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MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS BOSTON

NAGA-ED-DER STELAE
OF THE

FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD


BY

DOWS DUNHAM
Associate Curator of Egyptian Art

PUBLISHED FOR THE

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS BOSTON U.S.A.


BY THE

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS


LONDON : HUMPHREY MILFORD
1937

PRI:\TED 1:\ GREAT BRITAIN


AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, OXFORD
BY JOHN JOHNSON
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY

NAGA-ED-DER STELAE
OF THE

FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

PREFACE

HIS study, undertaken at the suggestion of Professor George A. Reisner, was


originally intended to deal solely with the stelae of the First Intermediate
Period found during his various excavating campaigns in the Naga-ed-Der group
of cemeteries. That object has remained the primary purpose of the work, and the
book includes all the stelae found by him and his assistants in sufficiently good
preservation to warrant reproduction. In one case (stela from Sheikh Farag,
Tomb 5005) a stone has been omitted because when found its surface was quite
illegible through decay, and in a number of other instances fragments of broken
and incomplete stelae have not been included because they showed only small
portions of stereotyped text or parts of figures without noteworthy features.
On the other hand I have added, as supplementary material, a number of stelae
in American museums which, by their style, belong clearly to the Naga-ed-Der
group. These, eleven in number, are listed separately in the Introduction, and are
included at the end of the main body of the work under the numbers 77 to 87. I
have thought it desirable to include these monuments, partly because they have
not been published elsewhere, and partly because there seemed to me a certain
advantage in studying these stones in conjunction with the larger body of material.
It should be made clear, however, that this study makes no claim to being an
exhaustive catalogue of the known stelae of this class: that has not been its purpose,
and such a task would have entailed travel and research which I have not been in
a position to undertake. I have little doubt that there are more than a few monuments in the museums and private collections of Europe and America which
might properly find a place in such a catalogue. I give here a few instances which
have come to my notice during the course of the work, but which, for one reason
or another, I have not been able to publish.
Rijksmuseum, Leiden, No. F. 1902/7, I (Aeg. Sammlung, II, PI. I, I).
PeIizaeus Museum, Hildesheim, No. 1884.
Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City, D.S.A., a stela referred to in Commentary
A 4 of my stela No. 12.
Collection of Dr. Jacob Hirsch, New York, Nos. 634 and 635.
I wish here gratefully to acknowledge the valuable and generously given help of
a number of scholars. Dr. Alan H. Gardiner and Professor Battiscombe Gunn have
both contributed liberally of their time and knowledge regarding numerous points
of difficulty in the texts, and Professor Hermann Ranke has given me his counsel
with some of the names, and has kindly allowed me to examine advance proofs of
v

PREFACE

parts of his Die agyptischen Personennamen. I am much indebted to the authorities of the Semitic Museum of Harvard University and the Metropolitan Museum
of Art, N ew York, for permission to publish the stones belonging to those
museums, and for the excellent photographs of their stelae which they have provided. The late Professor James H. Breasted, Director of the Oriental Institute
of the University of Chicago, most generously placed at my disposal the nine
stones belonging to that institution published at the end of the series, and I am
greatly in debt to him, and to the members of the Egyptological Staff of the Institute for their collations of the texts on these stelae. I take pleasure also in expressing my thanks to Dr. J acob Hirsch of New Yark for allowing me to examine
photographs of two stones in his collection. Finally to my friend and teacher,
Professor George A. Reisner, I owe not only permission to use this material and
encouragement in the enterprise, but the invaluable advantage of his unsurpassed
knowledge of the funerary practices of the Old Kingdom, which has been a strong
influence in my interpretation of certain formulae.
D.D.
MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS,
BOSTON.

3 1 January 1936.

VI

CONTENTS
I~TRODUCTION

THE STELAE

12

INDEX OF NAMES

10 9

INDEX OF TITLES

1I6

CONCLUSIONS AND CHRONOLOGY

VII

INTRODUCTION

EG I::\::\I::\G in 1901 Professor George A. Reisner has carried out a number of


txc3.\"3.ting campaigns in the Naga-ed-Der district (opposite modern Girga in
the TI~:!1ite ::\ome), at first for the University of California (up to 1905), and thereafter for the I-Iarvard University-Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition. In
the cour~e of these excavations there have been found a considerable number of
limestone funerary stelae of the period from the Sixth to the Twelfth Dynasties, of
which t\yenty-three pieces are now in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Professor
Reisner has asked me to make a study of these monuments, and has placed at my
disposal the Expedition's negatives, not only of the material in Boston, but also
of that nO\\- in California and that which was retained by the Cairo Museum. This
material, although physically dispersed across half the world, belongs properly
together since it all comes from a single site and a single period.
Kaga-ed-Der is a village on the east bank of the Nile opposite Girga where
there are important ancient cemeteries extending in time from the Predynastic
Period to the IVliddle Kingdom. These cemeteries run for about six kilometres
from Sheikh Farag on the north to lVIesheikh on the south, with Naga-ed-Der
itself about one and a half kilometres south of Sheikh Farag. The whole area is
loosely known to our Expedition as Naga-ed-Der (N.), and there is no dividing
line between Naga-ed-Der proper and Sheikh Farag (S.F.). Mesheikh (Mes.),
lying well to the south, is separated from Naga-ed-Der by the site of Mesa'eed,
with which we are not here concerned, but, for the purposes of this study, the
subdivisions of the site may be disregarded as they all form parts of a single large
cemetery of the Thinite Nome. I
The material at my disposal consists of the following stones excavated by
Professor Reisner and his assistants in the N aga-ed-Der cemeteries:
23 stelae in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Nos. 1-23 (lVl.F.A., 12. 1475 &c.).
29 stelae at the University of California, published by Dr. Lutz;2 Nos. 24-52
(Lutz, 18 &c.).
12 stelae in the Cairo Museum which I have examined ; Nos. 53-64 (Cairo,
37737 &c.).
I The work done on earlier graves of the site has
been published in the University of California
Egyptian Series as follows: G. A. Reisner, Early
Dynastic Cemeteries of Naga-ed-Der, I; A_ C.lVlace,
Early Dynastic Cemeteries of Naga-ed-Der, Il;
G. A. Reisner, A Provincial Cemetery of the P)'ra-

mid Age, Naga-ed-Der, Ill.


2 Henry F. Lutz, Egyptian Tomb Steles and
Offering Stones of the l11"lIsellm of Anthropology and
Ethnology of the University of California, University of California Publications, Egyptian Archaeology, vo!. IV, Leipzig, I927.
B

INTRODUCTION

12 stelae which I have been unable to locate, but presumed to be unregistered in


Cairo, the publication of which is based solely on Expedition photographs;
Nos. 65-76 (N. 235 &c.).
To these I have added, as supplementary material, the following stelae in
American museums, all of which I believe to be from the Naga-ed-Der district, and
none of which have been previously published:
I stela in the Semitic Museum, Harvard University; No. 77 (Semitic Museum,
2354)
I stela in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; No. 78 (Metropolitan
Museum, 25 :2 :3).
9 stelae in the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago; Nos. 79-87
(Orinst., 16951 &c.).
The stelae, all of which are of limestone, are in most cases quite irregular in
over-all dimensions, although the effective field enclosed by borders is almost
universally of approximately rectangular form. The stones are also uneven in
thickness although the inscribed faces are relatively flat. These conditions arise
out of the manner in which the stones were used. The tombs of the First Intermediate Period at Naga-ed-Der were excavated practically without exception in
the extremely bad rock of the river slope and side wadys. The offering rooms,
which contained examples of the stelae under discussion, were usually found with
their roofs collapsed. The walls were roughly hewn and in no case, as far as could
be ascertained, bore any decoration other than the stelae themselves, set against
or in the walls. The burial places were sometimes pits in the floor of the offering
chamber and sometimes tunnels in its back wall. In the former case the stela was
generally set up against, or in a shallow recess in, the wall of the offering chamber
near the burial pit; in the latter it was commonly set into the blocking of the tunnel
entrance. PI. I, I and Fig. I show an example of the former practice, with two
stelae (no. 63 on the left and No. 14 on the right) set against the east wall (S.F.
5106). PI. I, 2 and Fig. 4 show a less common type of tomb, a small mud-brick
ma$taba, mud-plastered, with the stela set into a niche in the centre of the face.
In this tomb (S.F. 5005) the stela was so rotten with salt as to be illegible, and it has
not been published. PI. I, 3 and Fig. 5 show stela No. 7I (N. 384) in position, set
in the mud-plaster blocking the mouth of the entrance to the burial chamber. As
these illustrations show, many of the stelae were imbedded in mud-plaster so that
their irregular form was hidden and only the rectangular field and its framing
border was exposed to view.
In most of the tombs the stela was found displaced in the offering room, and its
original place was only indicated by a recess or by the remains of mud-plaster on
the walls. Where a tunnel tomb had been plundered practically no evidence of the
2

INTRODUCTION

SHEIKH FARAG

5106

1:50

FIG. I

-: - : :,:tion of the stela was left. But in a certain number of tombs the stelae were
: .:::-,d in place, and I give here the descriptions of six tombs in order to show their
~:~~5 and the proved positions of the stelae.
3

INTRODUCTION

I. S.F. 5106. Stelae Nos. 63 (,north' stcla, PI. XXI, I) and 14 (,south' stela, PI.
VIII, 2); excavated in 1923; Expedition Photos B 5021, 5022. Found in
place, the 'north' stela resting against the 'east' wall of a rock-cut chamber,
and the 'south' stela set in mud-plaster in a niche at the 'south' end of the
same wall. See Fig. I, plan, and PI. I, 1.
BURIAL PLACE: In the offering room an intrusive wooden coffin lay with its axis
'E-W' along the 'southern' wall of the room, in front of the 'south' stela but
resting on a sloping surface of debris 30-70 cms. above the floor of the
chamber. This coffin contained an intact burial lying extended on its back,
head 'E', heavily swathed in linen wrappings and with a walking stick at its
side [not represented on planJ.
Beneath this intrusive coffin an 'E-W' shaft (with original filling) led to an
'E-W' rock-cut chamber containing a heavily built wooden coffin. No blocking between pit and chamber. Lid of coffin moved a little to one side, but
body intact. On top of lid a pair of \vooden sandals and a bundle of cloth.
Burial extended, well wrapped in linen. The coffin was painted yellow outside and white inside, with the edges on which the lid rested red. Inscribed
on lid, sides, and ends in green (offering formula, titles, and name, the latter
corresponding to that on the stelae but with variations of spelling).
Photographs of intrusive burial, B 5021, 5082, 5083: of owner's burial,
A 3249,3250, B 5081, C lo3II, 10312.
II. S.F. 509. Stela No. 9 (PI. VI, I); excavated in 1923; Expedition Photos
C 10160, 1514. Found in place set with mud-plaster in the 'north' wall of
a rock-cut chamber, near the 'north-west' corner. See Fig. 2, plan. The
room was a roughly cut chamber of rectangular shape, with the doorway in
the 'south' wall blocked with rough limestone fragments. The roof had fallen
in. In front of the stela were placed two jar stands, five vases and a spouted
cup of red ware with red wash (Photo. C 10297). Along the 'east' side of the
room, close to the surface, was found a badly destroyed intrusive grave. This
had been vaulted over with plastered rubble (almost entirely destroyed), and
contained an extended burial in a badly decayed wooden coffin. The body
was wrapped in linen. The coffin was painted yellow outside and retained
traces of an almost obliterated horizontal line of inscription in black along
one side (dj nswt /:ttp Inpw formula, but name of owner not preserved). Under
the coffin lay a copper spear.
BURIAL PLACE: In front of the stela an irregular 'N-S' shaft descended in the
floor of the chamber, opening into a 'N-S' burial chamber roughly cut in the
rock. The doorway was blocked with rubble, mud, and some larger stones, and
4

INTRODUCTION

sticks were inserted to strengthen the blocking. The room contained a


:ong \vooden coffin. The lid had fallen in and ,vas decayed. The coffin was
t\\-O

SHEIKH FARAG

509

17" Wof N

!,
';

,
t

,
,,

,,
,

,
('

1:80
FIG. 2

painted white outside and bore traces of a hieroglyphic inscription in black.


The burial was decayed.
Ill. :\Ies. 118. Stela No. 59 (PI. XIX, I); excavated in 1912; Expedition Photos
C 4928, 5059. Found in place set with mud-plaster in the 'north' wall of a
rock-cut offering chamber. See Fig. 3, plan and section.
S

MES HEIK H

118

-+

o
I: 100
FIG.

700E ofN

INTRODUCTION

In the 'east' wall of the offering chamber (at 'N-E' corner),


opposite the entrance, an 'E-W' sloping passage cut in the rock led to an
'E-W' rock-cut chamber. This chamber had been plundered and all that
remained were the skulls of three burials, six gazelle skulls, and that of an ox.
Inside the entrance to the offering room was found a blue-glaze scarab of
Tuthmosis IH (inscribed Mn-bpr-rr), probably intrusive.

Bl-RIAL PLACE:

1\-. S.F. 5005. Stela rotten with salt, illegible and not published here; exca-

yated in 1923; Expedition Photos C 10214-10218. Found in place in a niche


in a small crude-brick ma~taba. See Fig. 4 and PI. I, 2. The ma~taba was
solid crude-brick, consisting of a rectangular basis surmounted by a long
structure with the long sides sloping towards the top, to end in a single course
of bricks. The whole was plastered with mud and formed a rounded ridge at
the top.
A nearly square space in front of the stela-niche, plastered
with mud and outlined by a crude-brick wall half a brick thick and two
courses high. In this space was a pottery bowl.

OFFERING PLACE:

A rectangular 'E-W' shaft, covered by the central portion of the


after burial, gave access to an irregular rock-cut chamber at the 'east'
end. Extended skeleton in a completely decayed wooden coffin. 'East' of the
shoulders, probably outside the coffin, a shallow bowl of red polished ware.
The whole had been crushed by the collapse of the limestone rock-roof of the
chamber. In the debris above, near the surface, was a small wooden boxcoffin containing the disturbed bones of a child.

BCRIAL PLACE:

ma~taba

Y. N. 3804. Stela No. 71 (PI. XXV, I); excavated in 1902-03; Expedition


Photos B 613, 614 and B 8733. Found in place set in mud-plaster in the
mouth of the sloping passage which led to the burial chamber from the 'east'
\vall of the offering room, near the 'south-east' corner. See Fig. 5, plan and
section, and PI. I, 3. The offering room was cut in the rock and the roof had
collapsed. In front of the stela were two coarse red ware offering stands, two
jars, a dish and fragments.
A sloping passage, blocked with clean limestone chips, led down
to an 'E-W' chamber cut in the rock. Along the 'north' wall stood a long
wooden coffin inscribed on lid and sides with a band of inscription ending in
the same name as that on the stela, but with terminal ~, ~ ~. Body extended,
slightly on left side, head 'west'. Remains of mask and wig. On the floor of
the chamber beside the coffin, the bones and skull of a calf.

Bl-RIAL PLACE:

5005

SHEIKH FARAG

,------\,
~~

I ,
I

,~

..
) J
f

~,i}~y

;n
IV
I
I
I

,il

:i-j,~:

:~iY.J
/-'1

'-.'

\
\

---':>1' ..

\
,,'" ----------____ _
,"

~,

'I I '/1

' I
\--~r

\'- - - ----- --- --~- --- - - ----~-----I---+--'-..1

I: 50
35 0 Wof N
FIG,4

I...

o
Z
=

0::
l.J.J

Cl,

I.I.J
I

<i

4:
Z

INTRODUCTION

VI. Mes. 102. Stela No. 3 (PI. HI, I); excavated in 1912; Expedition Photos
C 4905-8, 4912. Found in place set in mud-plaster in front of the door
blocking of the burial chamber. See Fig. 6, plan and section. The offering
chamber was cut in a stratum of tuft. The back ('E') wall was preserved only
to a height of about 15 m., and there was no trace of roofing. In the 'east'
wall were two openings to burial chambers: that on the 'north' (chamber A)
had the blocking plastered over with mud in which had been scratched
several unintelligible signs; the mud-plaster behind the stela on the 'south'
(blocking chamber B) had also been scratched with crude markings. In
front of the stela were a number of coarse red ware jars.
There were three burial chambers.
A. Cut in the 'east' wall of the offering room at its 'north' end; a long 'E-W'
chamber containing a wooden coffin, 188 x 43 x 50 cm. (including lid),
painted white, broken. The skeleton was disarranged, head 'east'. Well
preserved wooden headrest and a pottery jar containing reddish-brown
powder. About the rim of the jar were the remains of a linen covering
placed over its mouth and tied with cord.
B. An 'E-W' burial chamber cut in the 'east' wall of the offering room near
its 'south' end. It contained an unpainted wooden coffin, 200 x 43 x 53 cm.
Body wrapped in decayed linen. In the coffin a walking-stick 148 x 3 cm.
C. An 'E-W' shaft cut in the floor of the offering chamber in front of the
stela, with a recess on the' north' which contained a wooden coffin, 199 X 47
X 54 cm., painted yellow. Disarranged skeleton in decayed linen
wrappmgs.

BURIAL PLACES:

Measurements of the stelae are in centimetres and give first the height and
second the width, in both cases maximum measurements.
- 7 indicates direction in which figures face.
For the inscriptions: 4c- indicates
a line reading from right to left; - 7 a line reading from left to right; ~t a column
reading down with signs facing right (reading right to left and down); }-> a column
reading down with signs facing left. (This system of notation is the same as that
used by Gunn in Teti Pyramid Cemeteries, I.)
Colour notations: (w) white, (b) black, (r) red, (y) yellow, (g) green, (bl) blue,
(?) illegible.
In texts, transliterations, and translations: ( ) indicates a word or words which
do not exist in the original, supplied in translation for greater clarity; [ ] indicates
signs or words lost or illegible in the original text, but presumed to have existed;
<) indicates signs or words omitted from the original text; ... indicates lacunae
without suggested restoration.
10

INTRODUCTION

102

MESHEIKH
'<

1111.

,00.

Ill.

,,"'~

0,

,,.\

."'"....~,

,"".If;>..""","",

,~

1\1111

'P.''''

C
''''''

'I?-\'

16 E of N

1
I

~ 1------------ -I

,~

,," ,,;,

"\"'"'\."0/11. ,""

's~

".,.

.A~

..;

~'

'"

'1'

,.

.,,'

...

'';''''''

,-$----------------------

:S
I

IL

________________________ _

7h
I
I
I

I
I

I: 50

I
I
I

'------.- -.--.--

FIG. 6

In the identification of tombs N. stands for Naga-ed-Der, S.F. stands for


Sheikh Farag, and Mes. stands for Mesheikh.
Other abbreviations used are: M.F .A. for Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Lutz
for Dr. Henry F. Lutz's Egyptian Tomb Steles and Offering Stones, &fe., University
of California; Orinst. for the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
II

THE STELAE
1. M.F.A. 12.I475. Mes. Cemetery 100, debris in bend, upper terrace. PI. 11,1
Painted only. 345 X 56.0.

Right half of stone; standing man and woman ->.


MAN: Close-fitting wig (b), collar (g), pointed kilt (w), bracelets (g); holding
staff (y) in left hand and wand (y) in right hand. Flesh parts (r).
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest (b), collar (g), bracelets and anklets (g),
close-fitting skirt to ankles, not defined above and not distinguished in colour
from flesh, which is (y). Right hand at side, left hand thrust bet\veen man's
body and right arm.
OBJECTS: Vertically to right of man; basket (y), basket (y) with five pots (r), two
tall jars (r),jar (y) with seal (b) on a stand (r).
In field, right to left; three or more illegible hieroglyphs (r), dead bird (y),
live bird (y), mirror (y), stool or table (y) with (b) and (r) lines, pair of
sandals (y).
Below; table (y) with conventional loaves I (y), representation of house

SCENE:

I
In a number of the stelae dealt with in this
study the table with tall reed-like objects upon it is
figured among the offerings. That these objects
are half-loaves of bread and not leaves (reed or
palm) as suggested by Gunn in Teti Pyramid
Cemeteries, I, p. 207, footnote, seems clear if one
looks back to their representation in the Old Kingdom. In the primitive niche-stones dating between
the Second Dynasty and the reign of Cheops, and
in the tablet scenes of the Fourth Dynasty at Giza,
we find the table set with actual loaves of tI-bread
(the lower part representing a bowl with straight
flaring sides, above which the upper part, representing the bread itself, rises in a curving mound)
split in half (Tablet of Wp-m-nfrt, Lutz, op. cit.,
No. I; and compare with the complete tJ-Ioaf
figured beneath the table). In the tablet of the
woman Nfr, also in California (Lutz, No. 2), the
half-loaves have become more elongated and the
two sides are almost parallel, although the loaf
form may still be recognized. Continuing, I quote
from Professor Reisner's statement on the subject
in his forthcoming study of the Giza ma~tabas:
'In the early tablets of Giza the next step in conventionalization appears to have consisted in sim-

12

plifying the outline at the base of the tf-bread on


the outside, so that the only indication of the
character of the bread is the curving top from
which the side lines run straight down to the base.
A later conventionalization shows the half /ibread of the same very high form, but with an incurving line on the outside, so that the slice of
bread appears to be a reed-leaf with the tip turned
the wrong way. This convention appears in
Dynasty IV, and the two high conventions, which
I call the early convention and the late connntion,
continue in use through Dynasty V. In Dynasty
VI the tJ-bread was actually represented in some
cases as a reed-leaf correctly drawn.' ''"hen
coloured these half-loaves are, in the Old Kingdom, usually red or red-brown, but cases occur
where the leading edge is painted yellow, representing the lighter colour of the exposed inside of
the loaf. In at least one instance at Giza, on the
west wall of the rock-cut chapel of G. 2196 of the
Fifth Dynasty, the half-loaves are alternately red
and yellow in colour; that is, they represent halfloaves exposing alternately the dark crust and the
lighter inner surface.
In the examples occurring at Naga-ed-Der,

THE STELAE

facade? of wood and textile hangings, the wood (y) with (r) lines, the textiles
with (b) lines.
BORDER: At both sides only; alternating rectangles of (r) and (y). Dividing lines (r).
INSCRIPTIONS:

Five columns at left ~; (g) with (b) details.


One column behind man ~; (y) with (r) details.
c. One column behind woman ~; coloured as in B.

A.

B.

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives,! (and) Anubis (2) upon his mountain,
who is in the place of embalming, (3) lord of the necropolis; funerary offerings
of bread and beer for her in (4) her tomb of the cemetery of the western (s)
desert; the Royal Ornament Nfr-bt-nlr.
B. Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Sole Companion, 1ml.
c. His beloved wife Nfr-bt-nlr.
COMMENTARY:

At end supply 0, in part visible on the stone.


3. At end supply ~, in part visible on the stone.

A 2.
A
A
A

+;;

r;;.

f. ~
for ~
At end supply ~ now lost.
5. At end read ~, of which the upper part only remains.

however, the objects have distinctly the appearance


of reed-leaves, and in some cases are clearly
painted to represent them (No. I). This is the
result of a very natural process of conventionalization and degradation, due to the superficial resemblance to reed-leaves of the later conventionalization
of the Old Kingdom, and to the loss of understanding of their true nature by sculptors and
painters of the First Intermediate Period in a provincial community. It seems to me far more probable that these people misunderstood the already
conventionalized representations of an older civilization which they thought to reproduce than that
these objects represent an entirely new departure
from established practice. \Vith this view Professor Reisner, with his intimate knowledge of the
Giza material, is fully in accord.
I It appears to me that in these tombs of the
First Intermediate Period the offering formulae
have been derived from the earlier forms and
practices of the Old Kingdom, and I have, therefore, translated the dj nswt l:ztp formula in accordance with the Old Kingdom forms rather than
with those adopted by Dr. Alan Gardiner for the
:',/Iiddle Kingdom.

Dl nswt l:ztp I translate 'An offering which the


king gives', since I can see no reason for assuming
that the phrase is necessarily a wish.

I translate 'funerary offerings of bread and

beer'. That the group pr-l;rw originally meant


a 'coming-forth-at-the-voice' or a 'coming-forthof-the-voice' does not alter the fact that it has
come, even in the Old Kingdom, to refer to the
actual material objects presented. Such phrases
as 'Inspecting the
estate' (L. D.

Il, 22

er

~ brought by the king's

d), 'Bringing of

cP ~ -z? by the

towns of the funerary estate', with a picture of the


objects being carried (L. D. Il, 50 b), and 'Inspecting the gifts brought for

er

~' (L. D.

Il,

49 a),

make it quite obvious that such is the case. There


may perhaps be some question whether ~ has
come to be always an integral part of the group,
not to be separately translated. In the last of the
three instances given this seems to be the case, but
in most cases I can see no clear indication for or
against such an assumption, and so have preferred
to translate it.

THE STELAE

PI. 11, 2.
2. M.F.A. 12.1476 l\1es. 123.
Painted only. 78oxSSS.
The figures and signs are too faded to be entirely legible in the photograph,
and have therefore been outlined in India ink, after having been determined
(in doubtful places) by the aid of ultra-violet light,l
Lower part of stone; standing man, woman, and boy --; attendant at
right *-.
MAN: Full wig with traces of (b), beard (?), pointed kilt (w); holding staff (y)
with curved head and enlarged base in left hand, and wand (y) in right hand.
Flesh (r).
WOMAN: Close-fitting wig or natural hair (b ?), collar (bl), bracelet on right
wrist (?), flesh (y). No indication of clothing. Left hand grasps man's right
wrist, right hand holds boy's left hand.
BOY: Wig undefined (?), pointed kilt (w), flesh (r). Left hand grasped in
woman's right, right arm hanging and holding undefined object (?).
ATTENDANT: Opposite man's left hand; details like boy. Holding an indeterminate object (?) in both hands (censing ?).
OBJECTS: In field, right to left; leg joint (r), flat loaf? tied in centre (y), dead
bird (y), two cylinder jars (y), basket (y) on which stand three pots (r), mirror
(r), basket (y) on which stand three pots (r), two cylinder jars (y).
BORDER: At top, bottom, and both sides (the attendant and part of the staff intercept it on the right); painted rectangles of (r), (y), (?), and (?).

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

B.

Four lines at top *- (bl).


Three lines over woman and boy

(bl).

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, (2)
who is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; funerary offerings of
bread and beer for the honoured one before the great god, (3) lord of heayen ;
pleasant to his relatives, (4) who gives bread to the hungry man (and) clothing
to the naked man.
B. (1) Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, R~w[y?J.
(2) His beloved wife, Royal Ornament, lbw. (3) Her beloved son (nb-njitj.
I For a description of this work see the writer's
note in Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts (Bos-

ton), XXXI, No. 185, p. 39, illustrated with photographs of Stela No. 5.

14

THE STELAE
COMMENTARY:
A

B
B

3. lbtf: ~ is for = as in Worterbuch, 1,7,8. The sign beneath the man and woman dets.
runs across a flint nodule, but appears to be a headless f.
4. In the last two words of the line E:'l is used instead of I? as a det.
I. The two vertical strokes at the end of the name do not represent U, as there is no trace
of the horizontal in ultra-violet light; more probably they represent ~ ~ .
2. The woman's coffin from this tomb gives her name as ~J}~.
3. The transliteration and sense ofthe name is c1ear-'his father lives for him' (see Ranke,
Persollenllamen, 65; 2 and I I).

3. M.F.A. 12.1477. Mes. 102.


Incised and painted. 73'0 X480. (See also Fig. 6 on p. II).

Pl.III,l.

Lower part of stone; standing man, woman, and boy -'>-; attendant at upper
right +-.
MAN: Full wig (b), collar (y), pointed kilt (w), flesh (r); holding staff (y) in left
hand, right hand grasps wife's left hand.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet? on chest (b), collar (y), bracelet on right wrist
and two anklets (?), skirt from waist to mid-calves (w), flesh (y); left hand
grasped in man's right, right arm hanging.
BOY: Close wig or natural hair (b), rather long pointed kilt (w), flesh (r); arms
hanging at sides.
ATTENDANT: Pointed kilt (w), flesh (r); presenting cup (r) to man's lips with left
(y): this
hand, holding jar (r) in right hand. Behind him, painted only,
doubtless refers to the contents of the jar. I
OBJECTS: In field, right to left; seven pots (r) with seals (b) on a basket (y), two
jars (y) and (r) with seals (b) on a stand (y), mirror (r).
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles between incised lines,
divided by double incised lines. Order of colours (r), (y), (b), (?).

SCENE:

*
I

INSCRIPTIONS:

Four lines at top +-, each coloured differently: top to bottom (b), (r), (y), (b).
Name over woman +-, (y).
c. Name over boy +-{, (y).
A.

B.

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, (2) lord of the necropolis; funerary offerings of
I

TVtb.

II,

259, ro gives the meaning 'good things, treasures'.

THE STELAE

bread and beer for the Sole Companion, in honour before (3) the great god,
lord of heaven, Sd-itj. He says, I am (one) beloved of his father, (4) praised
of his mother, whom his brothers (?) love.
B. lfnt.

c. Sbk-l:ztp.
COMMENTARY:

tpj is reversed.
3. The water-skin is equivalent to Id (Wtb. IV, 560,4). The name, which I do not venture
to translate, occurs in Lange-Schafer, Grab- und Denksteine, 20205.
A 4. One would expect 'brothers and sisters', but the omission of determinatives precludes
certainty.

A I.
A

4. M.F.A. 12.1478. Mes. 2109.


PI. Ill, 2.
Painted only. 65'0 X420.
The figure and signs are too faded to be entirely legible in the photograph,
and they have been outlined in India ink, after having been determined with
the aid of ultra-violet light.
Lower part of stone; standing woman -+.
Long wig without lappet (b), collar (?), bracelets (?), no indications of
clothing, flesh (y) ; arms hanging.
OBJECTS: In field to right of figure; leg (r) with two stripes (w), two flat loans?
(y), two cylinder jars (r), dead bird (y) with feet (r), three pots (r) with seals
(b) on a basket (y) with internal lines (b).
BORDER: At top, bottom, and both sides; coloured rectangles of (y), (r), (b), and (?).

SCENE:

WOMAN:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Three lines at top --c--, colour gone; (b) outline only is traceable.
B. One column at left of figure, barely visible in ultra-violet light, but not
legible.

A.

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, (2) lord of the necropolis; funerary offerings
of bread and beer belonging to the Sole Royal Ornament, (3) Prophetess of
Hathor, in honour before the great god, l/ny [Bny?].
COMMENTARY:

Note wide space between Anubis-figure and tpj. The tail of Anubis, no longer visible,
may have projected abnormally to the left.

A I.

16

THE STELAE

!fir is reversed. The nt is apparently indirect genitive 'of', 'belonging to'.


3. The initial sign in the name is of doubtful reading. It may be either ~ or "\. (see the
form of this sign in the woman's name in stela 3). Dr. Gardiner is inclined to read Ijny,
but I am uncertain, and I do not find this name recorded elsewhere.

A 2.
A

5. M.F.A. 12.1479. Mes. 101.


PI. IV, 1.
Sunk relief, painted. 71'0 X 54'0.
The names of the children were painted only and have practically disappeared;
they have been read in ultra-violet light and inscribed in ink, as have also a
few minor details. I There are also visible on the stone marks where construction lines for the tvvo large figures have been rubbed down, indicated on the
plate by dotted ink lines.
Lower part of stone; standing man, woman, boy, and girl ~?-.
MAN: Full wig (b), collar (g), belt (g), pointed kilt (w), flesh (r); holding staff (y)
in left hand, right arm hanging.
WOMAN: Long wig without lappet Cb), collar of four strands (r), (y), (g), (r),
bracelets and anklets (g), close-fitting skirt from waist to knees (g), flesh (y);
arms hanging.
BOY: Full wig (b), pointed kilt (w), flesh (r).
GIRL: Long wig (b), collar (?), flesh (y).
OBJECTS: At right edge of field; leg (r) with feet (b), ribs (r) with spot (w), two
loaves (y), two jars? (y) in rectangles (w), dressed bird (y) with (r) and (g)
markings, three unclear objects (g), five jars (r) with tops (b) on a stand (?).
In front of woman; mirror (r) with handle (y).
BORDER: At top and both sides, painted only; coloured rectangles in the order
(r), (y), (b), (g).

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.
B.
C.

Three lines at top <c-, incised and coloured (g).


Name of boy +{, painted (g) but faded out.
Name of girl~, painted (g) and partly faded out.

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives (and) Anubis upon his mountain, (2)
who is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; funerary offerings
of bread and beer for the Sole Companion (3) WJd-[#j-bh?]. His beloved
wife, Sole Royal Ornament, Mr-irtjjj?
I
For a photograph of a portion of this stone in
ultra-violet light see my article 'Experiments in

Photography by Ultra-Violet Light' in lW.F.A.


XXXI, No. 18 5, pp. 39-41.

Bulletin,

THE STELAE

1n-inbrt.
c.1bw.

B.

COMMENTARY:

Determinative wt reversed. ~ reversed for rflr.


3. The second element of the name is unclear. Reisner has suggested the possible reading

A 2.

~ (Slj-~b), and I have nothing better to ofi'er. The wife's name I would read with

'"
Gunn

as given above, ~::~; the second eye lacks a pupil, which may have been
added in paint, now faded out.

PI. IV, 2.

6. M.F.A. 12.1480. Mes. 2108.


Figure in relief, rest sunk; painted. 48'5 X470.
SCENE:

Left side of stone; standing man (in relief), boy, and dog (painted only)

--+.

Full wig (b) with incised details, beard (b), collar of three strands (y), (r),
(g and y), pointed kilt (w) with diagonal stripe (y), bracelets (g), flesh (r);
holding staff with knob at top (y) in left hand, and wand (y) passing behind
kilt in right hand.
BOY: Close-fitting wig or natural hair (b), collar (g), kilt (w), one bracelet (g ?),
flesh (r) ; both arms hanging.
DOG: Only in part preserved; Salu~i type? (w) with patches (b).
OBJECTS: In a group to right of figure, framed in (r) border. Tvvo columns:
right side; ribs (r), vegetables?! (r), leg (r) with foot (b), dead bird (y) with
feet and eye (r), calf's head (r, y, b), two gazelle heads (y, b), bird's head (y, r).
Left side; six pots (r) with tops (b) against ground (g) on a basket (1'), joint (r),
five pots on a basket as above, unclear object (r) in part destroyed, leg and
meat (r) against ground (g) on a basket (y). Below; six jars (r) with seals (b)
on a table (y), three jars on individual stands coloured as preceding (painted
only).
BORDER: Painted, with lines in part incised at top and both sides, set in at upper
left corner; coloured rectangles of (b), (y), (r), and (g), edged outside \vith (b)
and inside with (y).
MAN:

I Objects of this form occur among the offerings


on the folhwing stelae: 6 (r), 39 (g ?), 40 (faded g ?),
56 (g), 58 (g), 59 (r), 70 (faded g ?), and 82 (g). In
every case this object lies between a rib-joint and a
fore-leg. Coloured green in three, and probably
in six, of the eight instances, it is doubtless

intended to represent some form of vegetable. In


the two cases where its colour is red I suggest that
the painter has mis-coloured it owing to its position between two red objects. I therefore refer to
it in all cases as vegetables?

THE STELAE
INSCRIPTIONS:

One line at top +-, continued in B; (g) except for the t, p, and support of
Anubis, which are (y).
B. One column at right
; (g) except as follo\vs:
the loaf and det. in pr-brw and the tin wrtj are (y); the jar in pr-brw, the stroke in wrtj,

A.

the b in imJb, and the spot against the first element of the name are (r).
TRANSLATION:
A.

B.

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis;


funerary offerings of bread and beer for the Sole Companion, the honoured
... w.

COMMENTARY:
B.

The first element in the name is perhaps the stone-cutter's copy of a sign or group in
hieratic which he did not understand. I have no interpretation to offer.

PI. V, 1.

7. M.F.A. 13.3844. S.F.217.


Round top. Sunk relief with remains of colour. 54'5 X 39'0.
Dated to Year 30 of Ameneml)at Ill.

Lower part of stone; standing man and woman ->.


Curly hair (?), short beard (b), two collars (y) and (bl) with space between,
bracelet on right wrist (?), short tight kilt under longer pointed kilt (w), flesh
(r); holding staff (y) in left hand and wand (y) in right hand.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet (b) bound with a fillet (w) decorated with two
lotus flowers (r and bl), bracelets and anklets (?), tight skirt with shoulder
straps (w), flesh (y); left hand grasps man's left shoulder, right hand grasps
man's right elbow.
OBJECTS: To right of figures, top to bottom; onions? (?), four jars (r), two with
conical seals (b), on a mat (?), two unclear objects (r), dressed bird (?), calf's
head (?), leg (b) with severed end (r), two pieces of meat (r), two round loaves
(?) and a bag? of dates? (w), bunch of lettuce (?), two round loaves (?) on a
!:ztp-sign, the mat (b) and the loaf (r), a jar (r) on its side on a table (?), two
tall offering stands (r).
BORDER: Painted and lines incised, around top and both sides; edging inside and
out (bl), transverse divisions (b), (w), (b), coloured rectangles (bl), (r), (?), (?).

SCENE:

MAN:

INSCRIPTIONS:

A. Six lines at top, continued in B (bl) -(-, except line (1) which is --'.
B. One column in front of man *i-, (bl).
c. One column behind woman ~r' (bl).
19

THE STELAE
TRANSLATION:

(1) Sed-festival; Year 30 under the majesty of the King of Upper and Lower
Egypt, may he live forever, (2) N-mJrt-rr. An offering which the king gives
to Osiris, lord of Busiris, the great god (3) lord of Abydos in all his places,
that he may give (4) invocation-offerings (of) bread and beer, oxen and fowls,
clothing and alabaster?, a thousand of offerings and provisions and all gods'(5) offerings to the kJ of the honoured one before Onuris, Horus the mightyhanded, the great god in the midst of (6) Thinis, thy city god who loves thee,
in honour with the great god,
B. the Fighter Sn1'-rnb, justified, born of Wsr-lztlzr, justified, son of 1k,justified.
c. His dearly beloved wife, the honoured Mistress of the House, 1y, justified,
begotten of Didj-nb, justified.
A.

COMMENTARY:

The phrases 'Sed-festival' and 'may he live forever' are lightly incised and smaller than
the other signs, and have been crowded in to fill the corners, apparently as an afterthought. The group 'Sed-festival' reads +--, and only one throne and canopy is represented instead of the normal two.
A 2. The cartouche preceding the offering formula I take to be the continuation of line (I),
previous to the insertion of 'may he live forever'. The original reading would ha\"e been
'King of Upper and Lower Egypt N-mJrt-rr'. This is a further indication that the groups
filling the spaces at either end of line (I) are later insertions.
In this stela of the Twelfth Dynasty I translate the offering formula in accordance \yith
the form adopted by Dr. Gardiner for the Middle Kingdom. That this form is applicable
seems clear from the group 'that he may give' at the end of line (3).
A 4. The translation 'alabaster' for the group ~ is, I think, generally accepted. In the Old
Kingdom tablet-stones of the Fourth Dynasty it is usually written 0, 0 TI, or ~ If, and
forms part of the summary list under the table of loaves. Dr. Reisner thinks its sense in
this context is more probably 'ointment', i.e. the contents of the alabaster jars, and a
rendering 'alabaster jars of ointment', while cumbersome, would perhaps be nearer to the
true sense. In other words, the comment I would make is that it is the 'ointment' which
is being offered rather than the alabaster jars in which it is contained.
B I. I follow the opinion expressed to me by Professor Ranke that rlptj (r(uzt'tj) is the title
or epithet 'the fighter, soldier', rather than a part of the name. The owner's mother was
Wsr-btbr and his father 1k, as is indicated by the genders of the groups 'justified'.
A I.

8. M.F.A.25.625. S.F. 519, thieves' debris in Room A.


PI. V, 2.
Figure and part of offerings in relief, the rest partly sunk and partly painted.
53'0 X5 2 0 .
20

THE STELAE

Lower left; standing man ---7.


MAN: Close-fitting wig with incised details (?), collar (y above g), bracelets (g)
with longitudinal stripe (y) in centre, long pointed skirt with belt and diagonal
line (w), flesh (r); conventional indications of corpulence; left hand holds
staff (y), right hand holds wand (y). Background roughly dressed down.
OBJECTS: In a group in front of figure, right to left from top down: onions (g)
with heads (r), group of seed-like objects (r), leg (w) with band (r), calf's head
(w) with neck (r), dead bird (y) with feet (r) and wings (apparently g),joint (r)
with bone (y), gazelle head (brown), ribs (r). The above in relief with background partly removed. Various irregular patches of brown paint in the
interstices. Tall jar (r) on a stand (r) with conical cover (or enlarged sealing?)
(?) from which spring three floral stems (g), painted oval loaf? (y), painted
offering-stand with flowers rising from each extremity (g), on which, partly
incised, are the conventionalloaves I (y and g) [each half-loaf is (y) with a vertical (g) stripe along the leading edge], conical loaf (y).
BORDER: Painted only, at top and both sides; border representing the usual
binding on a torus moulding, i.e. alternating transverse and diagonal lines,
much faded; (b) lines on a (y) ground. (See also border of Stela No. 12.)

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Two lines at top

+--,

continued in B; (g) except as follows:

line (r) in order as read, t (y), dj centre (r) outline (g), Osiris figure (y), dd-sign (r), hand
(r), chick (y) vvith feet (r), bnt-jars (g), (r), and (y) in order, tjw-bird (y) with transverse
band (g), crown of det. (y); line (2), lb (y), b (r), dw (y), chick (y) with feet (r), loaf (y),
fJrw (r), jar (r), det. (y), r (r), r (r), ~ltj (y) with mane (g), r (r), three signs sglWtj-bjtf (y),
chick (y) with feet (r).
B.

One column at right +-t, (g) except as follows:


r (r),

rl

(y), pt-sign (y), b (y), first n (y), both reed-leaves (y) with leading edges (g).

c. Short line above offerings +-, (g) except as follows:


loaf (y), jar (r), bird-head (y), cloth-sign stems (r), base (?), nfr (r) \vith stem (g), r (r).
TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, KhentiAmentiu, (2) lord of Abydos; funerary offerings of bread and beer for the
Hereditary Noble, Count, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, in honour
B. before the great god, lord of heaven, Ifnny.
c. A thousand bread, beer, fowls, clothing, (and) everything good.
I See footnote I on p. 12. In this case the old
conventionalized half-loaf has clearly been con-

fused with a reed- or palm-leaf, and


coloured as such.
21

IS

even

THE STELAE

PI. VI, 1.
9. M.F.A. 25.626. S.F. S09.
Sunk relief, painted. soo X400. (See also Fig. 2 on p. S.)
SCENE: Lower left; standing man and boy ~.
MAN. Full wig (b), beard? (b), collar (g), pointed kilt (w), flesh (r); holding
staff (y) in left hand. Construction lines (b) faintly visible, indicated by
dotted ink lines on the plate.
BOY: Close-fitting wig or hair (b), collar (g), pointed kilt (w), flesh (r); holding
staff (y) in left hand.
OBJECTS: Upper right corner of field, reading down; leg (r) with foot (b),
onions? (g), ribs (r), dressed bird (y).
BORDER: Painted only at top and both sides; coloured rectangles (r), (b), (g), (y),
outer bordering lines (y), inner (r). Lines dividing registers of inscriptions
painted only as follows: below A I and left of B I (y), below A 2 and left of
B 2 (b).
INSCRIPTIONS:
A.
B.

Two lines at top ..(-, (g) continued in B


Two columns at right +1, (g).

TRA.NSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, \yho
is in the place of embalming, (2) lord of the necropolis in all his beautiful
places; funerary offerings of bread and beer
B. (I) for the Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Sole Companion, 1ll
honour (2) before the great god, lord of heaven, 1mJj [1mj?].
COMMENTARY:

The f is headless.
'--1l instead of gsr; f v-;ith separated head.
I. The t has been omitted from sgJwtj-hjtj.
2. Gardiner comments on the name, 'I should have thought the writing indicates that the
name had become simply lmj'. Gunn does not agree with this, but would read either
lJntj or lmJj. A literal transliteration lmmzj seems to me improbable.

A I.

A 2.

B
B

PI. VI, 2.
Figure in relief, rest sunk; colour faded out except in border. 4 1 . 0 X 47.0.
SCENE: Lower left; seated woman ~.
WOMAN: No colour preserved. Long wig with lappet on chest (partly painted?),
collar, bracelets, anklets, no indications of clothing; left hand holds lotus to
10. M.F.A.25.627. S.F. Debris between 533 and 536.

22

THE STELAE

face, right hand in lap. The chair has a cushion passing over the low back and
lion's feet resting on conical supports.
OBJECTS: Between figure and inscription B; inverted conical object from which
arise four bud-like protuberances, flanked by two ill-defined groups; below
are onions, a leg, and two basins on a table; under the table a ewer and basin,
nested.
BORDER: Painted only, at top, both sides, and perhaps under the figure; coloured
rectangles of which only the (r) is traceable.
INSCRIPTIONS:

One line at top -<-, continued in B


Two columns at right -<-1.
c. Two lines above offerings -<- (small).
A.

B.

TRANSLATION:

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is
in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis,
B. (1) in front of the god's booth; funerary offerings of bread and beer for the
Sole Royal Ornament, (2) Prophetess of Hathor, the honoured 1y.
c. (1) A thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand everything (2) good for
the Royal Ornament 1y.
A.

COMMENTARY:
A.

Determinative of wt is reversed.

PI. VII, 1.
11. M.F.A.25.628. S.F. 532, debris.
Figure and table in relief, rest sunk. Colour in part preserved. 48.0 X 65.0.
SCENE: At left (full height); standing man --i>.
MAN: Full wig with relief details (b), beard (?), collar (?), bracelets (?), pointed
kilt with diagonal and incised masonry-like markings (w), flesh (r); holding
staff (y) in left hand and wand (y) in right hand.
OBJECTS: At man's feet; table (w) with spots (r) [representing granite?] on which
stand six conventionalized loaves (y) against background (r): at lower right,
beneath inscription C; two long ovals (y), onions (?), leg (r) with foot (w),
two basins (y) against background (r) on a table (?), below which a basin (r),
basket (y) on which stand five tiny pots (r), dead bird (?), and three uncertain
objects (?).
BORDER: Painted only, at top and both sides: coloured rectangles of (r), (b),
(bl?), and (y), mostly faded out. The (b) outlining of framing lines of
inscription are visible at lower left.
23

THE STELAE
INSCRIPTIONS:

Four lines at right *-, (y) where preserved, continued in B


B. One short column +i below end of A 4, (y).
c. One line above offerings -(-, (y).
A.

TRANSLATION:

(1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, (2) KhentiAmentiu, lord of Abydos; funerary offerings of bread and beer for (3) the
Hereditary Noble, Count, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Great
Chief of (4) the Thinite Nome, Overseer of Sacred Black Cattle of the bnrw,
Overseer of
B. Prophets, Sipt.
c. A thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand fowls.

A.

COMMENTARY:

J> i

4. The title ~:2 'lB! ~?- J1 is unusual and, as far as I know, not previously recorded;
but see Lange-Schafer, Grab- und Denksteine, 20024, b, 7 for a similar title (gi\'en also in
~Vtb. rn, 296, 10). I have noted another occurrence of our title on a stela of the :\Iiddle
Kingdom in the Nelson GaIlery of Art, Kansas City, Mo. (The Art News, Dec. 9, 1933,
I ~ ~i"'~ I. The word <=>
~~"?- .Ji
~ ~1
~ I <:.::>1
.vS:' ~ '&L 1'1 or <=>
~ ~
N~ I
P. 56), \vhich reads ' \ Ll~
Cl )\-}il1 <=> .J:r' SV] I
Jf D I
(metathesis) seems to refer to a class of officials (perhaps of both sexes) \yho, in all three
instances here noted, are associated with cattle.
B. For \J, dct. of the name Sipt, cf. the similar det. of the word Jp, 'to make boats' (Trtb.,
sub voc.).

j'

12. M.F.A.25.629. S.F.253.

PI. VII, 2.
Sunk relief with remains of colour; in bad condition, upper left portion
missing. 47'0 X 53'0.
This tomb contained amulets, beads, and an alabaster kol,ll-pot of Twelfth
Dynasty type. The tomb type, according to Reisner, 'may be dated to
Dynasty XII, but might be earlier'. Stela 17 (below) is that of the wife, from
the same tomb.

Lower left; standing man and woman -!>.


MAN: Close-fitting wig or hair with relief details (?), collar (y), pointed kilt (y),
flesh (r); holding staff (y) in left hand and wand (y) in right hand.
WOMAN: Wig missing, collar (r), close-fitting dress with shoulder-straps (w),
bracelets and anklets (r), flesh (y); left arm over man's left shoulder, right
arm hanging.

SCENE:

THE STELAE

In front of man, lower right; calf's head (w) with neck and ear (r),
dead bird (r), leg (r), ribs (r), two jars and an unclear object (y) on a table (r).
BORDER: At top and both sides, between incised lines; painted torus moulding
as in Stela 8; (b) lines on (y) ground.
OBJECTS:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Two lines at top

A.

~,

both incomplete. Colours in part preserved as follows:

A I. (as read) ~ltp-sign (y), support of Anubis (y), ws (y), det. Osiris (r), r!d and hand (r),
town det. (y), feet of chick (r). A 2. brw (r), jar (r), s (r), u:r (y), ml (r), itmb (r), chick (y)
with feet (r), r (r).

Four columns at right

B.

+1, colours in part preserved as follows:

B I. nw (r), mr (r), det. father (r), bs-jar (r), ss (r), mr (r), rr (r), chick (y) with feet (r).
B 2. Chick (y) \vith feet (r), det. brother (r), sister (y), s (r), r (r), chick (y) with feet (r), det.
rwg (r). B 3. r (r), det. ~((r), m (y) with feet (r), det.l/pS (r), s (r), 1ll (y) with feet (r), r,
hand, and det. brd (r), det. father (r). B 4. Feet of i1 (r), m (y) with feet (r), arm (r),
seated man (r), det. wr and det. ngs (r), s (r).

One short line over figures ~, incomplete, no colour preserved.


One column to left of woman +{, incomplete and not easily legible:

C.
D.

it appears to read J Q~.~


E.

~ili! N;;: ~

A r.

List of offerings in front of man's


bird head (r).

l.zs-vase and s (r), det. wpt (r), det. hj and s (r).


face~.

Jar (r), loaf (y), calf's head (w),

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king (gives), (and) Anubis (and) Osiris (lord of)
Busiris . . .; (2) funerary offerings of bread and beer belonging to the Sole
Companion, in honour before ... [He says]
B. (I) I am (one) beloved of his father, praised of his mother, whom his brothers
(2) and sisters love. I made this (my?) tomb. I acted as one sturdy of (3) limb.
I acted with my (own) ann while I \vas a child (when) the property of my
father (4) was taken from me. I made friendship? with the great (man) and
the small (man when) I followed them.
c. His beloved wife, Prophetess of Hathor ...
D . . . . praised of the household of her husband.
E. A thousand beer, a thousand bread, a thousand cattle, a thousand fowls.
COMMENTARY:

&, omitted; '= omitted.


Note the masculine and feminine form and dets. of hlW(t)J.
2-4. This text is not without difficulty, and 1 have to thank both Dr. Gardiner and
Dr. Reisner for valuable help with it. Gardiner would render '1 made this tomb, 1 acted as
one strong of body, I achieved with my arm &c.' He suggests that the sitting man in B 4
may be holding something in the hand and might be read swrj, '1 made a drinking', but a

A 1.

B 2.
B

25

THE STELAE

careful examination of the original reveals no trace of anything in the hand. l;ms seems
more probable, 'I made a sitting', i.e. I associated with, or, as Reisner suggests, I made
friendship with. Reisner is convinced that this text deals entirely with the man's boast of
his attainments. He considers that there is a temporal relation between irni m bp! sk-wj
m brd and bt iti it m ri, and comments further: 'It is ... probable that the whole text
contains a reference to his life in general; how by his own efforts he recovered and made
a fortune of his own after having been deprived of his father's property, and how his
personal vigour and assiduity was furthered by his behaviour towards all those who were
superior to him in the service in which he was engaged (probably some branch of the
king's service).'

PI. VIII, 1.
13. M.F.A.25.659. S.F. SOIL
Figures and most objects in relief, some parts painted only; inscriptions incised, remains of colour. 65'0 X490.
Fine work but in poor condition. Reisner dates this stela to the Twelfth Dynasty.
SCENE: Full width of stone below inscription; standing man and woman -0.
MAN: Close-fitting wig (b), collar (?), bracelets (?), pointed kilt (w), flesh
(pinkish r); holding staff (y) in left hand and wand (?) in right hand.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest (b), collar (?), bracelet and anklets (?),
close-fitting dress with shoulder-straps (w), flesh (y); left hand on man's left
shoulder, right hand holding lotus bud (y?) with stem (r).
OBJECTS: Between staff and right edge, in relief, top to bottom; five jars (r) with
conical sealings (b) on a stand (?), joint (r) with bone (w), round cake (w),
onions (?), conical object (y), ribs (r) with right end (w), lettuce? (?), leg (r)
with left end (b), conventionalized loaves (?) on a stand (?). Above these
objects, painted only and unclear: two male offering-bearers advancing +-;
in front of man's face, standing male attendant +-; in front of man's legs,
standing male attendant +-; in front of woman's face, disk (r) of a mirror?,
and a squatting female figure +-; behind woman's legs, a shoulder-jar (w)
with upper part (r), and a cylinder-jar (w) with upper part (r).
BORDER : None. Double incised lines dividing registers of inscription.
INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Three and a half lines at top +-, no colour:


+~~~[;Pl~@Jf~~ ~ "1 ~U ~ ffi!~@I~[~J
!l\li!l\[~l~I~~~Jf~!~~*~!i~~;,,rI[~]
~~>~}~ ,l~~=)@~~tt JA}~ [> Jr=J~[iJf J

~ C;:J ~ [~~ ~:: J'\

n
26

THE STELAE
B.

One column in front of woman's legs -<-i, no colour:


<:> g 0 ilt.. i1\ <:> n~ IlG. C>.
~ <=>~ :zAJt I1I NN-'M ~ ~ J1~~

t:Jc. ' -

TRANSLATION:

An offering which the king gives, (and) Osi[ris], lord of Busiris, KhentiAmentiu, the great god, lord of Abydos; funerary offerings (of) a thousand of
bread and beer, a thousand of [cattle and fowls], (2) a thousand of clothing, a
thousand of offerings, a thousand of provisions, a thousand of everything
good and pure which heaven gives and [the earth] produces, (3) for the
honoured (one) before Onuris, lord of Thinis, SJ-in~rt, born of Ijpw, justified.
(4) That which made [for him] his beloved son Ijny.
B. His beloved wife Ijpw, born of 1mlt.

A. (I)

COMMENTARY:

For a parallel to the restored part at the end see Lange-Sch1ifer, Grab- und Denksteille,
I, p. 129, b, lines 7 and 8 (reference supplied by Reisner).
A 3. The terminal ~ in the names of the mvner and his mother are not to be read: Gunn is of
the opinion that such terminations, especially in the Middle Kingdom, are substitutes
for the human det. which was omitted, originally perhaps on superstitious grounds. He
tells me that Ranke agrees with him in not reading them in certain names, as for example
in the latter's Persollellllamen, 10,6; 10,23; 25, 12; and especially 25, 19. The end of line
A 3 is recorded in a hand copy made at the time of finding as
B. The second name is feminine; cf. Ranke, Personennamen, 6, 23, and Lange-Sch1ifer,
Index, p. 79.

A 2.

!!! 3?

14. M.F.A.25.670. S.F.5106.

PI. VIII, 2.

Sunk relief, painted. Construction lines for the figure, still visible on the
stone, are indicated by dotted ink lines on the plate. 42'5 X486.
Reisner dates this stone by tomb type and pottery to the late Intermediate
Period. No. 63 is from the same tomb. See also PI. I, I, right, and Fig. I on
P3
SCENE: Lower left; standing man - 7 .
MAN: Full wig and beard (b), collar (g), pointed kilt (w), flesh (r); holding staff
(y) with top (b) in left hand, and wand (?) in right hand, the wand passing
behind the body.
OBJECTS: In triangular space to right of staff, top to bottom; leg (r) with foot (b),
onions (g), ribs (r), live bird (y) with feet (r), dressed bird (g), three jars (r)
with tops (b) on a stand (?).

THE STELA E

At top and both sides, painte d only; outer edge (bl), inner edge (y),
coloured rectangles of (b), (r), (y), and (bl). Dividi ng lines under inscrip
tion
A and between B 2 and objects (bl), between B 1 and B 2 (y).

BORDE R:

INSCR IPTION S:
A.

B.

One line at top +--, continued in B, (g)


Two columns at right +-~, (g).

TRANS LATION :

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mount ain, who
is in
the place of embalming,
B. (1) lord of the necropolis; funera ry offerings of bread
and beer for the Count ,
Sole Companion, (2) the honor ed SIJ?
A.

COMME NTARY:
A.

Thefis headless.
The name is appare ntly r~~.JJ~, althoug h the second sign looks
more like a headless f. In Stela 63 (also from this tomb) the writing is shorten ed
to
~~, which
tends to confirm the reading 81J. On the \vooden coffin found in
this tomb (Exped ition
Reg. 23-I2-1 76), while the name appears on the lid as r=~~,
in which the second
sign might perhap s be taken for a badly made -';-, the reading -<>= seems
to be confirmed by
the short version of the name used on both sides and both ends, where
it is simply written
with the two signs t~. I know of no recorde d instance of -=, or
a similar sign placed
vertically, having the value SiJ, and have no satisfactory explanation
of the matter to offer.

B 2.

r=

15. M.F.A .25.67 1. S.F.52 4.


PI. IX, 1.
Figures and objects in relief, inscription sunk; remains of colour.
Poor condition. 44.0 X460.
Stela 16 is from the same tomb.
SCENE : Lower left; standi ng man and woma n --7.
MAN: Full wig (b), collar (?), pointe d kilt (w), flesh
(r); holding staff (y) in left
hand and wand (y) in right hand.
WOMA N: Long wig with lappet on chest (b), collar
(y), dress indicated at base
but not coloured, entire body (y); left arm over man's left should
er, right
arm hanging.
OBJECT S: Below inscrip tion C, in front of man; ribs
(r), leg (r), dead bird (?),
animal head (y) with curving horn (b), oval object (?), gazelle head
(?), two
baskets (y) their tops (w), triang ular sunk areas at either side (r), on a
stand (?).
28

THE STELAE

Painted only, at top and right side; outer edge (y), inner edge (r),
coloured rectangles of (b), (r), (y). Lines under A, at left of B, and under C 2
(y), between C I and C 2 (r).

BORDER:

INSCRIPTIONS:

One line at top +--, no colour, continued in B


One column at right ~, no colour.
c. Two short lines over objects -<-, no colour.

A.
B.

TRANSLATION:

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis who is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis;
B. funerary offerings of bread and beer for the Count, Sole Companion,
1nl:zrt-nbt.
C. (I) His beloved wife (2) the honoured 1nl:zrt-iml.

A.

COMMENTARY:

In the name the second sign is L the missing leg being just discernible in paint on the
original.
c 1. In both cases the f is headless.
C 2. The penultimate sign represents the tree il1LJ.

B.

16. M.F.A.25.672. S.F.524.

PI. IX, 2.

Sunk relief, remains of colour. 48.0 X525.


Stela 15 is from the same tomb.
Lower centre; standing man and woman ~.
MAN: Full wig and beard (b), three necklaces, the upper and lower (g), the
middle one (?), bracelets and anklets (?), pointed kilt with diagonal (w), flesh
(1'); holding staff (r) in left hand, and wand (y) in right hand, which also
grasps woman's left hand.
WOMAN: Long wig without lappet (b), the back of the head being also outlined,
two? necklaces (?), bracelets and anklets, that on right wrist (g), the others (?),
dress indicated at base, but dress and flesh both (y); left hand grasped in man's
right, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: Small group to right of upper end of staff; dead bird? (?), joint (r),
unidentified objects on a stand (?).
BORDER: None. Framing lines of inscriptions painted only; outside top and
right (r), all others (y), under the figures (y).

SCENE:

THE STELA E
INSCRI PTIONS :

One line at top +-, no colour, contin ued in B


B. Two columns at right~, no colour.
c. One column at left --E--~, no colour.
D. One and a half lines above figures +-, no colour
.
A.

TRANS LATION :

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubi s (and) Osiris, lord of Busiri
s in
all his beautiful places;
B. (r) funera ry offerings of bread and beer for the
Hered itary Noble , Count ,
Overseer of the Temp le, Privy Councillor (2) of the God's Sealer
in the
(t [mkt, the honou red 'In-itJ.
c. His beloved wife, Prophetess of Hatho r, Sole Royal Ornam ent,
Snt-iJ j.
D. A thousa nd bread and beer, ... , ... , cattle, gazelle
s, a thousa nd (of) everything for the honou red 'In-itj (and) Snt-sl j.
A.

COMME NTARY:

There is no trace of any sign incised or painted on the flint nodule


at the top. I read
the upper part of B 2 as follows: ~ 1,qu~~~, althoug h l,qu and
especia lly,:" are by
no means certain. Gardin er reads .-ll~ and thinks the second group
stands
for ~ or "-.JJ,
on
c::.
and refers to the examples collected by Lefebu re in P.S.B. A. XIII,
pp. 453-4. See also
Wtb. III, 119,2 to 7. I suggest 'offering store-c hambe r'.

B 2.

Cl

Cl

17. M.F.A . 25.673. S.F.2 53.


PI. X, 1.
Sunk relief, few traces of colour. 47.6 X 36'2.
Broken in two pieces (parts missing). These were found one in Cham
ber A
and one fallen into Pit F of the partially plund ered tomb. Stela r2 is
from the
same tomb.
SCENE : Lower left; standi ng woma n -----.
WOMA N: Long wig with lappet on chest (?), collar?
(?), close-fitting dress with
shoulder-straps (?), flesh (?); holding flower (?) to face in left hand,
right arm
hanging.
OBJECT S: In front of woma n; dead bird (r), calf's
head (?), leg (r), onions? (?),
ribs? (r), table (?) on which are still visible two jars (r). Beneath the
table is
a vase (?) in a basin (?).
BORDE R: At top and both sides; band between incised
lines with no trace of
colour remaining.
INSCR IPTION S:
A.

Three lines at top

I.

+-,

contin ued in B. Trace s of (r) as follows:

det. Osiris, fjd, hand; A 2. bnt, det. Khenti -Amen tiu, beer-ja r, s; A 3.
s, S, s, mJ, imJb.

30

THE STELAE

Two columns at

B.

B
C.

1.

r, rJ; B

2.

right~,

traces of (r) as follows:

J:zs-vase, s, s, nw-jar, s, brw, hand, s.

One and a half lines over figure and objects

~,

no colour.

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which [the king] (gives), (and) Anubis (and) Osiris, (2)
Khenti-Amentiu, lord of Abydos; funerary offerings of bread and beer for
her in (3) her tomb of the cemetery of the western desert, in honour
B. (1) before the great god, lord of heaven, Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of
Hathor, (2) whom her mistress praises every day, Sdt-its.
c. Bread and beer a thousand, cattle a thousand, fowls a thousand, 'alabaster' a
thousand, clothing a thousand, for the Royal Ornament Sdt-its.
COMMENTARY:
A 1.

Dj omitted.

The terminal s of the name has the upper right corner preserved (r).
c. The calf's head is reversed.
B 2.

18. M.F.A. 25.674. S.F. 5003.


Crude sunk relief, no colour. 4.0 X 36+

PI. X, 2.

Lower left; standing man --'>-.


MAN: Hair not indicated, pointed kilt with diagonal and pleating indicated; the
two arms held forward as in prayer or to receive offerings.
OBJECTS: None.
BORDER: None. Incised lines dividing registers of inscription were added after
the inscriptions were cut.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Three lines at top ~.


Three columns at right ~.
c. One line above figure *-.
D. One column in front of figure +-{, incised only.
A.

B.

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain;
funerary offerings of bread and beer [for the honoured one?] (2) before Osiris,
lord of Abydos, the Companion, Overseer of Ma[sons], (3) 1rrj?, his good
name before Ptah Sokar (is) 1r ....
B. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) the great god, lord of heaven;
31

THE STELA E

that he be well buried in his tomb (2) of the cemetery of the beauti
ful west
bread and beer a thousa nd?? (3) for the Companion, Overseer of
Masons,
.~ l'
. 'lr ....
c. 1rrJ.,
lIS goo d name IS
D. An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubi s
upon his mount ain; funerary
offerings of bread and beer (for) the Companion.
COMME NTARY:

The first group in A I is commo n also to B 1.


At end doubtle ss read n ZtnJt1W.
A 2. At end ~ ~ [flJ is legible, and I sugges t
comple tion \vith plural strokes instead of the
fuller form used in B 3.
A 3. Read ~:1~(1:::. The 'good name'
here and in C is perhap s ~:::~: cf. LangeSchafer, Index, 93, and Ranke, Personennanzen, 41,1.
B 2. Read ~ 1~ and perhap s 1. The latter
is doubtfu l, but I can see no other satisfactory
interpr etation .
D. The sign preced ing smr is the det. of the previou
s group. The name was not added,
either becaus e the figure to the left replaced it, or because the writing
in C \vas conside red
sufficient.
B--D. The ends of these four column s are comple
te, for the breaks are older than the inscrip tions which are, in part, inscrib ed over them.
A I-B I.

A 1.

19. M.F.A .25.67 5. S.F.50 38.

PI. XI, 1.
Sunk relief, a few traces of colour. 4IOX327.
Mud-b rick ma~taba tomb similar to that shown in PI. I, 2, and Fig.
4 on p. 8.
SCENE : Lower left; standi ng woma n --+.
WO;vIA N: Long wig or natura l hair (one trace
of bl sic I), collar, bracelets and
anklets, close-fitting dress with (perhaps) should er-stra ps; arms hangin
g.
OBJECT S: Mirro r before face of figure.
BORDE R: Incise d rectangles at top (no colour): incised
lines dividing registers of
inscription, put in after the inscriptions.
INSCRI PTIONS :

One line at top <-, no colour ; continued in B


B. Three columns at right -<--{, colour only on the
following:
B I. rid (r); n 3. tlll (r); continu ed in C
C. One line over figures -<-, no colour ; contin ued in
D
D. One colum n in front of figure <~, no colour.
A.

TRANS LATION :
A.

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis who is in the place
of embalming,

THE STELAE

B. (1) lord of the necropolis, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, Khenti-Amentiu, lord
of (2) Abydos; funerary offerings of bread and beer for her in her tomb (3) of
the cemetery of the western desert, the honoured one before the great god,
lord of heaven,
c. Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor,
D. I:;.njt, her good name is Mr-rns.
COMMENTARY:
B I.

At the end of the line I read '\lJ 'C7

c. Almost illegible, but apparently :VQ' ~ ~ 1~ .


The name is not quite clear, but I read Ll ,~ ,: Cf. Wtb. v, 52, 13, perhaps meaning 'the
yellow one'?

D.

PI. XI, 2.
20. M.F.A.25.676. S.F. 5202.
Crude sunk relief, remains of colour. Upper right corner broken and
mended, in part missing; upper left and lower right corners broken away.
50 '2 X900.
Compare for style with Stelae 45 and 65.
SCENE: Lower part of stone; at left, man and woman seated on chair -,., at right,
two male attendants~.
MAN: Full wig (?), collar (bl), kilt (y),! flesh (?); holding cylindrical cup (bl) to
mouth in left hand, right hand on knee.
WOMAN: Close-fitting wig or hair (?), collar (?), dress (w), flesh (y) ; left arm over
man's left shoulder, right hand above lap.
1ST ATTENDANT: Short hair (?), pointed kilt (y), flesh (r); presenting leg (r) with
both hands, advancing and inclining slightly forward.
2ND ATTENDANT: Head missing, collar (bl), pointed kilt (y), flesh (r); holding
incomplete cylindrical object (bl) in left hand, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: Chair (y) wide with low back and lion's feet resting on conical supports
(w); table (bl) on which stand eight conventionalized loaves, alternately (bl)
and (y).
BORDER: None. No dividing lines preserved.
INSCRIPTIONS:
A. One and a half lines at top ~, some signs incomplete or missing, as follows:

:t[ ~ ~~R):=

~Jv <~J ~~~ 1;:Ef[~ ITi::1

~~m~1~J~wq.
I

The yellow used on this stela has a strong brownish tinge.

33

THE STELAE

The colours are as follows:


A I. nsw, ~ltP (bl), dj (r), Anubis tail (bl), base (r), tjwj (y), tJ (?), gsr (r), 1.~ (bl), r (r), harpoon (bl), s (r), sarcophagus andf(y), m (y and ?), in cemetery the n1r (bl), the br (r), s (r),
t (bl), det. smjt (y), feather and two t's (bl), det. (y), the jar in pr-brw (r), the rest (?), n (?),
f (y). A 2. Bee; antennae, wings, and abdomen (y), thorax (bl), Stj1Wtj (bl), 1:z~ (bl), (zt (?),
s(r), mr (bl), WJ (r), t and stroke (bl), 1:z (bl), 3 (y),g (r),j (?).
B.

Two columns at left ~, coloured as follows:


D 1.1:zmt (bl),J (y), mr and r (r), t (?),J (y), i and m1 (?), inull (r),

lz (?), w (y), t (?).

D 2.

J.lHzr; the hawk (bl), the area within the house (y), n1r (bI), lun (y), mr and r (r), the rest( ?).

c. Two short lines over table -i>-, as follows:


C 1. Five 'thousand' -signs (bI). C
rest (?).

2.

The jar (r), the nb and bird-head? at end (r), the

TRANSLATION:

An offering which the king gives, (and) [Anubis upon] his [mountain,
lord] of the necropolis; that he be buried I in the cemetery of the western
desert; funerary offerings of bread and beer for him, (2) Chancellor of the
King of Lower Egypt, Mayor, Sole Companion, Jf!gj.
B. (I) His beloved wife, the honoured (2) Prophetess of Hathor, Mry.
c. A thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand fowls?, a
thousand everything?
A. (I)

COMMENTARY:

The tail of Anubis (whose body is missing) is abnormally long, extending into line 2
between Wand
c. The sign under 'thousand' next to last at right is apparently a bird-head, the last sign
below at right being nb for lzt nb.
A 1.

r.

ADDITIONAL NOTE:

An inscribed wooden coffin found in this tomb gives an additional series of titles for
!:f1gj. I have examined a clear photograph, as well as a hand copy furnished by W. S.
Smith of Dr. Reisner's staff. The titles on the right side read:
"t11'mnQ.6.-),

~'),o.A),LJ);:w

);:w>=s~

~g:ulldIIL~ 1<:>~~<=>~];f<:>Q I~l~ol

-=o--l]fl,~ffi~

imj-r1 sn1 we have also in Stela 55 (twice). I suggest that this title is compounded with snl of
TVtb. IV, 519, 3; 'to quarrel', 'dispute verbally', and offer the tentative translation 'Arbitrator', i.e. 'Overseer of quarrelling'. In a fragmentary stcla of Dynasty XI from Dcr-elBallas now in Boston (25.680) a similar title occurs in association with others of a judicial
I Probably defective writing for the passive in t.
Reisner informs me that the same omission of t
occurs in well-made inscriptions of the Old Kingdom at Giza, and that the offering formulae even

there are often defectively written, even when


beautifully executed. I assume, therefore, that in
meaning all cases are passive.

34

THE STELAE

and police nature, and I transcribe the pertinent passage here for its general interest as
well as for comparison:
). ~ =~). 9~,,,~ lft y;;;;: y =).~ N--ThJ' I I IO\l.o~
<:::::-

MM'.

<:::>

f'.N'HW\

.:J:!j..1t 'C7 <:::::>

f'I'N'N'"

"'-:::::>

'.1i'

lrA

":::7

'Overseer of all Controversies, Overseer of all Police on water and land, Overseer of all
Huntsmen of the West (Frontier Guards?).'
imj-rJ ms, 'Overseer of Soldiers'.
imj-rJ kmt dsrt mJi 'True Overseer of Black and Red Cattle'.
i1l1j-rJ wrS(w?) nw appears to be meaningless unless we may suppose that the scribe has
written wrsw for wrsw, 'watchers', a suggestion which I put forward tentatively: this
would give a translation 'Overseer of Watchmen of the Hunting Ground ?'.
imj-rJ snj-tl nb n spt 'Overseer of all Plants (Crops?) of the Nome.'

21. M.F.A.25.677. S.F. 5125, thieves' debris.


PI. XII, 1.
Sunk relief, traces of colour. Broken and mended, lower left corner missing.
64'0 X820.
SCENE: Lower left; standing woman -.
WOMAN: Full wig with heavy short lappet on chest (b), face (y), collar of four
strands with pendants (r), (?), (r), (?), pendants (r), bracelets (?), close-fitting
dress (?); holding flower (?) to nose in left hand, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: Lower right part of field; six conventionalized loaves (y) but no table:
below; colour not preserved; onions?, leg, calf's head, dead bird, and two
cakes on a stand: to left, a tall jar on a stand: under the stand of offerings;
apP'<J.rently a bs-vase in a basin (?).
BORDER: None. Heavily sunk lines dividing registers of inscription; lines under
A 2 and behind B 2 and B 6 are (r), the others without preserved colour.
INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Two lines at top -<-, continued in B. Some signs retain colour as follows:

A
B.

I.

dj, tpj, and gsr (r), gw (y). A

2.

ga, hand, and b (r).

Six columns at right -<--t. Some signs retain colour as follows:

B 2. sp and 1; (r). B 3. Second boat (r). B 4. n1;t, ,and stroke, det. nlr, r, and second is
(r). B 5. w,b, b, 1;rw, jar, and w, (r). B 6. ml, ll, iml1;, and the group br (r).

c. One and a half lines over figure +-L colour as follows:


the second sign 'thousand',

~,jar,

calf's head, and bird (r).

TRANSLATION:
A.

(1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; funerary offerings of
bread and beer; (2) (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris Khenti-Amentiu. lord of
Abydos;

35

THE STELAE

(I) funerary offerings of bread and beer for her in her tomb of the cemetery
(2) of the western desert, in peace, in peace before the great god; (3) may she
join the earth, may she traverse the heavens, (4) may she be conducted by the
great god, lord of heaven, to his pure (s) places; funerary offerings of bread
and beer for the Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor, in honour
before the gods of Thinis, -Iflw[j?].
c. A thousand of bread, a thousand of beer, a thousand of cattle, a thousand of
fowls for the Sole Royal Ornament, -Iflw[j?J.

B.

COMMENTARY:

The last sign is unclear: I take it to be the house det.


3. On this formula see the translation and comment of H. Kees in his Totenglauben und
Jenseits-vorstellungen der alten Aegypter, pp. 164-5. He dates its first appearance to about
the Sixth Dynasty. Read at end J ~ ~ =, the heavenly waters traversed by the dead:
Wtb. I, 439, 8.
B 4. The opening phrase I have translated somewhat freely, 'may she be conducted by' &c.
Gunn suggests that the first sign is to be read ssp, and would translate 'may her hand be
taken (i.e. received) by' &c. The sign is here apparently ~, but compare its occurrence in
Stelae 24, 25, and 41. That Gunn's suggestion is correct is proven by the occurrence of
the phrase on the lid of coffin C from Tomb S.F. 526 (Expedition Reg. 23-12-186),
where the writing is ~~. The form of the sign is not given in Gardiner's fount, but
is that figured in Wtb. IV. 530, sixth line on the right, last sign.
At end of column read <= ~]]~:.
B 5. At end read
~
the ~ being almost indistinguishable from ~ and ,.
c. A single m serves for the four groups: the third item I take to be a calf's head, and the
fourth a bird on its back.
B I.

1 "',

22. M.F.A.2S.678. S.F. SI28.

PI. XII, 2.

Figure, objects, and door in relief, inscription sunk; traces of colour. Much
decayed. SI3XS2O.
Style and arrangement very similar to Stela 10.
Lower left; seated woman ->-.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest (lappet completed in paint ?), collar,
bracelets and anklets, no indication of dress; holding lotus to face in left hand,
right hand on knee.
OBJECTS: Chair: low back with cushion thrown over it, lion's legs standing on
conical bases. Offerings: in front of figure, at left; three pointed oval objects
alternating with two bunches of vegetables (onions ?), dressed bird, bunch of
onions?, oval object, leg, two? basins on a stand. At right; oval object, leg,

SCENE:

36

THE STELAE

unclear object, basket, four indeterminate objects, joint, and a dead bird.
Door: double leaves with hinges and bolt indicated, incised eye on each leaf.
BORDER: At top and both sides, painted only; traces of (r) rectangles alone
preserved.
INSCRIPTIONS:

Two lines at top -E-.


One line over door and offerings

A.

B.

-E-.

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, (and)
Anubis; funerary offerings of <beer and> bread for (2) the Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor, the honoured (nb-n s-ppy.
B. A thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand fowls,
a thousand everything good.
COMMENTARY:

Owing to the position of Anubis' tail the loaf under pr-brw has been placed at the left,
and the jar has been omitted entirely.

A I.

PI. XIII, 1.
23. M.F.A. 25.679. S.F. Debris in ravine above Cemetery 4000.
Sunk relief, remains of colour. 54'5 X430.
SCENE: Lower left; standing man and woman --)..
MAN: Full wig (b), collar (?), pointed kilt (w), flesh (r); holding staff, painted
only (y), in left hand, right arm hanging. Upper part of face, ear, collar, and
belt were painted only and not carved.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet (painted only) on chest (b), collar (?), close-fitting
skirt from below breasts to ankles (w),flesh(y) ; left hand on man's left shoulder,
right arm hanging. Upper part of face and ear painted only and not carved.
OBJECTS: Painted only; now visible only a basket (y) to left of man's legs; in
other places indeterminate traces of (r).
BORDER: At top and both sides, painted only; coloured rectangles of (r), (b), and
(y) between (b) lines. Lines between registers of inscription (r); below figures
(b) and two incised lines. A single incised line outside the border at top and
both sides.
INSCRIPTIONS:

Two lines at top -E-, no colour ; continued in B


One column at right +{, no colour.
c. Short line under A 2 *-, no colour.

A.

B.

37

THE STELAE
TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, (2)
who is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis, in his beautiful
places;
B. funerary offerings of bread and beer, for the Sole Companion, in honour
before the great god, Inbrt-blp.
c. His beloved wife, Sole Royal Ornament, Sbtt-l~?rt.
COMMENTARY:
A.

B.

The is throughout are headless.


I read ~ If, with the possibility of one or more signs under the

F=J.

c. The name appears to be QM:~~; unrecorded as far as I know.

Stelae numbers 24 to 52 following are published by Henry F. Lutz in his


Egyptian Tomb Steles and Offering Stones of the Museum of Anthropology and
Ethnology of the University of California; University of California Publications,
Egyptian Archaeology, vol. IV, Leipzig, 1927, and are referred to here by his
numbers. The reader is referred to the plates in Dr. Lutz's publication, except in
the few instances where the excavator's photographs give a more adequate record.
For notes on measurements, colour, &c., see Lutz's Description of Material
(pp. 15-22), since the stones themselves have not been available to me.

24. Lutz 18. N. 101 I.


SCENE: Lower left; standing woman -)-.
WOMAN: Close-fitting wig, collar?, bracelets and anklets, close-fitting dress not
defined above; holding lotus to face with left hand, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: In front of woman, below left arm; dead bird, ribs?, joint, leg, group of
indeterminate objects on table, and three tall jars under table.
BORDER: None preserved. Incised lines dividing registers of inscription.
INSCRIPTIONS:

One line at top +--, continued in B


B. Eight columns at right -<-i.
c. Over and behind figure +-to

A.

TRANSLATION:

An offering which the king gIves, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, KhentiAmentiu, lord of Aby[dosJ;
B. (I) funerary offerings of bread and beer for her in her to[ mb of the cemetery
of the] (2) western desert; may she join the earth, may she traverse (3) the
A.

38

THE STELAE

heavens, may she be conducted by the great god to [his] pure (4) places, in
honour before [the great god], (5) lord of heaven; praised of [her] father, (6)
beloved of her mother, whom her brothers (7) and sisters love; Prophetess of
Hathor, (8) Sole Royal Ornament, ']nt-its, born? of ']mr (Mrj ?).
c. A thousand bread and beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand fowls for the Royal
Ornament [,]n ]t-its.
COMMENTARY:

3. Compare Stela 21, B 4 and commentary thereon.


5-6. Note the reversal of the usual formula, 'beloved of her father, praised of her mother'.
B 7. 'Brothers and sisters' by the determinatives and addition of the feminine t; plural
strokes omitted.
B 8. After the det. following the name is an unclear sign which I interpret as m!i. The reading of the mother's name is uncertain.
c. The first element of the name is largely missing.
B
B

25. Lutz 19. N.3IIO.


Lower left; seated woman --.
WOMAN: Close-fitting wig, collar?, close-fitting dress with shoulder-straps;
holding lotus before face with left hand, right hand over knee.
OBJECTS: Chair with low back and lion's legs resting on conical bases. To right of
figure; dead bird, onions?, leg, ribs, indeterminate group including a row of
loaves on a table.
BORDER: None preserved. Incised lines dividing registers of inscription.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Two lines at top ~, continued in B


B. One column to left of figure -<-to
c. Seven columns at right +{.
A.

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, KhentiAmentiu, lord of Abydos; (2) funerary offerings of bread and beer for her
in her tomb of the cemetery of the western desert, the honoured one before the
great god,
B. lord of heaven, Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor, Nbt-itf.
c. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is
in the place of embalming, (2) lord of the necropolis, in front of the god's
booth; that she be very (3) well buried in her tomb (4) of the cemetery of the
western desert; may she join the earth, (5) may she traverse the heavens, may
39

THE STELAE

she be conducted (6) by the great god to <his) pure places; the honoured one
(7) before the Thinite gods, Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Rathor,
Nbt-itf
26. Lutz 20. N.3915.
Compare with Stela 57 which is from the same tomb, belongs to the same
person, and is closely similar in style and inscription.

Lower left; standing woman -+.


WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest, collar, bracelets? and anklets, dress
from below breasts to mid-calves; both arms hanging.
OBJECTS: Painted only, to right of figure; leg, onions?, two fiat loaves?, various
vessels on a stand, ~s-vase, two animal heads, and a dressed bird.
BORDER: At top and both sides, painted only; coloured rectangles. Painted
dividing lines between registers of inscription.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

B.

Two lines at top -<0-- continued in B


Two columns at right~.

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, (2) KhentiAmentiu, lord of Abydos,
B. (1) in all his places; funerary offerings of bread and beer for the Sole Royal
Ornament, (2) Prophetess of Rathor, the honoured Mryt.
COMMENTARY:

Note the det. ~. Khenti-Amentiu occurs on twenty-one of the stelae here published,
and is written riIWIr~, riIWI::t~, r~Dt~~ and the like; the group ~ being present
in all cases. Five instances occur where ~ has been added (Stelae 26, 57,67,7, and 76).
Such a determinative is not given for the word in TVtb.-it has, I suggest, been wrongly
introduced through association with t~, and may be regarded as a step in the transition

A 2.

to the riIWI::~~ of the Eighteenth Dynasty and later (cf. Wtb. I. 87, 13). See also
Gardiner in Rec. Trav., 1910, p. 10, R I4, for a similar use of the desert determinative.
I. Read ]Q!~; read ~+O:f7'

Note: For Lutz

21

see Stela 46.

27. Lutz 22. N.3794.


Fragment only.
N. 3794, according to the field records, although Lutz records it as coming

40

THE STELA E

d also
from N. 379 I (mistaken reading of a faded label?). N. 3794 yielde
Stelae 35 and 36.
SCENE : Centr e; standi ng woma n - T .
tion of clothi ng; left arm
WOMA N: Long wig witho ut lappet , collar, no indica
it as
raised, perhap s holding a mirror , right arm hanging with large (no below
if held in the hand.
are legible.
OBJECT S: In colum n to left of figure; four vases only
lines between registers of inBORDE R: None preser ved. Heavy sunk dividing
scription, and to left of figure.
INSCR IPTION S:

Two incomplete columns at right +{.


One incomplete column in front of figure +{.

A.
B.

TRANS LATION :

A. (I) ... lord of heaven, praised of Hatho r ...


(2) ... [beloved of?] her father? (and) her mothe r? ,
Sole Royal Ornam ent, Prophetess of Hatho r .. .
a thousa nd, everything good
B. Beer a thousa nd, cattle? a thousa nd, ... ? ...
for the Sole Royal Ornam ent ...
COMME NTARY:

Note the unusua l form of the ideogram 'heaven '.


ns is not clearly legible, but includes two
2. The group preced ing the two feminine pronou
' is intende d, as in
seated human figures: probab ly 'beloved of her father and her mother
Stela 28, column B.

A 1.
A

ally illegible.
Note: For Lutz 23 see Stela 38. Lutz 24 is omitte d as it is practic

28. Lutz 25. N.203 2.


Lower centre ; standing man -+.
collar, bracelets and anklets
MAN: Full wig with outline of head also indicated,
hand.
(paint ed only), pointe d kilt; holding staff in left hand and wand in right
and several unclear objects
OBJECT S: In front of figure, upper right; dead bird
on a stand.
rs of inscription
BORDE R: None. Trace s of painte d lines dividing registe

SCENE :

INSCR IPTION S:
A.
B.

Three lines at top ~, contin ued in B


One column at left +-{.
G

THE STELAE
TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, (2)
who is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; funerary offerings
of bread and beer for (3) the Count, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt,
in honour before the [great] god,
B. lord of heaven, beloved of his father and mother, Ppy-imJ.
COMMENTARY:

Thefis headless, as also in B.


Note the writing }~} which Gunn has suggested may give the full reading of this
word.
B. Read \~~~ ~~~J1.
A I.

A 2.

29. Lutz 26. N.3567.


Incised figure and inscriptions. Crude; broken and mended.
SCENE: Lower left; standing man __ .
MAN: Full wig, collar?, long pointed kilt through which the legs are visible;
holding staff in left hand and wand in right hand.
OBJECTS: None.
BORDER: None. No dividing lines.
INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Three lines at top

~,

continued in B, as follows:

+~Lir;~~~+}G::;:~
<,~J~r=;~*~~~~~1~
B.

~~~:~~>~}.!.I~
Five short lines at right ~, continued in C, as follows:

(I) CP~I~ (2)

2JO??G::5

(3) ~~rf~

(4) ~5::2 rWi1 [~l (5) .~:~~ I Sf


c. Three columns to left of B +{, as follows:
(I) ~>~}UU[.jA (2) ~U~A"-~
(3) r~4
TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; (2) that he be well buried
42

THE STELAE

in his tomb of the cemetery (3) in the western desert as an honoured one
before the great god;
B. (1) funerary offerings of bread and beer, a thousand of (2) cattle, gazelles?,
fowls, bread and beer for (3) the Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt,
Sole Companion, (4) Overseer of Tenants of the Great House, (5) Overseer
of living? Sacred Black? Cattle,
c. (1) the honoured (one), praised of his father, (2) beloved of his mother, (3)

Sf!rj.
COMMENTARY:

The second head is that of an animal with single long back-sloping horn.
4- The damaged sign under s is undoubtedly ~ .
B 5. The first sign in the ,vord which I have translated 'black cattle' is probably a bungled
form of km. The last sign I interpret as (nb, preceded by a stroke, though the latter might
either belong to the previous sign or be accidental. The sign might also be 'thousand', as
it is very similar to that sign in B I; if so the title would read 'Overseer of the Thousand
Sacred Black Cattle'.
C 2. Note the peculiar form of mwt. The det. represents a woman seated on a chair.
B 2.
B

30. Lutz 27. N. 3746.

PI. XIII, 2.
Fragments are shown in the Expedition photograph (PI. XIII, 2) which are

missing in Lutz's plate; the inscription, however, is better read from the
latter.
Lower part of stone; left, standing man -----0.; centre, objects; right, standing
woman+-.
MAN: Full wig, collar, bracelets, pointed kilt; holding staff in left hand and
wand in right hand.
WOMAN: Partly destroyed; long wig without lappet, collar, close-fitting dress
with shoulder-straps; holding mirror before face in right hand?, left arm
hanging.
OBJECTS: Partly destroyed; table with loaves, ribs, leg, joint, two tall jars on
stands; the rest unclear or missing.
BORDER: None. Incised and painted lines dividing registers.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

B.

Two lines at top +-, the name at end of A


Two short lines over offerings +-.

being vertical.

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is
43

THE STELAE

in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; (2) funerary offerings of


bread and beer for the Count, Overseer of Serfs?, Tm-mrry.
B. (r) His beloved wife, Royal Ornament, (2) St-nt-in~rt.
COMMENTARY:
A

r~~l~l in Wtb.

2.

IV,

147,2, 'lowly people', perhaps serfs. I do not know the title.

31. Lutz 28. N. ?


The tomb number is not given by Lutz, and there is no Expedition photograph of this stone available.

Lower left; standing woman --.


WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest and relief details, collar, bracelets and
anklets, close-fitting dress with shoulder-straps; holding up mirror in left
hand, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: Scattered to right of figure; jar on stand, leg, ribs, calf's head, basket
containing three round loaves, basket containing six small pots?, large jar on
a stand.
BORDER: At top and both sides, incised; rectangles divided by groups of four
cross-lines. Incised lines dividing registers of inscription.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.
B.

Four lines at top +-.


Two columns at right <:-.t.

TRANSLATION:

(r) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is
in the place of embalming, lord of the (2) necropolis; funerary offerings of
bread and beer for the Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor, the
honoured (one), (3) beloved of Hathor beautiful of favour? more than multitudes??, imjt-wrt-(Priestess) (4) in the midst of the Noblewomen, St-nt-in~rt.
B. (r) That which made the Count, Sole Companion, Lector-Priest, IJnj. A
thousand of bread and beer, a thousand cattle, (2) a thousand fowls, a thousand of everything for the Sole <Royal Ornament), Prophetess of Hathor, his
beloved wife St-nt-in~rt.

A.

COMMENTARY:
A

PJ?O

3. Translation doubtful:
~ I take to be an epithet of Hathor. For <=>g! Gardiner
has suggested to me 'more than multitudes?', but expresses himself as very doubtful; I
cannot improve on this suggestion, which would make the phrase an amplification of the
preceding epithet. f~ according to Wtb. I, 73, 8 is used sometimes for groups of func-

44

THE STELA E

in the Old Kingdo m.


rary priests, as it is also for ships crews and gangs of stone workers
wr.
is
bird
the
The word could be read imj-ngSt, but I think
e in form.
4. Read spswt, 'noblew omen'; the first sign and the det. are both feminin
also the abbreNote
the group
2. Note Witt; the scribe having carelessly omitted
nt, because of lack of
viated writing of 'his beloved \'life' and the insertio n to one side of
space at the end of the line.

to'

32. Lutz 29. N.372 3.


doubtless
The Exped ition records give tomb N. 3723, but Lutz gives N. 3728,
due to mis-reading of a faded label on the stone.
SCENE : Lower left; standi ng man-+ .
MAN: Full wig, collar, pointe d kilt; arms hanging.
OBJECT S: None.
BORDE R: None.
INSCRI PTIONS :
A.
B.

One short line at top ""-, contin ued in B


One column at right *i.

TRANS LATION :

A.
B.

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis


t(?).
upon his moun tain; funerary offerings of bread and beer for 1rw-km

COMMENTARY:

comme nting on the


Note the abnormal form of the det. of pr-brw. Professor Ranke, in
v, 125,6) ; the
(Wtb.
cattle
name, points out that it contains that of the sacred black
transla tion of the name is unclear.
bears the name 0 0 ~ ~
Note: The inscrib ed coffin from one of the two pits in this tomb
B.

r'J

:=~~o~

33. Lutz 30. N. 4748.


Dynastic
See Lutz, op. cit., Annotations, 8 (p. 12), referring to Mace, Early
of the
graph
Cemeteries of Naga-ed-Der. Cf. also ibid., PI. 56, c, for a photo
dates
stone with more colour preserved than is shown in Lutz's plate. Mace
the stela to Dynasties VI-IX .
SCENE : Lower left; standi ng woma n -:..
with should er-stra ps; holdWOMA N: Close-fitting wig or hair, collar, tight dress
ing lotus to face in left hand, right arm hanging.
45

THE STELAE

To right of figure; dead bird, leg, onions, ribs?, various ill-defined


vessels? on a table: below table at left; spouted vase in a basin.
BORDER: At top and both sides; parallel incised lines, originally framing coloured
rectangles now faded out. Incised lines dividing registers of inscription.

OBJECTS:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Two lines at top -<'-, continued in B


B. Two columns at right -E-{.
c. Two lines in field above offerings -<'-.
A.

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis, (and) Osiris, lord of
Busiris, Khenti-Amentiu, (2) lord of Abydos; funerary offerings of bread and
beer (for) the honoured one before the great god,
B. (I) King's Noblewoman, Prophetess of Hathor, Foremost of Adornments?,
(2) Smjt-kJ, her good name is Mrjt.
c. Bread a thousand, beer a thousand, cattle a thousand, fowls? a thousand,
everything good a thousand.
COMMENTARY:
A 2.

B I.

The n after pr-brw has been carelessly omitted.


t A'" is the title of Wtb. IV, 449, 3, in the feminine gender. ~: B,~, I read bntt bkrt.

34. Lutz 31. N.3978.


The Expedition photograph of this fragment is marked N. 3978. Lutz's
statement (Annotations 9) that this stone is from 4748 or 4746 appears to be
based on the assumption that the woman is the same as the owner of Stela 33,
which is not the case, since the 'good names' are different. This stone belongs
to a man.
SCENE: Lower centre; seated man and woman ->.
MAN: Wig?, collar, short kilt; holding cylindrical cup to face in left hand, right
hand over lap.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest, collar?, bracelets and anklets, dress
with shoulder-straps; left hand on man's left shoulder, right hand above lap.
OBJECTS: Wide chair with low back and lion's legs; no others preserved.
INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

B.

Part of one line over figures -<'-.


Part of one column behind woman~.
46

THE STELAE
TRANSLATION:

[Hereditary Noble ?], True Count, Scribe ...


His [beloved] wife, [Sole?] Royal Orna[ment], Smjt-kJ, her good name is

B.

1r[~ ?].
COMMENTARY:

The group following ss is read nlr by Lutz, but what he takes for the phonetic complements are out of scale and wrongly grouped: I am not convinced that the initial sign is
nlr.
B. The 'good name' is partly incised on the fracture surface at the left, as is also the lower
part of the chair leg (an old break). I read clearly on the Expedition photograph ~ -=-- and
below the eye probably ?~. It is possible, however, that the name is simply Irt (cf. Ranke
op. cit. 40, 26).
A.

35. Lutz 32. N.3794.


Upper part of figure decayed away.
Stelae 27 and 36 are from the same tomb.
SCENE: Left; standing man ----+.
MAN: Head and neck missing, bracelets, pointed kilt; holding staff in left hand
and wand in right hand.
OBJECTS: Lower right; table with conventional loaves, two cakes, two vases with
flowers?, dead bird, long oval pointed objects, onions, leg, two basins on a
stand, ewer and basin under stand.
BORDER: None preserved.
INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

B.

Four lines at right +-.


One smaller line under A 4 +-.

TRANSLATION:

(r) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, (2) lord of the necropolis in all his beautiful
(3) places; funerary offerings of bread and beer for the Count, Chancellor of
the King of Lower Egypt, (4) Sole Companion, Mrw['j?], his good name
is 1y.
B. A thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand everything
good for the Count 1y.
A.

COMMENTARY:
A

3. Note the seal with upright loop, exceptional in these stelae.

47

THE STELA E

PI. XIV, 1.
36. Lutz 33 and 72. N. 3794.
Figure and small scenes at lower right in relief, inscriptions sunk.
man as
From the same tomb as Stelae 27 and 35, and belonging to the same
(his No.
the latter stone. The left end of this stela, given separately by Lutz
r). The
72), is shown in position in the Expedition photo graph (PI. XIV,
passed
stone was anciently broken and repaired with rawhide or metal ties
man's
the
en
(betwe
stone
throug h two sets of twin holes drilled throug h the
r and, in
right arm and body, and beside the head of the staff); see PI. XIV,
the large fragment, Lutz 33.
Left end; standing man -----7.
painte d diagonal; holding
MAN: Full wig, collar, bracelets, pointe d kilt with
staff in left hand and wand in right hand.
s: Upper left: conventional
OBJECT S: Lower right, four compa rtmen ts as follow
pourin g
loaves witho ut a table; man kneeling -(- at a table; standing man -(er in
e-burn
incens
g
with right hand from a bs-vase on to the table and holdin
0; standi ng man -(- wearing
left hand, above him inscription r~:J III
tion
leopard-skin, right arm outstr etched , left hanging, above him inscrip
and
ill =, in front @lJ ':J ~ ~. Upper right: offerings; vegetables, onions, long
and
joint,
,
vessels on a stand, dead bird, two calves' heads, floral pieces
a stand,
narrow ovals. Lower left: two baskets each containing five jars on
ng a
carryi
man
right:
below stand a ewer and basin, group of jars. Lower
, a
small animal over his should er ,,- and leading a hornless ox?; behind
ox
the
over
ption
Inscri
second man carrying a gazelle over his should er

SCENE :

r::

-0(-.

~--;4f\f~wH
BORDE R:

At top and both sides; coloured rectangles (faded).

INSCR IPTION S:

Four lines at top -(-.


smaller.
One line over scenes
c. Four captions in scenes; three lines -----7, and one column +-t.

A.

B.

-0(-,

TRANS LATION :

ain, who
(r) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mount
god's
the
of
front
in
is in the place of embalm[ing, lord of the necropolis],
lord
booth in all his places. (2) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris,
ry
funera
s;
Abydo
of Busiris, Khent i-Ame ntiu, [great god?], (3) lord of
anion
offerings of bread and beer for the Hered itary Noble, Count , Sole Comp
1y.
is
name
(4) Lector -Pries t, the honou red Mrw[j?], his good
cattle, a thousa nd fowls, a
B. A thousa nd bread, a thousa nd beer, a thousa nd

A.

48

THE STELAE

thousand alabaster ointment jars,! a thousand clothing, a thousand of everything good for the Hereditary Noble, Count, Sole Companion, Lector-Priest,
the honoured one before the gods of Thinis, 1y.
c. (I) Fire for incense. (2) Funerary offerings. (3) Lector-Priest, Overseer of
Scribes. (4) Bringing an ox, a goat, and a gazelle.
COMMENTARY:

In the gap supply certainly nb tl-gsr, the shoulder of gir being still preserved.
At end of line there is room for I ~ or Ji, either of which might be expected here.
A 4. Note the difference in spelling of the name here and in Stela 35.
c. For readings see above under 'Objects'. In (3) 'scribes' is perhaps ss mgJt with the book
roll, 'book-scribes'. In (4) the second animal wngw, a goat, (Wtb. I, 326, 3), is the creature
carried on the first man's shoulders. The ox iWJ is the animal in the centre.
A I.

A 2.

37. Lutz 34. N.3972.


A triangular surface chip near centre of right edge, missing in Lutz's plate, is
preserved in the Expedition photograph, supplying a few signs as noted in
the Commentary below.
SCENE: Lower centre and left; standing man and woman -r, and three offeringbearers -(-.
MAN: Wig (in part missing) with details in relief, beard, collar, bracelets, pointed
kilt; holding staff in left hand and wand in right hand.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest, details in relief, collar, bracelets and
anklets, close-fitting dress from below breasts to mid-calves; left arm crooked
around man's right elbow, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: To right of figures, above man's left arm; leg, ribs, calf's head, basket:
below arm; man -(- presenting a bird and a jar. To right of staff; basket,
undefined object, dead bird, six jars on a stand, man -(- holding a tray with
four objects?, vase with flowers on a ring-stand, basket with six pots, man -(with basket on head.
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles separated by groups of
incised lines. Incised lines dividing registers of inscription.
INSCRIPTIONS:

Seven lines at top -(-, continued in B


B. One column at right *1.
c. Inscription over woman
A.

00(-.

See Stela 7, Commentary on A 4.

49

THE STELAE
TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; funerary offerings of
bread and beer for the Hereditary Noble, Count, (2) Chancellor of the King of
Lower Egypt, Sole Companion, Lector-Priest, Nfr nbsj. Pronounce invocation-offerings for him at the wJg-Feast, at (3) the Feast of Thoth, at the
Going-forth-of-Min-Feast, on New Year's Day and the Beginning of the Year,
(and) at all good festivals for the Hereditary Noble, Count, the honoured (4)Nfr
nbsj. (He) says, I have gone forth from my house, I have gone down from my
nome, I have acted according to satisfaction?, (5) I have attained blessedness.
I am (one) who speaks good, repeats good, (and) acts rightly. Oh ye living
upon earth who love (life) (6) (and) abhor dying, who pass by this stela in
going downstream and in going upstream, (7) ye shall [give] to [me?] of that
which is in your hand, if (however) there is not (anything) in your hand, then
B. say ye with your mouth, a thousand of bread and beer, a thousand cattle, a
thousand fowls, a thousand of everything good for the Hereditary Noble,
Count, the honored Nfr nbsj.
c. His beloved wife, Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor,
the honoured ... j ?.
COMMENTARY:
A 2.

dd imperative.

3. Read}~, the cross-bars of nfr, as also in column B, have been omitted.

4. For fIJ~::Jt~~ cf. Wtb. IV, 97, 6. At end of line read


A 5.
cf. Wtb. Ill, 430, 5. ~ ~ &c. cf. Polotsky, Zu den Inschriften der I I Dynastic,
Par. 65, ii, and Wtb. v, 286, 7. At end of line undoubtedly rn!J is to be added.
A 7. Partially destroyed. The first two signs are on the fragment missing in Lutz's plate.
The first part of the line I restore thus: ~ ~ =::~~~=~ ~ Cf. Cairo, Stela 20003,
and for the rest of the line Polotsky, op. c:it., Par. 83. For ~<:>~~ cf. Wtb. I, 103,13.
For this line see also Stela 83, lines B 4 and 5.
B. Supply from the fragment above mentioned ::J~ at beginning. The n of In has been
omitted.
c. In the damaged portion below f appears the tip of a sign, apparently ~, and the name of
the wife probably stood here.
A

-;;=m;:.

38. Lutz 23 and 35. N.3907.


PI. XIV, 2.
The fragments Lutz 23 and 35, together with other fragments not illustrated
by him, are shown fitted together in the excavator's photograph PI. XIV, 2.
The hieroglyphs, very crudely made and difficult to read, are transcribed below.
50

THE STELAE

For the fragment Lutz 23 that author gives as provenance N. 3107, through
misreading of a faded excavator's mark. Stelae 46 and 74 are also from this
tomb. In addition there were found fragments of an inscribed wooden coffin
with the name Inbrt ... , probably the name missing from this stela.
Missing; probably was at lower left.
OBJECTS: In part missing; visible are onions or a bunch of vegetables, and a
table with unclear objects including a gazelle-head. Below this are two large
vessels.
BORDER: None preserved.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Three lines at top

+-,

as follows:

1 co A LD>-'! ff
T,b!iJ= lJ

B.

= JrIII!XI
rfiYn
~

~ il. \~

!{Wi
l' Jlll.,~

Five or more columns at lower right ""'-1, as follows:


(I) [J~~:::H~~"=-J~~= (2) [~~~~ Ji~
~=~~lJ~d=

(3)

[~J"=-=[~l~~~~J?Itl~

(4) :9.:~~?rn~J[?~illlJ?] (5) ~>[~J? ]!Ji!N.]


TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, KhentiAmentiu, (2) Anubis, lord of SP1, in front of the god's booth, Anubis upon his
mountain, who is in the place of embalming, (3) lord of the necropolis;
funerary offerings of bread and beer for him in his tomb [of the cemetery of
the western desert].
B. (I) [May hejoin the earth], may he traverse the heavens, (2) [may he be conducted by] the great god, lord of heaven, to the pure places, (3) [ ... ? ... ]
to the lord of heaven among the honoured ones ... , (4) the Hereditary Noble,
Count, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, [Sole] Companion, [LectorPriest?], (s) honoured before [the great god ...].
COMMENTARY:

Osiris abnormally written, apparently with one large eye: the identity of the god
intended is not in doubt. At end of line probably supply seated man with white crown
as determinative.
2. Note the unusual repetition of Anubis: the ideogram is hardly a det. of
but
rather a repetition of the god's name.

A I.

i@r!l,

SI

THE STELAE

39. Lutz 36. N. 3900, No. 4.


Figures and objects in relief, inscriptions sunk.
Five stelae were found in this tomb, as follows:
1. Stela 73, present location not known. Hereditary Noble, Count, Chancellor, Sole Companion, Lector, 1tj-rJ, and his wife Iftpt[1?J.
2. Stela 56, in Cairo. Hereditary Noble, Count, Chancellor, Sole Companion, Lector, General, name lost, and his wife, name lost.
3. Stela 40, in California (see Lutz, Annotations 13). Count, Sole Companion, General, 1n-itf-rJ, and his brother, the Count 1n-itf-srj.
4. Stela 39, in California. Hereditary Noble, Count, Sole Companion,
Lector, General of Upper and Lower Egypt, Htt1', good name 1tj, and
his wife Ifnyt.
5. Stela 58, in Cairo. A woman named Mrj.
It is obvious that this is a family group, in which the names 1tj and 1n-itf were
favoured for the men, who seem to have inherited the same set of titles. It is
also noteworthy that all except No. I are very like in style and workmanship.
Lower left; standing man and woman --0-.
MAN: Full wig and beard, collar, bracelet on left wrist, leopard skin tied over
left shoulder, pointed kilt, sandals; holding staff in left hand and wand in
right hand.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest, collar, bracelets and anklets (painted),
close-fitting dress not defined above; left arm over man's left shoulder, right
arm hanging.
OBJECTS: In front of figures; ribs, another joint, leg, calf's head, gazelle head,
bird's head, oval cake. To right; onions?, dead bird, rectangular cake. Below;
two baskets on a stand. In front of woman's face a mirror.
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

B.

One line at top -<-, continued in B


Four columns at right ~-t.

TRANSLATION:

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is
in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis in his beautiful
B. (I) places; funerary offerings of bread and beer for the Hereditary Noble,
Count, Sole (2) Companion, Lector-Priest, Overseer of Soldiers of Upper
and Lower Egypt, (3) the honoured lftt1', whose good name is 1tj. (4) His
beloved wife, Sole Royal Ornament, Ifnyt.
A.

52

THE STELAE
COMMENT ARY :

The /,s throughout are headless.


The title reads ~if~:t.t.
4. The wife's name reads L~ ~= ~ quite certainly in the field photograph.

A I.

B 2.
B

PI. XV, 1.
40. Lutz Annotations 13. N. 3900, No. 3.
Figure and objects in relief, inscriptions sunk. Dimensions and colouring
not available.
This stone is in California, mentioned in Lutz's publication, Annotations 13,
but not published by him. The plate here given is from the excavator's field
photograph.
SCENE: Lower left; standing man ~)-.
MAN: Full wig and beard, collar, pointed kilt; holding staff in left hand and
wand in right hand.
OBJECTS: To right of figure; ribs, vegetables?, leg, dressed bird, gazelle head,
onions, four loaves (at left), dead bird (upper right), unidentified object.
Below; a basket and two jars on a stand.
BORDER: At top and both sides, painted only; coloured rectangles, broken at
upper left corner by inscription. Painted dividing lines between registers of
inscription.
INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

One and a half lines at top

t ~&~ fj)~
LID-

B.

continued in B, as follows:

*-,
I

+}G~ vllOI rf81 ~::

]rfl~l1@ ~~~Ji.

Four columns at right +{, as follows:


(1) =TJ~~]nJ1~=r: (2) 6f6=~rT~
~= (3) ~~>O!ll\!"lt=~)

;:; (4)

~=

~::-\~~"'=--~~: jiI.
TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis, in front of the god's
booth, (2) (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, Khenti-Amentiu,
B. (1) lord of Abydos in all his beautiful places; (2) funerary offerings of bread
and beer for the Count, Sole Companion, Overseer (3) of Soldiers, the
53

THE STELAE

honoured one before the great god, lord of heaven, In-itl-r;. (4) Which (i.e.
this stela) his beloved brother, the Count In-itl-srj made for him.
COMMENTARY:
B

4. This line refers, of course, to the making of the stela itself.

41. Lutz 37. N39 10 .


Chips missing along the central break in Lutz's plate are present in the field
photograph.

Lower left; standing woman --0>-.


WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest, collar, close-fitting dress with shoulderstraps; holding lotus to face in left hand, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: To right of figure; calf's head, dead bird, leg, bunch of vegetables?,
unclear loaves and vessels on a table. Under the table; ewer and basin, two
~s-vases, and four tall jars.
BORDER: At top and both sides; parallel incised lines originally enclosing
coloured rectangles now faded out.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Two lines at top +--, continued in B


B. Five columns at right 4.
c. Two lines above offerings +--.
A.

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which [the king] gives, (and) Anubis, (and) Osiris, lord of
Busiris, Khenti-Amentiu, lord (2) of Abydos; that she be very well buried;
funerary offerings of bread and beer for her in her tomb
B. (I) of the cemetery of the western desert; may she jo[in the earth], (2) may she
traverse the heavens, may she be con[ ducted by] (3) the great god to the pure
places, the honoured one (4) before the great god, lord of heaven, Sole Royal
Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor, (S) imjt-wrt-(Priestess) of the Harim, lJsj.
c. A thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand fowls,
a thousand everything good.
COMMENTARY:

B I.

Read at end tJ1 'C7


~J ~ t==l r is passive; see Stela
Restore at end J~r~.

B 2.

Restore at end - ! l r,l. .

A I.
A 2.

20,

line A

4. Read at end ~ I ~ .

54

I,

footnote.

THE STELAE
B

=::

5. Read f ~
as in Stela 3 I, end of A 3. Below read . :1, ~ without t. The sign here
represented by Tis incomplete and peculiar in form, apparently a rough copy from the
hieratic.
I

42. Lutz 38. N. 3580.


Lutz gives N. 3688 from faded excavator's number. The field record gives
N35 80 .
SCENE: Lower centre and left; standing man, woman, and dog --.
MAN: Full wig with relief details (the head partially hacked away), collar, bracelet, pointed kilt; holding staff in left hand and wand in right hand.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest with relief details, collar, bracelets and
anklets, close-fitting dress from below breasts to ankles; left elbow crooked
around man's right wrist, right arm hanging.
DOG. In front of man's left foot; hunting type with short curly tail.
OBJECTS: In front of man's face; small man ~ offering a cup and holding a jar.
To right of man; leg, calf's head, gazelle head, two baskets, dead bird, five
jars on a stand, two jars containing flowers on ring-stands.
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles, now faded out, divided by
groups of transverse incised lines between parallel incised lines. Incised lines
dividing registers of Inscription A.
INSCRIPTIONS:

Four lines at top~, continued in B


One column at right ~.
c. Three lines above woman~.

A.

B.

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; (2) funerary offerings of
bread and beer for the Hereditary Noble, Count, Chancellor of the King of
Lower Egypt, Sole Companion, Lector-Priest, (3) honoured before the great
god, lord of heaven, (he) who does what his lord praises (4) every day, Overseer of the Two Slaughter-Houses?, the honoured lbw. <He> says,
B. I am (one) beloved of his city, an excellent commoner who acts with his arm.
A thousand of bread and beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand fowls, a thousand
of everything for the Hereditary Noble, [Count, .. .J.
C. (1) His beloved wife, Sole Royal Ornament, (2) Prophetess of Hathor, the
honoured (3) St-nt-in~rt.
55

THE STELAE
COMMENTARY:

5. The title ~ 'B-'Sc:? is not recorded in Wtb. nor in Lange-Schafer, Grab- und Dellhsteine. The determinative following the name appears to be =, perhaps because of the
similarity in sound between Ibw and lbw.
B. At cnd, faintly visible, is ~~.

43. Lutz 39. N.3734


SCENE: Lower centre; standing man ----7.
MAN: Full wig with relief details, beard, collar, leopard-skin, pointed kilt;
holding staff in left hand and wand in right hand.
OBJECTS: In front of man; leg, basket, conventional loaves without table.
BORDER: At top (painted only and faded out?) and both sides; coloured rectangles. Incised lines dividing registers of Inscription A.
INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

B.

Two lines at top -.


One line and one column over and behind figure

+i.

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is
in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; (2) funerary offerings of
bread and beer for the Count, honoured before the great god, Inbrt-nbt.
B. (I) A thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand fowls,
(2) a thousand of everything good for the beloved of his father Inbrt-nbt.
COMMENTARY:
B.

Read at top G
I 15 Lfll@C.
I 11),. The name is written thus: ~=>
J 1

9*,

'=

~@

Note: Lutz 40 is omitted, being without legible inscription or other points for
comment. It comes from N. 3996.

44. Lutz 4I. N. 4306.


SCENE: Lower centre and left; standing man and woman -.
MAN: Full wig, collar, string around neck with pendant? (invisible) on chest,
bracelets and anklets (painted only), pointed kilt; holding staff (painted,
faded) in left hand, right fist closed as if holding wand (not preserved).
56

THE STELAE

Long wig (painted only) with lappet on chest, collar, bracelets and
anklets (painted only), skirt not defined above; left elbow touching man's
right wrist, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: Opposite man's face; painted leg only (above which are at least three
painted'thousand'-signs).
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles, painted only.
WOMAN:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

One line at top

-c-,

continued in B, as follows:

+~&U=ll@} 1\
B.

One column at right +{, as follows:

C.

~~~~=r:ffi=>e~}L~J
Two short lines over woman -c-, as follows:
(r) ~:-iJ[+Q] (2) '1f-~.J~.

TRANSLATION:

An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris in


all his beautiful places; funerary offerings of bread and beer for the honoured
-ifn ?[j?].
c. His beloved wife, Sole Royal [Ornament], Ibj.
A.

B.

COMMENTARY:

B.

>

reversed. The name is unclear; it might be L~J


in form and not clearly legible.

n but the second sign is abnormal

45. Lutz 42. N. r609.


Left end; standing man ----+.
MAN: Full wig, beard, collar?, pointed kilt; holding staff in left hand and wand
(very clumsy) in right hand.
OBJECTS: None.
BORDER: None.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTION:
A.

Six lines at right -c-.

TRANSLATION:
A.

(r) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, lord
of the necropolis; (2) that he be buried in the cemetery of the western desert;
57

THE STELAE

(3) funerary offerings of bread and beer for him every day, the honoured one
(4) [before] the great god, Lord of this Nome, Sole Companion, Prophet, (5)
[beloved] of his father, prais- (6) [ed of his mother], Ppy-snb.
COMMENTARY;

The forms of the hieroglyphs are similar to those in Stelae 20 and 65.

Note the writing 1:::,~, usually in these stelae ~.


4. Supply br at beginning of line. ~ spt, nome, and not a wrong writing of nb pt, as is
shown by the demonstrative immediately following. An epithet or title of the man.
A 5. Supply mry at beginning of line.
A 6. Supply -y n mwtj, of which the det. is preserved. The det. of the name is to the left
of the man's staff.

A 2.

46. Lutz 21 and 43. N.3907.


PI. XV, 2.
Lutz gives for his 21 N. 3007, and for his 43 N. 97, both apparently misreadings of faded labels. PI. XV, 2 is from a field photograph recorded as
from N. 3907, and shows the two parts fitting. Stela 38 and the 'false-door'
Stela 74 are from the same tomb.
Lower centre; standing man --:>-.
MAN: Crude sunk relief; close-fitting wig?, beard?, long transparent pointed
skirt over short kilt?; holding staff in left hand, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: None.
BORDER: None.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Four lines at top

-E-,

as follows:

(1) [t~l~~~+}~[::::vJ (2) ~]J1D~D~


=~~;=;.!.M (3) M?1D~~l'iCP ~:::~
(4) ~~~~ 1:- ~r:[ ~?J
B.

Two and a half columns at right +{, as follows:


(1) ~~-t}:@[~J~}~\::}-t';m~}0DDJJ~ \::::
(2) l2~ ,LL~~.f>==~@~f\i'~'i~~9~ ~;;~ ':t
(3) :J=nl~~tl~~.

C.

Short line under end of B 3 ..(~, as follows:


'l,=~==
~\ Nl'l'M\Jj~ I NMN'"

S8

THE STELAE
D.

Four short lines at left under A 4 -<~, as follows:

E.

(I) """"~>~~ (2) ~1~ (3) crn~ (4) h{~~.


Short column to right of figure -<--L as follows:
rf;;-;~>~~h{J1~ .
-<~,

F.

Short column to left of figure

as follows:

G.

~~ T=+'::rIWlC::[~~ J~r~~~
Traces of column at extreme left, illegible.

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which [the king] gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, [lord of the necropolis?] (2) in all his places, in
peace, in peace before Osiris, (3) Khenti-Amentiu; funerary offerings of bread
and beer for him in (4) his tomb of the cemetery of the western desert.
B. (I) Oh living ones upon earth who love life and abhor dying, as ye desire (2)
that 'Inbrt, lord of Thinis should praise you, ye who pass by this tomb (of my)
funerary estate, (3) say ye a thousand of bread, a thousand of beer, a thousand
of everything good,
c. ye shall say (it) with your mouth,
D. (I) for the honoured one (2) before the great god, (3) Sole [Companion], (4)
Pi[j?] ('Id?).
E. Sole Companion, the honoured Pi[j?] ('[;j ?).
F. The King's Tenant gave me (my?) coffin.
COMMENTARY:

The workmanship of this stela is very similar to that of Stela 38.

For f ~~ with @ see also Stela 25. Probably supply nb-tJ-rjSr at end.
A 2. 0 for <;;, the dot being accidental.
-=>
-=>
A 4. There is room for ~ at end of line.
B I. The det. of bpt is .1\ here, not
as frequently.
B 2. The hawk is a det. for 'Inl;rt.
B 3. The three 'thousand'-signs are placed together, but refer respectively to the bread, the
beer, and everything good.
C-D. It is not clear to me whether C or D is to be read after D. C is a parenthetic insertion
which may equally well be spoken in either place; i.e. 'Say ye a thousand &c.-say ye (it)
with your mouth-for N.', or 'Say ye a thousand &c. for N.-say ye (it) with your mouth'.
The purpose of C is to emphasize that the inscription is to be recited.
D 4. The first sign in the name may be either ~ or &, as also in its other occurrence at the
end of E ; the position of the feet speaks for PJ but the form of the wings is more like 1J.
F. Dr. Gardiner has kindly pointed out an interesting parallel to this passage in Davies,
Deir-el-Gebrawi, Il, PI. XIII, lines 10-II, translated there 'His majesty caused the Royal
Forester (?) to bring a coffin of wood'.

AI.

59

THE STELAE

47. Lutz 44. N376 9


Lutz gives N. 3709, the field records 3769. A fragment in the upper right
corner, missing in Lutz's plate, is preserved in the field photograph.
Left side; standing man----.
MAN: Full wig, collar, very short tight kilt; holding staff in left hand and wand
in right hand. Feet missing.
OBJECTS: None preserved.
BORDER: None.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Four lines at right +-, continued in B


Double line below A 4 +-.

A.

B.

TRANSLATION:

A. (I ) [An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis], lord of the necropolis;
good funerary offerings of bread and beer in his tomb (2 ) [of the cemetery,
for the Companion], the honoured Nfr-iwnw (?), whose good name is lJwy.
(3) <He says), Oh living ones upon earth who shall pass by this tomb, (4) as
ye desire to worship your god, being happy, say ye as ye pass by,
B. a thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand fowls, a
thousand fowls, a thousand fowls, a thousand fowls, a thousand 'alabaster'
(ointment jars), a thousand cloth for the Companion, the honoured Nfriwnw(?) [whose good name is lJwy].
COMMENTARY:

ib ].

The fragment preserved in the field photograph has l~ &


There is no room
between the Anubis-figure and nb-tJ-r!Sr for any intervening group.
A 2. The missing fragment shows ~[1 rl
restore -1-r ~ ~>.
B. The four times repeated group 'a thousand fowls' refers, of course, to four lots of different
kinds of birds, but the heads are too much alike to distinguish varieties. Under the name
there is a trace of r, and I would restore here : : ~ ~ } ~ ~ .
A J.

>,

48. Lutz 45. N. 298?


There is no field photograph to be found of this stone. Lutz calls attention
(Annotations 15) to the fact that his records indicate it to be a purchase, but
nevertheless gives a tomb number. I incline to agree with his attribution to
Naga-ed-Der since the style of hieroglyphs is very similar to Stelae 20 and 45
above, the latter with the same name.
60

THE STELAE

Lower half of stone, left to right; seated man -----0>-, offering-bearer-E-,


standing man ->-, cup-bearer -E-.
SEATED MAN: Close-fitting wig, beard, collar, pointed kilt; holding cylindrical
cup in left hand, right hand over knee. Seated on chair of the usual form.
OFFERING-BEARER: Close-fitting wig or shaven head, pointed kilt; presenting a
leg-joint.
STANDING MAN: Full wig with relief details, collar, bracelets, pointed kilt; holding staff in left hand and wand (large and clumsy) in right hand.
CUP-BEARER: Close-fitting wig, pointed kilt; holding out hemi -spherical cup in
right hand, left arm hanging.
OBJECTS: To right of seated man; table with conventional loaves.
BORDER: None.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Two lines at top -(-.


Name over cup-bearer, one short line-E-.
c. Short line over offering table -E-.
A.

B.

TRANSLATION:

(r) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, lord
of the necropolis; that he be buried in the cemetery of the western desert; (2)
funerary offerings of bread and beer for [him every] day, the honoured
Companion, Libationer of the Slaughter-House?, Ppy-snb.
B. The Companion, Ppy-snb.
c. A thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand cattle?, a thousand fowls, a
thousand 'alabaster' (ointment jars), all (?).
A.

COMMENTARY:

m::&.

Read
For LlJHH3'~ see Wtb. v, 27,11 for which, hO\vever, no translation is there proposed. Compare also with the title in Stela 42, A 4: presumably an
offici ant at sacrifices.
c. The ox-head is not clear but is to be expected here. ' 7 an incomplete writing of ~.

A 2.

49. Lutz 46. N.3779.


Fragmentary.
Lower left; standing man -->- and attendant offering -E-.
MAN: Head missing, collar, pointed kilt; holding staff in left hand and wand in
right hand.

SCENE:

61

THE STELAE

Close-fitting wig, pointed kilt; holding out an unclear object in


both hands.
OBJECTS: Between the two figures; dead bird, calf's head, leg, onions, rib-joint?,
four indeterminate vessels on a table: below the table a vase and basin.
BORDER: At left edge; remains of double incised lines, doubtless originally at top
and both sides and containing coloured rectangles, now lost.
ATTENDANT:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

B.

Four columns at right -<-t, incomplete.


Four 'thousand'-signs above offerings.

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) [An offering which the king gives, (and) AnuJbis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis, (2) [in front of] the god's
booth; that he be well buried in his tomb (3) [of] the cemetery of the western
desert, in honour before the great god, (4) [lord of heaven], Chancellor of the
King of Lower Egypt, Overseer of the Gates, In-ilf
COMMENTARY:

The reading is in part clearer in the field photograph than in Lutz's plate. The line
runs: [~~+}~~U.
A 2. The line begins ~ IDII
A 3. Supply ~ before 1.
A 4. Supply ~ or ~ at beginning of line, unless 'C7 comes at end of A 3.
A I.

50. Lutz 47. Provenance uncertain; Gebelein?


Lutz lists this stone among those from Naga-ed-Der, but records it as bought
and gives no tomb number. I can find no reference to it in the field records,
and do not believe it to be from Naga-ed-Der since it differs greatly in character from all the stelae known to be from that site. I suggest rather that it is a
purchase originating in the Gebelein Cemetery. This suggestion is based on
a comparison with a number of stones in Turin, of which the Director of that
Museum has kindly given me photographs. The Turin stelae were excavated
or purchased at Gebelein by Schiaparelli, and have characteristics distinguishing them sharply from the Naga-ed-Der monuments. Turin Nos. 1270 and
1276, and the two stelae exhibited with other material out of the 'painted
tomb' at Gebelein, are instances which are very striking. The peculiar forms
of the hieroglyphs and their unorthodox grouping are similar to those in
62

THE STELAE

Stela 50, while the costume worn and the objects carried by the principal
male figure find a close parallel in the Gebelein monuments in Turin.
Centre and left; standing man and woman ---+.
MAN: Somewhat bulbous wig, collar, pointless kilt to knees with belt and sash
hanging down in front; both arms extended forward, the left holding a long
bow and the right a quiver of arrows?
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest, collar, dress from shoulders to midcalves and apparently covering breasts; left hand on man's left shoulder,
right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: In vertical group to right of bow; dead bird, gazelle head, ox head,
live bird, table with conventional loaves. To right of the latter a rectangular
object partly broken away, perhaps a door? Over the dead bird a group (j I I I
(bread), and beside it 01 I I (beer).
BORDER: None. Incised framing line at top and another at left.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Beginning over dead bird and reading ---+ then +{, continued in B
Column beginning at upper left +{, with signs reversed; lower part illegible.
c. Line over figures giving names; signs in confused arrangement.

A.

B.

TRANSLATION:

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain?, who is
in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis, in
B. all his beautiful pure places ...
c. S-nbtt (?). The honoured In-it] n[t1[j].
A.

In general note the abnormal formation of the signs, the lack of uniformity in
their orientation, and the lack of sequence in the grouping of the inscription as a whole.
A. Note the reversal of direction from :t ~Il to ~ &c. 0 for ~ in ~~. The f has the
head separated and the m lacks feet.
B
for ~~~. wrb is represented by a sitting man surrounded by a halo of punctured dots,
as in the Turin examples cited above.
c. ~ is probably the woman's name? placed over her head. What follows should be

COMMENTARY;

grouped ~.>

] :E:'

51. Lutz 48 to 53. N. 158/160.


Dated by Lutz to the Sixth Dynasty. Approximately complete in 10 fragments. See sketch reconstruction on p. 13 of Lutz's publication.
FALSE DOOR: The parts are lettered to conform to the system devised by Gunn in
63

THE STELAE

Firth and Gunn, Teti Pyramid Cemeteries I, p. 180, Figs. 88 and 89. Band A
across the top, above the tablet scene, is missing.
INSCRIPTIONS:

B. Left outer column ~.


c. Right outer column +-t.
D. Tablet. Lower left; man seated at table. Three lines of inscription ..(-.
E. Lintel under D, two lines-<E---.
FI. Left middle column ..(~.
F. Left inner column~.
G. Right inner column }-+.
G 1 Right middle column }+.
TRANSLATION:

King's Nobleman, Overseer of the Place of Tenants of the Great House,


honoured before the great god, (nb-bJj.
c. King's Nobleman, Overseer of the Place of Tenants of the Great House,
honoured before Osiris, (nb-bJj.
D. (I) Honoured before Anubis upon his mountain, (nb-(uI (2) A thousand
bread, a thousand beer, a thousand 'alabaster' (ointment jars)?, a thousand
clothing, (3) a thousand fowls, a thousand cattle.
E. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis an offering, he who is in
front of the god's booth, who is upon his mountain; (2) funerary offerings of
bread and beer; (and) that he be buried in the western desert at a good old
age, the King's Nobleman (nb-bJj.
FI. The King's Nobleman, Overseer of the Place of Tenants of the Great House,
B.

(nb-bJj
Honoured before Ptah-Sokar, (nb-~Jj.
G. Honoured before Anubis upon his mountain (and) before Osiris, (nb-~Jj.
G 1 The King's Nobleman, Overseer of the Place of Tenants of the Great House,
(nb-bij.

F.

COMMENTARY:
D 2.

The sign translated 'alabaster' is damaged but appears to be

~.

One would expect 0 or~.

52. Lutz 54 and 55. N3 603


Lower part of stone; four standing figures ----+.
At left and right; full wig, collar, longish pointed kilt with incised
brick-work pattern; holding staff in left hand and wand in right hand.

SCENE:

TWO MEN:

64

THE STELAE

Centre; long wig with lappet on chest, collar, dress not defined
above; both arms hanging.
OBJECTS: None.
BORDER: Sunk lines at top and both sides as well as between registers of inscription.
TWO WOMEN:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Three lines at top -<e-.


Upper part of a column at right +-{.
c. Two short lines below A 3 -<-.
A.

B.

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, KhentiAmentiu, (2) lord of Abydos; funerary offerings of bread for him in his tomb
of the cemetery of the western (3) desert on every good festival, for the
honoured one before the great god, lord of heaven, the Count, Ir'W-kmt ?
B. An offering which the king gives, (and) Anu[bis] ...
c. (I) His beloved wife, Royal Ornament, St'W, his son Ir'W-kmt, [his son] (2)
Mr[y?]-ipj, [his daughter] Ftj, his daughter Ipj.
COMMENT AHY :

Osiris is written with an eye replacing the head of a seated figure.


A 3. ~m=*, not CD; see Wth. Ill, 58, 6.
c. Gunn has proposed the follo\ving reconstruction of these two lines, which he thinks form
a continuous text, thus:
A I.

The four figures below the inscription are, I think, the two sons and the two daughters.
The owner and his wife are not figured. For the wife's name see Wtb. IV, 357, 9, '#:wserpent'. The first son bore the same name as his father, or so I read it \vith Gunn. Following this, on a fragment still preserved in the field photograph though not given by
Lutz, is ~, which belongs with the first name in line 2.

The following twelve stones are in the Cairo Museum.

PI. XVI, 1.
53. Cairo, 37737. N. ?
The stone is recorded in the Livre d'Entree under the above number, but I
was unable to find it in the time at my disposal at the Museum. No tomb
number is noted in the field record, and the stone was probably not found in
a tomb but out of position. Height 42.5.
K

THE STELAE

Lower left; standing woman -----i>-.


WOMAN: Long wig without lappet, collar, close-fitting dress not defined above;
holding flower to nose in left hand, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: None.
BORDER: None. Incised lines at top and both sides and dividing registers of
inscription.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Three lines at top +--, continued in B


B. Four short lines at right below A 3 +--, continued in C
c. One column in front of figure ~.
A.

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; (2) that she be well buried
in her tomb of the cemetery of the western (3) desert; funerary offerings of
bread and beer for her, for the honoured one before the gods of Thinis,
B. (I) (she) whom her husband praises, (2) great imjt-zurt-(Priestess) of beauty
of character?, (3) Royal Ornament, (King's) Noblewoman, (King's) Relative,
(4) Prophetess of Hathor,
c. cnb-n-s-ppy, whose good name is Nn[j?J.
COMMENTARY:

The tl in llb-tl-gsr stood to the left of nb : only a trace remains.


The sign following inzjt-wrt is presumably {J: the t under n appears to do duty as
feminine ending for both {J and the preposition. The final group 1 would read probably
nfrw ~d. (1 have to thank Battiscombe Gunn for the notes on and translation of this
difficult line.)
B 3. Three titles condensed; stands for
~rA" ~.
c. Gunn comments: 'Nn[j] seems to be quite the most probable reading, although 1 do not
know this name elsewhere as a hypocoristicon of a name cnb-w-NN'.

A I.

B 2.

+1)+

54. Cairo, 43756. N. Debris.

PI. XVI, 2.

Figure and objects in relief (cutting away of background never completed),


inscriptions sunk. 36'0 X252.
Lower left; standing man -----i>-.
MAN: Full wig (b), collar (?), pointed kilt (w), flesh (1'); holding staff (y) in left
hand and wand (?) in right hand.

SCENE:

66

THE STELAE

In front of man's face; leg (r), ribs (r and w), table with five small jars
(?), two tall jars (?) under table. In front of man's left leg; kneeling man (r)
with hands in a basin (?).
BORDER: Traces of painted (b) bordering line at top and left sides. Incised
dividing lines between registers of inscription.

OBJECTS:

INSCRIPTIONS:

One line at top ~, continued in B, no colour.


Two columns at right <,-t, no colour.

A.

B.

TRANSLATION:

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is
in the place of embalming,
B. (1) lord of the necropolis; funerary offerings of bread and beer for the
Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Njr-!:b-Jw ?,justified. (2) Make offering for him (at) every feast.

A.

COMMENTARY:

I read the name ~J p\Jr.


For ir fat in this sense see Wtb. I, 124,9. The preposition r = 'for' in the sense'toward', 'for the benefit of'. The preposition has been omitted before' every feast'.

B I.

B 2.

PI. XVII, 1.

55. Cairo, 45968. N.3901.

Figure, offerings and inscription sunk. 109.0 X 57.0.


SCENE: Lower left; standing man ~-'".
MAN: Full wig with relief details (b), beard (b), collar of four strands (g, y, r, g),
bracelets (g), pointed kilt (w), flesh (r); holding staff (y) in left hand and wand
(y) in right hand.
OBJECTS: In front of man's face; vegetables (g with stem y), leg (r with foot w ?),
ribs (w with stripes and spot r), calf's head (y). Under left arm; two baskets
(y), seven jars (y) on a mat? (y), joint (r with bone w), gazelle head (y with
horns faded b?), four circular cakes? (w with spots r). Below point of kilt; six
jars (r) with sealings (b) on a stand (w).
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles between incised lines, the
rectangles separated by groups of four incised cross-lines, coloured in order
(r, y, ?, g, b) ; incised lines dividing registers of inscription.
INSCRIPTIONS:

Four lines at top -<0-, continued in B, colour as follows:


I. dj, tp, and arms of tjsr (r); ~tP, support of Anubis, tjzv,j, imj, zv, det. zvt, stick of gsr,
pr, loaf, and det. of pr-brzv (y). A 2. i, s, stroke in zvitj, b, imlb, and r (r); ~ltj, bitj, StjJZlJtj,

A.

67

THE STELA E

3. Y, Sll, nU', d, and my


smy, U'I, llY, lIU, nlY, and IJ (y);!z andj (g); the rest faded out. A
is, and n (g); hair
three
nw,
b,
(y);
'
'father
(r); m, 1, 'l0, ~n, w, d, k,J, and chair of det.
(nl;w (r); !zs, mwt,
det.
and
,
strokes
of det. 'father ' (b). A 4. mY, two rs, det. 'man', plural
'mothe r' (b).
det.
of
hair
(g);
det. 'mothe r" j, w, sn, det. 'woma n',f, and 1nl; (y); all is
B.

Two columns at right +-+, colours as follows:


WJ, det. SWJ, J, det. ,bJ,
B 1. tp, mY, two rs, two ss, br, I, and b (r); w, 'nb, two ds, U', bed,

of second boat, w,l,


and 11l (y); ms (g). B 2. Two boats, 1', rdj, both jars, r, and nw (r); sail
loaf, bJ, all ms, det.llt, ill11[Z, sn,l, !zn, and W (y).
TRANS LATION :

ain, who
A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mount
gs of
is in the place of embalmmg, (lord of the necro)polis; funerary offerin
Egypt,
bread and beer for (2) the Count , Chancellor of the King of Lower
(3) the
god,
Sole Companion, Lector -Pries t, the honou red one before the great
d of
Arbitrator?, fInw. (He) says, I am (one) beloved of his father, (4) praise
his mothe r, whom his brothe rs and sisters love. Oh living (ones)
stela in
B. (I) upon earth, who love life and abhor dying, who shall pass by this
a thou(2) going downstream or upstre am, ye shall give me bread and beer,
of everysand of bread and beer, a thousa nd cattle and fowls, (a thousa nd)
thing for the honou red Arbitrator? J:lnw.

COMME NTARY:

No trace of nb-tJ before (#1'.


3. For 'Arhitr ator?' see also Stcla 20, additional note.
f: i.
4 ~ 1- mis-wr itten for ':
beer' is perhap s due to carelesness on the part of the
and
'bread
of
tion
duplica
2. The
his mistake added the
copyist, who failed to insert OJ m at first, and instead of correct ing
hing'.
proper text below. He also neglected to write 'thousa nd' before 'everyt

A 1.
A
A

'iI

/t11-

PI. XVII, 2.
56. Cairo, 45969. N. 3900, No. 2.
Figure in relief, objects and inscriptions sunk. 55'5 ><80'0.
from this
See preliminary remarks under Stela 39, where the other four stclae
tomb are listed.
SCENE : Lower left; standi ng man and woma n -*.
kilt (?), sandals (w), flesh (r);
MAN: Full wig and beard (b), collar (g), pointe d
b) in
holding staff (y) in left hand and wand (y with irregular central stripe
right hand.
(g), close-fitting dress not
WOMA N: Long wig with lappet on chest (b), collar
g.
defined above (g); left hand over man's left shoulder, right arm hangin
68

THE STELAE

To right of man's staff; ribs (r with end w), vegetables? (g), leg (1' with
foot b), dead bird (w with neck and head l' and feet b), area between wings (g),
area between wings and onions (1'), onions (g with stems b, r, and w), three
animal heads (w? with markings b and tongues r), four flat loaves (y), two
baskets (y), three jars (r below and striped above band w) on a table (w).
Part of ground between objects (g).
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles framed between painted
lines (outside r, inside y), colours in order are (b, y, r). Painted dividing lines
between registers of inscription as follows: under A, behind B I and B 3 (r);
behind B 2 (y).

OBJECT::3:

INSCRIPTIONS:

One line at top -<-, continued in B


ll. Three columns at right ~.
All hieroglyphs (g) except tp which has hair (b), and wand m which are (g) with
backs (y).

A.

TRANSLATION:

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is in
the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis in all his beautiful places;
funerary offerings of bread and beer
B. (I) for the Hereditary Noble, Count, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt,
Sole Companion, Lector-Priest, (2) the honoured one before the great god,
lord of heaven, Overseer of Soldiers, .... (3) His beloved wife, Sole Royal
Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor, the honoured ....

A.

COMMENTARY:

A.
B

The det. of pr-brzv is placed vertically: for instances of this abnormality cf. Polotsky, op.
cit., Par. 33 a.
2-3. The names of both man and woman are lost at ends of columns.

57. Cairo,45970. N. 3915.


PI. XVIII, 1.
Painted only. 555 X4S0.
Compare with Stela 26 (Lutz 20) which is from the same tomb, belongs to the
same person, and is similar in style and inscription.
Lower left; standing woman --+.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest (b), collar (g), bracelets and anklets (g),
dress not defined above (y), flesh (y); both arms hanging.

SCENE:

69

THE STELAE

In front of woman's face; onions (g with stems r), two flat loaves? (r),
basket (y), pot (r with bands above it g).
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles between bordering painted
lines, reading from lower left (b, r, y, r, b, y, r, gap, b, y, r, &c.).
OBJECTS:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Two lines at top ""-, continued in B, as follows:


(r) t~~4lJ~TI@ (2) rwr:r~~ti1~

A.

A 1. /.ttp, U's, and q'd (r); nsw, dj, det. Osiris, nb, and det. Busiris (g); t, ir, and w, (y). A 2.
First and last vase in bnt, n, and smjt-sign (r); third vase in bnt, t, imnt, and det. KhentiAmentiu (g); the rest (y).

Two columns at right +-{, as follows:


(r) U~}rn~to~ (2) ~1~~>~}Q~~~o

B.

B
B

1.
2.

b,pr, jar in pr-brU', t, and 'lOr (r); lb, w, bno, n, bkr, two ts, and stroke (g); the rest (y).
/.tm, imlb, and r (r); /.tr in Hathor, nlr, nu, b, t, mr, secondj, and t (g); the rest (y).

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, (2) KhentiAmentiu, lord of
B. (1) Abydos; funerary offerings of bread and beer for the Sole Royal Ornament, (2) Prophetess of Hathor, the honoured Mryt.
COMMENTARY:
A 2.

On the det.

see Stela

26,

Commentary A

2.

PI. XVIII, 2.
58. Cairo, 45971. N. 3900, No. 5.
Figure and objects in relief, inscriptions sunk. 4ooX545.
See preliminary remarks under Stela 39.
SCENE: At left; standing woman
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest (?), collar (g), bracelets (g), close-fitting
dress not defined at top (g); both arms hanging.
OBJECTS: In front of woman; mirror (r with handle ?), ribs (r with end w), vegetabIes? (g), leg (r with foot w), onions (g with stems w with spots r), calf's head
(w with spots r), gazelle head (y with horn b), two loaves (y), basket (y) and
two jars Cr \vith stripes band w) on a table (?). All against ground (g).
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles (in part interrupted by head
of figure) in order from lower right (g, y, b, r, &c.). Painted lines dividing
registers of inscription: below A and behind B 2 (y); behind Bland B 3 (r).
-)0-.

THE STELAE
INSCRIPTIONS:

One short line at top -<--, (g) continued in B


Three columns at right +1, (g).

A.

B.

TRANSLATION:

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain,
B. (1) who is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis in [all his] beautiful (2) places; funerary offerings of bread and beer for the [Sole] Royal Ornament, (3) Prophetess of Bathor, the honoured Mrj.

A.

COMMENTARY:
B I.
B 2.
B

Supply at end~.
Supply at end ~.

3. I read the name '\-

==!=.:.

59. Cairo,43754- Mes. lI8.

PI. XIX, 1.
Scene and inscription incised and painted.
Traces of scored construction lines for figures. 45'0 X 60'0.
A few details, now faded out on the stone, are visible in a field photograph.
The tomb is represented in Fig. 3 on p. 6.

At left; standing man and son ~>-.


MAN: Full wig with incised reticulations (b), beard (?), collar (y, r, g), bracelets
(g), pointed kilt (w) with belt (g) and diagonal (?), flesh (r); holding staff (?)
in left hand, right arm hanging.
SON: Close-fitting wig (b), collar (y, r, g), bracelets (g), pointed kilt (w) with
belt (g), flesh (r); holding wand (y) transversely across kilt with both hands.
OBJECTS: To right of man; ribs (r), vegetables?! (r), leg (r), dead bird (y with
head and neck r), two joints (r), two flat loaves (y), basket (y) with four pots
(r) in ground (w), three jars (r).
BORDER: At top and both sides, painted only; coloured rectangles in order from
lower right (b, g, r, y, b, g, r, y, &c.).

SCENE:

INSCRIPTION:
A.

Three columns at right -f, originally (g), now faded out.

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis; (2) funerary offerings of
bread? and beer? for the Count, Sole Companion, Sbj. (3) Funcrary offerings
of bread? and beer? for his beloved son Nfr nlTs[j].
I

See footnote on this subject under Stela 6, p. 18.

71

THE STELAE
COlVGvIENT ARY :

Blank space at top has only accidental markings.


2. The name reads rJ~ ~.
3. In the field photograph the name rcads r~;;-:

A I.
A
A

PI. XIX, 2.
60. Cairo, 43755. Mes.2115.
Sunk relief, traces of colour. 35'5 X44o.
SCENE: Lower part of stone, centre and left; standing man, daughter, and wife -)-.
In front of man; female offering-bearer--.
MAN: Full wig (?), collar (g), bracelets (g), pointed kilt (?), flesh (r); holding
staff (?) in left hand and wand (?) in right hand, which also grasps daughter's
left hand.
DAUGHTER: Long \vig with lappet on chest (?), collar (g), bracelets (g), closefitting dress not defined above (?); left hand in man's right hand, right arm
hanging.
WIFE: Long wig with lappet on chest (?), collar (g), bracelet and two anklets (g),
dress not defined above (?); left hand clasping daughter's left shoulder, right
arm hanging.
OFFERING-BEARER: Long wig with lappet? on chest (?), dress not defined above;
holding out tray containing five undefined objects (pots) (?) in right hand, left
arm hanging.
OBJECTS: None.
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles separated by groups of
three or four incised transverse lines, in order from bottom left (?, g, 1', ?, g, 1',
&c.). Incised lines dividing registers of inscription, no colour.
INSCRIPTIONS:

One line at top -<:-, continued in B


B. One and a half columns at right -<:-;}.
c. Group over and bet\;<,'een figures of wife and daughter -- and -<-;}.
All hieroglyphs (g) except tp which is (r) and dj which is (g) outline with (1')
centre.
A.

TRANSLATION:

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is in
the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis;
B. (I) funerary offerings of bread and beer for the Mayor, beloved of his lord
(2) his favourite, Sin,.

A.

72

THE STELAE

c. His beloved daughter lrts. Her mother, the Royal Ornament, his beloved
wife I1j.
COMMENTARY:

The word SmJ is common (Wtb. IV, 470) in the later Old Kingdom, and means
'wanderer', 'stranger', but is determined either by a seated man with hands raised in front
or by a walking man with a bundle over his shoulder. The use here of a determinative
which appears to represent a prisoner with arms tied behind him (more clearly seen in
the field photograph) is not recorded in Wtb.
c. In the field photograph the wife's name is clearly ~~~ ; cf. Ranke, op. cit., 52,29-30.
B 2.

61. Cairo, 43757. Mes. II3.


PI. XX, 1.
Figure in sunk relief, hieroglyphs incised; traces of colour. 75oX45o.
SCENE: Lower centre; standing man --0.
MAN: Full wig (?), collar (?), bracelets (g), pointed kilt (?), flesh (r); holding
staff (?) in left hand (painted only and faded), right arm hanging with circular
object (r) below it.
OBJECTS: In front of figure, painted only; various objects (r) now too faded for
recognition; in front of legs a basket (?) containing at least five pots (r).
BORDER: At top and both sides, in part faded out; coloured rectangles of which
only (r) is preserved.
INSCRIPTIONS:
A.
B.

Three lines at top *-, continued in B. No colour preserved.


One half column at right ~+, no colour preserved.

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, (2)
who is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; funerary offerings of
beer and bread for the Hereditary Noble? (3) Count, Chancellor of the King
of Lower Egypt, Sole Companion, the honoured one before
B. the great god, lord of heaven, In~rt-nbt.
COMMENTARY:

Note the writing f l>:,}~! instead of the more usual }~, and especially the plural
strokes. E:'l wrongly used for ~ as det. of tl-f!Sr. -=-~ in error for J!:;.
3. The circular mark above wrti is a hole from which a flint nodule has fallen. Note the
abnormal grouping ~~'U1l\}, and cf. Gunn in Teti Pyramid Cemeteries, I, p. 217, for other
instances of it.

A 2.

73

THE STELAE
B.

~I for I~' The name is LJ~;;";~ instead of 1n~rt-~.

The above abnormalities indicate an illiterate and careless scribe, which is quite in keeping
with the crude workmanship of this stela.

PI. XX, 2.
62. Cairo, 19 : I I : 24 : 2. S.F. 203.
Sunk relief.
The stone is framed in the Museum and could not be measured. From field
records, Height 60'0.
Lower centre and left; standing man and woman -+.
MAN: Full wig with relief details (b), collar (? , y, ?, y, ?), nipple (b), bracelets (?),
pointed kilt with diagonal band (?), sandals (b), flesh (r); holding staff (y) in
left hand and wand (y) in right hand.
WOMAN: Full wig with lappet on chest and relief details (b), collar (?, y, ?, r),
nipple (b), bracelets and anklets (?), sandals (b), close-fitting dress from below
breasts to mid-calves (g over y; i.e. entire body painted and the dress then
painted over it), flesh (y); left elbow crooked around man's right arm, right
arm hanging.
OBJECTS: In front of man's face; leg (r with foot y), ribs (r and w with end y),
basket (y), calf's head (y with neck r). In front of waist; dead bird (b outline
on ground ?). To right of lower end of staff; two jars (r) \vith tops (b) on ringstands (r).
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles with multiple transverse
divisions in part incised, in order from bottom left (?,?, r, b, y, &c.). Dividing
lines between registers of inscription (y).

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Four lines at top -<i-, continued in B. A 2 and 4 entirely (y), the rest without
colour.
B. Two columns at right +-t, no colour, as follows:

A.

~,>~O~-\U~~~ID>?-'ill'(!)~}~\::}q.m~~I}@oDr94}=

=~11~16!~112!~~~~~}~~.
C.

Group over wife's figure

-<i-,

no colour, as follows:

~~,,-tQ~/:~1 ~LJ'2J4 4"'


TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is
in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; (2) funerary offerings of
74

THE STELAE

bread and beer for the Count, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Sole
Companion, Lector-Priest, the honoured one (3) before the great god, lord of
heaven, Sd-itj. <He) saith, I am an excellent citizen who acts with his arm,
(4) I am (one) beloved of his father, praised of his mother, whom his brothers
and sisters love,
B. (I) pleasant to <his relatives. 0 ye) living (ones) upon earth who love life
and abhor dying, ye shall (2) say, a thousand of <bread)?, a thousand beer, a
thousand cattle, a thousand fowls, a thousand of good <things) for the Count,
the honoured Sd-itj.
c. His beloved wife, Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor, Pryt.
COMMENTARY:

I think part of the text has been omitted by a careless copyist, as indicated in transcription above. For the first phrase see Stela 2, line A 3, and for a similar miswriting of rnow
Stela 55, line A 42.
8 is a mistake, Ghaving been omitted after m.

B I.

110,1

63. Cairo,48870. S.F. 5106.

PI. XXI, 1.

Sunk relief, painted. 56'0 X465.


From the same tomb as Stela 14 and bearing the same name. See also PI. I,
left, and Fig. I on p. 3.

I,

Lower left; standing man ->-.


MAN: Full wig and beard (b), collar (r and g ?), pointed kilt (w), flesh (r); holding
staff (y) in left hand and wand (y) passing behind kilt in right hand.
OBJECTS: To right of staff; leg (r with foot b), onions (g), ribs (r), dead bird
(y with feet b), jar (r with neck b) on a stand (y).
BORDER: At top and both sides, interrupted at upper left by end of Inscription
A, painted only; coloured rectangles in the order from bottom right (r, b, y,
g, &c.), bordered inside (r) and outside (y).

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.
B.

Two lines at top -, continued in B, (g)


Two columns at right +{, (g).

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, (2) lord of the necropolis in all his beautiful
places; that he be buried
75

THE STELAE

B. (I) in his tomb of the cemetery of the western desert; funerary offerings of
bread and beer (2) for the Count, Sole Companion, the honored Sp?
COMMENTARY:
B 2.

See observations on the name in Stela 14, Commentary B

2.

64. Cairo,48871. S.F. 5127.


PI. XXI, 2.
Figures in relief in sunk panel, inscriptions sunk. No colour preserved.
45'0 X74 0 .
Centre and left; standing man and woman-?>-.
MAN: Full wig, collar, bracelets, pointed kilt with diagonal; holding staff in left
hand and wand, which passes behind kilt, in right hand.
WOMAN: Long wig without lappet, collar, close-fitting dress not defined above;
left hand grasping man's upper right arm, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: None.
BORDER: Incised lines at both sides only.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.
B.

Four columns at right '-t.


One column to left of woman -<-{.

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king (gives), (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, lord of (2) the necropolis in all his beautiful (3)
places; funerary offerings of bread (and beer) for the Count, Chancellor of
the King of Lower Egypt, Sole Companion, (4) the honoured one before the
great god, lord of heaven, lJny.
B. His beloved wife, Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor, 1y?
COMMENTARY:

Note omission of dj and the incorrect writing D~ .


Note the full writing of gsr, unusual in these stelae.
A 3. The jar is omitted inpr-ljrw.
A 4. The man's name occurs also in Stela 13.
B. The \voman's name is incomplete, but begins ~ ~, probably it was ~ ~ ~ as in Stela
A I.

A 2.

10.

The following twelve stelae (65-76) I have been unable to locate, and their publication, therefore, is based entirely upon the Expedition photographs.
76

THE STELAE

65. N. 235. (Field Photograph No. 9036.)


Sunk relief.
Compare for style with Stelae 20 and 45.

PI. XXII, 1.

Left and centre; man seated on chair -0-- and attendant <-.
MAN: Full wig with relief details, beard, collar, short kilt; seated on chair with
low back, cushion, and bull's legs; holding cylindrical cup to mouth with
left hand, right hand in lap.
ATTENDANT: Close-fitting wig or natural hair, possibly sash over left shoulder?,
large pointed kilt; holding out bird in right hand, left hand holding unclear
object (possibly wing of bird ?).
OBJECTS: In front of man; table with conventional loaves. Above table; ribs, leg,
calf's head, leg, and other unclear objects.
BORDER: None. No divisions between registers of inscription.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Two lines at top

+-,

continued in B, as follows:

+:::..~&~~::;:v ~~~t='i~ 1[~lr~~J


+:::..::;;;&~ rn=f:J)~}:;',~
B.

Three columns at right +{, as follows:

(r) =~':~~~2?A (2) 12LJ~~Q ~


(3) ~~[~l~n~(~U~J~
C.

One column to left of man +{, as follows:

~~~~n ~(~~JI:iW]~~
D.

Column over and to right of attendant +- then ,}-+, as follows:

~:::J'f~~[[d [d [dJ~,,~.

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, lord
of the necropolis; that he be buried in the cemetery [of the western desert?].
(2) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris; funerary offerings of
bread and beer for the honoured one before the great god,
B. (I) lord of this nome, beloved of his father, (2) praised of his mother, (3) Sole
Companion, Inspector of Prophets, Ppy-snbj.
c. Sole Companion, Inspector of Prophets, Ppy-snbj.
D. Bringing to him good [things?] by the [villages and houses] of his estate.

77

THE STELAE
COMMENTARY:

n inserted beside ~ ~ as a later correction?


3. I take it that the terminalj is to be read, and that the observations under Stela 13, Commentary A 3, do not apply in this case. This appears evident from the addition of the
determinative to the name as written in C, and the name, therefore, means not 'Pepy is
healthy' but 'Pepy is my health'. The sign wr here, and again in C, is reversed.
D. Note reversal of the first word.
B I.

PI. XXII, 2.

66. N. 569? (Field Photograph No. 4827).


Sunk relief.

Lower centre; standing man and woman ---+.


MAN: Full wig, collar, pointed kilt; holding staff? in left hand and wand in right
hand. The eye, collar, belt, and wand where it crosses the kilt are not sunk,
but left uncut for completion in paint.
WOMAN: \Vig unclear, collar, skirt from waist to below knees; both arms hanging.
The collar, belt, and band below bottom of skirt (fringe?) left uncut.
OBJECTS: None.
BORDER: Faint traces of painted border visible at both sides. Sunk dividing
lines between B I and B 2 and under C. The staff serves also as a dividing
line behind B 2, if indeed this represents a staff.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Two lines at top


(I)

B.

~,

as follows:

t~li~t~~w

(2)

rn=~~)~>~H=~lJ'!'~~

Two columns at right +{, as follows:


rn=~~f~~>@~}!' I~=~
] S '9 Q:::':"1 ~rQ="IJ~ Cl ~UJlJJ ~ J\ [S 9

1WMM:Z<::::>9a@lJY~.G

C.

Short line under A


tJ

2 ~,

;k ~

~.JrM'NM

Q:::':]

:Z<=>Y~c"

as follows:

~Q~9.~-~

~ \"~a JJ~

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; (2) funerary offerings of
bread and beer for the Count, the honoured one before the great god, lord
of heaven, 1nbrt-nbt.
B. (I) Funerary offerings of bread and beer for the Count, Sole Companion, the
78

THE STELAE

honoured one before the great god, lord of heaven, (2) Inbrt-nbt; a thousand
of [bread, a thousand] of beer, for the honoured In[brt-nbt].
c. His beloved wife, the honoured St-nt-inbrt.
COMMENTARY:

A 2.
B 2.

Note the compound sign representing bJtj-r, repeated in B


nbt is miswritten ::;.

67. N. 3555. (Field Photograph No. 630.)

I.

PI. XXIII, 1.

Figures and inscriptions were painted only and are much faded.
Lower centre; standing man and woman ---0>-.
MAN: Full wig, collar, kilt; holding staff in left hand and wand in right hand.
WOMAN: Long wig (rest of upper part illegible), close-fitting skirt to below
knees; left arm raised, rest not visible.
OBJECTS: In front of man's face; leg, oval loaf, and pot.
BORDER: Preserved only at top; double band of elongated coloured rectangles.
Painted lines dividing registers of inscription.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Two lines at top


( 1)

B.

[~J

-,

ALoo-

continued in B, as follows:

0=1'1=~

T="=LIlI.dd~Ll@..1t

(2 ) liillc,]IJI\o.:!JLc0!lI
rfi1n~~C 'i' '1=~J ~
@

One column at right +{, as follows:


L[J= ,,/0'

n~.6-~

OOo~o%U'UI' lloll~

c. One column at left -1, as follows:


u","<:t:.. 0 [rJ[O] [.6-1?=1 [Owl n
1'1=..1=>['6-1 T

Q ,,11 cd

",-0_

I'

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, (2) KhentiAmentiu, lord of Abydos;
B. funerary offerings of bread and beer for the Chancellor of the King of Lower
Egypt, Sole Companion, ...
c. [His] beloved wife, [Sole Royal Ornament], Sdt-itl.
COMMENTARY:

Note the determinative ~ after Osiris, which I can only explain as an error, possibly
in sympathy with the group below in A 2, for which see Stela 26, Commentary A 2. The
transposition of signs in both cases is noteworthy, ~ instead of 7" ~ 6 TI @} .
c. I assume that the name is the same as that of the woman in Stela I7.
A I.

79

THE STELAE

68. N.3557. (Field Photograph No. 203.)

PI. XXIII, 2.

'False Door.' Sunk relief.


The parts are lettered to conform to the system used by Gunn in Teti Pyramid Cemeteries, I, p. 180, Fig. 88.
In D: Man seated on chair->- before table with conventional loaves and
one conical loaf ; close-fitting wig, pointed kilt; holding wand vertically in left
hand, right fist over lap.
In F: Standing woman ->-; long wig, close-fitting dress with shoulderstraps, extending to ankles; left hand on breast, right arm hanging.
In G: Standing figure (woman?) *-; close-fitting wig, apparently closefitting dress to ankles; holding an object? vertically in front of chest in
right hand; rest not legible.

FIGURES:

INSCRIPTIONS:

One
One
c. One
E. One
Drum.

A.

B.

line at top
column at left +{.
column at right ~1.
line under tablet D
Short line *-.
-0(-.

*-.

TRANSLATION:

The Judge and Scribe, Klj-inbrt.


This is that which he made for his son, the honoured one before the great god,
Klj-slym-rr.
C. An offering which the king gives; a funerary offering of bread and beer for
him (on) every feast; yearly requisites?
E. Prophetess of Hathor, the mjtrt, lfnwt.
Drum. Klj-slym-rr.

A.

B.

COMMENTARY:

A. 'Judge and Scribe' according to rVtb. rn, 421, 16, but Gunn would render the title

c.

'Sib-official of Scribes'.
00 I take for a corruption of
=, the jar replacing ljrw. After ';'" read
of which
the b is still visible. At end of line after JIb I would read the sign as equivalent to ~}f~
with t placed above it.

1?

6TI

lJ

69. N.3765. (Field Photograph No. 603.)


Sunk relief, painted.
SCENE:

Lower left; standing man and boy ---+-.


80

PI. XXIV, 1.

THE STELAE

Full wig with relief details, beard, collar, bracelets, pointed kilt; holding
staff in left hand and wand in right hand.
BOY: Close-fitting wig or natural hair, pointed kilt; left hand slightly advanced
holding a pair of sandals?, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: In front of man's face; leg, ribs, vegetables, onions,joint, indeterminate
object, calf's head, gazelle head. Under man's left arm; dead bird. Upper
right corner of field; three offering-bearers advancing +--- as follows: man
presenting jar and bowl, man presenting two birds, man carrying gazelle over
shoulders. The men wear close-fitting wigs or natural hair and pointed kilts.
Below these; seven jars on a stand, two baskets under stand. In the damaged
space below were originally further objects, now lost.
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles between incised lines, the
rectangles separated by three to four incised cross-lines. Incised lines dividing
registers of inscription.

MAN:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Four lines at top +---, ending in short column at left, thus: =-- ~~
B. Two columns at lower right *1, ending in a third short column between
staff and man's leg, as follows:

A.

Qiq.}!Jf\~~r~~J)r.Y ~

~~~Ql<=<=~l~=~l~
l~~~~JQQ
TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, lord of the (2) necropolis; funerary offerings of
bread and beer for the Hereditary Noble, Count, Chancellor of the King
of Lower Egypt, Sole Companion, (3) Lector-Priest, the honoured one before
the great god, lord of heaven, Tby, (4) <He> says, I arose from the back of my
father's house, I am an excellent citizen (5) who acts with his arm.
B. (1) 0 living (ones) upon earth who shall pass by this stela in (2) going downstream (or) in going upstream, ye shall say a thousand of bread and beer, a
thousand cattle and fowls, (3) a thousand everything good for the honoured
Tby.
COMMENTARY:

4- The phrase Nj] m pl:zwj-pr it[j] is not altogether certain in meaning. The same phrase
occurs in the stela from the Metropolitan Museum in New York published below (Stela
78), and in a letter to the writer Dr. Bull of the Metropolitan quotes Gunn as suggesting
that pl:zwj-pr means' "the end of the house" in the sense of survivors of the father's house,

81

THE STELAE

i.e. widow, children, &c.'. Gunn cites examples of this or similar phrases in Gardiner,
Inscription of Mes, N. 35, and also Leningrad Pap. 1116 A, recto 142 (J.E.A. I, 35). In
the latter source Gardiner translates the phrase 'those at the back of the house of Akhthoi' with footnote 'i.e. slaves, cf. Inscription of fdes, N. 35'. I would interpret our example
in the sense that he arose from a subordinate position, i.e. at the back of the house, in the
servants' or women's quarters. The group which follows, extending into A 5, occurs also
in Stela 42 above, and is noted by Polotsky, op. cit., Par. 59.
I. SWJt[j]-sn, 'who shall pass by'; cf. Gardiner, Grammar, Par. 364.

70. N.3774. (Field Photograph, No. 600.)

PI. XXIV, 2.

Figures in relief, objects and inscriptions sunk. Upper right section discoloured.
Lower left; standing man and woman -+.
MAN: Full wig and beard, collar, pointed kilt; holding staff in left hand and
wand (passing behind kilt) in right hand.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest, collar, anklets, dress from throat to
mid-calves; left arm around man's waist, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: To right of staff; ribs, vegetables?, leg, conventional loaves (leaf type,
alternating light and dark in colour) on a table, joint, dead bird. Below these;
two tzs-jars, two other jars, two baskets containing pots, the lower one on a
stand.
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles interrupted at left side by
end of line A r, and ending above woman's head. Painted dividing lines
between registers of inscription.

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Six lines at top --, continued in B, as follows:


(r) +~Li7'711I!hr?W1cf~ (2) ~f J ~ ~.D~~

m::

(3) ~~~@ rf~lLll\J~= (4)

~~~o~=~"t"c
B.

(s)

1L~J~fl~

[J] ~.~J?l>1lt~~~r>~}t

(6) ~~~'7~~rTA~=~~
One column at right *i, as follows:

\~~~\::~ &~\::~~rJ
c. Line under A 6, continuing in short column at left, -- then *i, as follows:
(I) !G!1l!o!1?!~~ 12:\~~~+O
(2) tI~1 ~d-.~ ~

82

THE STELAE
TRANSLATION:

(r) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, KhentiAmentiu, (2) lord of Abydos in his every place; funerary offerings of bread
and beer for (3) the Hereditary Noble, Count, Chancellor of the King of
Lower Egypt, Sole Companion, Lector-Priest, Overseer (4) of Prophets,
Privy Councillor in the Great Chamber, Overseer of Works in (5) the Temple,
Overseer of all the tpwt (?) of the retinue(?) of the mJlw, (6) beloved of his lord,
ljnj. That which made for him his beloved
B. eldest son, who did what he (his father) desired upon earth (i.e. while his
father was alive), Im-mrry-sb ?.
c. (r) A thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand fowls,
a thousand everything good. His beloved wife, Sole Royal (2) Ornament,
Prophetess of Hathor, Ky?

A.

COMMENT ARY :

At beginning note the desert determinative preceding nb as it should, instead of in the


wrong order as in Stelae 26,57,67, and 76. Cf. also Stela 26, Commentary A 2.
A 4- At end of line ~ for ="= (Gardiner's Y 2).
A 5. The word following imj-rl Gunn would read tpwt (or possibly wdpwt). The word is
clearly feminine and, if correctly written, should be a collective. Gunn has called my
attention to ~~! in the M.K. title d~~!At~l(1}ll (Wtb. v, 294, 7) which he considers has points of resemblance with this title, although it does not appear to throw any light
on it, and ~~! may well be an ordinary feminine plural. At end of line mllw with det.
is unknown to Gunn, who suggests the possibility of its being a cult-object or the like.
smsw is reversed. Gunn has suggested the tentative translation which I use above.
B tp apparently without stroke. The mr in the name is very small and crowded: the name
Tm-mrry occurs also in Stelae 30 and 72, in the former quite clearly written, and in the
latter with the mr again crowded in as if it were a later insertion. This name with the
added element sb? does not occur elsewhere in these stelae.
C 2. The first sign in the wife's name may be Hm, but k seems more probable.
A 2.

71. N. 384. (Field Photograph No. 6r4.)

PI. XXV, 1.

Sunk relief, painted.


This stela is shown in position in PI. 1,3. See also Fig. 5 on p. 9.
Lower centre; standing man and woman ---0-.
MAN: Full wig, collar, pointed kilt, sandals; holding staff in left hand and wand
(passing behind kilt) in right hand.
WOMAN: Long wig without lappet, collar, bracelets, tight skirt from waist to
above knees; both arms hanging.

SCENE:

THE STELAE

To right of man, top to bottom; oval loaf, two cylinder jars in rectangular frames, ribs, leg, dressed bird, basket containing four jars, basket, three
tall jars.
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles between incised lines.
Painted lines between registers of inscription.

OBJECTS:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Three lines at top ~.


B. One column at right +{.
c. One column at left +{.
D. Line above objects and figures~.

A.

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, (2) lord of the necropolis in all his beautiful
places; (3) funerary offerings of bread and beer for the Hereditary Noble,
Count, Privy Councillor, ?-Priest of Min, Inbrt-nljt.
B. ?A pillar living by means of his possessions?, Chancellor of the King of
Lower Egypt, Sole Companion, Inbrt-nljt.
c. His beloved wife, Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor, BnJt.
D. A thousand of bread, a thousand of beer, a thousand fowls, a thousand cattle
(for) the Hereditary Noble Inbrt-nljt.
COMMENTARY:

Note the abnormal grouping of imj wt.


Note plural strokes after nb instead of before/.
A 3. The group following Ht! I would read with Gunn as the title of Wtb. v, 638,7. Note
the peculiar short writing of the name with n and a bird: the intended reading is obvious
(see
from the occurrence at end of B. On the coffin from this tomb the name ends
P7)
B. The phrase at the beginning is to me unknown. The use of iwn figuratively as 'prop',
'support' offamily or children (Wtb. I, 53,12) seems clearly intended. Cf. Stela 84, A5.
A I.

A 2.

::4

PI. XXV, 2.
72. N. 3807. (Field Photograph, No. 598.)
Sunk relief, in large part incrusted.
SCENE: Lower left; standing man ---+.
MAN: Full wig, collar?, bracelets, anklets?, pointed kilt; holding staff in left
hand and wand (passing behind kilt) in right hand.
OBJECTS: None.
BORDER: None. Incised dividing lines between registers of inscription.

THE STELAE
INSCRIPTION:

Three lines and three half lines at top and right +-.

A.

TRANSLATION:
A.

(r) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis, (2) in front of the god's
booth; funerary offerings of bread and beer for him in his tomb of the cemetery of the western (3) desert; that he be very well buried in the western
desert, (4) the honoured one before the great god, (5) lord of heaven, whom
the gods of Thinis praise, (6) the Count, Sole Companion, Tm-mrry.

COMMENTARY:

Note the determinatives in wt. The pip-like sign resembles Gardiner's V 38, the O.K.
det. for this word rather than the later form that we have come to expect in these inscriptions. The use of the det. @ occurs four times in the phrase in these Naga-ed-Der monuments; in Stelae 25 and 46 the group is +}@ with @ replacing~, while in 49 (apparently)
and 72 (certainly) it has been added to the more usual form
C;@ .
6. I read the name l\~~ ~, the mr being small and very much crowded above the first r.
Cf. the names in Stelae 30 and 70.

A 1.

+}

73. N. 3900, No. 1. (Field Photograph No. 838.)


PI. XXVI, 1.
Sunk relief, painted.
See preliminary remarks under Stela 39, where the five stones found in this
tomb are listed.
Lower centre and left; standing man and woman -"..
MAN: Full wig with relief details, collar, bracelets, pointed kilt with diagonal;
holding staff in left hand and wand in right hand.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest, collar, bracelets, anklets (representing
multiple wire rings on each ankle ?), close-fitting dress with shoulder-straps;
left elbow crooked around man's right forearm, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: In front of man's face; two attendants <-, one presenting a bowl to
man's mouth and holding a jar, the other holding a leg. To right of upper end
of staff; leg, ribs, two baskets. Opposite man's left forearm; jar with flowers
on a ring-stand, calf's head, gazelle head. To right of man's legs; dead bird,
eight pots on a stand, six jars under stand.
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles between incised lines.
Incised lines dividing registers of inscription.

SCENE:

85

THE STELAE
INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Three lines at top


1

+-,

continued in B, as follows:

cp==

A4-,.6)~JL~O=

T~/.IIW\ ~ lr JrC3~V06iJ~~

~~@; ~~~J@J~~~ 111~~o~

B.

r:J

~:::JU ~::=ifi~ \~~:EJ'l2~~~~~Jt


One long and three short columns at right +-{" as follows:
(r) ~~~,it,~~>o~~Uom1iK~~itJt[~l\=Jt
tm~Jt~oM~f\[~1~~9J)r~~ (2) ~~

~Jt== (3) [~t~g~~ (4) *~~~o~~


C.

Four short lines over woman +-, as follows:


(r) tJ~+Q~~1 ~ (2) ~~co.!. (3) 1~~ (4) ~J.

TRANSLATION:

(r) An ofIering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is
in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; funerary offerings of bread
and beer for the Hereditary Noble, (2) Count, Chancellor of the King of
Lower Egypt, Sole Companion, Lector-Priest, the honoured one before the
gods of Thinis, Itj-o. <He) says, (3) I am (one) who speaks good, repeats
good, and acts rightly. I am (one) beloved of his father, praised of his mother,
whom
B. (r) his brothers and sisters love, pleasant to his relatives and children. 0 ye
living (ones) upon [earth] who love life and abhor dying, who shall pass by
this stela in (2) going upstream or downstream, ye shall (3) say, a thousand of
bread and beer, cattle and fowls, (and) everything good for the honoured Itj-rJ.
C. (r) His beloved wife, Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor, (2) the
honoured one before (3) the great god, lord of heaven, (4) lftpt[j?J.
A.

COMMENTARY:

3. gd nfr whm nfr &c. See Commentary A 5 to Stela 37, the only other occurrence of the
phrase in these stelae.
B I. im, n ,bt m~!w! occurs also in Stela 78 and in the same context; inll n ,bt! occurs in
Stela 2. In commenting on the fuller phrase as written in Stela 78 Gunn suggests that
the ms-sign may be an error for the man det. in ,bt, but he had not seen the example in
Stela 73. Such an error is not likely to have been made twice, and I consider the reading
given above the correct one. This is confirmed by still another occurrence of the fuller
phrase in Stela 83.
c 4. The terminal j replaces the human det. and is not to be read: cf. Stela 13, Commentary
A 3.
A

86

THE STELAE

74. N.3907. (Field Photograph No. 594.)

PI. XXVI, 2.

Figures and inscriptions in sunk relief.


Flat slab with incised representation of a 'false door', but no differentiation of
planes. The identifications used for the different parts are given in the
diagram below, it being impractical to follow Gunn's system in this debased
example, since the sequence of the inscriptions is abnormal. Stelae 38 and
46, both peculiarly crude in workmanship, are from the same tomb.
Upper centre; seated man --+, before offerings.
Full wig, collar, bracelets, anklets?, short kilt; holding lotus to face in
left hand, right hand on knee. Figure seated on chair of usual type.
OBJECTS: In front of figure; ribs, legs, conventional loaves on a table, two jars
under table. To right of foregoing; several unclear objects and a basket (or
ewer and basin ?).
DOOR: Lower centre; door with two bolts.
OTHER FIGURES: Under C 2 and D 3; two standing figures --+ wearing closefitting wigs and pointed kilts, and carrying staff and wand as usual. Under
E; figure seated on chair +-, illegible in detail. Under F; standing figure +-,
full wig, collar, pointed kilt; holding staff and wand. All four figures are to
be considered as determinatives of the names under which they occur.
BORDER: At top; representation of a cavetto-cornice with incised and coloured
palm-leaf elements. Below this and down both sides; coloured border
framed in incised lines and crossed by alternating transverse and diagonal
lines representing conventional bindings of corner mouldings.

SCENE:

MAN:

INSCRIPTIONS:

As in diagram opposite: A I+-; A 2-3 +{; B +{;


Cl+-; C 2+{; D 1-2+-; D 3~; E and F}+.
AA
A I and A 3 are continuous, with A 2 apparently ~5 2
belonging in A I. C I and C 2 are continuous, ~
as also D I-D 3. B, E, and F are each separate
groups.
TRANSLATION:

(I) An offering which the king gives (and)


Osiris, lord of-[(2) Busiris, funerary offerings]-funerary offerings belonging to (3) the
honoured one.
B. A thousand bread?, a thousand beer?, a
thousand cattle, a thousand fowls.
c. (I) Funerary offerings belonging to the Count,

A1

Il:

5ct.1'\~

B~
~

Cl

Dt
D2

A.

87

C2.

D"5 :DOOR

f. F

THE STELAE

Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Sole (2) Companion, the honoured
one before Sokar, In-ltj.
D. (r) The honoured one before the great god, (2) lord of heaven, the Count,
Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Sole Companion, (3) Lector-Priest,
E.

F.

In-itj.
Sole Companion, Lector-Priest, In-itj.
Count, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, In-itj.

COMMENTARY:
I below.
The determinative of Busiris is omitted. Apparently this column is to be read after nb
in A I, as indicated; 'funerary offerings' being repeated.
B. There are two groups of two 'thousand'-signs each, that is one sign for each of the four
articles listed.
C 2. Small:: behind the legs of w. The r below is to be read twice; ~>~} ~~. Note
that Sokar is also invoked in Stela 5 I, column F.
A I.

nt indirect genitive as in Stela 4 and also in C

A 2.

PI. XXVII, 1.
75. N.39r4. (Field Photograph No. 624).
Sunk relief, upper right corner missing.
SCENE: Lower left; standing man and woman -+, daughter and son +--.
MAN: Close-fitting wig or natural hair, collar, pointed kilt; holding staff in left
hand and wand? in right hand.
WOMAN: Close-fitting wig or natural hair, tight dress to mid-calves not defined
above; both arms hanging.
DAUGHTER: Like woman.
SON: Close-fitting wig or natural hair, pointed kilt; both arms hanging.
OBJECTS: None.
BORDER: None. Incised lines between registers of inscription.
INSCRIPTIONS:

A.

Three lines at top

+--,

as follows:

"'=ntn~~ >i
1 "'1 A'" c-[T
sN,Ll] ri;:~.D d) ' 7 TI @~ I!ill I' JI&:, 11

r~'7r..J q, Jr'G60'::=~~uLJ

~ni'l'l~LfJ=~np-"=-9-co

,6~rQ

t>t;\}!, lH~~~.~,~,~rn
B.

LJ

;~

Four columns at right +{, as follows:


r~~~JiJA::Jg. \~~~A
~ 2~ ~ ~~~"=-\::Ji~ ~Jiit~~\~~

88

THE STELAE

~~12t~ r 2~~ ~ sr}~,1ft,~

Llb-~~mr~::it~=

c. Over principal figures; names and titles of man and wife +-, as follows:
D.

r~~~3t,J:\~:: t AP3t
Over daughter; name and title +-, as follows:

E.

~:: \~::tA:-:~r::
To left of son; name +{: lJ~~[?J

TRANSLATION:

(r) An offering which [the king] gives, (and) Anubis, (and) Osiris, lord of
Busiris, Khenti-Amentiu, (2) [lord of Aby]dos; funerary offerings of bread
and beer for him in his tomb of the cemetery of the western desert, (3) the
honoured one before the great god, Sole Companion, Overseer of Sandalmakers in the Temple?, Ijwtj.
B. (r) The Sole Companion tIu'tj, (he) says, I am (one) beloved of his father,
(2) praised of his mother, whom his brothers and sisters love, beloved (3) of
the great ones, praised of the little ones, never (4) did I do what any people
abhor.
c. Sole Companion Ijwtj. His beloved wife, King's Noblewoman, Idw.
D. His beloved daughter, King's Noblewoman, St-nt-nfr[t ?].
E. In(zrt-[nl;t?J.
A.

COMMENTARY:

Supply nb ;b- at beginning.


A 3. The title 'Overseer of Sandal-makers' is, of course, well known, but I do not know it
with the additional phrase here given.
C-D. The titles spst nswt of wife and daughter both lack the feminine t. There is no t
legible after nil' in the daughter's name, but one may have existed. The wife's name I
read 1dw; cf. the common O.K. man's name ~=P} and the woman's name ~"'f in
Grab- und Denksteine, 20545 band 20708 b; cf. also Ranke, Personennamen, 54, 8 var.
E. The inscription is very faint, but there are possible traces of something following 1n(lrt,
probably nbt.
A 2.

76. N. 3930. (Field Photograph No. 6ro.)


Sunk relief, painted.

PI. XXVII, 2.

Lower left; standing man and woman --+.


MAN: Full wig, collar, bracelets, pointed kilt (with belt left uncut for painting);

SCENE:

89

THE STELAE

holding staff in left hand, right arm hanging (with wand perhaps painted in
and now illegible).
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest, collar, tight dress not defined above;
left hand on man's left shoulder, right arm hanging.
OBJECTS: Faintly legible in front of man's face, painted only; leg joint.
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles between framing lines,
painted only and broken at left by end of line A 2. Painted lines dividing
registers of inscription.
INSCRIPTIONS:

The hieroglyphs are varicoloured, judging by the colour values


photograph.
A. Four lines at top +-, continued in B, as follows:

III

the

(1) ~~.&70~rr@3t (2) rIW1::r~~U~3t

(3) ~ll,,:r:m~r (4) ~~~~3t~ ~~

One column at right ~, as follows:

B.

~! 3t ~ 3t T ~:! ~ l ~~ lJ ~} I? ~ l ~~ I? .
c. One short line under A 4 +-, as follows:
D.

~\~ y~ ~O~=,~
One column to left of B ~, as follows:
m~~ot-;~I~~~~

E.

One short line under C +-, as follows:

l~:!l~l~ol~~ .
TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, (2) KhentiAmentiu, lord of Abydos (3) in his beautiful place; funerary offerings of bread
and beerfor the beautiful? ? (one), (4) Hereditary Noble, Count, the honoured
one before the great god, lord of heaven,
B. MJr-brw. I have given bread to the hungry and clothing to the naked.
c. His beloved wife, the Royal Ornament, 'Idj.
D. Funerary offerings for the Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor, 'Id}.
E. A thousand of bread, a thousand of beer, a thousand everything good.
COMMENTARY:
A

3. The vase-like sign at the end of the line is remarkable. Three interpretations are conceivable: it might represent the ideogram wdpw 'butler' and be a title; it might be a repetition of the beer-jug in pr-brw; or it might be a badly made nfr. None of these explanations

THE STELAE

appear satisfactory. It would be extraordinary to place such a title as 'butler' before the
much more important titles that follow; it seems an inexplicable proceeding to repeat the
beer-jug from pr-brw, although Gunn has suggested that as a possible explanation; nfr is
made quite differently earlier in the same line. The last possibility, however, is the one I
am adopting \yith all reserve, because a parallel case has come to my notice. In the collection of Dr. Jacob Hirsch in New York there is a stela of the 1st Intermediate Period,
of unknown provenance, a photograph of which has kindly been shown to me by the
owner. The monument is No. 635 in Dr. Hirsch's collection, and the pertinent text reads
clearly: ill=~~~L:~ &c.
B. The name is unusual, but is listed by Ranke as of the Old Kingdom, op. cit., 144, 19. The
first two signs (mlr) are reversed. A fragment of the painted wooden coffin from this tomb
bears the inscription: ~ffu~~ ~>~.
c. For the occurrence of this as a woman's name see Ranke, op. cit., 53, 25. The writing
in D was, I presume, the same, but the human figure was only painted (as also the terminal j) and is now lost.

In addition to the 76 stelae recorded above, all except one of which (Stela 50)
were excavated by Dr. Reisner for the Hearst Egyptian Expedition or the Harvard
University-Museum of Fine Arts Expedition, I include the following two stones
in this publication because of their similarity to the above material, and because
they are as yet unpublished elsewhere. Stela 77, in the Semitic Museum at
Harvard, has kindly been placed at my disposal by the Curator, Dr. Robert Pfeiffer,
and Stela 78, in the Egyptian Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
York, has been made available to me through the courtesy of the Director, Dr.
H. E. Winlock. In addition I have to thank Dr. Ludlow Bull of the Egyptian
Department in N ew York for his kindness in supplying me with colour notations
on the l\letropolitan stela, as well as for assistance with the inscriptions.

77. Semitic Museum 2354.


PI. XXVIII, 1.
Sunk relief, painted. Traces of construction lines for the figures have been
indicated on the plate with broken ink lines. 52.0 X450.
Bought in Cairo for the Semitic IVluseum of Harvard University, 1902, and
said to come from Girga (opposite Naga-ed-Der on the west bank of the Nile).
SCENE: Lower left; standing man and woman -7-.
MAN: Full wig (b), collar of two strands (y and g) with flesh showing between,
pointed kilt (w), flesh (r); holding staff (y) in left hand, right arm hanging.
WOMAN: Long wig without lappet (b), collar of two strands (r and g) with flesh
showing between, bracelets (g), skirt (w) from waist to mid-calves, flesh (y);
both arms hanging.

THE STELAE

To right of man's staff; leg (r with foot b), ribs (r), two rectangles (y),
two oval loaves placed vertically (y), cylinder jar (y) in rectangle (w), jar (r)
with seal (b) on a ring-stand (y).
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles between (b) painted framing
lines; across top, left to right, as follows: (b, y, r, g, b, y, r, g).
OBJECTS:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Two lines at top ~, continued in B. All (g) except as follows: dj, face of tP,
gir, and brw (r); stand of Anubis figure and following stroke, gw, and det. wt
(y); hair of tp (b).
B. One column at right +-{. All (g) except as follows: arm in bJtj-r and r (r) ; wr
(y).
c. Short column over woman +-{. All (g) except rand tj which are (r).
A.

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis (2) upon his mountain,
who is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; funerary offerings of
beer and bread
B. for the Count, Sole Companion, Tfw-r-nbb.
c. His beloved wife 'Itj.
COMMENTARY:

Note the stroke following Anubis ideogram.


No stroke after gw. The det. of wt is reversed as often. The beer-jar and loaf following
pr-brw are in reverse order.
B. wr reversed. I have found no other example of this name.
A I.

A 2.

PI. XXVIII, 2.
78. Metropolitan Museum, 25: 2: 3.
Sunk relief, painted. 67'3 X475.
Purchased. Provenance not known.
SCENE: Lower left; standing man, woman, and sandal-bearer~, attendant~.
MAN: Full wig with relief details (b), beard (b?), collar of five strands (y,
?, r, y, ?), bracelets (?), sandals (?), pointed kilt with diagonal (w), flesh (r);
holding staff (y) in left hand and wand (y) in right hand.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest and relief details (b), collar of five
strands (r, ?, y, r, ?), bracelets and anklets (?), skirt (w) from waist to midcalves with shoulder-pieces (transverse striped), flesh (y); fingers of left hand
held in man's right hand, right arm hanging.
SANDAL-BEARER: Close-fitting wig or hair (?), tight kilt (w), flesh (r); holding by
thong a pair of sandals (?) in left hand, right arm hanging.

THE STELAE

Opposite man's face; costume and colour like preceding; presenting


bowl (r) to man's mouth with right hand, holding aloft jar (r) in left hand.
OBJECTS: Over attendant; leg (r with striations ?), ribs (r outline and cross-lines,
right end y). Over inscription B; dead bird (y), two baskets (y) with contents
(w), six jars (r) with tops (?) on a stand (?), five tall jars (r) with tops (?) under
stand.
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles between incised framing
lines, divided by groups of four incised cross-lines, the spaces between which
are (b, w, b); in order, beginning at bottom right corner (r, ?, g or bl, ?, y, r, ?,
?, ?, ?, r, g or bl, ?,?, y?, r corner, ?, ?, ?, y, r, ?, g or bl, ?, y, r corner, ?, g or
bl, ?, y, r, ?, ?, ?, y, r, ?, g or bl,?, ?, r). The dividing lines between registers of
inscription (incised) are (b) or possibly (bl).

ATTENDANT:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Four lines at top -E-, continued in B. All signs originally (g) or (bl) but now
faded out, except as follows:

A I. ~tP (y), dj (r), Anubis (b), his support (y), tp (r) with hair (b), tjw (y), stroke (r),f (y),
imj (r), w (y with legs r), tjsr (r _vith stick y), pr (y), brw (r), bread (y), jar (r). A 2. Long
loaf (y), !utj (y), arm (r), bee's body and wings (y), legs and antennae (r), seal (y), s (r), mr
(y), wr (y), stroke (r), br (y), b (r), 1nl (r), lmlO (r), fish (y \vith belly and tail r), hand (r).
A 3. g (y), hand (r), nw (r), k (y), g (y), s (r), bird (y), I.? (y), mouth (r), arm (r), wood (r),
stroke (r), s (r), sml (r), I-bird (y), hand (r), man (r with hair b). A 4. nw (1'), k (y), mr
(r), f (y), man (r with chair y), ~s (y), mwt (y), w (y with legs r), sn (y), f (y), man (r),
woman (y), their hair (b), three strokes (r).

Three columns at right +-{, coloured as follows; columns I and 2; all signs
(y): column 3 has no colour preserved.
c. One line under A 4 -E- (offering list); no colour.
D. Two short lines over wife -E-, coloured as follows: not preserved except the
following:
B.

D I. !lm (y),f (y), mr (r), bkr (y), wr (y), lJt-~r (y), ~m-n!r (y), imJO (r). D 2. r (r), n!rw
(y), Thinis symbol (y) except plumes and flail which are faded, two mwt-birds (y).
TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; funerary offerings of
bread and beer (2) for the Count, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt,
Sole Companion, Lector-Priest, the honoured Indj. (3) <He) says, I am a
citizen excellent in battle, a companion to his people?, (4) I am (one) beloved
of his father, praised of his mother, whom his brothers and sisters love,
B. (I) pleasant to his relatives and children. I arose from the back of my father's
house by the might of Inbrt, (2) (and) I ruled Thinis in the desire of a good
93

THE STELAE

character (and) in the desire of doing things well. (I am one) who speaks with
his mouth and acts with his arm. (3) There will not be found any man who
speaks against the honoured Tndj.
c. A thousand of bread, a thousand of beer, a thousand of cattle, a thousand of
fowls, a thousand of 'alabaster' (ointment jars), a thousand of clothing, a
thousand of everything good for the honoured Tndj.
D. (I) His beloved wife, Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor, the
honoured one (2) before the gods of Thinis, Mwt-mwt[j].
COMMENTARY:

3. 'I am a citizen excellent in battle.' For this phrase cf. Polotsky, op. cit., par. 59 b. For
YJ-r ot, 'battle', see TVtb. Il, 394, I2. J.z;dt is not given in vVtb. with man det., but it is
listed by Budge in his Egyptian Dictionary with the somewhat vague sense 'folk, people'.
B I. For im; n ;bt mswj see above Stela 73, Commentary B I, and also Stela 83, B 3. For
ls[j] m Pllwj-pr it[j] see above Stela 69, Commentary A 4. The last sign in the column is,
I think,
det. of 1nl/rt.
B 2. In the phrase 'in the desire of doing things ,veIl' the last sign is intended for nfr, r nfr,
'well'.
B 3. Written gdjfor gdtjjj.
D. The name means, perhaps, 'l\Iut is my mother', as Bull has suggested, and this agrees
"Vvith Ranke's rendering in Personennamen, I48, 2. Gunn has proposed 'mother of my
mother' by analogy with 'father of my father' in op. cit., 50, 2I.
A

.:r,

The following nine stones, Stelae 79 to 87, are in the Oriental Institute Museum,
University of Chicago, and are said to have come from the Girga district. Their
similarity to the foregoing stelae leaves no reasonable doubt that they are to be
regarded as part of the Naga-ed-Der material, although their exact provenance
is not known. They are published by generous permission of the late Professor
J. H. Breasted, Director of the Oriental Institute, who kindly placed photographs
and all necessary information at my disposal and had the texts collated by members
of the Egyptological staff of the Institute.

79. Orinst. 1695 I. Girga district?

PI. XXIX, 1.
Relief, painted. Upper left and lower right corners missing. 603 X47o.
It is noteworthy that this is the only stone in the whole series here published
with inscriptions in relief. This and other peculiarities of style make it necessary to admit the possibility that it may be of a different provenance, although
the stone used for its manufacture is in all respects similar to that from \vhich
the rest of the stelae are made. Another possibility is that the maker had been
trained in a different tradition in some other part of Egypt.
94

THE STELAE

Lower part of stone; standing man and woman ---J>.


MAN: Full wig with relief details (b), collar of four strands with relief details
(y, g, r, g, with b tips), belt (w with cross-lines b), pointed kilt (w), flesh (r);
holding staff (y) in left hand and wand (r) in right hand.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest, relief details (b), collar of four strands
with raised border (y) top and bottom, relief details (strands of ball or drop
beads, faded bl or g, each with a spot b), close-fitting dress to mid-calves not
defined above (y), bracelet on right wrist (r lines lengthwise of arm), girdle
painted only (six strands; b lines, g, b?, g, b?, g), flesh (y); left elbow encircles
man's left shoulder with forearm over his chest, right hand grasps own left
wrist.
OBJECTS: Vertically to right of man; fore-leg of a piebald ox (w with patches b,
end r, foot b) on a basket (y with interior markings b). Above right end of
fore-leg ink inscription !~=; to right of basket !~~.
BORDER: At top and both sides, painted only; double band of colour: top, upper
(b), lower (1'); right outer (irregular b, 1', b, y), inner (1', y, 1', y, r); left, single
line, opposite A 4 (1'), below that (b). Lines dividing registers of inscription
(y, b, 1', b).

SCENE:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Four lines at top +-, in relief. The signs have in some cases raised edges and
sunk centres, in others the entire sign is in relief, often with considerable
modelling. All signs were originally outlined in (b), which is extensively preserved.
Line I. nsw (raised edges r, centre g), t (y), !ztp (raised edges y, centre r), dj (raised edges

r, centre y), i (stem g outlined in r, fronds alternately y and g separated by r lines), n


(5 horizontal ripples, alternately high and low, of g, y, g, y, g, outlined in r), p (vertical
bands alternating y and g, horizontal bands top and bottom g, middle band (incised) r
with outline h), Anubis (b, feather r, on stand y with details b), tp (flesh y, wig, beard, eyeball and rim b),j, (y \yith horns b), gw (r, painted details b), stroke (y), imj (raised edge r,
centre g, details b), w (y, stripe along back r, touches under wing and at top of legs r, legs
y), t (b), wt [abnormal form like a sack tied with a cord at neck] (y, details b), gsr (hand r,
stick y).
Line 2. ir (raised rim and ball b, centre w), s (top and front y, lower back on lower
plane r), Osiris (r with crown y), nb (fine checker pattern band y), dd (r), hand (r), det.
(r with sunk centre y), w (y, stripe on back b, feet r), ont (first and last y, two in centre r),
n (y), t (b), imntlw (bird and feather r, details b), det. (r, crown y, whip g), nb (horizontal
lines, top to bottom r, g, r, y, b, g, r, g, y, r, g, ?, verticals b), Jb (y, details b), det. (r, sunk
centre y).
Line 3. m (man-like face y with eyes b, nose and mouth r, beard g, wing g with incised
feather details, body y with markings b, feet r), s (top and front y, lower back r, upper

95

THE STELAE

back is in lower relief), t (y, internal markings b), plural strokes (r), f (scales carefully
incised, body y, back g), nb (y, painted checker pattern b), nfr (r), t (y, internal line r),
zvrb (r with wig b, water y), b (r), t (y),pr (r), brw (y), t (b), tJ-bread (y, almost a square),
n (three bands g, y, g), (lItj (y, mane b, markings on 'wrist' b, fur markings b), r (y, bracelet
yand b), t (r, not separated from base line), bi~j (antennae, body and feet r, wings rand y,
thorax striped y, r, y, r), sgJwtj (outer and inner raised edges of loop b, centre y, seal y).
Line 4- s (y), mr (r), wr (y, stripes at each end r), t (?), stroke (y with lines b), i (y with
markings b), mJ (r), b (y with lines b), imJb (traces of r), w (y), r (r), wtj (y), rwtj (y with
horizontal painted lines b), m (body and feet y, head with traces r), ~ (y), b (r), l; (y), det.
[the sign is peculiar, somewhat resembling l;b (022), and without a vase] (y), r (r), n (y),
fey, incised scales), nfr (y), ~ (y), two 1"S (r), ir (ball and rim b).
B.

One column to left of woman +i, in relief; coloured (y) with details (b).

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who
is in the place of embalming, [lord of the necroJpolis, (2) (and) Osiris, lord of
Busiris, Khenti-Amentiu, lord of Aby[ dos J, (3) in all his beautiful pure
places; funerary offerings of bread for the Count, Chancellor of the King of
Lower Egypt, (4) Sole Companion, the honoured Rwg-m-lJ,b~, whose good
name is ~rr-ir(?).
B. His beloved wife, Royal Ornament, the honoured Jjwyt.
COMMENTARY:

In the det. of Anubis note the form of the object on which the animal lies. In the
majority of occurrences in these stelae the object appears to be a table, rather than a
shrine as in the hieroglyphic type: this is the only instance where its form appears to have
been influenced by the standard for the support of sacred images. At end of line read nb
tJ tjsr, the hand holding a stick from tjsr being preserved.
A 4. The first name I would read
Q\ ~ LlJ Jm, the det. being similar to f:zb (0 22) and
probably intended for the lower part of the ~bl; det., although the vase above was never
added. The second name is ~.
B. The sign bkr resembles an ear of grain.
A I.

-=1

80. Orinst. 16952. Girga district.

PI. XXIX, 2.
Figure, objects, and inscriptions Band C, III relief, inscription A sunk;
painted. II3O X736.
SCENE: Lower part of stone; standing man -----')..
MAN: Full wig with relief details (b), beard (?), collar of four strands (?), leopard
skin (tawny) with spots (b), tie on left shoulder (?), triple band (?) under right
arm-pit, claws at upper and lower right edges and tail at bottom, bracelets (?),
pointed kilt (w), flesh (r); holding staff (y) in left hand and wand (y?), which
passes behind kilt, in right hand.

THE STELAE

In front of man; table (?) with eight conventionalized loaves (r outlines and markings), beneath which are ribs (alternately rand w with rend),
indeterminate elongated object (y), and fore-leg (r with end ?). To right of
the foregoing three registers of offerings as follows:
1St Register: ribs (alternately rand w with end r), two baskets (r with
markings b) on a table (r), first basket containing three jars (r with seals b),
second basket containing two similar jars and a round-bellied vase (r with
seal b). Beneath table a gazelle head (routline, horns b )and a calf's head(y ?). On
right side of table a flower (g with calyx r). To right, above; rectangular matlike
object, perhaps vegetables! (g with r cross-lines): below; dead bird (?, r outline, wings b), two vases of flowers (g), three upright conical loaves (r outline).
2nd Register: small joint of meat (r), unclear elongated object (? and g?),
fore-leg (r with foot g), two baskets (r with details b) with mounded contents
(?), calf's head (? with neck r), onions (g with details r), gazelle head (y with
horn b), dead bird (wings b, neck b mottled, head bl), dressed bird (at upper
right, r outline), and several unclear objects.
3rd Register: dead bird (b), small joint of meat (r), matlike object as in first
register (g with cross-lines r), calf's head (b), onions? (g with cross-lines r),
basket (r with markings b) containing three pots (r with seals b), I:zs-vase (r),
gazelle head (r with horn b), and some indeterminate objects.
BORDER: At top; representation of cavetto-cornice in relief, left to right (y, g, r, r,
y, g, r, r, y, ?, r, r, y, g, r, r, y, g, r, bl, y, g, r, bl, &c. to end). At both sides
coloured rectangles between incised bordering lines, with incised double
cross-lines, in order (y, r, bl, g, and repeat). Incised dividing lines between
registers of inscription A (b), raised dividing lines in inscriptions Band C (b).
OBJECTS:

INSCRIPTIONS:

Five lines at top <E-, in sunk relief, coloured (g) throughout. In A I white
plaster patch over faulty place at sign dj.
B. Three short lines over figure <E-, in relief, coloured (r) except as follows:

A.

B 1. nsw (?), ~tP (g), Anubis (figure ?, stand r). B


i (y), det. (g).

c. Five columns below offerings

2.

three ns (?), bird head (y). B 3. n (g),

*1, in relief, coloured (r) except as follows:

Cl. lower element of ~b (g), seals of two jars (y). C 2. n (?), ngm (g), seals of two jars (y).
The bnm-vase is not in relief (painted only). C 3. wand t both (?), seal ofvase (y). C 4.
~Jt (mane b, leg r), ( (r with bracelet g), s (w), vase (seal, rim, and band y?, vase r). C 5.
two ts (?) superimposed on dividing lines, n (g), t (?), ~ (r ?), seal of vase (y).
I The same form is shown in certain limestone
offering-cases of the Old Kingdom from Giza,
shaped to contain a group of four rod-like objects

with one end curving slightly upward. Internal


length c. 47 cm.

97

THE STELAE
TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, KhentiAmentiu, (2) lord of Abydos in his every pure place; (3) funerary offerings of
bread and beer for the Count, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Overseer of the Sacred Black? Cattle of the Offering Endowment, 'Isr. (4) An
offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is in the
place of embalming, lord of the necropolis, lord of Spl, (5) funerary offerings
of bread and beer belonging to the Count, Mayor, in honour before the great
god, 'Isr.
B. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis, in front of (2) the god's
booth; a thousand water, a thousand bread and beer, a thousand cattle and
fowls, a thousand 'alabaster' (ointment jars) and linen, (3) for the Count'Isr.
c. List of the 'seven sacred oils' as follows: (1) 11j-~b, ~knw, (2) 1il, nrjm (nbnm),
(3) tWlWt, (4) ~ltt nt d, (5) ((utt nt) l~nw.
COMMENTARY:
A

3. Another in the series of 'Overseers of Cattle'. Five titles of this type are recorded in this
group of stelae (see Index of Titles, I7-21).
2. The second word \vas originally written (in relief) ~~~. A bmn-vase has been
added (in paint only). In Wtb. Il, 381,10 a word ngm (,Salbe') is recorded as of the Twentysecond Dynasty and later. Is this correction an indication that the latter word was already
in use in the First Intermediate Period, and had been confused with the nlznm of the
traditional lists, a confusion subsequently rectified by the painter?
5. Note the sign in 1~nw where one would expect Gardiner's S 16. Here it is clearly ms,
a misunderstanding by the stone-cutter of his hieratic copy.

PI. XXX, 1.
81. Orinst. 16953. Girga district.
Crude sunk relief, painted. 76.8 X 49 5.
SCENE: Lower part of stone; standing man and woman --+.
MAN: Full wig (b), collar (three rows g with dark dividing lines) crude representation of a leopard skin (y with spots rand b) with tie? on left shoulder,
passing over right shoulder and extending below bottom of kilt, bracelets (g),
pointed kilt to knees (w), its belt (y) and tie (w), anklets (g), sandals (traces
only) (b), nipple (g), flesh (r); holding staff (y), in left hand and wand (butt y,
grip g, stem g and y, head y) in right hand.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest (b), collar (g), close-fitting dress to midcalves covering whole upper torso (g), belt (r outline), bracelet on right wrist
(g with r line), anklets (g \vith r vertical lines), sandals (b), flesh (y); left arm
around man's body with hand appearing in front, right arm hanging.

THE STELAE

In front of man, top to bottom; fore-leg (r, y, foot b), calf's head upside
dO\vn (y with eye b and neck r), two baskets (y) on one of which (left) is an
indeterminate object (g), table of conventionalized loaves (y).
BORDER: Painted only. At top, indication of elements of cavetto-cornice
(b, g, r, y, and repeat). At top and both sides; coloured rectangles (g, b, y, r)
with cross-lines (?). Painted dividing lines between registers of inscription A,
top to bottom beginning above A I (b, y, b, y, b).
OBJECTS:

INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Four lines at top

+-,

coloured as follows:

A I. nsw, i, and both ns (g), both ts, dj, and p (b ),{ltp and ont (y), Anubis (b), his stand
(g) with base (y).
A 2. Vase and s (r), pr and t (b), shrine and Jpt (y), det. pr-orw, n, sgJWtj, and mr (g),
nlr (striped g and y), orw (g with b lines), tJ-bread (top y, bar r, base b), r (r with bracelet
g), bitj (antennae and legs r, body g, wings and thorax y).
A 3. w r, both Os and arm (y), stroke and both fis (g), rand s (r), t (b), br-sign (y with base
b), b (r with anklet g), ilnJO (top g, bar r, loop and spots y), nlr (striped g and y), (J (y, bar
at top r, bands g), m (head, feet, tail, and base y, body g), hand (r with bracelet g), sign
above hand (g with cross-lines b).
A 4. nw, k, bothfs, man, woman, both ??s (y), y, seat of man, n (g), J1lwt, both ts, ngsbird, Jo-sign (b), mr (r with cross-tie g), g (striped r and g), tp (y with hair b), tJ (g with
spots r), 111 (y with head g), br-nlr (the nlr as in A 2, the br as in A 3).
B.

One column to right of man +{, coloured as follows:

bJ (y), oJ (g), tJ (as in A 2), vase (r), tu (g), lu (y), calf's head (upside down, colour as in
Objects), bird head (g with head b), bJ (g), 0 (y), t (?), llb (like {zb-sign, g with centre r),
nfr (r), n (g), z'trtJO (as in A 3), s (r), fi (g), J1l (?), arm (y).

c. Short line over woman +- ( 1), and column behind her -<-{ (2), coloured as follows:
bm, nsw, both is (g), all ts (b ),f, bkr, W 1, both Os, det. of name (y), tlU (r), mr (r with crosstie g), inuO (as in A 3), w (g with wing and feet y).
TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis in front of (2) the god's
booth; funerary offerings of bread and beer for the Count, Chancellor of the
King of Lower Egypt, Sole (3) Companion, Lector-Priest, in honour before
the great god, 5mb. (He) says, (4) I am (one) beloved of his father and mother,
a citizen excellent upon earth, a glorified soul excellent in the cemetery.
B. A thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand fowls, a
thousand every good thing for the honoured Sbm (= 5mb).
c. (1) His beloved wife, Sole Royal Ornament, (2) the honoured Jjwtj.
COMMENTARY:

The sign for bread is peculiarly formed and coloured. It looks like a ~ superimposed on
t, quite unlike the tl-bread sign. The same sign (damaged) appears to have been used in

A 2.

99

THE STELAE

B, and the meaning can hardly be in doubt in these contexts. The collators of the
Oriental Institute suggest that this peculiar form may be derived from the carver's misreading of his hieratic copy, and cite Moller, Palaographie, I, nos. 554 and xxxv, with
which suggestion I concur. It is remarkable that the stone-cutter should have been so
ignorant as not to recognize a sign which occurs in the same grouping so universally, yet
other instances of such gross illiteracy (or carelessness?) have already been observed in
these stelae. I
A 3. The name is unrecorded by Ranke. One is tempted to suggest a meaning 'left-handed'
despite the fact that sm~j (Wtb. IV. 140, 14-15) is not recorded previous to the New Kingdom. The last two signs in the line undoubtedly stand for ~ , the g being again a misreading of the hieratic.
A 4. The last phrase I take to be an abbreviated writing of ngs i~r tp t; ;b i~r m br-nlr.
B. Read two 'thousand'-signs side by side over 'bread' and 'beer', and again two over 'cattle'
and 'fowls'. The line is complete, ending with the arm det. of the name.

82. Orinst. 16954. Girga district.


PI. XXX, 2.
Figure in relief, inscriptions and objects sunk; remains of colour. Lower
right corner anciently broken (before use). 38'1 x8o6.
SCENE: Left end of stone; standing man --7-.
MAN: Full \vig (?), beard (?), collar (g), bracelets (?), pointed kilt (w), sandals
incised (b), flesh (r); holding staff (y) in left hand and wand (y) in right hand.
OBJECTS: To right of man, sunk relief on painted ground (y); ribs (r and ?, no
indication of individual bones), vegetables? (g), fore-leg (r with foot b), lzsvase (r), dressed bird (g with beak b), painted rectangle, perhaps a mat
(r lines), dead bird (? with feet and beak b), lzs-vase (r), onions (g). Below
these a table (? with feet b) on which stand three jars (r with upper parts
striped b) and two baskets (y) with mounded contents (?), the left-hand basket
with a gazelle head (? with horn b) projecting over the rim. On the painted
(y) ground are traces of other objects painted in (r) outline, of which only
a bunch of onions? at upper right is legible.
BORDER: At top and both sides, painted only; coloured rectangles (r, b, y)
between framing lines (r above, y below). Dividing lines between registers of
inscription, painted only; under A (r), under C (r), B, right to left (y, r, y, y, r).
INSCRIPTIONS:

One line at top --, traces of (g) throughout.


B. Four columns at right~, traces of (g) throughout.
c. Short line above offerings --, all (g) except bread, beer, cattle, and fowls (r).

A.

I Gunn would prefer to regard this as a conscious


variation-a combination of a kind of loaf
Ll = gs and the loaf "'-'.

100

THE STELAE
TRANSLATION:

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is in
the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis in
B. (1) his every good place; funerary offerings of bread and beer for (2) the
Count, Sole Companion, Lector-Priest, in honour (3) before Osiris, lord of
Busiris, Snj. (4) Funerary offerings of bread and beer for the Chancellor of
the King of Lower Egypt, the honoured Snj.
c. A thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand fowls,
a thousand everything good for the honoured Snj.

A.

COMMENTARY:

The f has its head separated.


The f is not clear, perhaps headless. At end of line there appear to be traces of a
damaged sign; just possibly ~ as in Stela 76.

A I.

B I.

83. Orinst. 16955. Girga distri.ct.


PI. XXXI.
Sunk relief, painted. 43.8 X66'0.
SCENE: Left half of stone; standing man and woman -7-.
MAN: Full wig with relief details (b), beard (?), collar of five strands (w, r, y, r, w),
bracelets (?), pointed kilt (w), flesh (r); holding staff (y) in left hand, grasping
woman's left hand in right fist.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest, relief details (b), collar of seven strands
(r, w, r, y, r, w, r), bracelets (?), close-fitting dress of type shown in Stela 78
(w), anklets (?), flesh (y); left hand grasped in man's right fist, right arm
hanging.
OBJECTS: In front of man, left row, top to bottom; fore-leg (r with foot y), ribs
(alternating rand w, end y), calf's head (y with neck r), table (?) on which
stand five pots (r with seals b): right row, top to bottom; two baskets (y with
lines b), tray (y) on which stand five jars? (?), two jars (r with seals b) on ringstands (r).
BORDER: At top and both sides, with incised edges and triple cross-lines;
coloured rectangles (irregular order; b, y, rand r preserved), the edges (b) and
cross-lines (b, w, b). Incised dividing lines (b) between registers of inscription.
INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

One line (half length of stone) at upper right +--, coloured as follows:
dj, stroke, imj, arms of t}Sr (r); stand of Anubis, gw,j, w, wt, tJ, stick in rjSr (y); tp (flesh r,

hair b) ; all others (?).


B.

Six columns below A +{, coloured as follows:


B I. pr, brw, loaf, det. of pr-brw, sgJWtj, wr, rJ (y); vase in pr-brw, r,
JO!

s, b, im/b, r (r);

THE STELAE
Jpt (y, mane ?) ; bitj (antennae

and wings y, body and thorax striped rand y, legs and outline
of wings r); mr (y with cross-bar r); stroke in wrtj and br (b); all others (?).
B 2. three seats, f, det. of name, two gs, d, k, f, det. father, f, /;s, mwt-bird, f (y); two
k;s, nw-vase, r (r); nfr (r with stem y); mr (r with cross-tie?); all others (?).
B 3. two rs, man det., plural strokes, plural strokes (1'); w, woman det.,f, m, ;b,f, rnb,
t; (y); mr (r with cross-tie?); man det. of ;bt, man in interjection, man det. in rnbw, tp (r
with hair b); all others (?).
B 4. both rs, s,r,arm(r); w,rnb,q4,w, det. bpt, W;,;, det. sw;t, s, first sign in is, det. is, w,
t, 11, (y); mr (r with cross-tie?); /;r (face r, hair b); all others (?).
B 5. ti-loaf, rn, rn, 1, Wll, rn, 1, w, 1, g, d, rn, 1, (y); beer-jar, r, r, r, r, stroke (r); nfr (r
with stem y); all others (?).
B 6. bird-head, b, n1r, r;, det. of name (y); base of llfr, r, i1mb, r, two k;s (r); all others (?).

c. Two lines above woman <E--, no colour preserved.


N.B. Many if not all of the hieroglyphs now without colour seem never to have
been painted.
TRANSLATION:

An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is in
the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis;
B. (1) funerary offerings of bread and beer for the Count, Chancellor of the
King of Lower Egypt, Sole Companion, Lector-Priest, in honour before the
great god, lord of heaven, in (2) all his beautiful places, KJkJ[j?]. <He> says, I
am (one) beloved of his father, praised of his mother, (3) whom his brothers
and sisters love, pleasant to his relatives and children. 0 ye living (ones) upon
earth (4) who love life and abhor dying, who shall pass by this tomb, ye shall
give (5) bread and beer of that which is in your hand; if (however) there is not
(anything) in your hand, then say ye with your mouth: (6) 'a thousand of
bread and beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand fowls, a thousand of everything
good for the Count, in honour before the great god, KJkJ[:f?]'.
c. (1) His beloved wife, Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Hathor, (2) Bnjt.
A.

COMMENTARY:

Note the reduplication of g in gd.


3. Compare the three other examples of this phrase in these stelae: in Stela 2 ibtj alone,
and in Stelae 73 and 78, as here, ;bt mswj.
4- In is the i has been omitted and the det. is not LJ but a sign resembling that figured in
Wtb. I, 126, last sign on right side of page.
5. rn nft rn r'ln &c. Compare the parallel text in Stela 37.

B 2.
B

84. Orinst. 16956. Girga district.

PI. XXXII.

Sunk relief, painted. lII'7 X71!.


SCENE: Lower part of stone; standing man and woman ->-, four attendants with
offerings <E--.
I02

THE STELA E

strand s
MAN: Full wig with relief details (bI. sic), beard (?), collar of eight
diagonal
(b, g, ?, y, g, y, r, g), bracelet (g), finger-nails (w), pointe d kilt with
lines on
(w), sandal (b), flesh (r); holding staff (y) in left hand and wand (y,
head r) in right hand.
of six
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet on chest, relief details (bl sic), collar
with
lves
strand s (?, r, g, y, r, g), bracelets (g), close-fitting dress to mid-ca
sandal
incised belt, painte d only above belt (type of Stela 78) (g), anklet (g),
g.
hangin
(b), flesh (y); left elbow crooked around man's right wrist, right arm
bowl (r) to
1ST ATTENDANT: Natur al hair (?), short kilt (w), flesh (r); holding
left hand.
in
it
man's mouth in right hand, and vase (r) with liquid (r) issuing from
with foot y)
2ND ATTENDANT: Costu me and colouring as above; holding foreleg (r
with both hands.
(y with
3RD ATTENDANT: Costu me and colouring as above; carrying gazelle
horns b) over shoulders, grasping its feet with both hands.
bird (g,
4TH ATTENDANT: Costu me and colouring as above; holding out live
bands y with details b on wings and body) with both hands.
and 3rd
OBJECTS: In front of man, two registers. Upper register; between 2nd
neck r),
with
(y
Attend ants, vegetable? (g); behind 3rd Attend ant, calf's head
r, left to
three rectangular objects (w) with central parts (r). Lower registe
which
under
and
right; table (?) on which stand five pots (r with tops b ?),
stand three jars (r with tops b), two baskets (y with markings b).
y, bl, g, and
BORDER: At top and both sides; coloured rectangles (originally r, b,
b). Inrepeat) bet\veen incised framing lines (?) and triple cross-lines (b, w,
cised dividing lines between registers of inscription (b).
INSCRIPTIONS:
A. Seven lines at top
I

(g),

+--,

coloured as follows:

(y), 3 (g), 4 (y), 5 (dark bI), 6 (g), 7 (y).

B. Two columns at lower right +-;iv' coloured (y).


c. Two short lines over woman +--, coloured (y).
TRANSLATION:
ain, who
A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mount
gs of
is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; funerary offerin
,
Egypt
Lower
of
bread and beer for the Count , (2) Chancellor of the King
heaven,
Sole Companion, Lector -Pries t, in honou r before the great god, lord of
r,
mothe
his
of
WbJ. (3) (He) says, I am (one) beloved of his father, praised
with
whom his brothe rs and sisters love. (4) (When) I was circum cised?
among
me
struck
120 men there was none whom I struck and none who
hed me
them; there was none (s) whom I scratched and none who scratc
103

THE STELAE

among them. I was an excellent citizen who lived by his (own) possessions,
(6) who ploughed with (his own) span, who sailed in his (own) boat, and not
(= I did not do these things) with what I found (7) in the hand of my father:
the honoured W!lJ.
B. (1) 0 ye living (ones) upon earth, ye shall say a thousand of bread and beer,
a thousand cattle and fowls, a thousand of everything good (2) for the
honoured Count W!lJ.
C. (1) Bis beloved wife, Sole Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Bathor, (2) the
honoured l:fnwtsn.
COMMENTARY:

4-7. I have received valuable help over this biographical passage from Messrs. Gardiner
and Gunn. Inline 4: the verb srb (Wtb. IV,43, 10) is used in connexion with ship-building,
in butchering scenes, and of the castration of cattle. I had at first taken the verb to refer
to a ship-building enterprise in which the 120 men had been kept in order and protected
from accident by the narrator, but have finally adopted the suggestion made by both Gunn
and Gardiner that the word may mean 'circumcise' - Gardiner refers to its apparent
analogy with the Coptic word for the rite. Whether the sentence is to be taken quite
literally, as referring to a group ceremony involving 120 youths, is doubtful; it may well
be a figurative way of saying that, at his coming of age, he was popular and on good terms
with the large group of youths with whom he associated. In lines 5-7 his boasting continues
with the declaration that he attained prosperity (in his mature years) by his own energy,
and not because of what he inherited from his father; a thought similar to that expressed
in Stela 12, B 3.
A 5. Sf ~~~~ should be compared with the similar expression in Stela 71, B.
A 6. Read r~ ~~ (yoke of oxen, plough, man with goad, and ploughman) r~~ ~~
~ ~~ r~ ~::: In the first word, = is for the land det. :IT, as frequently in the
Hekanakhte letters.
B I. An exceptionally abbreviated version of the formula. The end of the column reads:
A

l~G elCf121~~~

85. Orinst. 16957. Girga district.


PI. XXXIII, 1.
Right portion of stone only, the main figure being almost wholly missing. The
figure was in relief, the door and objects in unfinished relief, the inscriptions
sunk. Remains of colour. 87.6 X 66'0.
SCENE: Standing man (missing) -+.
MAN: Missing except for left hand (r) grasping staff (y).
OBJECTS: Below inscriptions, left; double-leaf door (y with trace of lines r representing graining) in relief, its lintel (r), two eyes incised (bI), bolt incised
(r). To right of door, upper register, left to right; ribs (r with end w), attendant ~ with natural hair (?), pointed kilt (w), and flesh (r), holding out a foreleg (r with shin wand foot r), table (y) on which stand three jars (r with tops ?)

THE STELAE

three oval pointed objects (y), two jars (r with tops ?) on ring-stands (r);
between the last five objects incised indications of other indeterminate offerings (?). Lower register; oval pointed object (y), onions (?), fore-leg (r with
shin wand foot r), table (?) on which stand two basins (y), dressed bird (y),
and three indeterminate objects (two 1', one y), below which are six objects, two
of them onions or floral groups (?) and three vertical oval pointed objects (y).
Basket (y) above which is a rectangular object (w with internal marking y),
small conical object (1'), another basket (y) containing three jars (1' with tops ?).
The baskets stand on a table (y) beneath which is a spouted ewer (1') in a basin
(y). To the right; ribs (r) and other indeterminate objects.
BORDER: At top and right side; coloured rectangles (irregularly y, 1', bl, ?). Sunk
band between border and field (?). No dividing lines preserved.
INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Six lines at top -E-, coloured as follows:

B.

One line above offerings -E-, coloured (bl).

lines

to 6 alternately (bl) and (y), except ~ and \l in line 3, which show no colour.

TRANSLATION:

A. (I) An offering which the king gives, (and) Osiris, lord of Busiris, Khenti[Amentiu, lord of Abydos, ... ? ... J; (2) funerary offerings of bread and beer
for the Hereditary Noble, Count, Sole Companion, Lector-Priest, ... (3)
Overseer of Soldiers, in honour before the great god, <lord of) heaven, Bwj[brf-Jib. (4) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain,
who is in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis; (5) funerary offerings
of bread and beer for him on the wIg-feast, the feast of Thoth, and (on) all
good feasts (6) among the honoured ones, the Count, Chancellor of the King
of Lower Egypt, Bwj-brj-ib.
B. A thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand (of) everything good for the Hereditary Noble Bwj.
COMMENTARY:
A
A

3. The soldier holds a throwing stick. In Stelae 39, 40, and 56, where the same title occurs,
Note that the nb has been left out in the group nb pt.
he holds a stick
4. The sign tjsr is written with a curved stick or flower-bud in the hand. Considerable
variation in the objects held in the hand may be noted in the occurrences of this sign in
these stelae. The following variants have been observed: single arm without stick, three
cases (4,48, 54?); single arm with plain straight stick, twelve cases (I, 2, 3, 28, 29, 40,
47, 53, 60, 64,66,79); single arm with short fattened stick or knife, seven cases (9, 10, IS,
19, 35,65,86); like preceding but with forked butt, two cases (14,82); single arm with
wedge-shaped object, broad at top, three cases (5, 58, 61); like preceding but with forked
butt, one case (77); holding ear of grain?, four cases (25, 49, 56, 72); holding
three
cases (32,3,73); holding t, two cases (39,80); holding two sticks, two cases (63,7 1 );

i.

I'

THE STELAE

holding single curved stick or flower-bud, t,,;o cases (43,85); holding oar?, one case (45);
two arms holding long stick, nine cases (31, 37, 42, 55,62,69,78,83,84)'
5. Note the insertion of t after the det. of pr-brw. The preceding sign seems to be used
consistently in these stelae as a determinative only: in this case it is possible that a repetition of 'bread' ~ is inter:ded, though more probably this is merely a scribal error. Note
the unusual form of the g-sign in wIg.

86. Orinst. 16958. Girga district.


PI. XXXIII, 2.
Sunk relief, remains of colour. Broken and mended. 82'5 x6o9.
SCENE: Lower part of stone, standing man and "voman~; attendant +--.
MAN: Full wig (?), single strand collar (?), bracelets (?), pointed kilt (w), sandal
on left foot (?), flesh (r); holding staff (y) in left hand and wand (y with butt
and head r) in right hand.
WOMAN: Long wig with lappet (painted only) on chest (b), collar (r), bracelets
(r), close-fitting dress to mid-calves not defined above (y), nipple of left breast
(b), anklets (r with vertical lines b), flesh (y); left elbow crooked around
man's right fore-arm, right arm hanging.
ATTENDANT: Natural hair (?), close-fitting kilt (w) with tab descending between
legs (?), flesh (r); pouring from a bottle (r) held in right hand into a bowl (r)
held in left hand.
OBJECTS: Behind attendant; basket (y with lines b) with mounded contents (?).
BORDER: At top, both sides, and right third of base; sunk relief band (r). Dividing lines between registers of inscription A are also sunk-relief bands(y, r, y, r).
Compare border and dividing lines of Stela 21 (PI. XII, 1).
INSCRIPTIONS:
A.

Four lines at top


lines

(g),

+--,

coloured as follows:

(y), 3 (r), 4 (g), except the group rid ink mry 11 tfl, which is colourless.

One column to right of man +{, coloured (y).


c. Two short lines over woman +--, coloured (y) except [zmt! mrt[!] , which is
colourless.

B.

TRANSLATION:

A. (1) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis upon his mountain, who is
in the place of embalming, lord of the necropolis, (2) in all his beautiful pure
places which are in heaven; funerary offerings of bread and beer (3) for the
Count, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Sole Companion, Overseer
of living? Sacred Black? Cattle, his ... ? ... , (4) [IJdy? <He) says, I am (one)
beloved of his father, praised of his mother, whom his brothers and sisters love.
B. A thousand of bread, beer, cattle, fowls, everything good for the honoured 1dy? .
C. (1) His beloved wife, Sole Royal Ornament, (2) Prophetess of Hathor, Sbws,
106

THE STELAE

(b with small triangle r); Osiris det. (r with hair and beard b); w (bl. with feet r); townsign (y with lines bl).
A 2. ont, b, orw, beer-jar, s(r); nb, lb, n (bl); gw, det. pr-orw (y); imntiw (feather y, bird
bl); det. ont-imntiw (r, crown and flail y, beard b); town-sign, w (as in A I);pr, tl-Ioaf
(b); m (y with lines b, wing ?).
A 3. is, n, g (bl); s, s, s (r);pr, all ts (b); smjt, imntj, WJ (y); m (head w, rest ?); i (bl,
details b); brt-nlr (bl above, r below); m (y with details b, wing?); arm in WJg (r holding
pellet b); both !zb-signs (bl with diamond y); glJwtj (bl with stand y).
B.

Four columns to right of scene +{, coloured as follows:


B 1. r, det. rk!z, s (r) ; t (b) ; Si, g (y) ; four bb-signs (bl with diamond y) ; wp (disk r with

centre y, horns bl); 1 (y with details b, wing bl); all others (bl).
B 2. mn,f (y); pr, t, nfr, (b); r, b, r (r); IJb-signs (bl with diamond y); m (y with details
b, wing?); all others (bl).
B 3. b, n, nb, i,!J (bl); r, ml (r); all ts (b); m, w (as above); both hrws (r with centre y).
B + r, 0, r (r); all ts (b); bkr (y); IJt-lJr (bird y, house bl); 1 (y with back bl); m (as
above); all others (bl).

c. Group at top of scene ~, coloured as follows:


!JJ-signs (bl); calf-head (bl); bird-head (r); 'alabaster and clothing' (y); oval under 'bread
and beer' (y); nfr (bl); all others as above.
TRANSLATION:

(r) An offering which the king gives, (and) Anubis, (and) Osiris, lord of
Busiris, (2) Khenti-Amentiu, lord of Abydos; funerary offerings! of bread and
beer for her in (3) her tomb of the cemetery of the western desert, on the WJgfeast, the feast of Thoth,
B. (r) the first-of-the-year-feast, the rk~-feast, the New-Year-feast, the iJdfeast, (2) the coming-forth-of-lVIin-feast, and on every beautiful feast (3) (and)
as a daily requirement of every day; in honour (4) before the great god, Sole
Royal Ornament, Prophetess of Rathor, (Jmt.
c. A thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand cattle, a thousand fowls, a
thousand 'alabaster' (ointment jars), a thousand clothing, everything good for
the Royal Ornament (Jmt.

A.

COMMENTARY:
A
B

3. m is a repetition of the last sign in A 2, a scribal error. The arm under Wlg holds a
black pellet or cake in its hand.
2. The first and second signs in the column are widely spaced to avoid the damaged place
in the stone, which is original. Note the slight difference in form between the sign mn
and the s in A 3 above it: in colour the s is (r) and the mn (y).

I \Vhile this study was in final proof my attention was called to C!i:~re's interesting and valuable
article, Le Fonctionnement grammatical de l'express ion pri ljrw en ancien egyptien, in Melanges
Maspero, vo!. I, pp. 753 foIl. He makes a good

case for the interpretation of pri as a transitive verb,


and the stock formula, as used constantly in these
stelae, would then have to be translated, 'An offering which the king gives &c . . . . (in order) that
funerary offerings be made for N'

108

INDEX OF NAMES
IN the following tabulation the proper names are listed in the order of the Egyptian alphabet
and eaeh item is arranged as follows: running number; transliteration; hieroglyphic transcription; sex; number of the stela on which the name occurs; reference; and translation or
meaning where one is offered. R.P. = Ranke, Personennamen. The abbreviation 'Cf.' preceding the reference indicates close similarity but not identity of \vriting, while the simple
reference indicates an identical form. \Vhere the name is listed in R.P. no other references
are given since that work includes names listed elsewhere.

I.

1imt

W [13]. Cf. R.P. 6, 23.

2.1y

W [10]. R.P. 8, 8.
M [3S], [3 6] (good name of Mrw[j?]
S7)
W [7J.
W [64].

(b) ~ ~ ~ \\
(c) ~ ~m

3. 1bj

4- 1bw

(a)
(b)

~J~

W [44]. R.P.

20, 10.

QJ}
lU}=

W [S]. R.P.

20,

23.

M [42]. R.P. 20, 24 (same inscription).


W [2].

(c) ~J[}4J

5 1pj
~D~
1pj-mr[y?] see il1r[y ?]-ipj S6 [S2]

W [S2]. Cf. R.P.

22,

13 and IS.

6. 1lni (11111?)

Q>O ~

M [I]. R.P. 2S, 8.

7. 111lJ'j (1mj?)

~>~Oi1

8. 1mr (M!]?)

q~

M [9]. Cf. R.P. 25, 12. (See text,


Commentary B 2.)
W [24].

1n-in~rt

]QJ~

M [S].

10.

1n-itJ

]:E

M [16], [74]. R.P. 34,

1 I.

1n-it1-0

12.

1n-itJ n(ls[j]

9.

(a)

(b) L~A

M [49].

]c

M [40]. R.P. 34, 10. '1n-itJ the


elder.'
M [So]. R.P. 34, 2 (same inscription). '1n-itJ the Nubian.'
M [40]. ''In-itJthe younger.'

~'.f\ -Q<==

' f -sr)
13. 1n-lt
v

1.

10 9

INDEX OF NAMES

I4. 1nt-its

W [24]. R.P. 36, 3 (same inscription).

1n[lrt see also 1n-inJ.zrt 9 [5].


St-nt-in!lrt 86 [30].
SJ-inJ.zrt 88 [I3].
KJj-inJ.zrt 105 [68].
15. 1n!lrt-inu

]J~O~

W [15].

16. 1nJ.zrt-nljt

L L!.";~ var. ]

M [71]. R.P.35, 16. 'TJl!lrtisstrong.'

(a)
(b)

~
NNNI\

s <;> ~~@ var.


J\<::>..L..-.zr'-~Clo

] S <;>
~
(c) ~
J. <::> ;;3: @
0

;;3:}.

\I ;;3::::::::
JJ
@o

V>0

M [43].
M [61].
1\1 [66].
M [15].

17. 1nJ.zrt-[nbt?]

M [75].

18. 1nbrt-i.zlp

M [23]. 'Tnbrt is ruler.'

19. 1ndj

M [78].
M [32]. R.P. 40, 24 (same inscription).
M [52].
M [52] (son of 20b).
M [18] (good name of 11' ... 24).
Cf. R.P. 4I, I.
W b4] (good name of Smjt-kJ 89).
W [60].
M [18] (good name of Trrj? 2I). Cf.
R.P. 39, I+
M [80]. Cf. R.P. 46, 24 and 25.

20. 1rw-kmt

(b) =-~'Y0!!
(c) ;;-o!
21.

1nj?

22.

1r[~?]

23. 1ris
24. 1r ....

25. Tsr
26. Tk

~=O var. ~~
~~=

27. Ttj

~o~ ~

28. Ttj-rJ

~DH

29 Ttj

30. Tdj

~=~
~=fo~

31. Tdy?

[~?JfosiC~ ~ var. fo~ ~

M [7]. R.P. 47,26.


W [77]. R.P. 49, 14
M [39] (good name of !.ltt:] 84).
R.P. 49, I7 (same inscription).
M [73]. 'Ttj the elder.'
W [60]. Cf. R.P. 52, 29 (man).
W [76]. R.P. 53, 25

32. Tdw
IIO

M [86]. Cf. R.P. 54,3 (or possibly


Jjy ?: see text, Commentary
A4)
W [75]. R.P. 54, 8 variant.

INDEX OF NAMES

33. (lmt

-n~ 11\

34- (nb-nj-itj

.r>N~

35. (nb-n-s-ppy

am-?-";T

36. (nb-Jpj

-?-J..

W [87]. Cf. R.P. 59, 3. 'The Asiatic woman.'


M [2]. Cf. R.P. 65, 2. 'His father
lives for him.'
W [22], [53] (good name of Nn[j?]
63). R.P. 65, 12. 'Ppy lives
for her.'
M [51]. Cf. R.P. 65, 22. 'Life is
behind him?'

"=-"=-

}
37. Wlg-[Slj-~b?]
38. W~l

~H~,~)]
}X~A

39 Wsr-!zt!zr

~1r

M [5].
M [84]. Cf. R.P. 83, 26.
W [7]. Cf. R.P. 86,
mighty.'

I.

'Hathor is

J
40

Bwj-~rj-ib

41. Bnjt

J} ~ ~ var.

J}~

M [85].

(a) J~Q~o

W [71]. R.P. 97, 17. 'Sweet one.'

(b) JTo~
Bny? seeIJny 71[4]

W [83].

o
42. Pl[j?] (Tlj?)

~?~~

M [46] possibly Cf. R.P. 99, 22?

43. Ppy-inu

(]~n~>Ol\

45. Ppy-snbj

Q]IirJ~A

M [28]. Cf. R.P. 131, 19 (same


inscription). 'Ppy is friendly.'
(Ranke reads the last sign as w,
but I make it m as in name 7.)
M [45]. R.P. 132, I I (same inscription: Ranke has omitted the
det.).
M [48]. 'Ppy is healthy.'
1\1 [65]. 'Ppy is my health?'

46. Pryt

n~~~~

W [62]. Cf. R.P. 134, 14 (man).

44. Ppy-snb

W [52].

47. Ftj
III

INDEX OF NAMES

48. MJr-bl'w

1\1 [76]. R.P. 144, 19.

49. }\Iwt-mwt[:J"]

50. 1VIr-il'tjjj?

W [78]. Cf. R.P. 148, 2. 'Mwt is


[my] mother?' or 'mother of
[my] mother ?'. See text, Commentary D.
W [5]. Cf. R.P. 155,25

51. Ml'-l'n's

W [19] (good name is /5.njt 107).

52. Ml'j

W [58]. R.P. 159,21.

53. Ml'jt

W [33] (good name of Smjt-lu 89).


R.P. 159, 29 (same inscrip-

54. Ml'y
55. Ml'yt

W [20]. Cf. R.P. 160,

tion).
I.

W [26]. R.P. 161, 14 (same inscrip-

tion).
W [57].
56. Ml'[y?]-ipj

1\1 [52].

57. Ml'w[:j?]

1\1 [35]} same person (good name is


'Iy 2a). R.P. 162, 8 (same

inscription ).
(b) ~~l>

1\1 [36]

W (25). R.P. 188, 7 (same inscrip-

58. Nbt-itf

tion).
1\1 [47] (good name is ljwy 80).
R.P. 194, 10 (same inscription).
M [37]. R.P. 194,2 (same inscription). 'Nfl' the Nubian.'
1\1 [59].

59. Nfl'-iwnw(?)
60. Nfl' nlJsj

(b)
61. Nfr-!lt-nll'
62. Nfr-Jb-1W?

63. Nn[j?]

r::n
[ ] [-:J

W [I].

rT~l>

1\1 [54].

-'+

W [53] (good name of cnb-n-s-ppy


35). R.P. 205, 26.

M [79]. See Commentary: A 4.


M [2]. Cf. R.P. 225,18.

64. RwrJ-m-??b!1

65. R(1U{y?]
II2

INDEX OF NAMES

66. 1:hg/
67 l:Jpzu

X),m l
(a) KAJ?
(b) U\J?'1
i

W [13]. Cf. R.P. 238, 14.


W [13J (mother-in-law of 67a).

K~::

(a)

rr

W [3]. R.P. 241,15.

(b)

IT A

M [31]. R.P. 241, 20 (same inscription).


M [70].

68. 81lt

69 811/

M [20]' R.P. 233,15.

70 . 8n?[j?]

X~1[~

71. 8ny (Bny?)

~~~[~~q

7 2 8ny

?]

M [44]. R.P. 241, 21.


W [4]. Cf. R.P. 241, 23.

?]

(a) l~fl

M [13].

(b)X\Q4

M [64.]. R.P. 241, 23.

73 8nyt

X~~

W [39]. R.P. 24 1 , 27

74 8nzu
75. {Jnzut SIl

X~OJ?

M [55]. Cf. R.P. 242, 2.

l'~;l>+-~

W [84]. Cf. R.P. 244,

76. 8nny

l~=~~

77 8sj

H-~

M [8]. Cf. R.P. 244, 24W [41]. R.P. 254, 28 (same inscrip-

I.

78. 8tpt[j?]

tion).
W [73]. Cf. R.P. 260, 16.

79 8dw[j?]

W [21]. Cf. R.P. 261, IS?

80. lfwy

M [47J (good name of Nfr-iwnw(?)


59) R.P. 267, 13 (same inscription).
W [79]. Cf. R.P. 267, 16.

81. IJwyt

82. Ijwt/

@J?q4
(a) ~J?J
(b) @J?,Jl:~

M [75]. R.P. 268, 3.


W [81]'

~J?1l1

W [68]. Cf. R.P. 270, 6. 'Offeringbearer ?'


M [39] (good name is Itj 27). R.P.
277, 25 (same inscription).

W? [50].

85. S-nbtt(?)
I

The human figure is female.

I13

INDEX OF NAMES

w [30].

86. St-nt-tn~rt

87. St-nt-nfr[t?]

'Servant

of'In~rt.'

(d) ]~~:-~

W [31]. R.P. 280, 5 (same inscription).


W [42]. R.P. 280, 5 (same inscription).
W [66].

-"-r"=<::.:>-

W [75]. 'Servant of Nfr [or Nfrt].'

e::.

88. SJ-tn!zrt

M [13]. Cf. R.P. 280, 26. 'Son of

89. Smjt-kl(?)

W [33] (good name is Mrjt 53).


W [34] (good name is lr[~?] 22),
both R.P. 296, 17 (same inscriptions ).

In!zrt.'

90.

Sipt

91. Sbj

r~~

93 Sfb'j
94.

r~t...-'; var. rl~......D

Smlz

M [Il]. R.P. 300,13 (same inscription).


M [59]. R.P. 303, 12 (same inscription).
M [3]. R.P. 305, 6 (same inscription). 'Sbk is gracious.'
M [29]. R.P. 306, 25 (same inscription).
M [81]'

95. Sni-rnb

r~-t--;

M [7]. R.P. 308, 14 (same inscription). 'My brother lives.'

96. Snj

!!} ~

TI

M [82]' R.P. 310,

97.

M~M

rl~r

S!:zw's

98. Sbtt-i~?rt

W [86].

1llili:~~

W [23]. R.P. 318, 26 (same inscription).


M [14]. R.P. 322,24 (same inscription).
M [63]. (Same person as 99a).

99 S1'?

100.

101.

(b) r=~~
r}~]

SlW

=>~jJ)I

81111

~~rG
I

I I.

W [52].

M [60]. R.P. 327, 21 (same inscription).


W [16]. R.P. 329, I (same inscription).

Figure of a kneeling man with arms bound behind his back.

INDEX OF NAMES
103.

fid-itj

M [3]. 'He who secures salvation for


his father.'
M [62]. R.P. 330,13 (same inscription).
W [17]. 'She who secures salvation
for her father.'
W [67]. both a and b; R.P. 331, 24
(same inscriptions).

(b) ~~
104.

(a) ~:r

Sdt-it-S

Ll

105.

]19=~

J>.Jj-in~rt

M [68]. R.P. 332, 7 (same inscription). '1n~rt is (on) high.'


M [68]. R.P. 332, 18 (same inscription) 'high is the might of Rr' .
W [19] (good name is Mr-rni 51).

:'ll.

::.iJ~~@ht

106. J>.Jj-il;m-rr

.iJ ~ If I
.iJ=
==

J>.njt
108. J>.rr-ir ( ?)

C.

107.

INNM

10 9. KJkJ (i?)
IIO. Ky?

I I I.

c.

lJw-r-n~~

=-

M [79].

uuA

M [83]. Cf. R.P. 348, 32.

=?~~

W [70]. R.P. 342, 25.

~<>~H

M [77].

lij? see PJ[j?] 42 [46].


I12.

J ~~

Tby

II3. Tm-mrry

~~::yy

114. Tm-mrry-ib[?]

'~~=(l yU[?]

I I 5.

M [69]. R.P. 390, 17 (same inscription).


M [30], [72]. R.P. 390, 32 (same
inscriptions).
M [70]'

M [7]. Cf. R.P. 401,16.

Didj-nb
Unclear

I16 ... , w

?}

M [6].

Il7 .. . j?

~~ ?

W [37].

A water-skin on its back with legs tied together above.


I IS

Q2

INDEX OF TITLES
The titles are listed alphabetically as read, and each item is arranged as follows: running
number; transliteration; hieroglyphic transcription (the variants separately entered); sex;
number of the stela on which the title occurs; references; and proposed translation. The
references used are the following: M.I., Murray, Index of Names and Titles of the Old Kingdam; L.S., Lange-Schafer, Grab- und Denksteine des Mittleren Reiches, Ill, Index. The abbreviation 'Cf.' preceding the reference indicates close similarity but not identity of writing,
while the simple reference indicates an identical form.
I.

2.

Ca) imjt-wrt o[t] (nt nfr-M) f ~(~~ ~:!:) W [53]. 'great imjt-wrt-(priestess) (of beauty
of character?), (an epithet ?).
(b) imjt-wrt (m ~rj-ib spswt) f~(~ Qv)H ~ 1) W [31]. 'imjt-wrt-(priestess) (in the
midst ofthe noblewomen)' (an epithet ?).
(c) imjt-wrt (nt bnr) f~ (~~1 ~,) W [41]. 'imjt-wrt-(priestess) (of the harim)' (an
epithet ?).
imj-rd~dw ~~HIi3t :Ji:Ji:Ji M [18]. Cf. L.S. 41. 'Overseer of Masons.'

3. imj-n rrrwt

~~3ta,"1 M [49]. Cf. L.S. 42. 'Overseer ofthe Gates.'

4. imj-rl wrs(w?) nw ~x3t?;:&? M [20 addit.]. 'Overseer of Watchmen? of the Hunting

Ground?.' (Cf. text, Commentary.)


5. imj-n tpwt? nb nt sms-mltw ~~j:C>:Ji~~~r>~}t M [70]. 'Overseer of all the
tpwt(?) of the retinue(?) of the mlJw.' (Cf. text, Commentary).
6. imj-n pr-o bntj-s ~ .:2r2WlC>[~1 M [29]. M.I. XXIII; Cf. L.S. 47. 'Overseer of Tenants
of the Great House.'
7 imj-rlpr-ostbntj-s .:2~.D0~~ M [SI]. M.I.xx. 'Overseer of the Place of Tenants
of the Great House.'
8. imj-n msr (a) ~~ M [20 addit.]. M.I. XXII; L.S. 45. 'Overseer of Soldiers' (i.e.
General). (msl represented by head and arms only.)
(b) ~~ M [40], [56], [85]. (msl is a seated figure with stick, and feathers
on head.)
9. imj-rl msr n smrw mbw ~~~-1-t M [39]. 'Overseer of Soldiers of Upper and Lower
Egypt.'
10. imj-n nmtj ~ 'S':? M [42]. 'Overseer of the Two Slaughter-Houses?.'
1 I.

imj-rl !It-nlr ~61Jn M [16]. Cf. M.I.

12.

imj-n !lm[w]-nJr ~ 1~ M [II], [70]. M.I.

XXII;

L.S. 46. 'Overseer of the Temple.'

XXII;

L.S. 46. 'Overseer of Prophets.'

13 imj-rl smdt .~J ~~ M [30]. 'Overseer of Serfs?.'


14. imj-n snj-tl nb n spt ~::~'i'C7;: M
(Crops?) of the Name.'

[20

116

addit.]. M.I.

XXIV.

'Overseer of all Plants

INDEX OF TITLES

IS. z'mj-n in1

(a) ~ ~= M [20 addit.]. Cf. L.S. 48. 'Arbitrator' (Overseer of Quarrelling).

(b) ~~=~ M [55].


16. imj-nkltml}t-n1r ~1d~~bJJ ~M[70]. 'Overseer of Works in the Temple.'

17. imj-n kmt-rn!J ~:2~ 1-9-? M [29]. Cf. L.S. 48. 'Overseer of Living? Sacred Black?
Cattle.' (Cf. text, Commentary.)
18. imj-n kmt-rnlz?1 ~LJ~~~~: l~ M [86]. 'Overseer of Living Sacred Black? Cattle,
his ... ? ... .' (Cf. text, Commentary.)
19. irnj-n kmt !ltp-nlr lk,=LJ~i~ M [80]' 'Overseer of Sacred Black? Cattle of the Offering Endowment.'
20. imj-n kmt !Jnrw ~:2~I~~ ill M [Il]. 'Overseer of Sacred Black? Cattle of the
21.

lznrw.'
Imj-n kmt dirt l1ur ~:2
Cattle? .'

~o ~I>::; M [20 addit.J. 'True Overseer of Black and Red

imj-n lbw ml}t-nlr ~~I~Ilk,bJJn M [75].


in the Temple?.'
23. rl}!tj (rl}/Wtj) ~ ~ M [7]. 'The Fighter.'
22.

24 mjtrt
25. nbt-pr

r:

Cf. L.S. 49.

'Overseer of Sandal-Makers

W [68]. M.I. xx.

:;C: W [7].

'Mistress of the House.'

(a) ~ M [8], [Il], [16], [36], [37], [3 8], [39], [4 2], [56], [69], [70], [7 1], [73], [76],
[85]. M.I. XXVI; L.S. 60. 'Hereditary Noble.'
(b) [~l M [34].

26. rprt

(c) =~ (for ~) M [61].


27. r!Jt-[nswt]

[t JT W [53]. Cf. L.S. 62. '[King's] Relative.'

28. lptj-r ~ M [8], [II], [14], [15], [16], [28], [30], [3 1], [34], [35], [3 6], [37], [38], [39],
[40(2)], [42], [43], [52], [55], [56], [59], [61], [62], [63], [64], [66], [69], [70], [71], [72],
[73], [74], [76], [77], [78], [79], [80], [81], [82], [83], [84], [85], [86]. M.I. XXVII;
L.S. 62. 'Count.'
29. l}!tj-r-mH ~~ M [34]. M.I. XXVII. 'True Count.'
30. (zm- n1r 1~ M [45]. M.I. XXVII; L.S. 63 'Prophet.'
31. (lm-nlr-l}tl}r (a) ~1 ~ W [4], [10], [12], [17], [19], [20], [21], [22], [24], [25], [26], [27],
[3 1], [33], [37], [4 I J, [4 2], [53], [57], [62], [68], [70], [7 1], [73], [7 6], [7 8], [83], [84],
[86],[ 87]. M.I. XXIX; L.S. 63. 'Prophetess of Hathor.'
(b) 1~~ W [64]
(c) ~;1 ~ W [56], [58].
32. l}rj-Ht! <~J5J~ M [71]. M.I. XXXI; cf. L.S. 65. 'Privy Councillor.'
33. (nj-Ht! m rt-ot '!J:fj~lk,~~o M [70]. 'Privy Councillor in the Great Chamber.'
34. l}rj-Ht! n !Jtm ?-nlr m rt-l}nkt? 9~5.l~ ~ 'gu~ ~~? M [16]. 'Privy Councillor ofthe
God's Sealer? in the (mId ?' (offering store-chamber ?).

II7

INDEX OF TITLES

35. I:zrj-tp-rl nlnj ~~~ M [II]. Cf. M.I.

XXXII;

cf. L.S. 66. 'Great Chief of the Thinite

Nome.'

36. 1:z~/-l:zt
M [20], [60], [So]. M.I. XXXIII; cf. L.S. 66. 'Mayor.'
37. bntt-bkrwt r2Wl:~ ,~ w [33]. 'Foremost of Adornments?.'
3S, brj-I:zb (a) XLlIIJ M [3 1], [3 6], [37], [39], [42], [55], [56], [62], [69], [70], [73], [74], [7S], [SI],
[S2], [S3], [S4], [S5]. M.I. XXXIV; L.S. 6S. 'Lector-Priest.'
(b) [? XLlIIJ ?] M [3S].
39 lzkrt-nswt (a) to' W [2], [30], [52], [53], [6o], [79]. M.I. XXXV; L.S. 69. 'Royal Ornament.'
(b) t"O W [I]. (bkrt is sometimes Bin titles 39 and 40.)
40. bkrt-nswt wrtt (a) t'O~ W [4], [10], [21], [22], [26], [27], [39], [56], [57], [70], [76]. M.I.
XXXV; L. S. 69. 'Sole Royal Ornament.'
(b) the same, incomplete. W [34], [5S], [67].
(c) t Q~ W [5], [24], [25], [3 I], [37], [4 1], [42], [62], [73], [7 S], [SI], [S3], [S4], [S6], [S7].
(d) to~ W [19], [23].
(e) tQ~ W [44].
r
(j) t Q~ W [64]. (with w reversed.) (g) t Q~ W [71]. (with w r reversed.)
41. SIb ss ")m ~ M [6S]. M.I. XXXVI. 'Judge and Scribe.'
42. ss ~ M [34]. M.l. XXXVII; L.S. 70. 'Scribe.'
43. smr
M [IS], [47], [4S], M.l. XXXIX; L.S. 72. 'Companion.'
44 smr-wrtf (a) r1~ M [I], [3], [5], [6], [9], [12], [14], [IS], [20], [23], [29], [3 1], [35], [3 6],
[37], [3 S], [39], [40], [42], [46], [55], [56], [59], [61], [62], [63], [66], [67], [69], [70],
[72], [73], [74], [75], [7S], [79], [SI], [S2], [S3], [S4], [SS], [S6]. M.I. XXXIX; L.S7 2 .

r1

'Sole Companion.'
(b) r1~ M [7 1 ].
(c) r1~ M [64], [65], [77]. (w r reversed.)
(w r reversed.)

45

sM (l1n[w]-nlr rrH

M [65]. M.I.

(d) r1~ M [45]

L.S. 74. 'Inspector of Prophets.'


46. #;wtj ?-bitf (a) ~ @ M [I], [S], [20], [29], [37], [42], [49], [54], [55], [56], [62], [64], [69],
[70], [7 1], [73], [74], [7S], [So], [SI], [S2], [S3], [S4], [SS], [S6]. M.I. XXXVIII; L.S. 76.
XLII;

'Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt.'


(b) ~f? M [2], [II], [28].
(c) g:u~C> M [61]'

(d) C>~@ M [67], [79].

(e) ~@ M [9].

(g) ~9 M [3 S].

(f) ~g M [35].

47. sps-nswt lA M [51].


M.I. XLV. 'King's Nobleman.'
4S, spit-nswt (a) t A ID W [33], [53]. M.I. XLV. 'King's Noblewoman.'

tAW [75 (2)].


~bb-nmt LlJ Hli ' ~ M [4S].
(b)

49

50 .... ? .. mn

~+2 M

'Libationer of the Slaughter-House?.'

[71]. ' ... ? .. of Min.'

I In both instances the figure, not clearly defined, is apparently a 'woman.

2 The sign actually used represents a column


with bud capital.

lIS

CONCLUSIONS AND CHRONOLOGY


SEVENTY-FIVE of the 87 stones dealt with in the foregoing study come from a single
large cemetery which is divided for convenience of working into three sections
with different names. (Stelae 77 and 78 are not known to be from the site, Stelae
79 to 87, though in all probability from the site, are not of definitely known provenance, and stela 50 is omitted as being quite clearly from a different district.) It
is evident that these stelae belonged to a community or group of communities covering a fairly restricted area which had its centre in what is now the town of Girga.
One would therefore expect them to represent a reasonably homogeneous culture
as to peculiarities of art, language, religion, and funerary customs; and that such
differences as appear in style and content would be due in large measure, not to
differences in customs and beliefs in different localities at the same time, but to
development (or degeneration) of these customs and beliefs in the same locality
over a period of time. They should thus afford an opportunity for relative or
sequence dating within the First Intermediate Period such as would not be
afforded by a study of stelae of this period from widely scattered sources.
Unfortunately the concrete evidence for relative dating is scanty and the conclusions to be drawn from it are far from being as reliable and precise as I had
hoped would be the case when this study was initiated. In the first place the tombs
on the site have been very heavily plundered and extensively re-used in the New
Kingdom, and even in still later times, so that it is only rarely that a group of
artifacts clearly contemporary with the stelae can be counted on for dating purposes.
Furthermore, even where pottery and other contemporary objects are available,
they themselves are not precisely dateable within the period between the Sixth and
Tenth Dynasties owing to the lack of a dated corpus of such material for this obscure period. The result is that, except for a scattering of Eleventh and Twelfth
Dynasty tombs, the evidence of the objects is not to be relied on for dating purposes.
Turning to the internal evidence of the stelae themselves, it is apparent from a
general survey that they belonged to people varying considerably in material
resources. A few are the work of really skilful craftsmen and therefore presumably belonged to the local aristocracy of wealth, but the great majority are miserably crude in conception and execution. (It may be noted in passing that there
seems to be no relation between the rank of the owner, as indicated by his titles,
and the quality of workmanship of his stela.) In other words there is no help to be
obtained in the problem of dating by a study of degeneration in quality: the general
level of excellence is too low and the variation too great for that.
II9

CONCLUSIONS AND CHRONOLOGY

I have, therefore, been thrown back upon the content of the stones in my search
for dating evidence. I have studied the costuming and the occurrence of certain
objects among the offerings, such as the conventional table and loaves, and the
basket with a row of jars, without extracting therefrom any evidence which could
lead to a date-grouping. I have noted the shapes of the stelae with the idea that
this might have some bearing on their date. Professor Reisner had called my
attention to two forms of Intermediate stelae; one an approximately square stone
with an offering scene, reflecting the type of the tablet scene on the Old Kingdom
false door; the other a vertical rectangular slab which derives from the scene with
standing figure on the back panel of the early false doors. He would see in these
two distinct types. An examination of the Naga-ed-Der stones does not appear to
justify any chronological differentiation between these types, as both seem approximately evenly divided between the stones which are clearly early and those which
are certainly late.
I have studied with interest the discussion of the development of the stela at
Naga-ed-Der published by H. W. Muller in Mitt. d. Deutschen Inst.fiir Agyptische
Altertumskunde in Kairo, Bd. IV, p. 183 seq. I have not found, however, that the
types which he puts forward to illustrate the line of development have any observable relation to such indications of date as I have found in the stones.
Finally I have attempted a chronological grouping of the material based on the
following elements:
1st. The occurrence of Anubis and/or Osiris in the df nswt ~tP formula; assuming that the observations of Polotsky in his Zu den Inschriften der II Dynastie,
par. 79 a-c, are correct. I
2nd. The occurrence of datable names. For this I have made use of the date
ranges indicated in Ranke's Personennamen (R.P.), the references to which are
given in my Index of Names.
3rd. The occurrence of datable titles. This is arrived at by the use of Murray's
Index of Names and Titles of the Old Kingdom (M.!.), and Lange-Schafer,
Grab- und Denksteine des Mittleren Reiches, Index (L.S.). Where a title occurs
in the former only I have called it early, where it occurs in the latter alone late,
and where it is not listed, or recorded in both publications, I have called it
uncertain. The references to these sources are given in my Index of Titles.
4th. Evidence as to dating derived from the field notes, and in a few instances
(indicated in the main section) from specific opinions put forward by Professor
Reisner on the basis of his experience in excavating the site.
I
It is to be noted that he is speaking of the
Theban district. The ascendancy of the Osiris
formula may possibly have begun to appear some-

what earlier in the Thinite Nome, owing to the


proximity of Abydos and the influence of the OsiniR
cult current there.

120

CONCLUSIONS AND CHRONOLOGY

Taking these four criteria as a basis I have attempted in the following table to
work out a system of sequence numbers indicative of the relative dating of the
stelae:
(a) Gods invoked in the offering formula: A Anubis (5), AO Anubis followed by
Osiris (6), OA Osiris followed by Anubis (7), 0 Osiris (8), no evidence through
loss of name (6t).
(b) Names (average of all names): Old Kingdom (r), O.K. to Intermediate (2),
O.K. to M.K. (3), Int. to M.K. (4), M.K. (5), no evidence (2t).
(c) Titles (average of all): O.K. (r), O.K. to M.K. (2), M.K. (3), no evidence (2).
(d) Field Evidence: Dyn. VI-X (5), Dyn. VII-X (6), Dyn. IX-X (7), Dyn.
X-XII (8), Dyn. XI-XII (9), Dyn. XII (ro), no evidence (6t).
It will be noted that higher numbers (i.e. more weight) have been given to (a)
and (d) than to (b) and (c). These classes of evidence have seemed to me of greater
value than the names and titles.
TABLE OF EVIDENCE
Stela I Gods
No.
-~--I!

T-

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
II
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

I
I

A
A
A
A
0
0
A
A
0
AO
0
A
A
AO
AO
AO
AO
A
AO
OA
A
0
OA
0

5
5
5
5
8
8
5
5
8
6
8
5
5
6
6
6
6
5
6
7
5
8
7
8
? 6;\A 5
A 5
A 5
A 5
A 5
AO 6

Field I sequen~-;-I Date --I---------------~-~----~----Evid.


No.
Group
Remarks
-~-- -~-~~+ I-~-~-I---------------------~-

I Names I Titles
-~-+-

4+
5
42~

2
2
2
2
2

2}

2
2

3
2t
2t
4+
2t
3+
3
5
3
21
3

2
2+
2
2
2
2
2

2
2t
2
2+
2~2
I
2
2t I 2
22+
2
3
2
4
2
2}
2
21
2
2~
2+
21
2
2-/,2
4
2
2t
2-

1'

6
5
5
5
10
9
6
8

9
9
10
7
6
6
9
6t
6t
6
6,\8
6
6t
6t
6t
6t
6t
6}
6f,-

6~

6t
5-

17+
17
16I4t
24
2I-!t

14
18
22I9t
24+
16t
16+
17
22
18
17
16+
17
18
15t
19+
I8t
20f,-

17t
16
16+
16
16
17t
15
121

EM
EM
EM
E
L
Dated Year 30, Amenemhat III
L
E
EM
Style like (22)
L
L
Same tomb as (17)
L
EM
Same tomb as (63)
Same tomb as (16)
EM
EM
Same tomb as (15)
L
Same tomb as (12)
EM
EM
EM
Style like (45), (48), (65)
EM
LM
Style like (10)
EM
LM
LM I
L
I Same tomb as (57)
EM
Same tomb as (35), (36)
EM
Early pottery
EM
EM
EM
EM
E
11

CONCLUSIONS AND CHRONOLOGY

TABLE OF EVIDENCE (cont.)


Stela
No.
~~

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
SI
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87

Gods
-~--

Names
-----~

? 6t
A 5
AO 6
A 5
OA 7
A 5
AO 6
AO 6
A 5
A 5
0 8
A 5
AO 6
A 5
A 5
A 5
Not from
A 5
OA7
A 5
A 5
A 5
A 5
0 8
A 5
A 5
A 5
A 5
A 5
A 5
A 5
A06
A 5
0 8
? 6t
A 5
0 8 I
A 5
lA 5 I
A 5
0 8
AO 6
0 8
A 5
A 5
AO 6
OA7
A 5
A 5
A 5
A 5
OA7
A 5
A06

Titles

I Field
Evid.

---

2t
22
2
2
2
2t
2
2t
2
4t
2
42
2
2t
2
2t
2
4
2
3t
2
I
2
5
2
2t
2
I
2t
4
Naga-ed-Der:
I
It
2
3I It+
I
2
2t
2+
2t
2
zt
2
4t
2
3
2
2t
2
2
2
4
2
5
2
2t
2
3t
I
2
z
2t
2
5
2
1+
2
2t
2-t2+
2
42
2~4- I 2
I 2
4
2+
42
2
2
42
42
32+
5
22
2
3
2
42
3
2
5?
2+
5
2
5

Sequence
No.

Date
Group
-""-~-

--~.---

I
I

6t
6t
,6t

Remarks

------'""-

-~"

-----

17+
EM
I5t
EM
Same tomb as (27), (36)
I6t
EM
Same tomb as (27), (35)
16
EM
Early type inscription like (83)
6~18
LM
Same tomb as (46), (74)
6~
18
EM
Same tomb as (40), (56), (58), (73)
6t
18+
EM? i Same tomb as (39), (56), (58), (73)
6t
EM
17
6t
EM
16
6t
EM
I7t
6t
LM
20
6t
Style like (20), (4 8), (65)
E
I4t
6t
Same tomb as (3 8), (74)
LM
I9t
6t
16
EM
6~
Style like (20), (4 5), (65)
E
I4t
6t
EM
18
6t
not included: see text.
False door
E
14
6t
LM
18+
6t
E
14+
6t
16
EM
6t
EM
16+
6t
Same tomb as (3
16
EM
6t
Same tomb as (2
21
L
6t
Same tomb as (3
EM
16t
6t
EM
16
6t
EM
15t
6t
EM
17"~
6t
LM
18t
6t
Same tomb as (1
16
EM
6~
EM
17
6t
Style like (20), (4
EM
15~6t
EM
16
6t
L
21t
6t
False door
EM
16+
6~
EM
16
6~
I
LM
196~
EM
17+
I 6t
16
EM
61"
Same tomb as (39 ), (40), (56), (58)
EM
17+
6t
Same tomb as (3 8), (46), False door
LM
20t
6t
LM
18+
6t
LM
18~
6t
EM
6l
17+
EM
17+
6t
EM
17+
6t
21L
6t
E
15+
6t
EM
16t
6t
Inscription like (3
EM
17+
6t
EM
16t
6t
LM
20t
6t
LM
196t
LM
19t
I 6t

11

122

CONCLUSIONS AND CHRONOLOGY

In the seventh column (Date Group) I have classified the stones in four groups
based on the sequence numbers (sixth column). All numbers lower than 1St I have
called Early (E), IS-~- to 18- are classed as Early Middle (EM), 18+ to 20+ are
Late Middle (LM), and everything above 2 I - I have called Late (L). The Late
stones run certainly well into Dynasty XII, while some of the Early stelae may go
back as far as Dynasty VI. It is not possible to be more specific than this with the
available evidence.
It will be observed that the sequence numbers 18 and 20t have not been mentioned in the preceding paragraph. These represent the border-lines between EM
and LM, and LM and L respectively. Such stones have been assigned to one group
or the other either because they were found in the same tomb as stelae belonging
to one of these groups, or because of additional weight given to the evidence
furnished by the particular god invoked in the offering formula. In two instances
only have I gone contrary to the evidence of the sequence numbers in assigning
stones to a date group. Stela 12 (sequence number I9t) I have put in the Late
group. This stone comes from a tomb, dated by Professor Reisner to Dynasties
XI-XII, in which was also found Stela 17 the sequence number of which is 22,
definitely Late. The reason why the sequence number of Stela 12 is so low is that
all the names are lost, which brings the second element in the number down from
5 (as in Stela 17) to 2t. The other elements in both stones are the same and the
fact that the tomb is dated, and that Stela 17 corroborates this dating, has led me
to disregard the sequence number in this case. Stela 40 (18 + ) comes from a tomb
which contained also Stelae 39 (18),56 (16),58 (I6~-), and 73 (17+). The last three
are definitely in the EM group, Stela 39 is a border-line stone assignable to either
EM or LM, and Stela 40 is only t point later than the border-line. With four of
the five stones from this tomb assignable to the EM group I have felt justified in
adding the fifth as well since it comes so near to the dividing line.
That the grouping of the Naga-ed-Der stelae proposed in the above table is
approximately correct (no more is claimed for it) is indicated by the two following
classes of evidence.
STELAE FROM THE SAME TOMB

Tomb S.F. 524 contained Stelae IS (seq. no. 16+) and 16 (17), both EM.
Tomb S.F. 5106 contained Stelae 14 (I6i-) and 63 (16), both EM.
Tomb N. 3794 contained Stelae 27 (I7t), 35 (1St), and 36 (I6t), all EM.
Tomb N. 3900 contained Stelae 39 (18),40 (18+),5 6 (16),58 (I6t), and 73 (17+),
of which the last three are EM, 39 on the border-line, and 40 only t point
later than the border-line.
12 3

CONCLUSIONS AND CHRONOLOGY

Tomb N. 3907 contained Stelae 38 (18), 46 (I9t),and 74 (20t), of which 46 is LM


while both 38 and 74 are border-line stones.
Tomb N. 3915 contained Stelae 26 (20t) and 57 (21), the latter L and the former a
border-line stone.
Thus in the seventeen cases where more than one stone comes from a tomb
there is no serious conflict with the proposed grouping.

SIMILARITIES OF STYLE

An examination of the plates will show that Stelae 20,45,48, and 65 belong to a
distinct and clearly recognizable class. These stones have sequence numbers 16+,
I4t, I4t, and I5~- respectively, extending from E into EM.
Similarly Stelae 10 and 22 are alike in style, and both have the sequence
number 18.
A third distinct type which includes some of the best preserved and most skilfully carved stelae is the following: 37 (16), 42 (16), 55 (16+),62 (I8-n, 69 (16), 73
(17+),78 (17+),83 (17+), and 84 (I6-}). All these are EM with the exception of
62 which has a low number in the LM group.
On the basis of the table of evidence and of the corroboration for it obt.ained
from the tomb grouping and comparison of styles, I feel that it is justifiable to divide
the material chronologically into four classes. I am well aware that the evidence
does not justify more than an approximate dating, but even that, in view of the
obscurity of the period, seems worth working out and setting before the reader.
Early (Dynasty VI and later), 9 stones: 1,6,9,33,45,48,51,53,81.
Early Middle, 52 stones: 2,3,4,5,10,14,15,16, 18, 19,20,21,23,27,28,29,3,
31,32,34,35,36,37,39,4,41,42,43,47,49,54,55, 56, 58 ,59,60,61,63,
64,65,66,68,69,7 1,72,73,77,7 8 ,79,82,83,84,
Late Middle, 15 stones: 22,24,25,38,44,46,52,62,7,74,75,76,85,86,87.
Late (Dynasties XI-XII), 10 stones: 7, 8, Il, 12, 13, 17,26,57,67,80.

PLATES

PLATE I

I.

2.

S.F. 5005

S.F. 5106. STELAE 14 (right)

AND

63 (left)

PLATE 11

I. STELA I.

M.F.A.

12.1475.

Text p.

12

~~

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I (

.J _ ..
I

~I

TI

2. STELA 2.

M.F.A.

12.147 6.

Text p.

14

PLATE III

U)
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N
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PLATE IV

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('l
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I
I

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2. STELA

I. STELA

7. M.F.A.

13.3 844.

Text p.

8. M.F.A.

25.625.

Text p.

20

19

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PLATE VI

I. STELA

9. M.F.A.

2. STELA 10.

25.626.

M.F.A.

25.627.

Text p.

22

Text p.

22

PLATE VII

I. STELA 1 I.

M.F.A. 25.628. Text p. 23

2. STELA 12.

M.F.A. 25.629. Text p. 24

PLATE VIII

I. STELA 13.

2.

STELA 14.

M.F.A. 25.659. Text p. 26

M.F.A. 25. 67. Text p. 27

PLATE IX

I.

STELA

IS. M.F.A. 25. 67 1 . Text p. 28

STELA

16. l\1.F.A. 25. 672 .. Text p. 29

2.

PLATE X

00
H

~
~

PLATE XI

I. STELA 19.

M.F.A. 25. 675. Text p. 32

2. STELA 20.

M.F.A.

25. 676 .

Text p. 33

PLATE XII

1. STELA 21.

M.F.A.

25. 677.

Text p.

2. STELA 22.

M.F.A.

25. 678 .

Text p. 36

35

PLATE XIII

. ,"

I. S'1;'ELA

2.

.\

,I

I
I

23. M.F.A. 25. 6 79. Text p. 37

STELA

30 .

LUTz

27. Text p. 43

PLATE XIV

I. STELA

36.

LUTZ

33

AND

72 Text p. 4 8

2.

38.

LUTZ

23

AND

35. Text p. 50

STELA

PLATE XV

I. STELA

40.

2. STELA

LUTZ ANNOTATIONS

46.

LUTZ 21 AND

13 Text p. 53

43. Text p. 58

.,

~~ ,

'-.

~,

I. STELA

53.

CAIRO,

37737. Text p. 65

2. STELA

54.

CAIRO,

4375 6 . Text p. 66
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tr.1

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PLATE XVII

I. STELA

2. STELA

55.

56.

CAIRO,

CAIRO,

459 68 . Text p. 67

45969- Text p. 68

PLATE XVIII

I.

STELA 57. CAIRO,4597 0 Text p. 69

2.

STELA 58. CAIRO, 45971. Text p. 70

PLATE XIX

I.

STELA 59. CAIRO, 43754. Text p. 7 1

"

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,.......

-,'

.... ,
~

2. STELA 60. CAIRO,43755. Text p. 72

PLATE XX

0..

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PLATE XXI

I. STELA

63.

CAIRO,

488 7. Text p. 75

PLA TE XX II

I. STE LA

65. N. 235. Tex t p. 77

2. STE LA

66. N. 569? Text p. 78

PLATE XX III

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PLATE XXIV

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PLATE XXV

1. STELA 71."

2.

STELA

N. 384. Text p. 83

72. N. 3807. Text p. 84

PLATE XXVI

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PLATE XXVII

00
00

Cl..

1. STELA

77.

SEMITIC Mus.

2354. Text p.

91

2.

STELA

78.

MET. Mus.,

N. Y. 25:2:3. Text p. 92
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PLATE XXIX

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PLATE XXX

I. STELA

81.

ORINST.

16953. Text p. 98

2. STELA

82.

ORINST.

16954. Text p.

100

PLA TE XXXI

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PLA TE XX XII

STE LA

84.

ORIN ST.

16956. Tex t p. 102

PLATE XX XII I

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PLATE XXXIV

STELA 87. ORINST.

16959. Text p.

107