of

phases may be used, the fact that the constellation must

usually deal with binary data means that the number of

symbols is usually a power of 2, this allows an equal

number of bits-per- symbol. Fig.4 shows the

implementation of the OFDM model with the higher order

PSK modulation. We have simulated the SS-OFDM model

1135

10

-1

10

-2

10

BER

modulation Techniques. Simulation results for OFDM with

8-PSK is found suitable for long distance communication

link. BER for 8-PSK found rapidly falls above 25 dB SNR

for SS-OFDM. From the simulated results we can observe

that spreading makes system able to handle at more SNR

levels for higher order modulation used, meaning that higher

order

-3

10

BPSK-OFDM -spread

-4

10

QPSK-OFDM-spread

8-PSK-OFDM-spread

16-PSK-OFDM-spread

64-PSK-OFDM-spread

-5

10

10

15

20

25

SNR indB

30

35

40

45

50

10

-1

10

-2

BER

10

-3

10

-4

10

16-qam-ofdm-spread-19

-5

10

64-qam-ofdm-spread-19

8-qam-ofdm-spread-19

8-qam-ofdm-spread-19

-6

10

10

20

30

Eb/N0 (dB)

40

50

10

-1

10

-2

shown in simulated results one can recommend SS-OFDM

with BPSK modulation for short distance communication.

The digital modulation 4-PSK onwards will be

recommended for long distance communication. We may

select specific higher order PSK modulation over the long

distance keeping the limit of affordable SNR levels. From

the simulated results we can easily observe that as we go on

selecting the higher order PSK modulation scheme,

thepoorer BER we have to bear. Certainly there is trade-off

between the higher order PSK modulation schemes selected

and the expected BER. One has to find the saving in terms

1136

BER

10

-3

10

-4

10

8-psk-ofdm-spread

16-qam-ofdm-spread

64-qam-ofdm-spread

8-qam-ofdm-spread

8-qam-ofdm-spread

64-psk-ofdm-spread

16-psk-ofdm-spread

-5

10

-6

10

10

20

30

Eb/N0 (dB)

40

50

processed through multipath environment. As usual we may

not use the higher order PSK (more than 8-PSK) in practice

because one can expect better results with the use of range

of QAM onwards. From overall comparison it is proved

that OFDM with QAM modulation have better BER

performance than that of OFDM with M-PSK. It increases

complexity. To have perfect comparison over the range of

PSK we have simulated our model on M-PSK range.

Simulated results are shown in Fig.6. One can easily view

from the comparative study that spreading requires to be

handled on the increased level of SNR for getting lower

value of BER.

But it would give us remarkable

improvement in multipath environment. This is the point

where we can choose SS-OFDM for wireless broad band

Application. We have also tested our SS-OFDM model

shown in fig.5 with M-QAM modulation. The simulated

results are shown in fig.7 which shows the tremendous

improvement in BER performance compared with M-PSK

modulation used. For perfect comparison we can view it in

fig.8, where 8,16,64 QAM is compared with the 8,16,64

PSK modulation used for testing BER performance of SSOFDM model. From the simulation results shown in fig.8 it

is found nearly 2 db,4dB,10dB saving in SNR is obtained

for 1 bit error in 1000 and also maintains the same onwards

for lower BER when we use 8,16,64 QAM instead of

8,16,64 PSK respectively. We conclude that the use of MQAM instead of M-PSK is recommended which assures

better BER performance. After combing OFDM with DS-SS

we have found that system can be effectively handle

communication on short as well as long distances using MQAM modulation with the efficiently reduced interference,

that too with improved BER rate.

VII. CONCLUSION

Usually DS systems uses power efficient PSK

modulation and FH systems uses less power efficient FSK.

The probability of error, for a given SNR, is better for PSK.

DS is self synchronizing and receiver synchronization in

frequency hoping is more difficult. Both DS and FH

systems reduce the average power spectral density of a

signal and affects by broadband noise similarly.

Narrowband interference impacts severely on an FH signal

than a DS signal on the same channel. A concept of OFDM

modulation combined with DS-SS results in SS-OFDM.

The resulted signal characterizes by wide bandwidth

spectrum. It has statistical characteristics of a white noise. In

a proposed method, each carrier is itself spread by means of

the pseudo-noise sequence. We have simulated the SSOFDM model with selected BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-PSK,

techniques. Simulation results for OFDM with BPSK

modulation is found suitable for short distance

communication whereas 8-PSK modulation can be used for

long distance communication. From overall comparison it is

proved that OFDM with M-QAM modulation have

comparatively better BER performance than of OFDM with

M-PSK. For testing, specifically BER performance of SSOFDM model we have used 8, 16, 64 QAM modulation and

then compared its performance with that using 8, 16, 64

PSK modulation. It is found that approximately 2 db, 4dB,

10dB saving in SNR is obtained for10-3 bit error rate and

also maintains the same onwards for lower BER when we

use 8, 16, 64 QAM instead of 8, 16, 64 PSK respectively.

We conclude that the use of M-QAM instead of M-PSK is

recommended for better BER performance of SS-OFDM

simulink based model.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

CDMA and OFDM systems for Broadband Downstream

Communications on Low Voltage Power Grid IEEE Transactions on

power delivery, Oct, pp-1104-1109, 2003J. Clerk Maxwell, A

Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed., vol. 2. Oxford:

Clarendon, 1892, pp.6873.

I. S. 0. van de Wiel and L. Vandendorpe, A comparison of

bidimensional RLS and LMS equalizers for OFDM/DS transmission

in an indoor environment,Global Telecommunication Conference

,IEEE , 1994,pp71-75.

for s pread spectrum OFDM systems in frequency selective channels

Wireless Communication and Networking conference ,IEEE ,pp-308314,2005

[4] Pingzhou Tu, Xiaojing Huang, Eryk Dutkiewicz, A novel approach

of spreading spectrum in OFDM Systems, International Symposium

on Communication and Information Technology ,2006 ,pp-487-491

[5] Guillermo Fernndez S, Adolfo Espinoza P., Direct sequence and

frequency hopping spread spectrum systems, understanding

differences between both schemes, pp 1-7.Available at

http://www.cinacitel.cl/downloads/senacitel2002/ID2008.pdf, 2002

[6] Alan C. Brooks, Stephen J. Hoelzer, Final Report Design and

Simulation of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

Signaling, 15 may,pp-1-4, 2001Electronic Publication: Digital

Object Identifiers (DOIs):

[7] Dusan Matiae, Introduction to OFDM, II Edition 1,10/30/98/TUDTVS, pp 7-11-12

[8] Louis Litwin and Michael Pugel, The Principles of OFDM,

Available atwww.rfdesign.com, January 2001, pp1-4, 30-34,48.,

available at htt://www.rfdesign.com.

[9] Gary J. Saulnier Zhong Ye, Michael J. Medley, Performance of

spread spectrum ofdm system in dispersive fading channel with

interference IEEE conference on military communications, 18-21

Oct, pp 679-683, 1998

[10] Simon haykin, Digital communication Edition:2006,pp-451.

1137

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