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70% of Korea's foreign


workers earn less than
$1,800

Dollar strengthens against


Pakistani rupee
SINGAPORE: S'pore's FY 2014 expected to see
slightly smaller defcit
SINGAPORE: S'pore consumer prices in January
post biggest drop since 2009
SEOUL: Stock-rich celebrities in Korea
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Kim Yon-se

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The Korea Herald

funded bailout fund after Lion Air delays


BANGKOK: More overseas companies set foot in

Publication Date : 08-11-2013

Seven out of 10 foreigners working in Korea were paid less than 2 million won (US$1,800) a
month this year, Statistics Korea revealed Thursday.
According to the state-funded agency, about 525,000 foreign workers were paid less than 2
million won in 2013. They took up 71.4 per cent of the total 735,000 salaried non-Korean
employees.
Of them, the monthly wage for 42,000 workers was below 1 million won, accounting for more
than 5 per cent of all foreign workers.
About 159,000 non-Koreans were paid between 2 million won and 3 million won, while the
number of individuals whose wage exceeds 3 million won came to 51,000.
By gender, 84.6 per cent of the 241,000 female foreign employees were paid less than 2
million won.
The statistics authorities said the total number of non-Korean workers, in both salaried and
self-employed jobs, came to some 760,000 as of May 2013. The jobless rate in the same
period stood at 4.2 per cent of the 1.12 million foreigners older than 15.
The non-Korean employment rate dropped to 67.5 per cent in May, down 3.5 percentage

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Indonesia, Brazil in diplomatic row


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TAIPEI : TransAsia plane returns to Songshan
after takeoff

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70% of Korea's foreign workers earn less than $1,800 - ANN


JAKARTA:

points from a year earlier.

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call for Bangkok
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severe pneumonia
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the Goat
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'pull-up dance' goes viral
TOKYO: Suntory aims to be worlds No. 1 whiskey
maker
BANGKOK:

About 377,000 non-Koreans, nearly half of all those employed, were hired by the
manufacturing industry, according to the data.
It also showed that 138,000 foreigners were either self-employed or employed in the private
and public service sectors, followed by retail, lodging and restaurants with 137,000 and the
construction sector with 64,000.
More than 470,000 foreign residents were regular workers, while 263,000 non-Koreans here
had nonregular jobs.
By nationality, Korean-Chinese topped the employment roster with 331,000 workers,
followed by Vietnamese with 76,000, Chinese with 55,000, North Americans with 47,000
and Indonesians with 29,000.
The combined 386,000 Korean-Chinese and Chinese workers accounted for more than half
of all salaried and self-employed foreign workers.
Data showed that the number of workers from Europe and North America (Canada and the
United States) increased by 2,000 and 1,000, respectively, compared with the previous
year.
In contrast, the number of Korean-Chinese, Vietnamese and Mongolian workers fell by
26,000, 6,000 and 3,000, respectively.

BANDA ACEH:

In Aceh, people collect coins to


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JAKARTA: Coins for Tony Abbott
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Total employment declined due mainly to en masse expiry of the visa held by KoreanChinese and Chinese workers, said a Statistics Korea offcial.
But he downplayed the fall and predicted a large portion will return to work. He cited the law
which obliges Chinese employees who applied for visa renewal to stay in China for at least
three months.

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70% of Korea's foreign workers earn less than $1,800 - ANN

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A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars,


Holocaust and Zionist Militarism
Posted by Brandon Martinez on April 4, 2014

While the West bears much


shame and responsibility for
aiding and abetting the
Zionist project and all of its
murderous and destructive
consequences, bringing
history into accordance with
the facts is one way to uplift

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A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

the Palestinians whose


struggle for freedom and
justice goes on.

By Brandon Martinez

Some studies estimate that close to 1.5 million Iraqis have lost their lives as a result of the brutal American
invasion and occupation of their country in 2003.[1] Millions more Iraqis have become refugees and orphans
with no future prospects for prosperity, sanctity or stability. Most of the critical infrastructure of the country was
bombed into rubble and dust. American depleted uranium weapons have caused cancer rates in some Iraqi cities to
skyrocket, permanently destroying the genes of future generations of Iraqis who are being born with horrifc birth
defects and diseases.
The culprits responsible for this genocidal campaign to subdue and enslave the Iraqi people are not the CEOs
of American oil companies as some disingenuous commentators on the Left have claimed. President George
W. Bushs foreign policy in the Middle East was not his own nor that of the oil lobby, but was the brainchild of
the neoconservative conspirators behind the Project for the New American Century (PNAC), the Jewish
Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA), the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and other Zionist-oriented
think tanks that dominated the Washington Beltway.

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A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

Three of Bushs principal foreign policy advisors who are widely recognized as the prime movers behind the
war in Iraq were neocon ideologues Richard Perle, Douglas Feith and Paul Wolfowitz, all of whom have welldocumented histories of Israeli partisanship. Perle and Wolfowitz, for instance, were both investigated by the FBI in
the 1980s for passing classifed defense documents to Israel.[2] Perle was once an employee of the Israeli weapons
frm Soltam.[3] Writers for the New York Times described Wolfowitz as one of Israels staunchest allies in the Bush
administration and revealed that Wolfowitz is friendly with Israels generals and diplomats and that he is something of
a hero to the heavily Jewish neoconservative movement.[4][5] Feith once ran a law frm in Israel and received an
award from the Zionist Organization of America for his services to Israel and the Jewish people.[6] The New Yorker
revealed that Feith even has a portrait of Zionisms founder Theodore Herzl hanging on the wall of his home library. [7]
It was Feith and his neocon Zionist colleague Abram Shulsky who oversaw the secretive Offce of Special Plans in the
Pentagon where all of the lies about Iraqs weapons of mass destruction were conceived and disseminated.[8]
These Israeli militarists, masquerading as American thinkers, left behind a paper trail that unveiled their true
objectives. In 1996, Richard Perle, Douglas Feith and David Wurmser all future Bush administration offcials
authored a strategy paper for Benjamin Netanyahus Israeli Likud regime entitled A Clean Break: A New
Strategy for Securing the Realm.[9] In the paper, these Zionist hawks advocated an aggressive Israeli foreign policy,
calling for the removal of all of Israels possible military competitors in the region through force. They spoke of
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A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

weakening, containing, and even rolling back Syria and of removing Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq, calling it an
important Israeli strategic objective. Also on their hit list was Iran, whose infuence in the region they hoped to
neutralize as well. By eliminating Israels external enemies the Zionist neocons were in turn endeavoring to subdue
Israels internal foes, the indigenous Arab Palestinians who continue to resist Israeli occupation and apartheid.[10]
Meyrav Wurmser, the wife of neocon David Wurmser, confessed that most of the leading neocons are proIsrael Jews.[11] Gal Beckerman, a writer for the Jewish Forward newspaper, admitted that the ideology of
neoconservatism itself was the brainchild of chauvinistic Jewish intellectuals such as Leo Strauss, Irving
Kristol and Albert Wohlstetter. If there is an intellectual movement in America to whose invention Jews can
lay sole claim, neoconservatism is it, Beckerman wrote.[12] Prominent Israeli journalist Ari Shavit said the Iraq war
was engineered by a cabal of 25 mostly Jewish neoconservative intellectuals.[13] Famed American-Jewish journalist
Carl Bernstein expressed the same view on MSNBC. The Iraq war was launched on a phony pretext by Bush, Cheney
and the Jewish neocons who wanted to remake the world, Bernstein opined, much to the chagrin of the pro-Zionist
host.[14]
The engine driving the Zionist-led neoconservative war machine is holocaust
mythology.
For those of us who are involved in foreign and defense policy today of my
generation, explained Richard Perle in a BBC interview, the defning moment of our
history was certainly the holocaust.[15]
Douglas Feith often invokes the holocaust to justify his militarism. In a New Yorker profle,
Feith asked, Whats the answer to the Holocaust? He answered his own question by
Richard Perle
suggesting that it is not surprising that this alleged event has caused so many Jews to
become militant neocons dedicated to aggressive, unyielding warfare against all those who
pose a threat to Jews and their interests.[16]
In a New York Times profle, Paul Wolfowitz spoke of the holocaust as having a profound impact on his worldview.[17]
Another neocon ringleader, Michael Ledeen, revealed his obsession with the subject in an article he authored entitled
The New Holocaust.[18] Political analyst Kevin Barrett observed that the Israelis and their Jewish neocon
patrons in Washington are fanatical extremists who feel that they are being persecuted everywhere they go
and that they have to be extremely harsh, unyielding and aggressive, as well as deceptive and violent with the
world in order to ensure their survival.[19] Somehow it doesnt dawn on them that maybe it is their
unscrupulous behavior that is the cause of hostility towards them in the frst place. Obviously introspection is
not exactly a Zionist virtue.
The Zionists militarist mindset is evidently motivated by the ethnocentric myths of Jewish victimhood. Worldconquering Neocon-Zionist belligerence is driven in large part by the religious adherence to the offcial propaganda
of the victors of World War II. Elite Jews played an important role in bringing about the Second World War as the
fnal phase of their plan to establish the state of Israel. The First World War accomplished several things for
the Zionists: it freed up Palestine from Ottoman control (the Ottomans previously rejected Zionist offers to
purchase Palestine), it fractured the big empires of Europe who could then be manipulated into future
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A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

conficts, and lastly it delivered Russia to the Bolsheviks, a majority of whom were Jewish chauvinists hellbent on the subjugation of that Christian Empire. With Russia now in the hands of Jewish communist extremists
and Palestine falling under British dominion, the Zionist plan for Israel was well on its way.
It has been repeatedly acknowledged by British Statesmen, wrote Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann in a 1941
letter to British leader Winston Churchill, that it was the Jews who, in the last [world] war, effectively helped to
tip the scales in America in favour of Great Britain. They are keen to do it and may do it again. Wiezmann
went on to ask for British assistance in the formation of a Jewish fghting force that would be used to ethnically
cleanse Palestine of its Arab population. Wiezmann promised Churchill that if the British would help create a Jewish
militia to conquer Palestine, he would do his utmost to mobilize American Jewry to exert their infuence to draw America
into the Second World War on Britains side, as they did in the frst great war. [20]
Benjamin Freedman, a
former top-level Zionist,
exposed the machinations
of his brethren relating to
the First and Second World
Wars and the Zionist
conquest of Palestine. In a
1961 speech at the Willard
Hotel in Washington, D.C.,
Freedman explained that the
United States was
suckered into the [frst
world] war merely so that
the Zionists of the world
could obtain Palestine.
Freedman described how
Zionist Jews made a
secretive deal with the
British leadership during
World War I promising to
Chaim Weizmanns letter to Churchill
bring America into the war
in exchange for Palestine.
The result of this agreement was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, a British government decree that promised
to make Palestine into a national homeland for the Jews.[21] Freedman stressed the absurdity that Britain should
offer [Palestine] as coin of the realm to pay the Zionists for bringing the United States into the war. The Zionists, said
Freedman, have complete control of our government. The Zionists and their co-religionists rule this United States as
though they were the absolute monarchs of this country.[22]

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A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

In a December 1919 speech in Jerusalem, Chaim Wiezmann boasted about securing the Balfour Declaration from the
British government through persistent propaganda, through unceasing demonstration of the life force of our people.
We told the responsible authorities: We will establish ourselves in Palestine whether you like it or not, Weizmann said.
You can hasten our arrival or you can equally retard it. It is however better for you to help us so as to avoid our
constructive powers being turned into a destructive power which will overthrow the world.[23] Threatening the world
into approving the creation of Israel was part and parcel of the Zionist project from its inception.
In 1903 an early Zionist leader named Max Nordau conspicuously predicted the outbreak of the First World
War, which lends credence to the suggestion that a hidden force of Jewish Zionists, Freemasons and bankers
are responsible for instigating the confict for their own purposes. Let me tell you the following words as if I were
showing you the rungs of a ladder leading upward and upward: Herzl, the Zionist Congress, the English Uganda
proposition, the future world war, the peace conference where with the help of England a free and Jewish Palestine
will be created, Nordau told his compatriots at the sixth Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland, 11 years before the
outbreak of the First World War and 14 years before the British issued the Balfour Declaration.[24]
Such predictive powers unveil a plan that was consciously followed and executed during and after World War I. The
peace conference Nordau envisioned was the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, which resulted in the Treaty of
Versailles, a farce that unjustly punished Germany for a war it did not start, thus laying the groundwork for the
inevitable outbreak of the Second World War. An international peacekeeping body was established shortly after
World War I known as the League of Nations. The League put its stamp of approval on the British seizure of
Palestine after the war, an imperial land-grab that had no real legitimacy outside of the self-serving
declarations of the political elites, bankers and oligarchs who chaired the League.
The League essentially functioned as a tool of the fnancial elite and served the
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A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

geopolitical aspirations of the Zionists.


The League of Nations is a Jewish idea, and Jerusalem some day will become the
capital of the worlds peace, proclaimed Jewish leader Nahum Sokolow at a
Zionist conference in Carlsbad, California, in 1922.
The League has recognized our rights to our ancient home, he said. We Jews
throughout the world will make the Leagues struggle our own and will not rest until there
is ultimate victory.[25]
Nahum Sokolow

Even with Palestine now in the palm of their hands, the Zionists still had a
problem: convincing Europes Jews to leave their lives of luxury and embrace
Palestine as their new home. Such a task proved diffcult, with only a minority of European Jews strongly
identifying with Zionism at this time.
This reality sheds a different light on the rise of Adolf Hitler and National Socialism in Germany, which proved very
convenient from the Zionists perspective. While publicly professing scorn and hatred of Nazism, Zionist Jews
secretly initiated a deal with Hitlers government the Transfer Agreement which saw the transfer of tens
of thousands of German Jews and their assets to Palestine. Lasting from 1933 through 1941, the Nazi-Zionist pact
proved crucial to the future establishment of the Zionist state. The large amounts of capital and agricultural equipment
that was shipped into Palestine by way of this agreement substantially contributed to the creation of Israel. Through
this pact, Hitlers Third Reich did more than any other government during the 1930s to support Jewish development in
Palestine, opined historian Mark Weber in his article titled Zionism and the Third Reich. [D]uring the 1930s no
nation did more to substantively further Jewish-Zionist goals than Hitlers Germany, says Weber.[26]
Still, the Transfer Agreement alone did not produce the amount of Jewish emigration necessary to form an
exclusivist Jewish ethno-state in Palestine, as the Zionists intended all along. There simply were not enough
Jews in Palestine that would be required to replace the expelled Arabs and keep them at bay. Not only that, but
there was still not enough global support or sympathy for the creation of a state for Jews. Since the dawn of
Zionism in the late 1800s, Jewish-Zionist ideologues had been ravenously promoting the story of six million
persecuted and oppressed Jews. We Jews need a homeland of our own because we are persecuted wherever we go
was the traditional Zionist argumentation. But the First World War did not produce the circumstances needed to foist
this propaganda on the world. Jews were not singled out for persecution or mistreatment by any belligerent in that war,
which is why the Zionists, following the dictates of their founder Theodore Herzl, deliberately aided and abetted Hitlers
forces to corral their fellow Jews into ghettos and concentration camps during the Second World War.
Herzl, in his diaries, advocated making use of anti-Semitism to spur Jewish emigration to Palestine. It would
be an excellent idea to call in respectable, accredited anti-Semites as liquidators of [Jewish] property, he
wrote. The anti-Semites will become our most dependable friends, the anti-Semitic countries our allies. I
have already told you that we want to let respectable anti-Semites participate in our project, respecting their
independence which is valuable to usas a sort of peoples control authority. [27]

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A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

Did Hitler not carry out Herzls exact mandate? It must be pointed out that Hitlers fnal solution of the Jewish question
was the same procedure outlined by Zionists decades earlier: sequestering all Jews into a single state, isolated from
other nations. The fnal solution of the Jewish question lies therefore in the establishment of the Jewish State,
said the 1897 manifesto of a German-Zionist group.[28] In an 1899 letter, Theodore Herzl asked the Russian
Czar if he would hear out his Zionist plan for the fnal solution of the Jewish Question.[29] In 1936, the Jewish
nationalist leader Vladimir Jabotinsky laid out what the Zionist plan would ultimately entail: It is not our task to establish
in Palestine a home for selected people, not even a state for a small portion of our people. The aim of our efforts is to
organize a systematic massive Jewish evacuation from all the countries in which they live.[30]
The transfer of millions of Jews to their homeland [Palestine] will save the European Jewry from extermination,
declared Jabotinsky in 1940, adding, Evacuation of the Jewish masses is the only cure for the Jewish catastrophe.[31]
The extermination Jabotinsky spoke of was not happening, but that didnt stop Zionist propagandists from
disseminating reckless atrocity stories of systematic genocide in order to win the world over to the Zionist
cause. Legends of human soap, skin lampshades, shrunken heads, electric shock chambers, gas chambers
and other absurdities were trumpeted from the rooftops by Zionists and their controlled press.
Jewish leaders made numerous public pronouncements designed to provoke Hitler, hoping he would unleash his
fury upon Europes Jews, and with the help of Organized Zionism spur them to make their way to Palestine. For
instance, Organized Jewry made a declaration of war against Germany in March 1933, before Hitler took any
serious measures restricting the rights of German Jews. Judea Declares War on Germany: Jews of All the
World Unite in Action, read the headline of the March 24, 1933, edition of Britains Daily Express.

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A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

The corresponding article declared a Jewish holy war against Germany. The Israeli people around the world, the
article continued, declare economic and fnancial war against Germany. Fourteen million Jews stand together as one
man, to declare war against Germany.[32] A year later Jabotinsky made a similarly bellicose pronouncement, stating:
For months now the struggle against Germany is waged by each Jewish community, at each conference, in all our
syndicates, and by each Jew all over the world. There is reason to believe that our part in this struggle has general
value. We will trigger a spiritual and material war of all the world against Germanys ambitions to become once
again a great nation, to recover lost territories and colonies. But our Jewish interests demand the complete
destruction of Germany.[33]
As the war drew near, Chaim Weizmann did everything in his power to invite defnite reprisals against Jews from
Hitlers regime. In a 1939 letter to British leader Neville Chamberlain, Weizmann declared that the Jews stand by
Great Britain and will fght on the side of the democracies.[34] Weizmann and his Zionist colleagues made many public
statements to that effect, which Hitler referenced in a July 1942 speech.[35] In 1941, an American Jew named
Theodore Kaufman made an even more brazen effort to deliberately provoke hostility towards Jews. He
authored and published a book advocating the genocide of the whole German people by way of a forced sterilization
program. Kaufmans text, titled Germany Must Perish!, outlined a comprehensive plan for the extinction of the German
nation and the total eradication from the earth, of all her people.[36] A map illustrating the possible territorial break-up
of Germany and the apportionment of her lands was also found in the book. Germany must perish forever from this
earth! Kaufman declared, calling for a fnal solution of German extinction. Hitlers propaganda chief Joseph Goebbels
was well aware of Kaufmans hateful screed, and widely distributed it in Germany to bolster his case of a Jewish
conspiracy against his country.
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A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

Zionist leaders and activists gave Hitler more than enough ammunition to justify interning Jews in camps as a
security threat to Germany. The American and Canadian governments imprisoned Japanese, German and Italian
citizens in camps during the war with a far weaker rationale. Japanese, German and Italian citizens of the US and
Canada had not declared a holy war against their adopted countries, but were interned nonetheless. It is diffcult to
escape the conclusion that these Zionist provocations were a cleverly calculated ruse intended to create an
atmosphere in Europe conducive to the Zionist transfer plan. Without the uprooting process initiated by the
National Socialists and their Zionist assistants, it is unlikely that any large amount of European Jews would
have voluntarily left Europe for an uncertain future in Palestine.
Some Jewish casualties in a devastating war that took tens of millions of lives was inevitable and very much desired by
the Zionist leaders seeking a pretext to invade and conquer Palestine for Jewish colonization. There are 6,000,000
living, bleeding, suffering arguments in favor of Zionism, declared Rabbi Stephen S. Wise at a meeting of Zionists in
New York in 1900. [37] In 1906, a German-Jewish philanthropist named Dr. Paul Nathan publicized the notion that the
Russian government had initiated a policy of exterminating its Jews as a solution to the Jewish question and that six
million were in grave danger.[38] Max Nordau, the Zionist leader who predicted World War I, invoked the story of six
million persecuted Jews in 1899, 1911 and 1920.[39] At a Zionist conference in 1911, Nordau warned that it was only a
matter of time before six million Jews would be annihilated by European governments.[40]
This familiar narrative was repeatedly advanced a few dozen times before, during and after World War I.[41] A
most interesting example is from October 1919 when the American Hebrew publication carried an alarmist
story headlined The Crucifxion of Jews Must Stop which alleged that six million Jewish men and women
were on the brink of a holocaust of human life.[42] A New York Times report from the same year headlined
Ukrainian Jews Aim To Stop Pogroms alleged that six million Jews in the Ukraine and Poland were being
targeted in pogroms and massacres.[43] Another report from 1921 titled Begs America Save 6,000,000 In
Russia, also from the New York Times, said, Russias 6,000,000 Jews are facing extermination by
massacre.[44]
As the Second World War approached, Zionists amplifed their atrocity propaganda. In 1936, Chaim Weizmann told a
British Commission that six million Jews in Europe had neither hope nor future save in the land of Israel.[45] In
1940, World Jewish Congress chairman Nahum Goldmann proclaimed that if the German National Socialists achieved
victory in the war 6,000,000 Jews in Europe are doomed to destruction.[46] Amazingly, Zionist newspapers
betrayed the pre-meditated and fraudulent nature of the six million myth by proclaiming precisely six million
Jewish victims six months before the end of the war. [47] Soviet-Jewish war propagandist Ilya Ehrenburg told
his readers that the world now knows that Germany has killed six million Jews in March of 1945, two months
before the end of hostilities and long before any accurate statistical data of war casualties would become
available.[48] At that time, no demographic fgures could have been available to [Ehrenburg], writes German
Rudolf in the preface of The First Holocaust. Just a year later, Rudolf continues, British Historian David
Irving emphasized that as early as June 1945, in other words immediately after the end of hostilities in Europe,
some Zionist leaders claimed to be able to provide the precise number of Jewish victims six million, of
course even though the chaos reigning in Europe at that time rendered any demographic studies
impossible.[49]
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A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

In an effort to whitewash their own egregious war crimes, the Allied Powers went along with the Zionists premeditated fctional account of six million dead Jews. At the post-war Nuremberg trials, an Allied-run kangaroo court
staffed to the brim by Zionist Jews and their Allied lackeys, the truth was buried underneath a tidal wave of falsehoods.
The Zionist motives for the war itself were purposefully obscured and a cartoonish propaganda narrative of Nazi evil
was foisted upon the world to advance the victors post-war aims for Europe and accelerate the Zionists ambitions for a
Jewish ethno-state in Palestine. American Senator Thomas Dodd, who was a chief prosecutor at the Nuremberg
trials in 1945, revealed in a letter to his wife that the staff at Nuremberg was about 75 per cent Jewish. Now my
point is that the Jews should stay away from this trial for their own sake, Dodd wrote in the letter, adding, For the
charge a war for the Jews is still being made and in the post-war years it will be made again and again. The
too large percentage of Jewish men and women here [at Nuremberg] will be cited as proof of this charge.[50]
When the Soviet Union and its communist satellites in
Eastern Europe collapsed in 1991, so did the myth of the
six million.
The Soviet lie of four million deaths at Auschwitz a
monstrous exaggeration accepted as fact for decades
was offcially reduced to around one million, but
revisionist historians doubt even that fgure.
Revisionist scholarship has determined that somewhere
between 100-150 thousand people perished in Auschwitz
mainly as a result of disease and starvation, which was not
a deliberate act on the part of the Germans but rather the
outcome of Allied carpet-bombing of Germanys
infrastructure.[51]
For years Zionist propagandists claimed several million
Jews had been killed by the Germans at the
Mauthausen and Majdanek concentration camps, but
recent offcial revisions place the Jewish death totals
there at 74,000 combined.[52] Despite the vast lowering of the death fgures at many major camps, Zionists and
those they have convinced through incessant propaganda still repeat the erroneous six million number as fact.
Jewish scholar Norman Finkelstein outlined Zionist deceptions vis--vis
the orthodox holocaust narrative in his book The Holocaust Industry.[53]
Finkelstein observes that a dogma has been fashioned around the
holocaust by the Jewish-Zionist establishment as a means of
thought control.
Shielding Israel from criticism and rebuke, Finkelstein argues, is a
primary motivation behind the ceaseless promotion of holocaust
mythology, in addition to Zionist shakedowns for reparations money
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A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

from Germany.
This proftable industry is bolstered by the Hollywood entertainment
establishment which is totally run by Jews according to the
Jewish Los Angeles Times columnist Joel Stein.[54] Not only does
the holocaust dogma provide Zionist Jews with psychological cover
to commit heinous crimes against the Palestinians and mask them
under a faade of victimhood, but it also acts as a perpetual pretext
for wars that serve Israels interests, such as the war in Iraq.

The Holocaust Industry by Norman Finkelstein

Gilad Sharon, the son of Israeli war criminal politician Ariel Sharon, vividly unveiled the bloodthirsty and bellicose nature
of Zionism in a 2012 op-ed for the Jerusalem Post. Calling openly for the genocidal carpet-bombing of Gaza, Sharon
declared: We need to fatten entire neighborhoods in Gaza. Flatten all of Gaza. The Americans didnt stop with
Hiroshima the Japanese werent surrendering fast enough, so they hit Nagasaki, too.[55] Sharons remarks are not
the ravings of a fringe lunatic they are completely consistent with the teachings of the pioneers of Zionist ideology,
like Dr. David Wolffsohn, the late World Zionist Organization chairman, who told a meeting of Zionists in 1907 that Jews
must put aside their differences and unite to conquer the world.[56] Vladimir Jabotinsky, the father of the
Revisionist strain of Zionism, said candidly, We want a Jewish Empire.[57] Zionism is a death-crazed
narcissistic cult, said Rich Siegel, a former Zionist who saw the light.[58] The inhuman precepts of the Jewish
supremacist mentality that is so prevalent in the Israeli state today can only result in more violence and
bloodshed, more misery and suffering for the Palestinians and Arabs in general.
While the West bears much shame and responsibility for aiding and abetting the Zionist project and all of its
murderous and destructive consequences, bringing history into accordance with the facts is one way to uplift
the Palestinians whose struggle for freedom and justice goes on.
Copyright 2014 Brandon Martinez
Brandon Martinez is a freelance writer and journalist from Canada whose areas of expertise are foreign policy,
international affairs and 20th and 21st century history. His writing is focused on issues such as Zionism, IsraelPalestine, American and Canadian foreign policy, war, terrorism and deception in media and politics. His
articles have appeared on Press TV, Veterans News Now, Media With Conscience News, Whatsupic and other
alternative media outlets. Readers can contact him at martinezperspective@hotmail.com or visit his blog at
http://martinezperspective.wordpress.com.
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A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

RELATED ARTICLES:
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End Notes
[1] http://www.justforeignpolicy.org/iraq
[2] Stephen Green, Serving Two Flags: Neo-Cons, Israel and the Bush Administration, Counterpunch, Feb. 28-Mar.
02, 2004. http://www.counterpunch.org/2004/02/28/neo-cons-israel-and-the-bush-administration/
[3] http://www.historycommons.org/entity.jsp?entity=soltam_ltd .
[4] Bill Keller, The Sunshine Warrior (Paul Wolfowitz), The New York Times Magazine, Sept. 22, 2002.
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/754534/posts
[5] Eric Schmitt, The Busy Life of Being a Lightning Rod for Bush, New York Times, April 22, 2002.
http://www.nytimes.com/2002/04/22/world/the-busy-life-of-being-a-lightning-rod-for-bush.html
[6] Zionist Organization of America News Release, Oct. 13, 1997.
http://web.archive.org/web/20010329165718/http:/www.zoa.org/pressrel/19971013a.htm
[7] Jeffrey Goldberg, A LITTLE LEARNING: What Douglas Feith knew, and when he knew it, The New Yorker, May 9,
2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20060319111108/http:/www.newyorker.com/printables/fact/050509fa_fact
[8] Julian Borger, The spies who pushed for war, The Guardian, July 17, 2003.
http://web.archive.org/web/20100329074314/http:/www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/jul/17/iraq.usa
[9] http://www.iasps.org/strat1.htm
[10] Stephen J. Sniegoski, The war on Iraq: Conceived in Israel, 2003. http://www.thornwalker.com/ditch/conc_toc.htm
[11] BBC video documentary The War Party: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jilA-ZeBUI4
[12] Gal Beckerman, The Neoconservative Persuasion Examining the Jewish roots of an intellectual movement, The
Forward, Jan. 6, 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20120304145938/http:/galbeckerman.com/crit9/
[13] Ari Shavit, White mans burden, Haaretz, April 3, 2003.
http://web.archive.org/web/20110119065714/http:/www.haaretz.com/news/features/white-man-s-burden-1.14110
[14] Journalist Carl Bernstein Tells Joe Scarborough: Jewish Neocons Responsible in Part for Iraq War, The Blaze,
le:///C|/Users/HACKERLINK/Desktop/Backupan/A%20Century%20of%20Deceit%20%20Iraq,%20the%20World%20Wars,%20Holocaust%20and%20Zionist%20Militarism%20_%20Veterans%20News%20Now.htm[4/25/2015 2:05:06 PM]

A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

April 26, 2013. http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2013/04/26/journalist-carl-bernstein-tells-joe-scarborough-jewishneocons-responsible-in-part-for-iraq-war/


[15] See note 10.
[16] See note 6.
[17] See note 4.
[18] Michael Ledeen, The New Holocaust, PJ Media, Dec. 22, 2010.
http://pjmedia.com/michaelledeen/2010/12/22/the-new-holocaust/
[19] Mossad major player in Kennedy killing, Press TV, Nov. 25, 2013.
http://www.presstv.ir/detail/2013/11/25/336583/mossad-major-player-in-kennedy-killing/
[20] Transcript of Sept. 10, 1941, letter from Chaim Weizmann to Winston Churchill:
http://www.fpp.co.uk/History/Churchill/Weizmann_Zionists/WSC_100941.html
[21] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balfour_Declaration
[22] Transcript of Benjamin Freedmans 1961 speech at the Willard Hotel in Washington, D.C.:
http://www.sweetliberty.org/issues/israel/freedman.htm
[23] Judische Rundschau (Jewish Review), Jan. 16, 1920.
http://winstonsmithministryoftruth.blogspot.com/2013/03/international-jewry-is-power-after-all.html
[24] Zionism and Palestine Before the Mandate: A Phase of Western Imperialism; an Essay with a Selection of
Readings by Richard P. Stevens, Institute for Palestine Studies, 1972, p. 132.
http://winstonsmithministryoftruth.blogspot.com/2011/04/in-1903-zionists-knew-thered-be-world.html
[25] Says Jews Will Back League, New York Times, Aug. 28, 1922. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?
res=F40D13FF3B5D1A7A93CAAB1783D85F468285F9
[26] Mark Weber, Zionism and the Third Reich, The Journal of Historical Review, July-August 1993 (Vol. 13, No. 4),
pages 29-37. http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v13/v13n4p29_Weber.html
[27] The Complete Diaries of Theodor Herzl, edited by Raphael Patai, translated by Harry Zohn (1960) New York; Herzl
Press, pp. 83, 84, 143. http://winstonsmithministryoftruth.blogspot.com/2011/12/another-amazing-zionistprediction.html?zx=7cb290fb199a3d45
[28] The Zionist Plan for the Final Solution of the Jewish Question, Winston Smith Ministry of Truth, Feb. 4, 2011.
http://winstonsmithministryoftruth.blogspot.com/2011/02/fnal-solution-of-jewish-question.html
[29] Ibid.
[30] Ben Hecht, Peridy, p. 254. A facsimile of this page is here:
http://winstonsmithministryoftruth.blogspot.com/2011/04/zionist-aim-to-drive-jews-from-europe.html
le:///C|/Users/HACKERLINK/Desktop/Backupan/A%20Century%20of%20Deceit%20%20Iraq,%20the%20World%20Wars,%20Holocaust%20and%20Zionist%20Militarism%20_%20Veterans%20News%20Now.htm[4/25/2015 2:05:06 PM]

A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

[31] Ibid.
[32] The Daily Express (London), March 24, 1933, pp. 1-2. A facsimile of the front page of the paper and full text of the
relevant article is here: http://www.biblestudysite.com/judeawar.htm
[33] Jacques Benoist-Mechin, Histoire de lArme Allemande, Vol. IV, p. 303. http://guardian.150m.com/jews/jewsdeclare-war.htm
[34] Jews To Fight for Democracies: Dr. Weizmanns Letter to Mr. Chamberlain, The Times (London), Sept. 6, 1939. A
facsimile of the article is available here: http://oi44.tinypic.com/ege6v6.jpg
[35] David Irving, Hitler and Holocaust Denial: Electronic Edition, by Richard J. Evans.
http://www.hdot.org/en/trial/defense/evans/540d/view/print.html
[36] Kaufman, Theodore N. Germany Must Perish! Newark, NJ: Argyle, 1941.
https://archive.org/details/GermanyMustPerish
[37] ZIONISTS MASS MEETING, New York Times, June 11, 1900. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?
res=9E01E7D61F3CE433A25752C1A9609C946197D6CF
[38] Dr. Paul Nathans View of Russian Massacre, New York Times, March 25, 1906.
http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9A00E7DE113EE733A25756C2A9659C946797D6CF
[39] Max Nordaus six million Jews in 1899, 1911, & 1920, Winston Smith Ministry of Truth, Dec. 21, 2013.
http://winstonsmithministryoftruth.blogspot.com/2013/12/max-nordaus-six-million-jews-in-1899.html?
zx=549ada2e31178ae1
[40] Ben Hecht, Perfdy, p. 254. http://winstonsmithministryoftruth.blogspot.ca/2011/03/1911-zionist-warns-6000000jews-to-be.html?zx=f8a947be628aa77b
[41] Heddesheimer, Don. The First Holocaust: Jewish Fund Raising Campaigns with Holocaust Claims during and after
World War One. Chicago, IL: Theses & Dissertations, 2003. http://vho.org/GB/Books/tfh/
[42] Martin H. Glynn, The Crucifxion of Jews Must Stop, The American Hebrew, Oct. 31, 1919. A facsimile of the
article is reproduced here: http://jrbooksonline.com/HTMLdocs/The%20Crucifxion%20of%20Jews%20Must%20Stop.htm
[43] Ukrainian Jews Aim To Stop Pogroms, New York Times, Sept. 8, 1919. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archivefree/pdf?res=F40A11FF3E5E157A93CAA91782D85F4D8185F9
[44] Begs America Save 6,000,000 In Russia, New York Times, July 20, 1921. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archivefree/pdf?res=F60A12FA3C551A738DDDA90A94DF405B818EF1D3
[45] Weizmanns statement was quoted in the Israeli Government Year Book (1953) and The Jewish Western Bulletin
(Dec. 11, 1936). Facsimiles of both clippings are reproduced here:
le:///C|/Users/HACKERLINK/Desktop/Backupan/A%20Century%20of%20Deceit%20%20Iraq,%20the%20World%20Wars,%20Holocaust%20and%20Zionist%20Militarism%20_%20Veterans%20News%20Now.htm[4/25/2015 2:05:06 PM]

A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

http://winstonsmithministryoftruth.blogspot.com/2011/02/6000000-fgure-of-jews-from-1936.html
[46] Doom of European Jews is Seen if Hitler Wins, The Palm Beach Post, June 25, 1940. Other articles mentioning
Goldmanns prediction can be found here: http://winstonsmithministryoftruth.blogspot.com/2013/12/nahum-goldmannsoothsaying-six.html
[47] The Pittsburgh Press, Nov. 28, 1944, p.5 / The Palestine Post, Nov. 28, 1944. Facsimiles of these articles can be
found here: http://winstonsmithministryoftruth.blogspot.com/2011/05/nov-1944-six-million-jews-listed.html
[48] Wolves they werewolves they remain, Soviet News Weekly (London), March 15, 1945. A facsimile of this and
other articles where Ehrenburg invokes the six million number prior to the end of the war can be found here:
http://winstonsmithministryoftruth.blogspot.com/2012/11/ehrenburg-6000000-jews-collection.html
[49] Heddesheimer 2003, preface.
[50] Historian David Irving produced excerpts of Thomas Dodds letter on his website:
http://www.fpp.co.uk/History/Nuremberg/Thomas_Dodd_ltr.html
[51] Mark Weber, New Offcial Changes in the Auschwitz Story, Institute of Historical Review.
http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v21/v21n3p24_weber.html
[52] The revised offcial death totals of Jews at Mauthausen and Majdanek are 14,000 and 60,000 respectively. See
http://winstonsmithministryoftruth.blogspot.ccom/2013/10/17-million-jews-killed-at-majdanek-says.html And here:
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005196
[53] Finkelstein, Norman G. The Holocaust Industry: Refections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering. London:
VERSO, 2000.
[54] Joel Stein, Who runs Hollywood? Cmon, Los Angeles Times, Dec. 19, 2008.
https://web.archive.org/web/20130316201104/http:/articles.latimes.com/2008/dec/19/opinion/oe-stein19
[55] Gilad Sharon, A decisive conclusion is necessary, The Jerusalem Post, Nov. 18, 2012.
https://web.archive.org/web/20130318130846/http:/www.jpost.com/Opinion/Op-Ed-Contributors/A-decisive-conclusionis-necessary
[56] Says Jews Must Conquer. Dr. Wolffsohn Delivers Closing Speech at Zionist Congress. New York Times, Aug. 22,
1907. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=FB0D16FD3C5A15738DDDAB0A94D0405B878CF1D3
[57] Brenner, Lenni. Zionism in the Age of the Dictators. London: Croom Helm, 1983, ch. 10.
http://www.vho.org/aaargh/engl/zad/zad10.html
[58] Words from an Honest, Intelligent & Compassionate Jew Rich Siegel, Ken OKeefe Blog, Nov. 18, 2012.
http://kenokeefe.wordpress.com/2012/11/15/words-from-an-honest-intelligent-compassionate-jew-rich-siegel/

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Brandon Martinez
Founder at Non-Aligned Media

Brandon Martinez is an independent writer and journalist from Canada who specializes in foreign policy
issues, international affairs and 20th and 21st century history. For years he has written on Zionism, IsraelPalestine, American and Canadian foreign policy, war, terrorism and deception in media and politics. His
articles and analysis have appeared on Press TV, Veterans News Now, Media With Conscience News,
Whatsupic, Intifada Palestine, Information Clearing House, What Really Happened, and other alternative
media outlets. He is the co-founder of Non-Aligned Media and the author of the 2014 book Grand
Deceptions: Zionist Intrigue in the 20th and 21st Centuries
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3 Responses to "A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism"
Debbie Menon

April 4, 2014 at 7:57 pm

Why so many people in this world kowtow and kiss the bloated arse of the Israeli Overlord ?
Fear.
Is Samson holding up the pillars of the US and the European Congress?
Where is our Delilah?
Could their Nuclear Arsenal be Israels Samson?
Read the story here : http://christianity.about.com/od/biblestorysummaries/p/samsondelilah.htm

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A Century of Deceit: Iraq, the World Wars, Holocaust and Zionist Militarism | Veterans News Now

mcfadden

April 4, 2014 at 12:47 pm

Nice work, Brandon. And you dont even nail them on 9/11. Have you read Collateral_Damage_911 (pdf)?
There are two volumes, each just 59 information thick pages. Vol. 1 details the motivations for 9/11 ( like the
fact that Bush I had fraudulently issued 250 Billion in counterfeit baby Treasury bonds on 09/11/1991
monies used to destabilize Russia so that the fnancial Zios could rape her. Vol. 2 segues to the subprime
treason op.
Joogle it!
Peace.

mcfadden

April 9, 2014 at 1:27 pm

Awaiting moderation? This didnt show yesterday. What gives?

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A/RES/20/2131 - Declaration on the Inadmissibility of Intervention in the Domestic Affairs of States and the Protection of Their Independence and Sovereignty - U...

UN Documents
Gathering a body of global agreements
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United Nations

A/RES/20/2131

un logo
General Assembly

Distr: General
21 December 1965

Twentieth session
Agenda item 107
Resolution adopted by the General Assembly
2131 (XX). Declaration on the Inadmissibility of Intervention in the Domestic Affairs of States and the
Protection of Their Independence and Sovereignty
The General Assembly,
Deeply concerned at the gravity of the international situation and the increasing threat to universal
peace due to armed intervention and other direct or indirect forms of interference threatening the
sovereign personality and the political independence of States,
Considering that the United Nations, in accordance with their aim to eliminate war, threats to the
peace and acts of aggression, created an Organization, based on the sovereign equality of States,
whose friendly relations would be based on respect for the principle of equal rights and selfdetermination of peoples and on the obligation of its Members to refrain from the threat or use of
force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State,
Recognizing that, in fulflment of the principle of self-determination, the General Assembly, in the
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples contained in
resolution 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960, stated its conviction that all peoples have an inalienable
right to complete freedom, the exercise of their sovereignty and the integrity of their national
territory, and that, by virtue of that right, they freely determine their political status and freely pursue
their economic, social and cultural development,
Recalling that in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the General Assembly proclaimed
that recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the
human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, without distinction of any
kind,
Reaffrming the principle of non-intervention, proclaimed in the charters of the Organization of
American States, the League of Arab States and the Organization of African Unity and affrmed at
fle:///C|/U...nce%20and%20Sovereignty%20-%20UN%20Documents%20%20Gathering%20a%20body%20of%20global%20agreements.htm[4/25/2015 2:05:17 PM]

A/RES/20/2131 - Declaration on the Inadmissibility of Intervention in the Domestic Affairs of States and the Protection of Their Independence and Sovereignty - U...

the conferences held at Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Chapultepec and Bogot, as well as in the
decisions of the Asian-African Conference at Bandung, the First Conference of Heads of State or
Government of Non-Aligned Countries at Belgrade, in the Programme for Peace and International
Cooperation adopted at the end of the Second Conference of Heads of State or Government of NonAligned Countries at Cairo, and in the declaration on subversion adopted at Accra by the Heads of
State and Government of the African States,
Recognizing that full observance of the principle of the non-intervention of States in the internal
and external affairs of other States is essential to the fulflment of the purposes and principles of the
United Nations,
Considering that armed intervention is synonymous with aggression and, as such, is contrary to the
basic principles on which peaceful international cooperation between States should be built,
Considering further that direct intervention, subversion and all forms of indirect intervention are
contrary to these principles and, consequently, constitute a violation of the Charter of the United
Nations,
Mindful that violation of the principle of non-intervention poses a threat to the independence,
freedom and normal political, economic, social and cultural development of countries, particularly
those which have freed themselves from colonialism, and can pose a serious threat to the
maintenance of peace,
Fully aware of the imperative need to create appropriate conditions which would enable all States,
and in particular the developing countries, to choose without duress or coercion their own political,
economic and social institutions,
In the light of the foregoing considerations, solemnly declares:
1. No State has the right to intervene, directly or indirectly, for any reason whatever, in the
internal or external affairs of any other State. Consequently, armed intervention and all other forms
of interference or attempted threats against the personality of the State or against its political,
economic and cultural elements, are condemned.
2. No State may use or encourage the use of economic, political or any other type of measures to
coerce another State in order to obtain from it the subordination of the exercise of its sovereign rights
or to secure from it advantages of any kind. Also, no State shall organize, assist, foment, Finance,
incite or tolerate subversive, terrorist or armed activities directed towards the violent overthrow of
the regime of another State, or interfere in civil strife in another State.
3. The use of force to deprive peoples of their national identity constitutes a violation of their
inalienable rights and of the principle of non-intervention.
4. The strict observance of these obligations is an essential condition to ensure that nations live
together in peace with one another, since the practice of any form of intervention not only violates the
spirit and letter of the Charter of the United Nations but also leads to the creation of situations which
threaten international peace and security.
5. Every State has an inalienable right to choose its political, economic, social and cultural
systems, without interference in any form by another State.
6. All States shall respect the right of self-determination and independence of peoples and
nations, to be freely exercised without any foreign pressure, and with absolute respect for human
rights and fundamental freedoms. Consequently, all States shall contribute to the complete
elimination of racial discrimination and colonialism in all its forms and manifestations.
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A/RES/20/2131 - Declaration on the Inadmissibility of Intervention in the Domestic Affairs of States and the Protection of Their Independence and Sovereignty - U...

7. For the purpose of the present Declaration, the term "State" covers both individual States and
groups of States.
8. Nothing in this Declaration shall be construed as affecting in any manner the relevant
provisions of the Charter of the United Nations relating to the maintenance of international peace and
security, in particular those contained in Chapters VI, VII and VIII.
1408th plenary meeting
21 December 1965

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UN Documents: Gathering a Body of Global Agreements
has been compiled by the NGO Committee on Education of the
Conference of NGOs from United Nations web sites
and made possible through freely available information & communications technology.

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Africa in Transition Nigeria President Goodluck Jonathan Runs for Re-Election

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JOHN CAMPBELL

Africa in Transition

Campbell tracks political and security developments across sub-Saharan Africa.

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Nigeria President Goodluck


Jonathan Runs for ReElection
by John Campbell
October 30, 2014

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About This Blog


Africa in Transition signals the most
important political, security, and social
developments occurring in sub-Saharan
Africa.
About the Author
John Campbell
Ralph Bunche Senior Fellow for
Africa Policy Studies
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Africa in Transition Nigeria President Goodluck Jonathan Runs for Re-Election


Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan speaks to the media on the situation in Chibok and the success of the World
Economic Forum in Abuja May 9, 2014. (Afolabi Sotunde/Courtesy Reuters)

Today, to nobodys surprise, President Goodluck Jonathans

Share

spokesman announced that he would accept the ruling

10

11

Peoples Democratic Partys (PDP) nomination for


president. The presidential elections are scheduled for February
14, 2015.

Recent Posts
February 26th, 2015

Within the PDP Jonathan was unopposed. However, numerous


PDP personalities have left the party, most recently the Speaker of the House of
Representatives, Aminu Tambuwal. Others have left but subsequently returned.
The leading opposition party, the All Progressives Congress (APC), will select its presidential
candidate in early December. Former military chief of state Muhammadu Buhari is the
current favorite. If Buhari is successful, the 2015 presidential election will be a rematch of
the 2011 elections. Those elections bifurcated the country with Buhari taking all of the
predominately Muslim states and Jonathan the rest (with one exception). These elections
were followed by the worst single episode of violence in the north since the 1966-70 civil war.
Jonathans announcement comes one day after Boko Haram seized the strategically
important city of Mubi in Adamawa state, the headquarters of the Nigerian armys 234

Buhari on Being Nigeria Military


Chief of State
Muhammadu Buhari, the leading opposition
candidate in Nigerias upcoming presidential
election, delivered an address at the Royal
Institute for International

February 25th, 2015

Has the Tide Turned Against Boko


Haram in Nigeria?
On February 25, in the aftermath of two
bombings that killed at least twenty-seven,
President Goodluck Jonathan said that the

February 24th, 2015

ISIS and Boko Haram


The relationship, if any, between Nigerias
Boko Haram and ISIS is a question that
vexes the policy community. If there

battalion, one of the largest military units in the northeast. Mubis residents appear to have
fed, joining a large and rapidly growing internally displaced population in the northeast. The
much ballyhooed negotiations between the government and Boko Haram over a cease-fre
and the release of the kidnapped Chibok school girls thus far have come to nothing.

February 23rd, 2015

Nigeria Security Tracker: Weekly


Update February 14-February 20
Below is a visualization and description of
some of the most signifcant incidents of
political violence in Nigeria from February

Corruption remains a feature of the Jonathan administration, with investigations still


underway on alleged mis-direction of oil revenue. Jonathans signature power
initiative has been launched, and has the potential for revitalizing the economy. However, in
the short term, power generation has actually fallen. Given these circumstances, Jonathans
candidacy would seem to be in trouble. Yet, such is the power of incumbency that the smart

February 20th, 2015

South Africas Billion Dollar Rhino


Question
This is a guest post by Allen Grane, research
associate for the Council on Foreign
Relations Africa Studies program. On

money must be on a Jonathan victory.


Nigerian civil society groups are expressing concern about the state of electoral preparations.
Then, too, there is the question of how balloting will be conducted in the parts of the
northeast subject to Boko Haram. That region voted solidly for Buhari in 2011. If the
elections in those areas do not take place, or if the turnout is miniscule because of security
concerns, their credibility will be questioned, especially in the north. However, elections are
an aspect of elite politics remote from the concerns and aspirations of the Nigerian people.
For many Nigerians, they may not matter very much except as a spur to ethnic, religious, and

Nigeria: Dancing on the


Brink
Former U.S. ambassador to
Nigeria John Campbell explores
Nigeria's postcolonial history
and examines the events and
conditions that have carried
this troubled giant to the edge.

regional identities. Hence, the question is whether the February 2015 elections will further
exacerbate ethnic and religious tensions, and perhaps encourage increased support for Boko
Haram and other radical movements.

Nigeria Security Tracker

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Africa in Transition Nigeria President Goodluck Jonathan Runs for Re-Election

Opinions expressed on CFR blogs are solely those of the author or commenter, not of CFR,
which takes no institutional positions.

Posted in Africa, Civil Society, Confict, Corruption, Elections, Military,


Nigeria, Uncategorized

Share

Kintunde Akinleye/Courtesy Reuters

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The interactive Nigeria Security Tracker


documents and maps violence motivated by
political, economic, or social grievances.

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Al-Qaeda-Nusra union can divide Syria: rebels | News , Middle East | THE DAILY STAR

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Lauren Williams | The Daily Star

BEIRUT: The announcement that the Syrian opposition Nusra Front has aligned with the leadership of Al-Qaeda
in Iraq has thrown transition plans in Syria into chaos, with some opposition groups warning it could complicate
the battlefeld, even pit northern-backed Islamists against southern-backed secularists.
The new development coincided with high-level discussions at the G-8 summit in London on the Syria crisis and
an appeal from rebel groups for more arms, adding strain to already diverging opinions on how and who to
support among the opposition fghters.
Abu Mohammad al-Golani, the leader of the Nusra Front the most lethal opposition group, Wednesday pledged
allegiance to the leadership of Al-Qaeda in Iraq in an online statement.
The sons of Nusra Front renew their pledge [of allegiance] to the Sheikh of Jihad Ayman al-Zawahri and declare
obedience, Golani said.
The announcement came a day after the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi said his group
and the Nusra Front would operate under a united leadership called the Islamic State of Iraq.

le:///C|/U...n%20can%20divide%20Syria%20%20rebels%20_%20News%20,%20Middle%20East%20_%20THE%20DAILY%20STAR.htm[4/25/2015 2:06:04 PM]

Al-Qaeda-Nusra union can divide Syria: rebels | News , Middle East | THE DAILY STAR

The Nusra Front has claimed some of the most signifcant victories against Syrian government forces in the
course of the 2-year-old uprising. But their radical ideology and use of suicide attacks and the killing of civilians
has alienated other opposition fghters, who point out that Syrian President Bashar Assad has frequently justifed
his offensives as a war against foreign-backed jihadists and not a popular Syrian movement.
In December, the U.S blacklisted the Front as a terrorist group, citing links to Al-Qaeda.
The Syrian State news agency said the union proves that this opposition was never anything other than a tool
used by the West and by terrorists to destroy the Syrian people.
Golani appeared to try to appease opposition backers, and, while not denying the merger, said he was not
consulted ahead of time about the union through the media.
What you saw from the Front of its defense of your religion, honor and blood, and its good qualities with you and
the fghting groups, will remain as you experienced it, Golani said.
The move could complicate efforts to arm and assist opposition groups on the ground.
Efforts to form a transition government, designed to administer military and humanitarian efforts and manage
natural resources from a location inside northern Syria along the Turkish border, was announced in haste in
February.
But the initiative has stalled over a dispute over the leadership, and persistent accusations from some opposition
factions that the government mirrored the Syrian National Coalition from which it was formed; dominated by
Qatar and the Muslim Brotherhood.
Arab military, diplomatic and opposition offcials speaking to The Daily Star have acknowledged Western
concerns over a lack of unity within the government, and worries that weapons are heading to Islamist groups on
the ground, were behind a quiet backing away from the initiative.
The U.S. and its regional allies, Saudi Arabia and Jordan, which has a peace accord with Israel, fear a hard-line
Islamist government could replace Assad if he falls.
According to opposition military sources and Arab diplomats close to discussions, the plan collapsed in part due
to a failure by Saudi Arabia and Qatar to negotiate a deal over the position of defense command, which would
manage military supplies. And when Qatar- and Turkey-backed Ghassan Hitto was nominated for the
premiership of the body, various opposition factions resigned from the coalition.
Chief among opponents to the government was the Supreme Military Council, the armed wing of the Syrian
National Coalition designed to coordinate Free Syrian Army operations from their command post in Turkey.
Spokesman for the FSA, Saudi-aligned former Lebanese MP Louay Moqdad, told The Daily Star this week the
FSA did not support the Nusra ideology but that the coordination with the FSA was convenient only on the
ground.
Moqdad said the FSA was grateful to Turkey for hosting us, but he reiterated the military councils position that
the transition government was a mistake.

le:///C|/U...n%20can%20divide%20Syria%20%20rebels%20_%20News%20,%20Middle%20East%20_%20THE%20DAILY%20STAR.htm[4/25/2015 2:06:04 PM]

Al-Qaeda-Nusra union can divide Syria: rebels | News , Middle East | THE DAILY STAR

We want all the Free Syrian Army to be unifed together. When Saudi Arabia sees that there is unity, they will
support us, but not under this coalition.
Arab diplomatic sources told The Daily Star U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry had also requested a hold on the
northern transition initiative amid increasing reports that the U.S. military was working with Saudi Arabia to form
a Western-friendly transition government aimed at funding more secular rebels from Jordan on the southern
border as a counterweight to the proliferation of hard-line Islamists.
While Western diplomats have remained tightlipped about the Jordan project, a senior military opposition offcial,
who declined to be identifed due to the sensitivity of discussions, told The Daily Star: The fght is essentially for
Damascus, and Jordan is much closer to Damascus.
It was unclear where the new development left the Jordanian plan, but opposition fgures said they lamented the
Nusra announcement, saying it could only lead to new battle between revolutionary forces.
Veteran dissident Kamal Labwani, who has been an outspoken opponent of the Muslim Brotherhood and Qatars
agenda in Syria, said Nusras move was proof the group was being used by Iran and would ultimately serve the
Syrian regime.
I am afraid that this movement may divide the opposition in Syria. ... Aleppo will be under the control of the
Salafsts and the south under the control of maybe more liberals, but those serving ... Israel or whoever else,
Labwani said.
We think this will lead to a divide between the revolution forces.
A Muslim Brotherhood spokesperson late last night told The Daily Star they had yet to adopt a position on the
Nusra announcement.
Everyone has an interest in dividing Syria. Qatar, the Muslim Brotherhood, Turkey, Israel, Iran, Iraq ... All have a
beneft in dividing Syria, Labwani said.
Asked what the best outcome could be to avoid such a scenario, he replied: I hope they will be brave enough to
intervene militarily now. With agencies

A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Daily Star on April 11, 2013, on page 1.

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Al-Qaeda-Nusra union can divide Syria: rebels | News , Middle East | THE DAILY STAR

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le:///C|/U...n%20can%20divide%20Syria%20%20rebels%20_%20News%20,%20Middle%20East%20_%20THE%20DAILY%20STAR.htm[4/25/2015 2:06:04 PM]

Al-Qaeda-Nusra union can divide Syria: rebels | News , Middle East | THE DAILY STAR

Not sure why Qatar is doing this again. wasn't Libya enough?
I found this related article very interesting as well:
http://www.cia-news.com/jabhat...

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the flthy zionist scum talks about dividing syria, while they will be united in defeat

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Analysts Divided On U.S. Arming Syrian Rebels : NPR

middle east

Analysts Divided On U.S. Arming Syrian Rebels


MAY 01, 2013

3:00 PM ET

Listen to the
Story
All Things
Considered

8 min 21
sec

This week President Obama said it was important to remain prudent in coming to
conclusions about chemical weapon use within Syria, something he said could change
the nature of U.S. involvement there. Melissa Block talks to analysts Andrew Tabler
and Joshua Landis about U.S. involvement in arming rebels in Syria.

Copyright 2013 NPR. For personal, noncommercial use only. See Terms of Use. For other uses, prior permission
required.

AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:


This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I'm Audie Cornish.
MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
I'm Melissa Block. And we begin this hour with the war in Syria and the possibility of
U.S. involvement. Today, in Damascus, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad used the
opportunity of May Day to make a rare public appearance. He visited a power plant
and said, we hope that by this time next year, we will have overcome the crisis in our
country.

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Analysts Divided On U.S. Arming Syrian Rebels : NPR

Meanwhile, President Obama says his administration is considering a spectrum of


options if it can be verifed that the Assad regime has, in fact, used chemical weapons.
To talk about those options, I'm joined by two Syria analysts, Andrew Tabler, senior
fellow at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Andrew, welcome back.
ANDREW TABLER: Thank you.
BLOCK: And also Joshua Landis, who directs the Center for Middle East Studies at the
University of Oklahoma. Welcome back to you, Professor Landis.
JOSHUA LANDIS: Pleasure to be with you.
BLOCK: Well, one option on that spectrum that President Obama's talking about
would be for the U.S. to go ahead and arm the Syrian rebels. Andrew Tabler, I know in
the past you've been a strong advocate for arming the rebel forces. Are you still?
TABLER: It becomes harder to arm the rebels without mitigating in some of the
downsides. If it had been - if it had occurred earlier, it would have been easier, but
unfortunately, now we have more extremists who have moved into diferent areas that
are controlled by the opposition. So you can't guarantee that every bullet would not
make it into the hands of an extremist.
But overall, you could strengthen the mainline nationalist local and franchise
battalions and it would help deal them back in. And the reason why I still think that's a
good idea, you know, with groups that we vetted and we can work with is because I just
don't think this confict is going to end any time soon.
BLOCK: And Joshua Landis, Andrew Tabler there is advocating going ahead and
arming with some hesitation or some reservations, it sounds like.
LANDIS: Well, I think the United States should stay out of this. This is a civil war,
ethnic civil war, which America cannot adjudicate and we can't solve. The Syrians
ultimately have to fgure out who they are, if they can live together and what their
national identity is going to be. And if America jumps into the middle of it, we're going
to want to kill the extremists and we're going to want to destroy the Assad regime and
we're going to be fghting a two-front war in Syria.
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Analysts Divided On U.S. Arming Syrian Rebels : NPR

And we're not going to get the outcomes we want and we're going to spend a fortune
doing it. And, you know, there's got to be one of these wars we just don't get involved
in.
BLOCK: Do you see a better path, though, given the tens of thousands that have died
in this war with no apparent end in sight?
LANDIS: I don't. I don't know whether America can stop the killing. And that's the real
sad part of it. I mean, I don't know whether America can solve Syria's problems.
BLOCK: Andrew Tabler?
TABLER: I think that we can help put a cap on Bashar al-Assad using the full lethality
of his arsenal against the Syrian population. That's what's driven most of the death
tolls here.
BLOCK: Joshua Landis, I'd be curious to hear your perspective, as somebody who
married into what I gather is a prominent Syrian Alawite family. Alawites are the
minority in Syria, party of President Assad and other elites. Help us understand the
Alawite perspective on the rebel movement and the future of their country.
LANDIS: Well, as I said, this is a ethnic war and it's devolving increasingly towards
minorities, who are 20 percent of Syria, led by the Alawites, 12 percent, who have
monopolized the military and security forces. They have had their foot on the throats
of the Sunni-Arab majority for the last 40 or 50 years. Sunni-Arab majority has fnally
had enough of this and they're trying to overthrow this regime.
If we get into Syria and get a Sunni win by arming up the rebels, then the question is,
what happens to the defeated minority. Will they be ethnically cleansed? Will they - we
don't know what could happen to them, but bad things will happen and that's the
problem. I mean, you can just throw some arms at the opposition, which is what
Obama is toying with now because I think the public pressure is getting great. But if
you want a win and the kind of win that would set up a new Syrian state that would be
secular, that would get rid of the extremists, that would guarantee rights for
minorities, you're going to have to spend a lot of money. And you can't do it by just
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Analysts Divided On U.S. Arming Syrian Rebels : NPR

putting in, you know, an air no-fy zone or something like that.
You really have to get involved. There isn't a Syrian opposition army that we trust. We
have one general, General Idris, who we've named the high command guy. And the
question is, do we give him money. But he's a contractor. He doesn't have an army
loyal to him. What he needs is American money and arms and he will ofer those to
various militias.
There are over a thousand militias in Syria, who then come, they get his arms and they
go out and do most of the heavy fghting. But that's why we can't keep - it's very
difcult to keep the arms from extremists because the extremists are, by far, the best
organized, best fghters and they can deliver.
BLOCK: Andrew Tabler, you've been shaking your head as you've listened to Professor
Landis talk.
TABLER: Yeah, none of the options...
BLOCK: What part do you disagree with there?
TABLER: Well, I think comprehensively, I mean, none of the options, the things that
Josh is spelling out, are on the president's desk right now. What's on the president's
desk range from, you know, air strikes to deal with the chemical weapons, you know,
the loaded bombs that we have thus far, you know, what would be the next steps after
that. But, you know, anybody who's studied the Middle East will tell you that, you
know, Iraq is not Syria and Syria isn't Egypt.
They're not all the same. And this situation is quite diferent. No one is - even the
Syrian opposition does not want the United States to enter Iraq. Those who put those
arguments forward are those who are, you know, very close to the minority-dominated
regime in Syria and they would like to scare the American public into further, you
know, delaying their response.
I don't think, at this point, given the fact that we've been so hesitant to get involved,
it's very hard to make the case that this is working. If you look at the death tolls, it's not
working. If you look at the number of displaced persons, it's not working. If you look at
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Analysts Divided On U.S. Arming Syrian Rebels : NPR

the amount of territory in Syria which is safe for civilians, it's not working.
I can't imagine advocating continuing the course is the solution for this. Something
more assertive is in order and I think that's where we're going to be looking at, you
know, chemical weapons and also backing the opposition. Now, can you get the perfect
outcome? No, no. Here's a very big diference in terms of dollars and cents.
When we unilaterally essentially went into Iraq, that cost the American taxpayers a lot
more, right, because we had to pay for all of that, both in blood and in treasure and so
on. Now, we have many more allies with a lot more cash, actually, at their disposal
than we do to help us carry this out. But what they're asking us to do, at the moment, is
to help lead a coalition to help get rid of President Assad and to set up a post-Assad
Syria that we can deal with.
It's going to take a long time and that process will help end this confict eventually. So
the American taxpayers are not going to have to foot the whole bill.
LANDIS: Could I have one rejoinder? Andrew just said that I'm a regime-supporter for
making this argument and therefore trying to scare Americans away. I think that's an
unfair accusation. I'm an American.
TABLER: You've got to be kidding, Josh. You have been one of the biggest supporters
of Bashar al-Assad for a long time, and look, that's your position. And I think the
argument you make...
LANDIS: That's completely untrue. And I'm an American trying to keep us out of
another Iraq-type of venture.
TABLER: I think that you are...
LANDIS: What you are saying is that Syria's not like Iraq.
TABLER: I'm sorry I don't agree with you.
LANDIS: And Syria's exactly like Iraq. This is not about the regime. This is about
America staying out of a quagmire, Andrew.

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Analysts Divided On U.S. Arming Syrian Rebels : NPR

TABLER: Josh, I just think that your positions have come consistently on side of the
regime.
LANDIS: Well, that's because I want Americans to stay out. I think the Syrians have to
settle their own problems.
TABLER: I just don't think that policy's working.
BLOCK: And we're going to have to leave it there for now. Thanks to both of you. I look
forward to continuing this conversation in the future. Andrew Tabler with the
Washington Institute on Near East Policy. He's author of the book "In The Lion's Den:
An Eyewitness Account of Washington's Battle With Syria." And Joshua Landis, who
directs the Center for Middle East Studies at the University of Oklahoma. Thanks to
you both.
TABLER: Thank you.
LANDIS: Thank you.
Copyright 2013 NPR. All rights reserved. No quotes from the materials contained herein may be used in any media
without attribution to NPR. This transcript is provided for personal, noncommercial use only, pursuant to our Terms of
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NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by a contractor for NPR, and accuracy and availability may vary. This
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Arming Syrian rebels bridges partisan divide | WashingtonExaminer.com

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Arming Syrian rebels bridges partisan divide


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Arming Syrian rebels bridges partisan divide | WashingtonExaminer.com

BY SUSAN FERRECHIO | SEPTEMBER 14, 2014 | 5:00 AM

Democratic and Republican lawmakers this week will likely form a bipartisan coalition to pass
President Obama's request to arm and train Syrian rebels.
Democratic and Republican
lawmakers this week will
likely form a bipartisan
coalition to pass...

With support from both House leaders from both parties, the measure could pass as early as
Tuesday, although lawmakers are weighing whether to attach it to a must-pass government funding
bill or take it up as separate legislation.

I think most of my colleagues, Republicans and Democrats, are motivated to be supportive of the president, Rep. Gerry
Connolly, D-Va., said after a recent closed-door briefng with fellow Democrats. Obviously there are going to be elements in
both caucuses who disagree, but I dont sense enormous dissension.

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savings

Obama warns governors


of impact of Homeland
Security spending lapse

Poll: Seventy percent of


Americans view Israel
favorably

The two parties are likely to work together to pass the legislation even as they plan to spend most of September battling over
partisan legislation that stands no chance of ever becoming law.
There is enough dissent on both sides that passage will likely require the two parties to work together, and they have signaled
that will happen.
In a rare show of unity, House Speaker John Boehner, R-Ohio, and House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., both back
Obamas request, as does Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D-Nev. and Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, R-Ky.
At this point in time its important that we give the president what hes asking for, Boehner said last week.
Although some media have reported existing funds must be authorized to pay for the mission to arm and train the Syrians, GOP
aides said the legislation may not necessitate the authorization of funds.
The House began grappling with Obamas request as the president announced a broader strategy that includes targeted air
strikes to defeat the terrorist group known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, which is destabilizing the Middle East.
In recent weeks, the public has become increasingly worried about the threat of the Islamic State, who released videos showing
them beheading two American journalists. Polling shows the majority of Americans want the United States to take action to
defeat the group.
But theres plenty of discontent to go around in both parties when it comes to the request to train the Syrians.
While there is broad agreement among lawmakers that the United States should help combat the Islamic terrorist threat, some
lawmakers in both parties fear U.S military equipment will end up in the hands of the Islamic State or other terrorist groups.
"We must have greater assurance that we aren't arming extremists who will eventually use those weapons against us," Sen.
Mark Begich, D-Alaska, who is in a tough re-election race, said in a statement.
Lawmakers are also wary of voting on expanding U.S. military action so close to the criticalNovember election, a move that
could be particularly unpopular with the Democratic base.
The House Democratic liberal wing, the Progressive Caucus, released a statement calling for a vote on training and arming the
Syrian rebels to be separate from a vote on government funding.
House leaders are more likely to break up the two measures in order to allow opponents to vote against arming the Syrians
without having to oppose funding the government.
The fscal year ends Sept. 30. The House is planning to vote on a measure to keep funding at current levels until Dec. 11.

Senior Congressional Correspondent David M. Drucker contributed to this report

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Asia's Reemergence | Foreign Affairs

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Home Features Essays

MOST VIEWED
Asia's
Reemergence
China's Boyfriends
for Hire

By Steven Radelet and Jeffrey


Sachs
Rapprochement

Reloaded

FROM OUR NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 1997


ISSUE

APITALISM LEAVES ITS WESTERN ENCLAVE

Pakistan's Middle
Beginning in the early 1500s, for more than four centuries now, the
Class Extremists
West has been ascendant in the world economy. With but 14 percent of the
world's population in 1820, Western Europe and four colonial offshoots of Great
VIEW ALL
Britain (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States) had already
achieved around 25 percent of world income. By 1950, after a century and a half
of Western industrialization, their income share had soared to 56 percent, while
their population share hovered around 17 percent. Asia, with 66 percent of the
world's population, had a meager 19 percent of world income, compared with 58
percent in 1820. In 1950, however, one of the great changes of modern history
began, with the rapid growth of many Asian economies. By 1992, fueled by high
growth rates, Asia's share of world income had risen to 33 percent. This tidal
shift is likely to continue, with Asia reemerging by the early 21st century as the
world's center of economic activity.

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Asia's sudden ascent has become something of a Rorschach test for the
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economics profession and the foreign policy community. For some, Asia's rapid
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growth is an economic miracle that calls for a reevaluation of Western economic
offers.
strategies. For others, such as the MIT economist Paul Krugman, writing in the
November/December 1994 Foreign Affairs, the rapid growth has looked hollow.
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Not only has there been no miracle, but there was reason to believe that Asian
growth might display weaknesses similar to those of the period of rapid Soviet
growth in the 1950s and 1960s. These doubts seemed to fnd support in the
sudden, sharp currency crises that gripped several high-fying Southeast Asian
economies (especially Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand) in
mid-1997. Even money managers formerly enamored of the region decried
underlying institutional weaknesses, including corruption, nepotism, populist
policies, and insuffcient banking regulation.
The Southeast Asian currency crises of 1997 are not a sign of the end of Asian
growth but rather a recurring -- if diffcult to predict -- pattern of fnancial
instability that often accompanies rapid economic growth. Just as Indonesia,
Malaysia, and Korea rapidly recovered from fnancial crises in the 1970s and
1980s, so the Asian economies are likely to resume rapid growth within two to
three years. In the long term, growth will continue because most of Asia has
adopted capitalism as the organizing basis of economic life and become deeply
integrated into the global economy. This has been true for more than a century in
Japan, since the Meiji Restoration of 1868. Korea and Taiwan adopted
essentially capitalist development strategies in the 1960s, while most of

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Asia's Reemergence | Foreign Affairs

Southeast Asia made similar choices in the 1970s. Even China in recent years
can be considered to have adopted an essentially capitalist development model,
despite continued Communist Party rule and a state sector that still employs
around 18 percent of the labor force. India began turning away from a milder
version of socialism in the early 1990s, though Indian domestic politics still
contains strong doses of anticapitalist rhetoric.
If there is anything to the "Asian miracle," it is that several governments,
benefting from Japan's early experience and from each other's experiences since
the 1960s, have been able to create an economic environment for proftable,
private investment -- almost always with important foreign partners -- despite
serious shortcomings in overall political and economic conditions. They did so,
in most cases, by creating in the midst of weaker economic institutions a
capitalist enclave that has gradually spread throughout the economy. Put another
way, Asia's challenge, so far accomplished, has been to create a virtuous circle,
in which a modern economic sector originally confned to an enclave has not
only expanded through new investments but has fueled a much broader
modernization of political and economic institutions. Addressing governmental
weaknesses is the largest hurdle facing Asian countries, particularly the region's
two colossi that constitute around two-thirds of Asia's population and around 38
percent of the world's population -- China and India. Corruption is rife, judicial
systems are weak, and local governments often lack authority and adequate
fnances. But global capitalism stirs powerful forces for economic growth even
in the face of serious limitations in law, economic structure, and politics.
The West currently has a disproportionate share of world income, but its share
will diminish as capitalism pervades Asia. By 2025, Asia will likely reassume its
place at the center of the world economy. Asia may account for 55 to 60 percent
of world income in the year 2025, with the West's share falling from around 45
percent today to between 20 and 30 percent. Standards of living will still be
much higher in the West, but average per capita income in Asia will probably
increase to around one-third of the U.S. level, compared with a meager 13
percent today.
CURRENCY CRISES
These long-term projections might seem heedlessly optimistic in the face of the
economic shocks buffeting Asia. Recently the darlings of the international
investment community, Southeast Asian economies have taken a beating at the
hands of money managers inside and outside their countries. Equity markets fell
by around 50 percent (in dollar terms) in Thailand between January and
September 1997, while declines in other Asian markets have been in the range of
40 percent. Has the bubble of East Asian growth burst, the years of rapid growth
already a thing of the past?
The currency upheavals probably refect short-run fnancial considerations rather
than a long-term crisis of regional growth. The simplest part of the explanation
is that the Southeast Asian countries increasingly pegged their currencies to the
U.S. dollar during the 1990s, even though the region's trade depends not just on
the United States but on the European and Asian markets (with Japan playing an
important role). After mid-1995 the U.S. dollar began to appreciate sharply vis-vis the yen and the major continental European currencies such as the deutsche
mark, French franc, and Spanish peseta. As a result, the Southeast Asian
currencies also appreciated sharply against the yen, European currencies, and
other national currencies, such as the Chinese yuan, that also depreciated vis-vis the dollar. It took 3.5 yen to buy one Thai baht in May 1995; by May 1997,
on the eve of the currency crisis, it took 4.6 yen, a rise of 31 percent. In effect,
the Southeast Asian exporters were pricing themselves out of the European and
Japanese markets. They were also facing stiff competition from China, which
had devalued the yuan in January 1994. Naturally, exchange rates came under
pressure.

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Asia's Reemergence | Foreign Affairs

There is a second, related aspect of the fnancial crisis. The Southeast Asian
countries all attracted considerable foreign capital investments in the 1990s.
Many of these investments enhanced export potential and thereby contributed to
the main engine of long-term growth. In the mid-1990s, however, a rising share
of foreign fows appears to have headed for speculative investments in the real
estate markets. Following fnancial market deregulation in many countries,
commercial banks got into the act by borrowing dollars from abroad and lending
the funds domestically to real estate developers. When they made these loans in
local currency, the banks exposed themselves to the risk of currency
depreciation, since the value of such loans would fall relative to the value of their
dollar borrowing. Even when the domestic real estate loans were in dollars,
however, the banks were at risk, since domestic property developers would be
unable to repay the dollar- denominated loans in the event of a weakening of the
domestic currency. The pegged exchange rate regimes gave (misplaced)
confdence to the fnanciers to accept such risks. Thus when property markets
weakened in 1996 and the currencies depreciated in 1997, the banks were hit by
a double whammy of non-performing loans, and many faced insolvency. The
banking crisis was exacerbated, especially in Thailand, by inadequate levels of
bank capital and poor supervision.
The currency crises will likely have continuing effects for two or three years on
the overall health of the banking system and on the construction sector, so that
growth during 1997 and 1998 will be slower than in previous years. The crises
also underscore better regulation and supervision of the fnancial markets as a
condition for more stable growth in the future. These are serious challenges.
Nonetheless, looking forward more than a couple of years, the currency crises
(appropriately dealt with) do not call into question the underlying export -growth
strategy of the region or the medium-term growth prospects.
THE KRUGMAN CRITIQUE
Paul Krugman's critique of East Asia's rapid growth was that it was
unimpressive and even suspect because it was based largely on heavy
investment spending rather than productivity growth. He riled Asian
policymakers by noting that rapid Soviet growth had been similarly based on
heavy investment spending. The implication was that East Asian growth was
fragile, and, indeed, likely to founder. Krugman was right to dispel the notion
that Asia's "miraculous" growth could continue at very high rates forever, but he
was wrong about the solidity of Asia's economic development, and he gave a
misleading impression of Asia's prospects for the future.
First, Krugman's empirical claims about investment versus productivity as
factors of growth were much too stark. Most researchers have found that rapid
growth in Asia has been due to both productivity growth and capital investment,
though it is probably true that investment spending, not pure productivity gains,
has been the major source of overall GDP growth. Second, and perhaps more
important, growth based on rapid capital accumulation (that is, physical
investment spending) can be highly desirable, as long as the investment
spending itself meets the market test, in the sense of rates of return that exceed
the cost of capital. Here the contrast between East Asia and the former Soviet
Union could not be greater. Soviet capital was allocated by bureaucratic fat, not
market forces. Rates of return in the Soviet Union were low and falling rapidly
as early as the late 1950s. Rates of return in East Asia, in contrast, have been
high and have declined only gradually over time. In Korea, for example, after 30
years of rapid growth, the marginal productivity of capital is estimated at around
20 percent, far higher than estimates for the United States of around 11 percent.
Krugman's critique is correct on a general point. To the extent that growth is
driven by capital accumulation rather than pure productivity gains, the marginal
productivity of capital is likely to decline as the capital stock deepens -- that is,

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Asia's Reemergence | Foreign Affairs

as capital per worker in the Asian economies rises to the level of Western
economies. But this point does not really answer the question of how fast the
decline in growth is likely to be. All other things being equal, growth rates tend
to fall gradually (over decades) as developing countries close the income gap
with the United States (at around $27,000 per capita). A country at one-fourth
the U.S. income level experiences a growth rate roughly 2.8 percentage points
above the U.S. rate. If the United States manages per capita growth of about 2.0
percent per year, a country at $7,000 per capita (such as Thailand) could have
per capita growth around 4.8 percent per year, equivalent to aggregate GDP
growth of 6.5 percent to 7.0 percent per year. When the income gap narrows to
around half the U.S. level, growth diminishes by about 1.4 percent per year, so a
country at around $13,500 might be expected to have a per capita growth rate
near 3.4 percent per year. Interestingly, Japan itself -- once viewed naively as a
country that would quickly soar ahead of U.S. income levels -- demonstrated
this kind of tapering off of growth as its economic success led to a narrowing
(and virtual elimination) of the income gap with the United States.
Of course growth also depends on policy choices, geography, and demography.
For example, demographic changes supported high savings and rapid growth in
the past, as falling fertility rates led to an increasing share of workers in the
population. In the future, however, Asia's aging populations -- most immediately
in Japan -- will put pressure on pension and public health insurance systems and
slow economic growth.
The main conclusion, shown in Table 1, is that while all of Asia has continued
room for signifcant growth, the high-income East Asian economies are likely to
grow more slowly in the next 30 years than in the past 30 because of both capital
deepening and demographic changes. Southeast Asia and China, where incomes
are low compared with the advanced economies, should be able to grow at about
the same rate as in the past 30 years, as the impact of capital deepening is offset
by continued policy reform and institutional upgrading. In these countries, the
slowing effect from the aging of society is still several decades away. South Asia
is likely to accelerate its growth rate, as policy reforms take root and
demographic shifts work in favor of high savings and faster growth.
EAST ASIA'S GROWTH STRATEGY
Table 2 reminds us of the extraordinary achievements of Asian economies. From
1965 to 1995, per capita income rose more than sevenfold in the four "tigers"
and about fourfold in Southeast Asia and China. As is well known, all these
high-fying economies exhibited certain similarities. They achieved rapid export
growth, followed prudent fscal policies, recorded high rates of saving, pursued a
public policy in support of rising literacy and basic education, did not undermine
agriculture, and achieved a rapid transition to low rates of population growth.
While these basic features of high growth seem straightforward -- and indeed are
the workhorse components of typical development programs of the World Bank
-- something went very right in East Asia that did not click in other parts of the
developing world.
Developing countries typically lag many years behind the advanced countries in
the adoption of new technologies in manufacturing and services. Infrastructure is
poor. Research and development is generally far behind the world standard and
is useful mainly to support the adoption of proven technologies from the
advanced economies. How can the lagging countries hope to catch up with the
world leaders? In development thinking over the past half-century, three types of
answers have been given to this question. The frst has been the doctrine of the
"big push," according to which a government should contrive to put all the
supporting pieces in place at nearly the same time through large-scale physical
investments in infrastructure, basic industry, and research and development, as
well as legal and institutional changes. The Stalinist drive toward rapid
industrialization in the 1930s and China's Great Leap Forward of 1958-61 were

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Asia's Reemergence | Foreign Affairs

the most destructive manifestations of this thinking, but numerous failed lesser
big pushes litter the development scene.
The second idea has been the doctrine of "import substitution" or "infant
industry protection," which holds that national industry requires breathing space
to catch up with foreign competitors. This venerable doctrine, extending from
Alexander Hamilton in 1790 to Friedrich List in the 1840s to Raul Prebisch in
the 1950s, has achieved some successes but a much larger number of failures.
Infant industry protection often becomes senile industry protection: domestic
frms in small markets never attain the scale at which they could overcome
foreign cost advantages, and protection leaves enterprises lazy, dependent on
state handouts, and behind in adopting technology. Infant industry protection
works best in large markets. Its track record in the United States, Germany,
Japan, and more recently in Brazil, China, and Korea shows some modest
successes (balanced by many high costs). Its record in much smaller economies
in Latin America, South Asia, Central Europe, and elsewhere is one of almost
unremitting failure.
The third doctrine, which best exemplifes the Asian paradigm, was aptly named
by the Japanese economist Kaname Akamatsu in the 1930s: the "fying geese"
model, according to which countries gradually move up in technological
development by following in the pattern of countries just ahead of them in the
development process. In this vision, Korea and Taiwan take over leadership in
textiles and apparel from Japan as Japan moves into the higher-technology
sectors of electronics, transport, and other capital goods. A decade or so later,
Korea and Taiwan are able to upgrade to electronics and auto components, while
the textile and apparel industries move to Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam.
To some extent, the fying geese pattern can be seen as the natural outcome of
market forces: labor-abundant, capital-scarce economies will be internationally
competitive in labor-intensive sectors, such as apparel, and will graduate to more
capital- or skill-intensive sectors as savings and education deepen the pool of
capital and skilled workers. And yet, as the Asian economies demonstrated,
more than markets are required. Even the simplest labor- intensive products
(apparel, footwear, electronics assembly) are part of a sophisticated international
division of labor, one increasingly determined by multinational enterprises and
technological designs created in the advanced economies. The trick is to bring
multinational production enterprises and their technologies into the poorer
economies to link them to the engines of growth of the advanced economies.
If the paradigmatic institution of the big push was state ownership of industry,
and for import substitution was private ownership backed by protectionism, for
fying-geese development it is the export platform. The idea behind an export
platform is to create an enclave economy hospitable to foreign investors and
integrated into the global economy, without the problems of infrastructure,
security, rule of law, and trade policies that plague the rest of the economy.
Asian governments introduced several variations of the export platform,
including export processing zones (EPZs), bonded warehouses, special
economic zones, and duty drawback systems. Governments supported these
institutions with macroeconomic policies that strengthened the incentives for
labor-intensive exports, especially via appropriate exchange rates.
The export platform strategy began with textiles and apparel but really took off
with electronics. With the emergence of the semiconductor industry and the
early realization by Hewlett-Packard, Texas Instruments, National
Semiconductor, and others that even in this very high-tech sector there were
several very low-tech processes such as chip assembly, the new industry leaders
began a search for low-wage production sites. Advances in information
technology greatly enhanced the applicability of export platform production.
Computer -assisted design and manufacturing allows digitized instructions for
design, fabric- cutting, or other technical specifcations to be sent from

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Asia's Reemergence | Foreign Affairs

engineering headquarters to local production sites via phone lines. Reductions in


transport costs, for example through the computerization and faster turnaround
time of container ports, also facilitated the outsourcing of production.
Some early candidates for low-wage production sites were in America's back
yard. Texas Instruments began production in El Salvador, only to leave in the
mid-1980s when political instability and yanqui-baiting heated up. Hong Kong
was a more likely candidate: stable, with low wages, and under British law and
political control. Hong Kong's early success in the 1950s was not lost on its
neighbors such as Taiwan and Korea, and then Singapore in 1965 and Malaysia
in the early 1970s. The Southeast Asian countries began to compete furiously for
footloose electronics frms that were neglected or shunned in the Caribbean,
Mexico, Central America, or other potential sites. By 1975 East Asia employed
roughly 95 percent of worldwide offshore electronics assembly workers. By the
mid-1970s, the die was cast: poor East Asian countries were swept up in the
worldwide electronics revolution, while Latin America, Central Europe, and sub
-Saharan Africa were bypassed. Starting in 1980, China created several special
economic zones up and down the coast, but especially in Shenzhen City, on the
border of Hong Kong. Within a few years, one of the world's greatest export
booms was under way, with millions of new jobs in China directed toward laborintensive export production.
EPZs, bonded warehouses, and duty drawbacks accounted for the bulk of the
manufacturing exports of the East Asian tiger economies in the early years, but
they also served as models. In Korea, for example, there was more stress on joint
ventures and technology licensing than on foreign investment in EPZs. But the
underlying model was the same: domestic production linked with worldwide
technology through the direct involvement of foreign frms. Joint ventures,
original equipment manufacturing, outsourcing under license, and similar
arrangements all facilitate export-oriented manufacturing by poorer economies.
The fying geese of East Asia caught the updraft of global electronics
production, which has helped carry them through more than 15 years of rapid
economic growth. In this one sector lies much of the manufacturing export
"miracle" of Malaysia, Singapore, Korea, Taiwan, and to a lesser extent Hong
Kong (which instead became the service center for export platform production in
southern China). Table 3 highlights the dramatic shift in exports from primary
commodities to labor-intensive sectors, including apparel and textiles, but
especially electronics components and machinery.
Table 3 also highlights the fallacy of the argument that import substitution rather
than export promotion was the key to East Asia's success. Korea, and to a lesser
extent Taiwan, Indonesia, and Malaysia, have combined the export-promotion
strategy with an import - substitution strategy. Korea, for example, spent
considerable effort fostering heavy industry, such as steel and chemicals, behind
protectionist barriers. But the protected sectors, by and large, have played a
small direct role in export success and have not become the export champions.
They have apparently also not even played a large role as inputs into the export
sectors. Korea's electronics boom did not rely on its steel and chemicals. The
connection between protectionism and export success is equally tenuous in
Malaysia and Indonesia.
The underlying assumption of the fying geese approach is that the
sophistication of domestic production will move forward one position at a time.
That is, a country assembling shoes is not likely to get stuck at that stage;
experience, education, and further physical investment will lead from footwear
to simple electronics assembly and from there to more sophisticated consumer
goods and then to automotive components, heavy machinery, and perhaps on to
high-technology goods. Critics of the labor-intensive exports strategy charge
that it is a dead end. They are probably correct that EPZ production alone does
not guarantee a foothold on the next rung on the ladder. But all the early East

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Asia's Reemergence | Foreign Affairs

Asian export-platform graduates -- Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan -were able to develop higher levels of local technology and sophistication,
typically continuing to rely on joint ventures and strategic alliances with more
sophisticated multinational frms. Acer cut its teeth on computer production
under license for U.S. brands; Samsung went from chip assembly to global
leadership in 64k random access memory chip production allied with IBM and
other electronics leaders.
THE CHALLENGES OF GOVERNANCE
The emphasis here is on the industrial component of the overall growth nexus,
since it is crucial and has been poorly understood by outside observers. Consider
the debate over industrial policy. All of the successful East Asian countries
shared a common industrial policy: promotion and support of labor-intensive
exports. It involved picking winners, at least in the narrow sense of recognizing
early on that electronics assembly operations could provide a strong impetus to
growth and were therefore worth attracting through special zones, tax holidays,
and other investment incentives. (It is truer to say that the electronics "winners,"
like Texas Instruments, Hewlett-Packard, and Intel, picked Asia, rather than the
other way around.) Traditional industrial policies based on import substitution to
promote heavy industry were also carried out, but not in all the successful
countries. To the extent these policies brought any net benefts -- and it is far
from clear that they did -- their success was limited to Japan, Taiwan, and Korea.
Asia has achieved rapid growth despite severe limitations in its institutions. The
most general challenge facing the region is the creation of systems of
governance and law beyond the export platforms that are consistent with the
needs of sophisticated, high- income economies. In much of Asia, the rule of law
remains weak. Strong central governments control powerful and politicized
bureaucracies that can override local interests, the judiciary, and even private
property rights. Unsurprisingly, much of Asia, including some of its fastestgrowing countries, ranks very poorly on international opinion surveys regarding
the extent of corruption and bribery. Far from greasing the wheels of commerce,
corruption was a factor in the weak fnancial market regulation that contributed
to this year's currency crises. A recent empirical study by Shang-Jin Wei of
Harvard University found that Asian corruption greatly discourages foreign
direct investment, equivalent to a tax on multinational frms of 20 percent or
more.< Local governments are also weak, unable to address urgent
infrastructural and regulatory challenges. The Emerging Asia study documented
that tens of billions of dollars in environmental degradation takes place every
year in Asia's mega-cities due to extreme but remediable levels of pollution and
congestion.
The challenge of governance will be most acute in the two mega-states. China
faces severe and growing strains on a centralized political system that for more
than two millennia has been predicated on a largely sedentary peasant
population. The very underpinning of Chinese statecraft is called into question
by the social dynamism and geographic mobility of modern Chinese society.
The share of the Chinese population engaged in agriculture has declined rapidly
from around 70 percent in 1980 to below 55 percent today. On the other hand,
the proportion of the labor force on the move within China has burgeoned to
almost unimaginable (and still undocumented) proportions. An estimated 100 to
150 million are migrating within the country, mainly from countryside to urban
areas and from the interior to the coasts, which offers profound advantages for
export-based activity. Local governments and transport infrastructure have been
overwhelmed by these population movements. Similarly, social systems are
breaking down, since they too were predicated on an immobile population
locked into villages or into centrally planned state enterprises that expected and
guaranteed lifetime employment.
China will have to struggle with privatization, banking reform, and legal

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Asia's Reemergence | Foreign Affairs

modernization, as well as the daunting challenges of environmental degradation,


wide regional inequalities, pervasive corruption, and profoundly inadequate
infrastructure. There is a path ahead, based as in the rest of Asia on the
proposition that institutional upgrading must proceed in step with economic
development. In the fnal analysis, however, sustained economic development
will depend on the ability of China's political system to move beyond traditional
models of statecraft.
India came late to the process of global integration and market reform. While its
economy was never subjected to the extreme versions of socialism practiced in
the Soviet Union and China, the much milder form of Indian socialism held
economic growth in check for nearly four decades. Until 1991, economic life
was tied up in a mind-numbing and corrupt system of licenses and government
approvals for investments, imports, exports, employment, land purchases, hiring
and dismissals, and virtually every other aspect of economic activity -- the socalled License Raj. When a balance-of-payments crisis threatened India in mid1991, the system fnally cracked, with Nehruvian socialism succumbing to
history in the same year as the Soviet Union. Since then, a considerable portion
of the License Raj has been dismantled, and India's economic growth has
increased to more than six percent per year.
Like China, India is in a complex and gradual transition from socialism to
markets, from traditional political structures to those needed for a rapidly
growing economy. India has the vast advantage over China of a constitutional
order predicated on federalism, democratic legitimacy, and the rule of law. The
problems in India lie in specifc practices. While India is under the rule of law,
the laws are often terrible and antiquated. Federalist arrangements purportedly
give the states broad authority to carry out regional policies, but in almost every
policy area, ranging from land use to labor rights to trade to infrastructure
development, a morass of relations between the central government and the
states can stall necessary actions for years.
The remarkable period since mid-1996, when the once-dominant Congress Party
lost its governing majority, suggests reasonable prospects for further reform. A
short-lived government led by the Hindu-nationalist Indian People's Party (BJP)
committed itself to continued economic liberalization and market reforms, albeit
with a nationalist rhetorical stance. The BJP government was followed by a
United Front coalition government, in which a remarkably disparate group of
centrists and leftists committed to a "minimum program" of continued market
reform. As a result of these twists and turns, nearly every major political group
in India has committed itself programmatically to market reforms. Prospects for
sustained economic growth of six percent or more per year (roughly four percent
or more per capita) in the next few years seem a reasonable bet.
AN ASCENDANT ASIA AND THE WEST
In a fundamental sense, the system of market capitalism, which frst appeared in
Western Europe, has fnally become a global -- and in particular, Asian -instrument of economic development. Asia has demonstrated that it can mold
capitalist institutions into a vehicle for rapid economic catch-up. The
implications of a more globally balanced economic prosperity will be profound
and require sustained analysis. The West today represents around 45 percent of
world GDP, although it has just 13 percent of the world's population. According
to the baseline estimates that underlie the growth projections in Table 1,
continued economic success in Asia, in the context of an open, market -based
world economy, is likely to reduce the West's share of world income to around
30 percent, while Asia's share could well rise above half. Much of the force
behind this shift is the reasonable expectation that three of the four largest
countries -- China, India, and Indonesia -- together comprising 40 percent of the
world's population, could achieve per capita growth rates of 5 percent or more
for the next three decades. In this forecast, Asia's share of world income happens

fle:///C|/Users/HACKERLINK/Desktop/Backupan/Asia's%20Reemergence%20_%20Foreign%20Affairs.htm[4/25/2015 2:06:51 PM]

Asia's Reemergence | Foreign Affairs

to rise to 58 percent, just about the same share that Asia had in 1820, at the
outset of the Industrial Revolution. Over two centuries of economic
development, Asia's share of world income slid until 1950, but it will probably
continue to rise through 2025.
Perhaps the wisest observations about this possibility were voiced 222 years ago
by Adam Smith, who noted that the discovery of the sea passage between
Western Europe and Asia came at a time of unprecedented European military
advantage over the Asians, so that the Europeans "were enabled to commit with
impunity every sort of injustice in those remote countries." But increased trade
itself would be the vehicle for raising the incomes and thereby the political
defenses of the Asian powers: "Hereafter . . . the inhabitants of all the different
quarters of the world may arrive at that equality of courage and force which, by
inspiring mutual fear, can alone overawe the injustice of independent nations
into some sort of respect for the rights of one another. But nothing seems more
likely to establish this equality of force than the mutual communication of
knowledge and all sorts of improvements which an extensive commerce . . .
carries along with it." The reemergence of Asia in the world economy will be an
opportunity for mutual gain and a more balanced international system. This is
the time for the Western nations to work for long-term interests by encouraging
Asia to rejoin a world economic system based on commitments to the
international rule of law, political and economic freedom, and open
opportunities for trade and development by all countries that subscribe to shared
international values.

ON THIS TOPIC
ESSAY, NOV/DEC
1995

ESSAY, JUL
1967

A New China
Strategy: The
Challenge

India Adrift
Krishan Bhatia

Kenneth Lieberthal

The People's Republic of


China has been in the news
this year for a number of
disturbing reasons. It has
mounted muscular military
actions to back its diplomacy
regarding Taiwan and the
South China Sea, allegedly
transferred m-11 missile
technology to Pakistan, sold
nuclear technology to Iran, ...

A combination of factors is
inexorably pushing India
toward what may be described
as a political and economic
watershed. The decisions and
actions that its leadership
takes-or fails to take-this year
may shape the history not only
of India but perhaps of Asia
for a long time to come. To
say that ...

ESSAY, JUL/AUG
2006

The India Model


Gurcharan Das

AN ECONOMY
UNSHACKLED Although the
world has just discovered it,
India's economic success is far
from new. After three
postindependence decades of
meager progress, the country's
economy grew at 6 percent a
year from 1980 to 2002 and at
7.5 percent a year from 2002
to 2006 -- making it one of ...

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3 years

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Yes. fantastic article. Future belongs to Asia


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Assad's divide-and-conquer strategy proving effective against Syrian rebels - Page 2 | GlobalPost

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Biblical tradition holds that northern Iraq is the land of Cain and Abel. Across post-war Iraq, the ancient
parable of fratricide seems to be playing out in a contemporary context: Muslim brothers killing Muslim
brothers in spates of violence between the Sunni and Shia sects rippling out in waves across the
Middle East.

Reese Erlich

December 18, 2013 01:54

READ MORE
Syria's minority Christians under
threat from extremist Muslim rebels
Once a safe haven for Middle Eastern
Christians, Syria has become a place where
Christians are targeted for kidnapping and
murder.

Assad's divide-and-conquer strategy


proving effective against Syrian rebels
US-supported rebels are losing ground to both ultra-conservative Islamist rebels and the Assad regime.

Assad's divide-and-conquer strategy


proving effective against Syrian
rebels
US-supported rebels are losing ground to both
ultra-conservative Islamist rebels and the
Assad regime.

It's Salafst vs. Salafst in Syria's civil


war

heap imports.
"The Syrian regime made a big mistake," Barakat said. "We had an army of unemployed young

people and new groups started to emerge."


Initially, Muslim youth focked to the Muslim Brotherhood, a group that had been fghting the
government since the 1970s. The old Brotherhood leadership had been jailed or forced into exile, and a
new leadership arose.

Ultra-conservative Muslims like the rest of


Syria are divided about the appropriate role
of violence in a war marked by religious
divisions.

What it means to call the bombing of


Iran's embassy in Beirut 'sectarian'
Syria's civil war is increasingly seen as stoking
a regional confict based on religious
differences. But don't forget about political
motives, analysts say.

Do Lebanon's Taif Accords offer

The Brotherhood established a headquarters in exile in Istanbul, Turkey. They repudiated some of their lessons for Syrian peace?
earlier ultra-religious views and proclaimed support for a parliamentary system that would include free With a skyrocketing death toll and neither side
elections and protection for minorities.

willing to negotiate peace, Syria might to well to


look at how its neighbor solved its own civil war.

But the Brotherhood and its afliated militias didn't agree with US policy in the region. Like most

Iranians say US sanctions hit wrong


target

Syrians, the Brotherhood leadership opposed the US invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan, and wanted

Since the US imposed strict sanctions 18


months ago, Iran's economy has been in free

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Assad's divide-and-conquer strategy proving effective against Syrian rebels - Page 2 | GlobalPost

Israel to return the Golan Heights, seized from Syria in 1967.


During the frst two years of the uprising, the Brotherhood dominated various civilian and military
coalitions formed to oppose Assad, much to the chagrin of the Obama administration.
"America didn't want the Muslim Brotherhood to rule," said Professor Landis. "It was too Islamist for
the US, but in fact, it is the least Islamist. The US wants a Chalabi," referring to Ahmed Chalabi, an Iraqi
opposition leader backed by the US before the invasion, but who had little popular support.
During the past year, extremist groups grew in infuence. The Al Nusra Front and the ISIS both
proclaim their afliation with al Qaeda, although they remain operationally independent.

fall. Iranians say ordinary people are the ones


feeling the pain.

Forgotten Algiers Accords bind US


to non-interference in Iran
The Accords are a legally binding agreement
quite famous in Iran and virtually unknown in
the US.

The view from Tehran on Iran, Assad,


and Shia Islam
For both religious and geopolitical reasons, the
Iranian government continues to serve as
Syria's most important backer with broad
domestic support.

The growth of extremist groups has posed a signifcant problem for civil society activists, those who

Syrian Christians become


kidnapping targets, fee to Lebanon

advocate a secular parliamentary system for Syria and who played a prominent role in the early days of

Syria's civil war is empowering extremists and


squeezing Christians.

the uprising.
In 2011 I interviewed several such non-violent protesters in Damascus. Mahmud has since moved to
Dera in southern Syria, where he joined the FSA. The former secular journalist and playwright became
a devout Muslim.
Leen, his friend and fellow activist, admitted that Mahmud and many others have undergone a political
transformation.
"The FSA is conservative," said Leen, "because it wants Islam to play an important role in a
revolutionary government, but it's not extremist. The ISIS, which is mostly foreign fghters, wants to
impose a religious dictatorship on Syria."
Leen blames the rise in sectarianism on the Assad government, which promoted sectarian divisions

Fighting in Syria shifts as sectarian


divisions intensify
The war in Syria is increasingly defned along
the lines of a Shia regime versus a Sunni
opposition.

Syria spillover into Lebanon furthers


intra-Muslim confict in Mideast
Hezbollah claimed victory over the Free Syrian
Army in Qusayr, but its entry into the war is
fueling Sunni-Shia violence at home.

Special Report: Sunni and Shia


divided in Iraq, the land of Cain and
Abel
How the US invasion of Iraq unleashed a chain
reaction of sectarian violence.

from the very beginning of the uprising.

US fnds Sunni-Shia rift diffcult to


navigate

"Assad rallied Alawites against Sunnis by calling them takfris," or impure Muslims, she said. Even

Domestic conficts often proxy battles in larger


war.

during the opening weeks of the popular uprising, the government accused peaceful demonstrators of
being al Qaeda extremists.
Extremist rebels also fan religious confict, she admitted, by lobbing rockets and mortars into civilian
areas of Damascus. Many land in Christian neighborhoods near the Old City, leading many to suspect
the rebels deliberately target Christians.
Leen criticized such attacks as immoral and likely to alienate civilians from the rebel cause. But she
admitted that many rebel supporters justify such attacks because of the army's horrifc shelling of rebelheld areas.
"The government has laid siege to rebel towns, cutting of food, water and medicine," she said. "What

Q & A: US lessons and failures along


Sunni-Shia divide
After 10 years of engagement in Iraq and
Afghanistan, has the US learned anything?

Shias in Saudi keep protest


movement alive
Though illegal in the kingdom, open dissent is
alive and well in Qatif.

In Bahrain, a growing Sunni-Shia rift


Sunni and Shia have lived in peace in Bahrain
for centuries. But since the 2011 uprising,
tensions between the two groups have divided
the country.

do you expect people to do?"

Q & A: How a revolution opened the


door for Middle East extremists

Government supporters make similar justifcations for army attacks on civilians in rebel areas. Alaa

Syria's nonviolent uprising helped cause a


regional chain reaction, argues Lebanese
scholar Chibli Mallat.

Ebrahim, a local TV reporter, argued that the Syrian Army tries to be selective in its attacks. But he said
some government supporters think bombardments are justifed because civilians provide a nurturing
environment for the rebels.
Ebrahim strongly disagreed with this view, but said some government supporters are convinced if the
civilians dont leave rebel areas, they must support the rebels.
Ebrahim brings an interesting perspective to the issue of religious tensions in Syria. He pulled out an
iPhone to display idyllic photos of family and friends in his home village near Syria's Mediterranean
coast. In happier times, they enjoyed the area's beautiful waterfalls and picturesque mountains.
He also described the good relations among the village's diverse religious groups. Sunni Muslims,

Bahrain: 30 days in jail for one tweet


Human rights activist Sayed Yousif alMuhafdha had a month to refect on his
country's uprising.

Bahrain's royal family has history of


favoring Sunni minority
Analysis: Two years after Bahrainis rose up in
support of a constitutional government, the
monarchy has proven resilient.

Saudi youth fghting against Assad


regime in Syria
GlobalPost has learned that hundreds of young
Saudis are focking to Syria in a 'holy war'
against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.

Christians and Alawites get along well, he said, despite the increase in religious tensions elsewhere in
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Assad's divide-and-conquer strategy proving effective against Syrian rebels - Page 2 | GlobalPost

Syria. Ebrahim said Sunnis in his village support the government of Assad so they don't come under
suspicion.
In the cities where rebels are fghting for control, however, entire Sunni neighborhoods are cordoned of
with army checkpoints and become no-go zones at night. The army also lays siege to mostly Sunni,
rebel-controlled towns, frequently preventing entry of food, medicine and other essentials.

Saddam Hussein's legacy of division


in Iraq
Analysis: More than six years after Hussein's
death, Sunni-Shia violence is in part a bloody
consequence of his repression.

THE TEAM
Charles M. Sennott

the Assad government. He noted that Syria has a long history of secularism, with friendships and

Charles M. Sennott is the


co-founder of
GlobalPost.He also heads
up The...

marriages cutting across religious lines.

Reese Erlich

Ebrahim said the confict in Syria remains political, not religious, pitting western-backed rebels against

other minorities support the government. Many Sunnis do not. Assad draws particularly strong support

Reese Erlich is a bestselling book author and


freelance journalist who
writes...

from Alawites.

Gary Knight

As an Alawite government employee, if youre invited to dinner by a Sunni, you would be afraid of an

Gary Knight is the Visual


Editor and Co-Founder of
the GroundTruth Project....

However, sectarian confict has seriously impacted the country because Christians, Shia Muslims and

ambush," Ebrahim said. "You would refuse. Trust has broken down.
Kevin Douglas Grant

He initially felt some sympathy for the peaceful protestors demonstrating in the early months of the

Kevin Douglas Grant is the


co-founder and managing
editor of The
GroundTruth...

uprising. But he believes that religious extremists now dominate, leaving little room for civilian
opposition.

Emily Judem

And then earlier this year he faced a personal tragedy. His mother, a Syrian Army ofcer, was

Emily Judem is multimedia


editor at The GroundTruth
Project, a foundation-...

assassinated by a rebel sniper, who killed her with a single shot at a distance of 1300 yards. An army
investigation revealed the rebels had inside help.

Franco Pagetti

His mother's assassination was just one more indication of a technically profcient enemy with

Franco Pagetti has been a


news photographer since
1994, with much of his
work...

intelligence capability even within the military. He said the confict will continue as long as outside
powers such as the US and Saudi Arabia fund the rebels.

Jane Arraf Middle


East

Civilian opponents and rebels make the same argument regarding the government. "Assad would fall

Jane Arraf is a reporter


based in Baghdad for Al
Jazeera International and
the

quickly if he didn't receive support from Russia, Iran and Hezbollah," said activist Leen.

Caryle Murphy Saudi


Arabia

Both Leen and Ebrahim agreed that, whoever wins, Syria has changed forever.

Caryle Murphy is an
independent journalist and
author of "Passion For
Islam "

Weve lost this amazing country," said Ebrahim, "and its never coming back.
GlobalPost special correspondent Reese Erlich's reporting from Syria was supported in part by a

Lauren Madow

travel grant from the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Erlich's book on the Syrian uprising will be

Lauren Madow is a
documentary flmmaker,
USC graduate student and
journalist...

published by Prometheus Books in the fall of 2014.


<<

Joseph A. Kchichian
Joseph A Kchichian is a
senior fellow at the King
Faisal Center for
Research...

http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/middle-east/syria/131216/assad-syria-rebelssunni-shia
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Assad's divide-and-conquer strategy


proving effective against Syrian rebels
By Reese Erlich | 12/18/13

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DAMASCUS Syrias US-backed rebels are steadily losing ground to extremist Islamist groups, dealing a serious
blow to Washingtons hopes to overthrow the regime of Bashar al-Assad.
The splintering of the Free Syrian Army is seen by many regional analysts as a sign of the increased sectarianism
of the civil war. What began as an Arab Spring uprising against dictatorship has become a vehicle for extremists
who attack all government supporters as infdels and apostates. For its part, the Assad regime rallies minority
Shiites and Alawites by condemning Sunni rebels as takfris, or "impure Muslims."
Assads idea, these analysts contend, was to play up the sectarian divide as a way to fracture and weaken his
opposition. It appears Assads strategy may be working.
The civil war has claimed more than 100,000 lives, forced 2 million refugees to fee and 3 million to be internally
displaced. Assad supporters see him as a strong leader fghting against chaos and extremism.
Extremist groups have been fghting US-supported rebels for months. The frst evidence came in July
when the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) expelled the FSA from several northern cities,
including Raqqa. The ISIS then imposed a severe interpretation of sharia law that includes
imprisonment and torture of anyone who opposes the ISIS.
Adding to the Islamist momentum, a new and increasingly powerful coalition of extremist militias,
the Islamic Front, seized a warehouse last week controlled by the FSA. The storage facility inside Syria near the
Turkish border was chock full of trucks, supplies and weapons.
According to some reports, General Salim Idris, head of the FSA, fed to Turkey after his men gave up the
warehouse without a fght, leading the Obama administration to announce it wouldsuspend "non-lethal aid"to
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Assad's divide-and-conquer strategy proving effective against Syrian rebels | MinnPost

opposition groups. This debacle revealed the weakness of the pro-US militias, according to Joshua Landis,
director of the Center forMiddle EastStudies at the University of Oklahoma.
"Idris is a stufed shirt and has no troops," said Landis in a phone interview. Fighting between pro-US and ultra
conservative militias "is a vipers nest. Everyone is scrambling for power."
Landis noted that the Islamic Front, along with two ultra-conservative groups afliated with al Qaeda, now
control swaths of northern and southern Syria. Those groups also control towns on the outskirts of Damascus,
and regularly lob mortar shells into the capital.
In recent weeks the government has taken back control over some of the Damascus suburbs, along with portions
of the important cities of Homs and Aleppo. So overall, the civil war remains a stalemate.
Government ofcials argue that they are protecting secular rule. Minister of Justice Najm al Ahmad, in an
exclusive GlobalPost interview, said the rebel groups promote extremism and religious hatred. He said the Syrian
Army's progress so far comes from popular opposition to "these terrorist groups and their takfri methodology.
The people sufer from the terrorist actions."
Assad is an Alawite, a small sect of Muslims with roots in Shia Islam. Less than 15 percent of Syrian Muslims are
Shia, while an estimated 74 percent are Sunni. Before the uprising began the rift between the sectshad been
limited to the religious sphere. Now both sides use the diferences to rally their supporters.
Yet after nearly three years of fghting, the government has failed to win the war. Analysts in Damascus say that
can be traced, in part, to Assad's economic policies.
In the early 2000s, Assads government privatized some state-run industries and lowered tarifs on imported
goods, following an economic model promoted by the International Monetary Fund and World Bank.
Such policies increased poverty in the mainly Sunni, rural areas, according to Dr. Bassam Barakat, a progovernment political consultant.
For Bakarat and other analysts the defning line in this confict is not religious, but economic.
"Textile and other factories were no longer subsidized by the government," Bakarat said. "They allowed Turkish
commodities to enter without taxes. The national industry was completely damaged."
Unemployment grew as factories shut down and farmers couldn't compete with cheap imports.
"The Syrian regime made a big mistake," Barakat said.
"We had an army of unemployed young people and new groups started to emerge."
Initially, Muslim youth focked to the Muslim Brotherhood, a group that had been fghting the government since
the 1970s. The old Brotherhood leadership had been jailed or forced into exile, and a new leadership arose.
The Brotherhood established a headquarters in exile in Istanbul, Turkey. They repudiated some of their earlier
ultra-religious views and proclaimed support for a parliamentary system that would include free elections and
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Assad's divide-and-conquer strategy proving effective against Syrian rebels | MinnPost

protection for minorities.


But the Brotherhood and its afliated militias didn't agree with US policy in the region. Like most Syrians, the
Brotherhood leadership opposed the US invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan, and wanted Israel to return the
Golan Heights, seized fromSyriain 1967.
During the frst two years of the uprising, the Brotherhood dominated various civilian and military coalitions
formed to oppose Assad, much to the chagrin of the Obama administration.
"America didn't want the Muslim Brotherhood to rule," said Professor Landis. "It was too Islamist for the US, but
in fact, it is the least Islamist. The US wants a Chalabi," referring to Ahmed Chalabi, an Iraqi opposition leader
backed by the US before the invasion, but who had little popular support.
During the past year, extremist groups grew in infuence. The Al Nusra Front and the ISIS both proclaim their
afliation with al Qaeda, although they remain operationally independent.
The growth of extremist groups has posed a signifcant problem for civil society activists, those who advocate a
secular parliamentary system for Syria and who played a prominent role in the early days of the uprising.
In 2011 I interviewed several such non-violent protesters in Damascus. Mahmud has since moved to Dera in
southern Syria, where he joined the FSA. The former secular journalist and playwright became a devout Muslim.
Leen, his friend and fellow activist, admitted that Mahmud and many others have undergone a political
transformation.
"The FSA is conservative," said Leen, "because it wants Islam to play an important role in a revolutionary
government, but it's not extremist. The ISIS, which is mostly foreign fghters, wants to impose a religious
dictatorship on Syria."
Leen blames the rise in sectarianism on the Assad government, which promoted sectarian divisions from the
very beginning of the uprising.
"Assad rallied Alawites against Sunnis by calling them takfris," or impure Muslims, she said. Even during the
opening weeks of the popular uprising, the government accused peaceful demonstrators of being al Qaeda
extremists.
Extremist rebels also fan religious confict, she admitted, by lobbing rockets and mortars into civilian areas of
Damascus. Many land in Christian neighborhoods near the Old City, leading many to suspect the rebels
deliberately target Christians.
Leen criticized such attacks as immoral and likely to alienate civilians from the rebel cause. But she admitted that
many rebel supporters justify such attacks because of the army's horrifc shelling of rebel-held areas.
"The government has laid siege to rebel towns, cutting of food, water and medicine," she said. "What do you
expect people to do?"
Government supporters make similar justifcations for army attacks on civilians in rebel areas. Alaa Ebrahim, a
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Assad's divide-and-conquer strategy proving effective against Syrian rebels | MinnPost

local TV reporter, argued that the Syrian Army tries to be selective in its attacks. But he said some government
supporters think bombardments are justifed because civilians provide a nurturing environment for the rebels.
Ebrahim strongly disagreed with this view, but said some government supporters are convinced if the civilians
dont leave rebel areas, they must support the rebels.
Ebrahim brings an interesting perspective to the issue of religious tensions in Syria. He pulled out an iPhone to
display idyllic photos of family and friends in his home village near Syria's Mediterranean coast. In happier
times, they enjoyed the area's beautiful waterfalls and picturesque mountains.
He also described the good relations among the village's diverse religious groups. Sunni Muslims, Christians and
Alawites get along well, he said, despite the increase in religious tensions elsewhere in Syria. Ebrahim said
Sunnis in his village support the government of Assad so they don't come under suspicion.
In the cities where rebels are fghting for control, however, entire Sunni neighborhoods are cordoned of with
army checkpoints and become no-go zones at night. The army also lays siege to mostly Sunni, rebel-controlled
towns, frequently preventing entry of food, medicine and other essentials.
Ebrahim said the confict in Syria remains political, not religious, pitting western-backed rebels against the
Assad government. He noted that Syria has a long history of secularism, with friendships and marriages cutting
across religious lines.
However, sectarian confict has seriously impacted the country because Christians, Shia Muslims and other
minorities support the government. Many Sunnis do not. Assad draws particularly strong support from Alawites.
As an Alawite government employee, if youre invited to dinner by a Sunni, you would be afraid of an ambush,"
Ebrahim said. "You would refuse. Trust has broken down.
He initially felt some sympathy for the peaceful protestors demonstrating in the early months of the uprising. But
he believes that religious extremists now dominate, leaving little room for civilian opposition.
And then earlier this year he faced a personal tragedy. His mother, a Syrian Army ofcer, was assassinated by a
rebel sniper, who killed her with a single shot at a distance of 1300 yards. An army investigation revealed the
rebels had inside help.
His mother's assassination was just one more indication of a technically profcient enemy with intelligence
capability even within the military. He said the confict will continue as long as outside powers such as the US
andSaudi Arabiafund the rebels.
Civilian opponents and rebels make the same argument regarding the government. "Assad would fall quickly if
he didn't receive support from Russia,Iranand Hezbollah," said activist Leen.
Both Leen and Ebrahim agreed that, whoever wins, Syria has changed forever.
Weve lost this amazing country," said Ebrahim, "and its never coming back.
GlobalPost special correspondent Reese Erlich's reporting from Syria was supported in part by a travel grant
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Assad's divide-and-conquer strategy proving effective against Syrian rebels | MinnPost

from the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Erlich's book on theSyrian uprisingwill be published by
Prometheus Books in the fall of 2014.
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BBC News - Guide to the Syrian opposition

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17 October 2013 Last updated at 06:41

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In 90 seconds: Who are the Syrian opposition?

More than two years after the uprising began in Syria, the opposition
remains fractious and deeply divided.
The wide variety of political groups, exiled dissidents, grassroots activists
and armed militants have been unable to agree on how to overthrow
President Bashar al-Assad.
Several groups, however, have tried to form coalitions to unite opposition
supporters in Syria and gain international help and recognition.

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In November 2012, Syrian opposition factions agreed to set up a new and


more inclusive leadership council at a meeting in Doha, Qatar.

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BBC News - Guide to the Syrian opposition

Ahmed Jarba became president of the National Coalition in July 2013

It was hoped the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and


Opposition Forces, which includes members from within Syria and abroad,
would gain widespread international recognition as the country's sole
legitimate representative, become the conduit for all fnancial and possibly
military aid, administer areas controlled by rebel forces, and plan for a
post-Assad transition.

Elsewhere on the BBC

'Civil, democratic Syria'


A blueprint for the National Coalition was outlined in a document
published by the veteran dissident Riad Seif, who was subsequently
elected one of its two vice-presidents. His proposals were based on the
Cairo conference documents agreed in July 2012, which called on
revolutionary and political opposition factions to "unite under one
leadership framework".
Following the Doha meeting, the National Coalition declared on its
Facebook page that it was working "to aid and support the revolutionary
forces struggling to overthrow the Assad regime and to transition Syria
towards a democratic and pluralistic civil state".

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"The coalition also plays an important role in liaising between the needs of
the Syrian people and the international community," it added.
According to its website, the National Coalition is dedicated to:
Ensuring absolute national sovereignty and independence for Syria
Preserving the unity of the Syrian people
Preserving the unity of the country and its cities
Overthrowing the regime, dismantling the security forces, and holding
responsible parties accountable for crimes against the Syrian people
Not engaging in any dialogue or negotiations with the regime
Upholding the opposition's commitment to a civil, democratic Syria

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depending on how the wound is responding

'Serious step'
The Doha meeting was a response to increasing pressure from the
opposition's foreign backers to form a new alliance that superseded the
Syrian National Council (SNC), which was widely viewed as ineffective,
consumed by infghting and little respected on the ground. Reaction within
the SNC was mixed, with some groups concerned that they would only
control 22 seats on the leadership council, but the alliance's chairman
George Sabra asserted at the time: "This is a serious step against the
regime and a serious step towards freedom."
The National Coalition also includes members of the Local Co-ordination
Committees (LCC), a network of grassroots opposition activists, as well as
representatives of the local revolutionary councils. It also has the support
of the rebel Supreme Military Council (SMC) of the Free Syrian Army
(FSA).

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However, it does not include the National Co-ordination Committee, which


represents the internal political opposition groups that reject violence and
want to negotiate with the government, and several militant Islamist groups
fghting alongside the rebels, including the Nusra Front.
International reaction to the National Coalition was generally positive. The
six member states of the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) were frst to
recognise it as "the legitimate representative" of the Syrian people,
followed by France, the UK, EU and US.
In December 2012, 100 countries at the Friends of the Syrian People
conference in Marrakech also recognised the coalition. Absent were
Russia, China and Iran, which have backed President Assad or blocked

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Fear not, there's hope on the horizon.

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BBC News - Guide to the Syrian opposition

action by the UN Security Council.


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Despite its international support, the National Coalition has suffered many
of the problems experienced by the SNC, on which it is still dependent
operationally and organisationally, including internal divisions and outside
interference.

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Moaz al-Khatib (L) resigned shortly after the appointment of Ghassan Hitto (R)

The National Coalition's frst president, Sunni cleric Moaz al-Khatib,


declared that he was resigning in March 2013, complaining that foreign
powers were placing too many conditions on aid to opposition and armed
rebel groups, and were trying to manipulate events for their own interests.
The resignation came fve days after Ghassan Hitto was elected prime
minister of the National Coalition's interim government, whose creation Mr
Khatib believed was premature. Mr Hitto's candidacy was backed by the
Muslim Brotherhood, which dominates the SNC, and the National
Coalition's secretary general, Mustafa Sabbagh, a businessman who has
strong links to Qatar.
The previous month, the SNC had publicly criticised Mr Khatib for saying
he would be ready to attend talks with Vice-President Farouq al-Sharaa in
a third country if the Syrian government met several conditions, including
the release of tens of thousands of political prisoners.
The National Coalition has also been unable to assert overall command
over Syria's rebel forces, particularly jihadist groups.
It has similarly struggled to address the humanitarian crisis, in part
because of a lack of funding. An Assistance Co-ordination Unit was set up,
but it has struggled to carry out anything on a signifcant scale. The
coalition has also so far failed to administer liberated areas and provide
basic services and supplies.
In May 2013, a coalition of leading rebel groups issued a joint statement
sharply criticising the National Coalition, accusing it of failing to fulfl its
duties, and of allowing itself to be taken over by regional and international
players.
The National Coalition overhauled its leadership at a conference in
Istanbul in July 2013, with candidates backed by Saudi Arabia defeating
those supported by Qatar in a series of elections. Ahmed Jarba, an
infuential tribal fgure with close ties to Riyadh, was named president after
he narrowly defeated Mr Sabbagh in a run-off vote.

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BBC News - Guide to the Syrian opposition

Ahmed Tomeh wants to bring order to rebel-held areas of Syria

At the same time, Mr Hitto announced his resignation as prime minister,


citing an inability to form an interim government to administer so-called
"liberated" zones, co-ordinating the provision basic services and supplies.
He was replaced in September by Ahmed Tomeh, a moderate Islamist
and former political prisoner who is secretary general of the Damascus
Declaration, a coalition of political parties, human rights groups and prodemocracy activists named after a 2005 document that demanded Syria's
transformation from a "security state to a political state".
In his frst speech, Mr Tomeh said he wanted to restore order and
security to rebel-held areas, protect people's property, revive the economy
and invest in national resources.
In September 2013, Mr Jarba parked a storm of protest within the National
Coalition's leadership when he told the UN in New York that he would
participate in an international conference in Geneva aimed at fnding a
political solution the confict in Syria.
The US and Russia want the Syrian government and opposition to accept
a solution based on the core elements of the fnal communique issued
after the UN-backed Action Group for Syria meeting in June 2012. The
communique called for a transitional government that could include
offcials serving under President Assad and members of the opposition.
Syrian National Council (SNC)

The Syrian National Council (SNC) is a coalition of opposition groups


formed in October 2011 to offer a credible alternative to the Syrian
government and serving as a single point of contact for the international
community.

George Sabra insists the SNC will not be "subsumed" by the National Coalition

The current president is George Sabra, a Christian and a veteran leftist


dissident.

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BBC News - Guide to the Syrian opposition

He replaced Abdelbaset Sayda, a Kurd, in November 2012, shortly before


the creation of the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and
Opposition Forces.
Mr Sayda and his predecessor, Burhan Ghalioun, were both criticised for
failing to reconcile different groups within the opposition and present a
united front.
The SNC's website says it is committed to the following principles:
1. Working to overthrow the regime using all legal means
2. Affrming national unity among all components of Syrian society and
rejecting all calls for ethnic strife
3. Safeguarding the non-violent character of the Syrian revolution
4. Protecting national independence and sovereignty, and rejecting
foreign military intervention
It has laid out plans for a transitional period which would see it:
1. Form an interim administration
2. Hold an all-inclusive national convention on democratic change
3. Organise the election of a constitutional assembly within a year to
draft a new constitution and hold free parliamentary elections within
six months of the new constitution being approved
4. Form a judicial commission to investigate crimes against humanity
and form a national reconciliation commission
The new Syria, the SNC states on its website, will be a "democratic,
pluralistic, and civil state; a parliamentary republic with sovereignty of the
people based on the principles of equal citizenship with separation of
powers, smooth transfer of power, the rule of law, and the protection and
guarantee of the rights of minorities".

Burhan Ghalioun (L) and Abdelbaset Sayda (R) failed to unite SNC factions

The SNC, which is dominated by Syria's majority Sunni Muslim community,


has struggled to win over Christians and members of President Assad's
Alawite sect, who each make up about 10% of the population and have so
far stayed loyal to the government. The council's primacy has also been
challenged by the National Co-ordination Committee (NCC), an opposition
bloc that still functions within Syria and is led by longstanding dissidents,
some of whom are wary of the Islamists within the SNC. Several members
of the SNC have also complained about its ineffectual leadership.
The SNC has also found it diffcult to work with the Free Syrian Army.
However, the two groups have agreed to co-ordinate their operations and
the SNC has urged the international community to support the rebels.
In November 2012, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said the SNC
could "no longer be viewed as the visible leader of the opposition" and

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BBC News - Guide to the Syrian opposition

called for an opposition leadership structure that could "speak to every


segment and every geographic part of Syria".
Following the creation of the National Coalition, Mr Sabra insisted that the
SNC would not be "subsumed under anybody".
"The SNC is older than this initiative or any other initiative, and it has a
deep political and regional structure," he said.
In October 2013, Mr Sabra said the SNC would not attend a meeting in
Geneva planned by the US and Russia to fnd a political solution to the
confict. He also threatened to pull out of the National Coalition.
"The Syrian National Council, which is the biggest bloc in the coalition, has
taken the frm decision... not to go to Geneva, under the present
circumstances," he told the AFP news agency. "This means that we will not
stay in the Coalition if it goes."
National Co-ordination Committee (NCC)

Formed in June 2011, the National Co-ordination Committee (NCC) for


Democratic Change is an alliance of 16 left-leaning political parties, three
Kurdish political parties, and independent political and youth activists. Its
chairman is the veteran left-wing opposition activist Hassan Abdul Azim,
leader of the Democratic Arab Socialist Union. His deputy and spokesman
abroad is Haytham Manna, a Paris-based academic and rights activist.

Hassan Abdul Azim and Haytham Manna have called for a peaceful transition

Unlike the Syrian National Council and the National Coalition, the NCC is
open to the idea of a political settlement with the government. Its call for
dialogue is conditional on a ceasefre, the withdrawal of the army from
towns and cities, and the release of all political detainees.
The NCC believes the Free Syrian Army is an essential part of the
revolution and plays an important role in protecting society, but rejects calls
to arm it or for foreign military intervention.
NCC leaders accused the SNC and the National Coalition of being
beholden to Turkey and Gulf Arab states that provide shelter, fnancial
support and weapons to rebel groups. It also objects to what it calls the
Muslim Brotherhood's domination of the exiled opposition. In turn, the SNC
and National Coalition have portrayed NCC leaders as isolated and lacking
support among Syrians.
In September 2012, the NNC organised the Syrian Salvation Conference,
a meeting in Damascus tolerated by the authorities. A statement agreed
by participants called for the following:
1. Removal of the regime and all its symbols, and building of a civil
democratic state
2. Rejection of sectarianism

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BBC News - Guide to the Syrian opposition

3. Adoption of non-violent resistance, but recognising the Free Syrian


Army as "one of the components of the revolution"
4. Extraction of the Syrian army from the "clutches" of the regime.
5. Accomplishment of the goals of the revolution
6. Protection of civilians
7. Democratic resolution of the "Kurdish national case"
8. Maintenance of Syria's territorial and social integrity
Afterwards, Mr Manna said regime change was inevitable. "This regime is
dead in the hearts and minds of all Syrians," he explained. "There must be
negotiations on a peaceful transition of power."
Kurdish Supreme Committee

The Kurdish Supreme Committee was formed in July 2012 by the


Democratic Union Party (PYD) and the Kurdish National Council (KNC), an
alliance of 13 Kurdish parties, under the initiative of the President of Iraq's
semi-autonomous Kurdistan region, Massoud Barzani.

Salih Muslim is head of the Democratic Union Party (PYD)

It was hoped the committee would administer the de facto autonomous


Kurdish zone created in north-eastern Syria when government forces
withdrew in the summer of 2012.
However, the KNC has complained that the PYD has not honoured the
power-sharing agreement. The PYD's armed wing, the Popular Protection
Units (YPG), has been accused of refusing to share security responsibility
in most of the towns and villages in the Kurdish area with the KNC's
fghters. Parties in the KNC have also claimed that the Kurdish Supreme
Committee has become a tool of the PYD.
There has led to disagreement over how Syria's Kurds should be
represented at an international peace conference in Geneva proposed by
the US and Russia. The US and Turkey reportedly want the KNC to be
represented by the main opposition alliance, the National Coalition, which
it joined in September 2013. The PYD meanwhile wants Kurds to be
represented by the Kurdish Supreme Committee. And Mr Barzani is said to
want the KNC to represent itself.

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BBC News - Guide to the Syrian opposition

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CIA: THE ROGUE AGENCY PUTS ON A


GLOBAL HORROR SHOW
by Michael Thomas
December 9th, 2014
Updated 12/11/2014 at 12:28 pm

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Suka

CIAS SERIAL CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR PUTS EVERY


AMERICAN AT RISK
DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS SHARE RESPONSIBILITY FOR CIA CRIMES
AGAINST HUMANITY

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CIA: The Rogue Agency Puts On A Global Horror Show

The preceding headlines appeared at The Huffngton Post on Tuesday, December 9, 2014. This day will forever be
remembered as the day the CIA was outed once and for all. Outed for only a small fraction of its countless crimes
against humanity.

To call the CIA a rogue agency is to grossly understate the massive, multi-decade crime spree it has perpetrated against
the community of nations and people of the world. There is no other federal department, bureau or agency that has
overtly been given both the budget and governmental approval to commit capital crimes at will.
From the assassination of heads of state to the mass murder of innocents in foreign lands; from torture to kidnapping;
from false fag attacks on civilian targets to drone missile strikes on wedding parties; from extraordinary rendition to black
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CIA: The Rogue Agency Puts On A Global Horror Show

site prisons, the list of odious crimes goes on and on and on. The CIA always does it their own way, without regard
to law or statute, rule or regulation, ethics or morality. Truly, the Central Intelligence Agency is the ultimate example of
state-sponsored terrorism, government-sanctioned criminality and bureaucratic lawlessness.

HOW DOES THE COMPANY (AKA THE CIA) GET AWAY


WITH IT
After all, whatever black operations are not performed under cover of black budgets, are necessarily conducted with US
tax dollars and in our name. Do we really want to know what manner of CIA-fabricated plots have been conducted in our
name?
The answer is simple: The taxpayer has a moral and civic obligation to know how their tax remittances are being used to
kill, maim and torture people abroad and at home. Not to know represents a tacit approval of such reprehensible and
savage behavior. Once the citizen pays for an assassination or kidnapping, that is perpetrated in the name of the United
States of America, there is ownership whether you want it or not.
Similarly, if you regularly vote for a political leader who is a known war criminal, and then he goes out and commits
genocide, guess who is also responsible for the suffering associated with that genocide? How is it that so many voters
misunderstand or are ignorant of this crucial element of civic responsibility?!
For instance, every person who voted for Barack Obama the second time around knew that he earned the right to be
called the Drone Ranger, a CIA pet project if ever there was one. When he continued the killing spree by drone in his
second term, his many supporters inherited the karma in light of their foreknowledge. Hey, just know that that karma
really bites when you least expect it.

The following list of headings just appeared in a single article which conveys some of the more abhorrent CIA conduct
against living humanity.
Well Worn Waterboards
Near Drowning
The Dungeon-LikeSalt Pit
Standing on Broken Legs
Non-stop Interrogation
Forced Rectal Feeding and Worse

le:///C|/U...RLINK/Desktop/Backupan/CIA%20%20The%20Rogue%20Agency%20Puts%20On%20A%20Global%20Horror%20Show.htm[4/25/2015 2:07:42 PM]

CIA: The Rogue Agency Puts On A Global Horror Show

Lost Detainees
Threats to Mothers
Sexual Assault by Interrogators
To read some of the more gruesome details from the same report [not for the fainthearted] click on the following link:
The Most Gruesome Moments in the CIA Torture Report
Just what does a CIA Horror Show really look like? After all, unless the American people take a close look at what is
being done around the world 24/7 in their name and with their tax dollars, it will continue ad infnitum. So at the
risk of alienating some in our readership, here are a couple of links which capture exactly what our illustrious CIA
performs on our behalf.
Photos from CIA Torture and GITMO
CIA Torture Pics
Heres another rather extended headline with key bullet points from a major daily in the UK (Mail Online).

Where does the nation go from here?


With this damning and indisputable information now in the hands of every American it is critical that an appropriate and
measured response be taken. Not to address the ongoing atrocities and barbarity, misdeeds and wrongdoings,
excesses and indiscretions of the CIA only perpetrates such a cycle of institutionalized criminality.

le:///C|/U...RLINK/Desktop/Backupan/CIA%20%20The%20Rogue%20Agency%20Puts%20On%20A%20Global%20Horror%20Show.htm[4/25/2015 2:07:42 PM]

CIA: The Rogue Agency Puts On A Global Horror Show

Therefore, perhaps it is time to go back to the very roots of this depraved organization in order to ascertain why it should
ever exist in the frst place. Its last incarnation was called the OSS, the Offce of Strategic Services.
The Offce of Strategic Services was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It
was the wartime intelligence agency, and a predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency.[1]
Their real problems began at the OSS when Operation Paperclip was allowed to run its course. This misguided
initiative, although it may have had reasonable intentions, was designed to fail miserably. Heres the cover story before
we provide the not-so-well-known backstory.
Operation Paperclipwas theOffce of Strategic Services(OSS) program in which over 1,500
Germanscientists, technicians, and engineers fromNazi Germanyand other foreign countries were
brought to the United States for employment in the aftermath ofWorld War II. [1]It was conducted by
theJoint Intelligence Objectives Agency(JIOA), and in the context of theburgeoningCold War. One
purpose of Operation Paperclip was to deny German scientifc expertise and knowledge to theSoviet
Union[2]and theUnited Kingdom,[3]as well as inhibitingpost-war Germanyfrom redeveloping its military
research capabilities.[2]
On the face of it this plan seems to have had an important objective; however, it also came with a HUGE catch. Their
were certain rogue elements and intelligence assets which came from Nazi Germany along with the 1500 German
scientists, technicians, and engineers. One of those characters was Reinhard Gehlen, a true Nazi operative if ever
there was one.
Gehlen had always been under the sponsorship of US Army G-2 (intelligence), but he eventually
succeeded in realizing his ambition of establishing an association with theCentral Intelligence
Agency(CIA), established in 1947. The CIA kept close tabs on the Gehlen group. For many years during
theCold War, Org agents were the only eyes and ears of the CIA on the ground in theSoviet
Blocnations.[3]
So determined was Gehlen to associate with the Central Intelligence Agency that extraordinary measures at the very
highest levels of the US Government were taken to ensure that that marriage took place. And so it did in the form of
the Gehlen Organization. In the ultra-secret circles where military and civilian intelligence organizations intersect, it is
understood that this particular association created an environment whereby many of the worst tactics and techniques
from Nazi Germany found there way into common use throughout the CIA.
Nazi Infltration Of The Central Intelligence Agency
The depth and breadth of the CIAs appropriation of so much of the Nazi war criminal infrastructure and apparatus[4] is
not well understood by many, even by those initiated in the upper echelons of the military intelligence and secret
services. The tradeoffs and compromises that were necessarily made during the transitional absorption of Nazi
personnel and assimilation of German knowhow were simply too radioactive (read: highly classifed) for anyone to know
except those very few privileged decision-makers at the top of the OSS leadership.
Therein lies the root cause for so much of what is profoundly wrong with the CIA. A glaring example of just how wrong
things would go is the highly consequential case of Allen W. Dulles, the frst civilian director of the CIA. Dulles was fred
by John F. Kennedy shortly after the CIA-coordianted Bay of Pigs fasco. The whole top tier of the CIA was immediately
relieved of their duties for their blatant insubordination. Nevertheless, Dulles was determined to get even with JFK. And
he did, before and after LBJ appointed him to the Warren Commission.
During theKennedyAdministration, Dulles faced increasing criticism. [1]The pro-American but unpopular
regimes in Iran and Guatemala that Dulles had helped put in place were widely regarded as brutal and
corrupt.[22]In autumn 1961, following the Bay of Pigs incident, Dulles and his entourage, includingDeputy
Director for PlansRichard M. Bissell, Jr.and Deputy DirectorCharles Cabell, were forced to resign.[5]
There are now numerous reports which contain high integrity research and authoritative investigations into the CIAs
direct involvement in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. As a matter of fact, highly credible evidence and testimony
points directly to CIA planning, implementation and coverup of JFKs cold-blooded murder. Kennedy knew that
eventually someone at the highest levels of the CIA would commit the egregious error of utilizing The Companyfor
domestic purposes. With the ignominious fring of the once all powerful Allen Dulles, perhaps he even knew that he
would be the frst stateside target.

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CIA: The Rogue Agency Puts On A Global Horror Show

Conclusion
When in the course of creating the U.S. National Security State the CIA was chosen as the very foundation for the
architecture, the whole enterprise was set up for an inevitable and monumental failure. The treasonous false fag
attacks on 9/11 dramatically illustrated the shortcomings of such a rogue agency, as did the traitorous assassination of
John F. Kennedy.
When the CIA will so boldly assassinate the President of the United States of America, what wont they do, and get away
with?!

JFK ASSASSINATION: CLASSIC CIA


EXECUTION PLAN
The following video provides a rare glimpse of ex-CIA Director Allen Dulles manipulating the media and controlling the
Warren Commission investigative process in Dallas in July of 1964. Only seeing is believing what the CIA is truly
capable of.

Michael Thomas
December 10, 2014
State of the Nation
Authors Note
We took no satisfaction in the writing of this expos. Nonetheless, this story needs to be disseminated so that informed
decisions can be made about the future (or lack thereof) of the CIA.
As President John F. Kennedy once remarked, I want to splinter theCIAinto a thousand pieces andscatterit to
the winds.
Endnotes

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CIA: The Rogue Agency Puts On A Global Horror Show

[1]Offce of Strategic Services


[2]Operation Paperclip
[3]Reinhard Gehlen
[4]CIA was formed by absorbing in secret almost the entire Nazi war criminal infrrastructure
[5]Allen Dulles
Recommended Reading
The CIA/MSM Contra-Cocaine Cover-up
9-11 SOLVED, CIA & MOSSAD Responsible Former Italian President Francesco Cossiga
Polish Death Squads Fighting in Ukraine. CIA Covert Operation?
CIA Ultimately Oversees All Major Terrorist Organizations
References
The Most Gruesome Moments in the CIA Torture Report
CIA torture report reveals tactics WORSE than agency let on

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR (AUTHOR PROFILE)


Michael Thomas is a contributing writer to Storyleak and Editor of the State of the Nation website, where he offers
analysis on geopolitical events.

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COMMENTS (146)

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Iremember 11 weeks ago

+9

le:///C|/U...RLINK/Desktop/Backupan/CIA%20%20The%20Rogue%20Agency%20Puts%20On%20A%20Global%20Horror%20Show.htm[4/25/2015 2:07:42 PM]

CIA: The Rogue Agency Puts On A Global Horror Show

"When the CIA will so boldly assassinate the President of the United States of America, what wont they do, and get
away with?!"
Pretty much anything they want to, whenever they want, to whomever they want.
Reply

1 reply active 9 weeks ago

Mr. Liberty 9 weeks ago

+4

I heard on Jones today that there are some whispers of Seymour Hersh actually viewing footage of US military
sodomizing children in front of their parents, and that the video will be released. I don't know how true that is but if it
ends up being true...I wonder if Roger will support that type of enhanced interrogation techniques?
Reply

4 replies active 9 weeks ago

Mr.Lincoln 115p 10 weeks ago

+4

Dec 10, 2014 VICE News Exclusive: The Architect of the CIA's Enhanced Interrogation Program
The Senate Intelligence Committee has released a blistering, 500-page report on the CIAs controversial detention
and interrogation program, a document that committee chairwoman Dianne Feinstein said represents the most
signifcant oversight effort in the history of the US Senate.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MmNUi0itl-8
Reply

3 replies active 9 weeks ago

Mr.Lincoln 115p 11 weeks ago

+4

The U.S Government Is Lying, Manipulating and Continuing Torture Dec 11, 2014
In this video Luke Rudkowski details how the U.S government is still lying, manipulating, continuing torture and
committing other human right violations.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CvMhfGDwvhI
Reply

3 replies active 9 weeks ago

zebrano 11 weeks ago

+4

We have to get rid of this 2 party system that has been enslaving us for quite a while now. Nothing gets done
anymore. Join us at
www.no2party.freeforums.org/next-us-2-party-polit...
Overview at www.boardreader.com/site/no2party_freeforums_org_...
Join us and tell us what's on your mind.
Reply

86 replies active 9 weeks ago

PoofShesGone 11 weeks ago

+4

What a conundrum. The rabid anti-Muslim commenters don't care how badly Muslims are treated, they think all
Muslims should be exterminated, but many of those same commenters also abhor the US Government and will decry
the CIA and thus President Obama for torturing those same Muslims. It's clear to me that torture doesn't work (no one
ever should have listened to VP Cheney) and it lowers us to the same moral plain as ISIS (ISIL?) and Al Queda. If
nothing else we should have closed GITMO years ago and brought those prisoners to the US for trials. It's still not too
late, IMO.
Reply

16 replies active 10 weeks ago

Mr.Lincoln 115p 9 weeks ago

+3

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CIA: The Rogue Agency Puts On A Global Horror Show

Weve Known for 1,700 Years that Torture Produces False Confessions December 19, 2014
Weve Known for Thousands of Years that Torture Doesnt Work Mark Costanzo (Claremont McKenna professor of
psychology) and Ellen Gerrity (Duke University professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences) note in a study
published in the journal Social Issues and Policy Review: As early as the third century A.D., the great Roman Jurist
Ulpian noted that information obtained through torture was not to be trusted because some people are so susceptible
to pain that they will tell any lie rather than suffer it (Peters, 1996). http://www.washingtonsblog.com/2014/12/weveknown...
Reply

14 replies active 9 weeks ago

sara 11 weeks ago

+1

This is an excellent expos, Pullitzer Prize material. Well done.


Reply

2 replies active 11 weeks ago

Night Ranger 11 weeks ago

+1

The CIA needs to be shut down ... once and for all.
Reply

Harold S. 11 weeks ago

+1

"From the assassination of heads of state to the mass murder of innocents in foreign lands; from torture to
kidnapping; from false fag attacks on civilian targets to drone missile strikes on wedding parties; from
extraordinary rendition to black site prisons, the list of odious crimes goes on and on and on. The CIA
always does it their own way, without regard to law or statute, rule or regulation, ethics or morality. Truly, the
Central Intelligence Agency is the ultimate example of state-sponsored terrorism, government-sanctioned
criminality and bureaucratic lawlessness."
L O V E it ! ! !
Reply

Detektei in nrnberg 4 weeks ago

Whatever that is not acceptable issue. You have nicely described those things which is happening. I want to give
thanks of the writer. Good job Carry on :)
Reply

Johndissuza 8 weeks ago

Well job through showing, Pulitzer Prize material and the CIA need to be shut down ... once and for all. Thanks for
sharing the great information. Dissertation Proposal Writing Services
Reply

seth 9 weeks ago

ROGER is commenting out of an asylum these days.


He sees French frogs everywhere. He is scared getting bitten and sucked up.
Reply

1 reply active 9 weeks ago

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CIA: The Rogue Agency Puts On A Global Horror Show

Yety1976 10 weeks ago

These are just inhuman nature shown by them. CIA are responsible for crime investigation not treating convicted as
such a inhuman nature. They have to do investigation remaining in human area.
Reply

essay writer 11 weeks ago

-4

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Reply

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Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com

CONTENTS

MAP

INTERESTING

Q+A

People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries: Countries


Compared
Home / Country Info / Stats / People / Migration / Foreign worker salaries

DEFINITION: Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages

and salaries earned by nonresident workers. Remittances are classifed as current private transfers from migrant workers
id t iALL
th h t
t f
th
i
ti
f th i i
i ti
t t
t
i i t i th i
t
f i i
SHOW

Totals

salaries
salaries

COUNTRY

AMOUNT

DATE

European Union

99.85 billion

2009

United States

48.31 billion

2009

Saudi Arabia

25.97 billion

2009

Switzerland

19.56 billion

2009

Russia

18.61 billion

2009

Germany

15.92 billion

2009

Group of 7 countries (G7) average

15.03 billion

2009

Netherlands

14.21 billion

2009

Italy

12.99 billion

2009

Spain

12.65 billion

2009

10

Luxembourg

10.56 billion

2009

11

Kuwait

9.91 billion

2009

12

Malaysia

6.53 billion

2009

High income OECD countries average

6.22 billion

2009

GRAPH

Select year
Select
year

HISTORY

le:///C|/U...pared%20by%20People%20)%20Migration%20)%20Foreign%20worker%20salaries.%20International%20Statistics%20at%20NationMaster.com.htm[4/25/2015 2:07:53 PM]

Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com
13

Lebanon

5.75 billion

2009

14

Oman

5.31 billion

2009

15

France

5.22 billion

2009

Eurozone average

4.76 billion

2009

16

China

4.44 billion

2009

17

Norway

4.17 billion

2009

18

Belgium

4.14 billion

2009

19

Japan

4.07 billion

2009

Heavily indebted countries average

3.95 billion

2009

NATO countries average

3.74 billion

2009

United Kingdom

3.67 billion

2009

European Union average

3.57 billion

2009

3.5 billion

2009

20

Europe average
21

Denmark

3.41 billion

2009

22

Austria

3.38 billion

2009

23

Israel

3.28 billion

2009

24

Kazakhstan

3.14 billion

2009

25

Australia

3 billion

2009

26

India

2.89 billion

2009

27

Indonesia

2.7 billion

2009

28

Czech Republic

2.56 billion

2009

29

Ireland

1.99 billion

2009

Emerging markets average

1.86 billion

2009

Greece

1.84 billion

2009

Former Soviet republics average

1.84 billion

2009

Eastern Europe average

1.52 billion

2009

31

Portugal

1.46 billion

2009

32

Bahrain

1.39 billion

2009

33

Libya

1.36 billion

2009

34

Hungary

1.34 billion

2009

30

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Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com
35

Poland

1.33 billion

2009

36

South Africa

1.16 billion

2009

37

Brazil

1 billion

2009

38

New Zealand

871.16 million

2009

39

Sweden

787 million

2009

40

Argentina

702.22 million

2009

41

Azerbaijan

651.83 million

2009

42

Lithuania

619.67 million

2009

43

Venezuela

581 million

2009

44

Jordan

502.25 million

2009

45

Uganda

463.29 million

2009

46

Finland

453.71 million

2009

47

Brunei

444.82 million

2009

48

Sri Lanka

434.5 million

2009

49

Cyprus

408.96 million

2009

50

Papua New Guinea

322.63 million

2009

51

Jamaica

314.11 million

2009

52

Romania

310 million

2009

53

Costa Rica

238.6 million

2009

54

Panama

229.4 million

2009

55

Cambodia

215.16 million

2009

56

Syria

212 million

2009

57

Slovenia

191.45 million

2009

58

Kyrgyzstan

187.71 million

2009

59

Gabon

185.6 million

2009

60

Armenia

145.15 million

2009

61

Senegal

144.1 million

2009

62

Turkey

141 million

2009

63

Haiti

134.82 million

2009

64

Slovakia

133.85 million

2009

le:///C|/U...pared%20by%20People%20)%20Migration%20)%20Foreign%20worker%20salaries.%20International%20Statistics%20at%20NationMaster.com.htm[4/25/2015 2:07:53 PM]

Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com
65

Tajikistan

123.63 million

2009

66

Maldives

116.03 million

2009

67

Belarus

112.4 million

2009

68

Netherlands Antilles

105.88 million

2009

69

Mali

104.79 million

2009

70

Moldova

104 million

2009

71

Bolivia

103.47 million

2009

72

Botswana

102.21 million

2009

73

Congo, Republic of the

102.2 million

2009

74

Bulgaria

101.25 million

2009

75

Burkina Faso

99.6 million

2009

76

Croatia

99.27 million

2009

77

The Bahamas

96.32 million

2009

78

Cameroon

94.36 million

2009

79

New Caledonia

92.4 million

2009

80

Colombia

92.23 million

2009

81

Serbia and Montenegro

90.91 million

2009

82

Benin

88.3 million

2009

83

Peru

85.42 million

2009

84

Mongolia

83.44 million

2009

85

Ecuador

81.28 million

2009

86

Tanzania

80.55 million

2009

87

Estonia

80.53 million

2009

88

Aruba

76.74 million

2009

89

Guyana

76.74 million

2009

90

Rwanda

71.44 million

2009

91

Nigeria

65.65 million

2009

92

Zambia

65.62 million

2009

93

French Polynesia

64.33 million

2009

94

Mozambique

63.06 million

2009

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Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com
95

Morocco

60.96 million

2009

96

Kenya

60.8 million

2009

97

Bosnia and Herzegovina

60.8 million

2009

98

Philippines

58 million

2009

99

Togo

57.63 million

2009

100

Thailand

53.48 million

1991

101

Malta

53.07 million

2009

102

Latvia

45.5 million

2009

103

Guinea

44.87 million

2009

104

Barbados

40.07 million

2009

105

Lesotho

34.68 million

2009

106

Iceland

33.91 million

2009

107

Burma

31.7 million

2009

108

Georgia

31.68 million

2009

109

Iraq

31.4 million

2009

110

Dominican Republic

28.8 million

2009

111

Central African Republic

27.38 million

1994

112

Ethiopia

26.55 million

2009

113

Ukraine

25 million

2009

114

Seychelles

23.89 million

2009

115

Belize

22.8 million

2009

116

Guatemala

22.6 million

2009

117

Laos

22.37 million

2009

118

Niger

22.3 million

2009

119

Fiji

22.21 million

2009

120

Algeria

22.03 million

1991

121

Madagascar

21.2 million

2009

122

El Salvador

20.89 million

2009

123

Cote d'Ivoire

19.54 million

2009

124

Guinea-Bissau

16.75 million

2009

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Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com
125

Namibia

15.88 million

2009

126

Chad

15.42 million

1994

127

Trinidad and Tobago

14.34 million

1995

128

Tonga

13.51 million

2009

129

Tunisia

12.89 million

2009

130

Nepal

12.33 million

2009

131

Cape Verde

11.83 million

2009

132

Mauritius

11.67 million

2009

133

Honduras

11.58 million

2009

134

Swaziland

10.96 million

2009

135

Albania

10.03 million

2009

136

Mauritania

9.62 million

1998

137

Samoa

8.45 million

2009

138

The Gambia

8.41 million

2009

139

Pakistan

8 million

2009

140

Bangladesh

7.59 million

2009

141

Zimbabwe

7.24 million

1994

142

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

7.06 million

2009

143

Mexico

7 million

1982

144

Ghana

6.4 million

2009

145

Saint Kitts and Nevis

5.94 million

2009

146

Djibouti

5.79 million

2009

147

Uruguay

5.62 million

2009

148

Chile

5.6 million

2009

=149

Suriname

5.1 million

2009

=149

Faroe Islands

5.1 million

2009

4.41 million

2009

4.4 million

1997

151

Solomon Islands

152

Turkmenistan

153

Saint Lucia

4.28 million

2009

154

Grenada

3.65 million

2009

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Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com
155

Comoros

156

Sierra Leone

3.5 million

1995

3.49 million

2009

=157

Vanuatu

2.6 million

2009

=157

Nicaragua

2.6 million

1983

159

Somalia

2.57 million

1983

160

Antigua and Barbuda

2.23 million

2009

161

Sudan

2 million

2009

162

Eritrea

1.31 million

2000

163

Burundi

1.2 million

2009

164

Liberia

1.01 million

2009

165

Kiribati

731,127.3

1994

166

Sao Tome and Principe

546,840

2009

167

Malawi

440,000

2009

168

Equatorial Guinea

331,409.3

1994

169

Dominica

174,628.5

2009

170

Paraguay

100,000

1988

1/1

All
All

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Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com

Citation

APA
APA

"Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com",
World Bank staf estimates based on IMF balance of payments data. Aggregates compiled by NationMaster. Retrieved
from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/People/Migration/Foreign-worker-salaries

People > Migration > Foreign worker


salaries: Countries Compared Map
+

Statistics for People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries


Categories

Top Stats

STAT

COUNTRIES COVERED

% of GDP

164

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Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com

Interesting observations about People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries
European Union has had the highest migration > foreign worker salaries since 1971.

United States ranked frst for migration > foreign worker salaries amongst Christian countries in 2009.

le:///C|/U...pared%20by%20People%20)%20Migration%20)%20Foreign%20worker%20salaries.%20International%20Statistics%20at%20NationMaster.com.htm[4/25/2015 2:07:53 PM]

Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com

Saudi Arabia ranked frst for migration > foreign worker salaries amongst Hot countries in 2009.

Germany ranked frst for migration > foreign worker salaries amongst European Union in 2009.

le:///C|/U...pared%20by%20People%20)%20Migration%20)%20Foreign%20worker%20salaries.%20International%20Statistics%20at%20NationMaster.com.htm[4/25/2015 2:07:53 PM]

Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com

Switzerland ranked frst for migration > foreign worker salaries amongst Europe in 2009.

Russia ranked frst for migration > foreign worker salaries amongst Emerging markets in 2009.

le:///C|/U...pared%20by%20People%20)%20Migration%20)%20Foreign%20worker%20salaries.%20International%20Statistics%20at%20NationMaster.com.htm[4/25/2015 2:07:53 PM]

Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com

Italy ranked frst for migration > foreign worker salaries amongst Catholic countries in 2009.

Brazil ranked frst for migration > foreign worker salaries amongst Latin America and Caribbean in 2009.

le:///C|/U...pared%20by%20People%20)%20Migration%20)%20Foreign%20worker%20salaries.%20International%20Statistics%20at%20NationMaster.com.htm[4/25/2015 2:07:53 PM]

Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com

South Africa ranked frst for migration > foreign worker salaries amongst Sub-Saharan Africa in 2009.

Netherlands ranked second for migration > foreign worker salaries amongst NATO countries in 2009.

le:///C|/U...pared%20by%20People%20)%20Migration%20)%20Foreign%20worker%20salaries.%20International%20Statistics%20at%20NationMaster.com.htm[4/25/2015 2:07:53 PM]

Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com

United Kingdom ranked last for migration > foreign worker salaries amongst Group of 7 countries (G7) in 2009.

le:///C|/U...pared%20by%20People%20)%20Migration%20)%20Foreign%20worker%20salaries.%20International%20Statistics%20at%20NationMaster.com.htm[4/25/2015 2:07:53 PM]

Countries Compared by People > Migration > Foreign worker salaries. International Statistics at NationMaster.com

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Demography, Migration and Multiculturalism in South Korea | The Asia-Pacifc Journal

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Demography, Migration and Multiculturalism in South Korea


Andrew Eungi Kim

More than a million foreigners reportedly reside in South Korea now, with unskilled migrant workers
accounting for a majority.Although the countrys reliance on imported foreign labor is likely to
continue unabated, the country prides itself as an ethnically homogenous society and insists on
almost zero-immigration policy.However, this paper shows that Korean society is rapidly becoming a
multicultural society and this process is inevitable and irreversible.In support of this argument, the
paper examines various social factors that are contributing to the making of a multiethnic Korea,
including the continuing infux of migrant workers, rapid aging of the population, low fertility rate,
and shortage of brides.The paper also assesses the applicability of various theories and trends of
migration to the Korean context.The Korean case suggests a need for a paradigm shift in
understanding multiculturalism. This is because the dominant perspectives and theories on
multiculturalism have been western-centric, based on western experience and focusing on racial
diferences and tensions. Multiculturalism in Korea as well as in its neighboring countries like China,
Japan, and Taiwan is fundamentally diferent, as it involves people of similar physical appearances
and historical cultural bonds, and it entails ethnic rather than racial diferences.

Key Words
Korea, multiculturalism, migrant workers, immigrant brides, intermarriage, and aging

Introduction
A report by the U.N. (2006) shows that the number of people who live and work outside
their countries of birth has doubled over the last 35 years to 191 million in 2005 (see
International Organization for Migration 2005). The total represents about three per
cent of the worlds population or one in every 35 persons. About 6 out of 10
international migrants live in high-income economies, including 22 prosperous
developing countries such as South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia,
Kuwait and Qatar (United Nations 2006, p. 12). Other fndings by the report include the
following: around 75 per cent of international migrants lived in just 28 countries, with
one in fve living in the United States; international migrants comprise at least 20 per
cent of the population in 41 countries; women comprise nearly half of all international
migrants and they outnumber male migrants in developed countries; about a third of the
191 million international migrants has moved from one developing country to another,
while another third has migrated from a developing country to a developed country,
indicating that the number of South-to-South migrants approximates that of South-toNorth migrants (United Nations 2006, p. 12).

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Demography, Migration and Multiculturalism in South Korea | The Asia-Pacifc Journal

As in other parts of the world, international migration in Asia is an important social issue.
Most countries in the region are afected by temporary labor migration as either laborexporting or labor-importing countries.Only a handful of Asian countries or territories,
the richest ones, have a net import of labor. These are Japan, South Korea, Taiwan,
Singapore, Hong Kong, and Malaysia.Since the 1980s Japan has been importing foreign
workers to meet the demand for cheap labor from small- to mid-sized frms.The country
now has about two million registered foreigners (1.57 per cent of the population),
including 600,000 Korean descendents of colonial immigrants,[1] and the issues of
citizenship, nationhood, and national identity have become important and controversial
political issues (see Yamanaka 2000, 2004a and 2004b; Lie 2000, 2001; Arudou and
Higuchi 2008).

GDP of Asian countries (PPP) in global perspective


South Korea (henceforth Korea) has been importing signifcant numbers of migrant
workers since the early 1990s. As of the end of 2007, registered foreigners totaled
1,066,273, accounting for 2.2 per cent of the total population.The number of foreigners
in Korea jumped 2.75 times since 1997 from 386,972.If the current trend continues, the
number of foreigners in Korea would reach 1.5 million in 2012, 2.5 million in 2020, and
4.1 million by 2050 or 9.2 per cent of the total population, which would be similar to the
proportion of foreign-born residents in England (9.7 per cent) in 2005.
A large majority of foreigners in Korea have entered the country with work visas and the

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Demography, Migration and Multiculturalism in South Korea | The Asia-Pacifc Journal

number of foreigners with work visas, as of May 2008, amounted to more than
700,000.The 2008 total represents an annual increase of nearly 100,000 new arrivals
since late 2004, when the fgure was 460,000.Most of those who entered Korea with
work visas, including more than 200,000 overstaying migrant workers, have been
unskilled migrant workers.
The demand for foreign labor has largely come about as better-educated and wealthier
Koreans began to turn away from certain occupation categories, especially the so-called
3-D (difcult, dirty, and dangerous) manual jobs, prompting the Korean government to
utilize several labor-importing schemes since 1992 to both secure and control foreign
workers.The number of foreigners in Korea will increase further as the anticipated bride
shortage brings in more foreigners.
The presence of growing numbers of unskilled migrant workers, along with a substantial
number of foreign brides and professional foreign workers, marks a signifcant departure
from the proverbial image of Korea as an ethnically homogenous society.Although
foreigners constituted only a little over one per cent of the total population of 48 million
as of the end of 2005, the country is on its way to becoming a multiracial and
multiethnic society. This paper examines the factors that will generate substantial infow
labor migrants and brides, notably rapid aging of the population and the resulting labor
shortage, and son preferential practices and shortage of brides. It also assesses the
applicability of existing migration theories to the Korean context and analyzes
international migration in Korea in light of general trends in global migration.
Unskilled Migration Workers: History of Labor Importation Policies in Korea
Korea was a labor-exporting country from the early 1960s to the late 1980s.[2]
Thousands of Korean workers emigrated annually in the 1960s and 1970s, notably to
Germany, when miners and nurses made up the bulk of the outgoing migrant workers.
During the construction boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, tens of thousands of
Koreans were sent to the Middle East to work as construction workers for Korean
companies.In the 1980s, more than 30,000 Koreans migrated annually as laborers to
other countries. By 1993, the fgure had dwindled to 18,000 (Ministry of Justice 19821993).
Since the late 1980s, Korea changed from a labor-exporting nation to a labor-importing
nation (Park 1994).When foreign migrant workers began arriving in Korea in 1987, the
shortage of manual workers was estimated at 100,000, mainly in small- and mediumsized manufacturing frms (Kwon 2004, p. 1). Since the mid-1980s, Korea has
experienced a deceleration in the growth of the domestic labor force as the rural labor
surplus was exhausted and the participation rate of youth (15-19 age group) in the labor
force declined signifcantly due to longer schooling.The labor shortage was also caused
by the booming construction industry, which drew Korean workers out of relatively lowpaying factory jobs into higher-paying construction work.Moreover, growing labor
market segmentation since the early 1990s brought about uneven labor shortages: large
frms subcontracted some of their labor-intensive production lines to small frms (5-29
employees) to cope with growing national and international competition, leading to an
increase in the percentage of employees in small frms from 18.3 per cent in 1980 to
27.6 per cent in 1995.The labor shortages in Korea were and are thus more serious in
smaller frms than in larger frms, and in unskilled jobs than in highly skilled jobs (Lee,
H. 1997, p. 357).The labor shortage in manufacturing became very serious in 1991
when unflled production jobs totaled 222,000.

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Demography, Migration and Multiculturalism in South Korea | The Asia-Pacifc Journal

Migrant workers in Korea organize


Perhaps more important than the migration transition and labor market segmentation in
explaining labor importation in Korea is a demand for cheap, unskilled labor to fll jobs
shunned by Koreans.In congruence with dual labor market theory, the demand for
foreign labor in Korea came about as relatively better-educated, more status-conscious,
and wealthier Koreans began to turn away from low-paying and less prestigious manual
jobs.To mitigate the labor shortage in unskilled, manual jobs, since 1992 the Korean
government has sought to bring in and control the infow of unskilled migrant workers.
[3] The number of such workers entering Korea increased from 33,861 in 1994 to 49,345
in 2000, and 106,688 in 2004. Korea attracted workers from a dozen or so Asian
countries, including China (predominantly ethnic Koreans), Vietnam, Indonesia,
Bangladesh, and the Philippines.Recently, however, unskilled migrant workers have
come from dozens of countries from throughout the world, including Russia, Pakistan,
India, Uzbekistan, Brazil, and Nigeria.They are employed in agriculture, fshery and
service industries as well as in 3D jobs in industries including construction, metal work,
dyeing, auto-parts, tanning, textiles, furniture-manufacturing and other small- to
medium-scale manufacturing industries (see Seol 1999, 2000; Seol et al. 1999; Kim, W.
2004).
Four types of work permits regulate the infux of foreign workers: Professional Work
Permit System (PWPS), Industrial Training System (ITS), Employment Management
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Demography, Migration and Multiculturalism in South Korea | The Asia-Pacifc Journal

System (EMS) for less-skilled overseas Koreans, and Employment Permit System (EPS)
for unskilled foreign workers.The work permit system stipulates diferent conditions and
entitlements for skilled and less-skilled or unskilled workers. Skilled foreign workers are
subject to less regulation than their less-skilled counterparts.The Immigration Bureau
does not limit the number of visas for skilled workers, while setting visa quotas for lessskilled foreign workers in specifed industrial sectors where their labor is needed.
The Industrial Training System (ITS) was implemented in January 1994.In the inaugural
year, 31,830 Asian workers arrived.Since then, the number of industrial trainees
fuctuated between 25,000 and 52,000.The training program consists of a one-year
training and two-year work permit system: trainees are eligible to apply for a work
permit after completion of the training program. If they are successful in obtaining a
work permit, they can work as regular workers with the full range of labor rights. Four
main sectors in which these trainees work are manufacturing, construction, agricultural,
and inland and coastal fsheries.However, the trainee program created many problems:
trainees often became undocumented workers as they ran away from the trainee
program for better pay elsewhere (trainees were paid barely more than the minimum
wage and were often forced to work overtime with no overtime pay); there were many
reports of abuses as trainees were not protected by the Labor Standard Law. The
Industrial Training System was discontinued in January 1, 2007.
The Employment Permit System (EPS) for less-skilled or unskilled foreign workers was
implemented on August 17, 2004 to ultimately replace the problematic ITS.Unlike the
ITS, which was controlled and operated by business associations, all activities of the EPS
registration of potential migrant workers, selection, pre-departure orientation, postarrival orientation, job placement, return and reintegration, and monitoringare strictly
regulated by government agencies.The new system is aimed at providing equal
treatment to foreign workers, including basic labor rights, employment insurance and
legal minimum wages, while ensuring a stable supply of manpower for Korean
employers. However, foreign workers are banned from changing workplaces on their own
and are allowed to work in Korea for a maximum of three years.To establish labor
migration through bilateral agreements between the sending and receiving countries, the
government entered a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with six Asian countries
Thailand, Viet Nam, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and the Philippinesfrom which
about 25,000 workers arrived in 2004.In 2006, three other countries were added
Uzbekistan, Pakistan, and Cambodiafollowed by MOU with China, Bangladesh, Kyrgyz
Republic, Nepal, Myanmar and East Timor in 2007.More than 100,000 workers arrived
from these countries in 2007 alone.The Korean Ministry of Labor assigns annual quotas
to all sending countries according to employer preference, evaluation of sending
procedures, and the number of illegal workers. Consequently, sending countries
compete for quotas, which is expected to bring higher quality workers to Korea and
guarantee fairness in recruiting in the sending countries.Eligibility is restricted to
manufacturing companies with less than 300 workers who can prove that they previously
tried to employ Korean workers.
In addition, an Employment Management System (EMS) for overseas Koreans has been
implemented since December 2002 for overseas Koreans who have foreign
nationalities.To be eligible, they have to be at least 30 years old and have a relative
living in Korea (there are plans to bring down the age restriction to 25).The occupation
categories for EMS are accommodation and restaurant, cleaning service, assistance with
household afairs, and the like. EMS permit holders were originally allowed to stay for up
to two years, but from August 2004 permission was extended to three years.
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Demography, Migration and Multiculturalism in South Korea | The Asia-Pacifc Journal

Through these labor importation schemes, several hundred thousand foreign workers,
skilled and unskilled, have been brought into Korea, ushering in the dawn of a
multiethnic Korea.
Koreas Aging Population and Labor Shortage
Korea is one of the worlds most rapidly aging societies and its fertility rate is falling at a
record pace to a level well below the replacement rate of 2.1 children per family. In
2000, Korea became an aging society, in which 7 per cent of the population consists of
the elderly (those 65 years or older).If current population trends continue, the country
will transition to an aged society in 2019, when 14 percent of the population will be
elderly.Korea will become a superaged society by 2026, when the elderly would make
up 20 per cent of the population.

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Demography, Migration and Multiculturalism in South Korea | The Asia-Pacifc Journal

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Demography, Migration and Multiculturalism in South Korea | The Asia-Pacifc Journal

Koreas aging population


While economically advanced nations took decades to transit from an aging society to an
aged society, Korea will do so within a generation (roughly 19 years). It took France 115
years (1864-1979) to make the transition, Sweden 85 years (1887-1972), and England
45 years (1930-1975) (see Table 1). Koreas 19-year mark will break the world record
of 26 years set by Japan (1970-1996). Korea is expected to take just 7 years to pass
from an aged society to a super-aged society, again beating the Japanese record of 12
years. The United Nations projects Koreas elderly population to rise to 24.1 per cent of
the total in 2030 and 37.3 per cent in 2050, the highest in the world (Korea Times
2005a). The U.N. forecasts that Japans aged population will rise to the second highest
level with 36.5 per cent in 2050, followed by Spain (35 per cent), Italy (34.4 per cent)
and the Netherlands (33.2 per cent). Demographers have coined the term agequake to
refer to the dire economic and social impact of Korean aging.

Rapid aging is a product of Koreas increasing life expectancy and above all its low
fertility rate. Due to signifcant improvements in health care and nutrition, the average
life expectancy of Koreans rose by more than 10 years in the two decades between 1983
when it was 67.14 to 72.83 in 1993 and 77.46 in 2003.A UN report projects South
Koreas life expectancy to increase to 81 years in 2020 and 83.3 years in 2050 (Korea
Times 2005b).
The most signifcant reason for this rapid aging is the falling fertility rate. Koreas total
fertility rate was 1.08 in 2005, one of the lowest, if not the lowest, in the world (see
Figure 1). [4] The decline from 1.47 in 2000 to 1.17 in 2002 is the largest two-year drop
on record, far below the replacement level of2.1 children.Korea took just 16 years for
its fertility rate to drop from the replacement level of 2.1 in 1983 to 1.42 in 1999
compared with Japan (30 years) and the Netherlands (29 years). If the low birthrate
persists, as demographers anticipate, the National Statistical Ofce projects a total
population of 42.35 million in 2050, falling from the current 48.29 million.

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As a consequence, the proportion of the economically active population (15-64 year


olds), which was 61.4 per cent in 2003, will rise to 62.7 per cent in 2010 and 64.0 per
cent in 2020 before falling to as low as 53.7 per cent by 2050 (Donga ilbo 2005). This
portends a declining labor supply.According to a report by the Korea Labor Institute
(2005), Korea will face a severe labor shortage beginning in 2010. Assuming that Koreas
economic growth averages 4.5 per cent and that there will be an annual 1.51 per cent
increase in demand for labor during the next 15 years, there will be a shortage of
586,000 workers in 2015 and 1.23 million in 2020. A Bank of Korea estimate is even
higher, projecting a shortage of up to 4.8 million workers in 2020 (Bank of Korea 2006).
In addition to acute labor shortage, the low birthrate poses many economic
problems.Whether in the context of real estate or consumer spending, economic growth
and population have always been closely linked.In fact, Koreas remarkable economic
development of the last forty years was in part fueled by a large young cohort who
provided a sizeable labor pool (Lee, H. 1999, pp. 82-85). Other problems associated
with low birthrate are declining tax revenues for (IMF estimates for every one per cent
increase in the elderly population, there will be .46% deterioration in fscal balance),
declining savings rate, diminishing consumption, waning investment, and budget defcits
(government expenditure on the elderly in Korea is expected to soar from 2 per cent of
GDP in 2002 to 8.5 per cent in 2050).Also, pension funds can dry up and funding for
health insurance can become insufcient.

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This leaves Korea with little choice but to import increasing numbers of foreign
laborers.The Korean government may be forced to grant permanent resident status to
migrant workers in order to secure a stable supply of labor.The availability of a large
pool of migrants, coupled with the governments wish to mobilize foreign labor, will
facilitate a fow of migrants into Korea.
The expected increase in labor importation is not a welcome prospect for the
government, which remains fxated on the ideology of an ethnically homogenous
nation.Consequently, there have been active debates about extending the retirement
age of workers, although the current global fnancial crisis and the concomitant rise in
the unemployment of college graduates is putting a damper on the issue.The
government has also implemented various policies to facilitate a higher fertility
rate.These include: 1) an allowance to every pregnant mother for medical check-ups; 2)
free vaccinations to all newborns and free medical and dental check-ups until the age of
six; 3) childcare allowances for low-income families; 4) expansion of public childcare
facilities; 5) for low-income families, waiving monthly health insurance fees for newborns
until the age of fve; 6) subsidies for after-school programs for the children of lowincome families; and 6) incentives for companies to extend, and ofer more benefts for,
maternity leave. Public advertisements on television and in newspapers promote having
a larger number of children for each family.
Many local governments have introduced incentives to encourage more births.Some
provide childbirth allowances, such as a one-time payment of between one and three
million won for every second or third newborn, while some municipalities ofer gift
certifcates for families to buy clothes, diapers, baby food and other childcare supplies for
newborns.Some local governments provide state-hired babysitters for up to 30 days to
families giving birth to a third child.The babysitter service is also provided to low-income
families for children aged between three months to 12 years. To date, however, these
measures have failed to slow Koreas declining fertility rate.
Immigrant Brides: Bride Shortage and Increasing Intermarriage
In addition to the continuing infux of foreign laborers, there is yet another factor
conducive to the emergence of a multicultural Korea: the infux of foreign brides.As with
migrant laborers, the vast majority of foreign brides have come from Asian developing
countries .
The proportion of intermarriages in total marriages in Korea has jumped more than tenfold since 1990, accounting for nearly 14 per cent in 2005.This coincided with the
growing number of migrant workers in Korea (see Table 2).The soaring number of
international marriages is also due to a signifcant growth in the number of picture
brides from abroad.

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Korean men marry Vietnamese women in Vietnam


Rapid urbanization has largely drained the countryside of young women in search of
better educational and job opportunities.Many men in the countryside, on the other
hand, stayed behind to carry on family farming.These men have had great difculty in
fnding marriageable partners who were willing to give up the comfort of urban life to
marry farmers or fshermen.Unable to fnd brides in Korea, many looked outside the
country.In 2005, 35.9 per cent of rural men who married wed foreign brides from such
countries as China (ethnic Koreans), Vietnam, the Philippines, and even
Uzbekistan.[5]As Table 3 shows, most foreign brides are Asians with more than threefourths coming from China and Vietnam in recent years, attesting to increases in crossborder hypergamy.

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The number of foreign brides will rise signifcantly over the next decade, with Korean son
preference, which has led to a serious imbalance in favor of males since the late 1980s,
resulting in an acute shortage of brides.Table 4 reveals the seriousness of sex imbalance
in Korea:

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The data are even more startling for the birth-order-specifc sex ratios: the sex ratio at
birth for the familys third- and fourth-born children has hovered between 130 and 140
in Korea (see Park and Cho 1995).It goes without saying that such a skewed sex ratio
at birth has been obtained through sex-selective abortions.The proportion of married
women aged 20-44 years old who have had at least one induced abortion has been high:
39 per cent in 1976; 48 per cent in 1979; 52 per cent in 1988; 49 per cent in 1994; 44
per cent in 1997; and 40 per cent in 2003 (Korea Institute for Health and Social Afairs
1976-2003).
The normal sex ratio at birth is around 105, with extra males accruing rapidly, especially
between 1988 and 1996.As a consequence, Korea is facing a serious shortage of
brides.For example, the sex ratio of men and women in their most suitable years for
marriagei.e., 26-30 year old males and 24-28 year old femalesis expected to be
118.9 in 2010, 112.0 in 2020 and 116 in 2030 (National Statistical Ofce 2001).This
means that hundreds of thousands of males in their teens and early 20s will be unable to
fnd Korean wives.
The projected rise in intermarriage in Korea in the near future suggests that the nature
of intermarriage will change. While intermarriage to date has been largely limited to
farmers and blue-collar workers, it is likely to increasingly involve urbanites and even
college-educated white-collar workers.What is certain, consistent with international
marriage trends, is that Korean men with low incomes are less likely to fnd Korean
wives.
Korea is not alone when it comes to bride shortages.Other Asian countries with strong
son preference, particularly China and India, also face serious bride shortages.For
example, Chinas sex ratio at birth in 2005 was 118 and there are an estimated 30
million extra men in China. The number of extra males in India may be within the same
range (see Hudson and Den Boer 2005).As of 2002, other countries with high sex ratios
at birth were Guam with 114, Taiwan 110, China 109, and Singapore 108. What this
portends is increasing competition to lure brides in countries sufering from bride
shortages, particularly China, India, Korea, and Taiwan.
The Korean government has discouraged abortions in general and sex-selective
abortions in particular.In fact, abortion has been illegal in Korea, except in cases of
pregnancies resulting from rape or incest, involving deformities of fetuses, and
endangering the lives of pregnant women.And doctors are prohibited from informing the
mothers about the sex of the fetus.The harshest penalty for violating this law for
doctors is loss of their license to practice, but no doctor has ever been convicted to that
degree of penalty. Thus far no country has successfully prevented sex-select abortions.
The issue of bride migration in Korea is further complicated by the growing number of biethnic/bi-racial children from international marriages. Among the ofspring of interracial and inter-ethnic unions, the most numerous are ofspring of Korean individuals and
persons of other Asian heritage.They are called Kosians, with the prefx Ko deriving
from the term Korean and the sufx sians from the term Asians.Estimates vary,
but their number reportedly stood at around 50,000 as of the end of 2006.Nearly a third
of all children born in 2020 are expected to be Kosians and their accumulated total will
soar to 1.67 million or 3.3 per cent of the population by that year (JoongAng Daily
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2006). In addition, the number of bi-ethnic/bi-racial children in elementary and


secondary school reached 13,445 in 2007, up 68.1 per cent from the previous year
(7,998).The proportion of bi-ethnic/bi-racial children in total enrollment is expected to
rise to 16 per cent in 2118 and to more than 870,000 or 26 per cent in 2050.Elementary
textbooks will soon include a section on bi-ethnic/bi-racial children and multicultural
families, highlighting the need to understand their cultural backgrounds and to develop
more tolerant attitudes toward them.This is a major change from the emphasis on ethnic
homogeneity, which presented Korea as a consanguineous community comprised ofthe
descendants of one common ancestor.Major television networks have started to
program shows featuring immigrant brides and multicultural families.Evidently, Korean
society is starting to implement measures to accept the multicultural reality, at least for
those who share Korean blood.

Bi-ethnic and bi-racial children in Seoul


Multicultural Korea: Issues and Implications
This article sheds light on several important issues in the study of international
migration, and reveals many implications for broader theoretical debate in the
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feld.First, in congruence with neoclassical economics, those who come to Korea as


unskilled migrant workers are from developing countries, prompted by diferentials in
wages and employment conditions.Push-pull factors also play a role in prompting
international migration, including by foreign brides.Consonant with world systems
theory, international migration to Korea can be seen as an impact of economic
globalization in which an ever-increasing number of people are incorporated into the
world economy, ultimately engendering migration fows. The historical-structural
approach is also applicable, since Korea, having achieved remarkable economic
development in the last four decades, is utilizing labor importation/migration to mobilize
labor. In addition, hypergamy, i.e., marrying someone of higher status, is evident for
most of the foreign brides who marry Korean men, the vast majority coming from
relatively poorer countries in Asia.
The Korean case points to a new trend: the regionalization of international
migration.The infux of foreign workers and brides illustrates the growing predominance
of intra-Asian migration as opposed to the early postwar decades in which the primary
Korean migrant fows were to North America. The regions persisting economic
disparities and demographic diferentialsi.e., the declining labor supply due to rapid
aging in the more developed economies, and the large pool of the economically active
population in less developed countriessuggest that international migration will continue
.What will be diferent is that the destination will increasingly be within the Asian
region.As Asia further transforms itself as a region of growth and prosperity, intraregional immigration is likely to increase even more, given geographical proximity and
cultural similarities between the migrant-sending and migrant-receiving countries.The
increasing economic and cultural integration of the Asian region will facilitate this trend.
Conclusions
This paper has examined factors that are making Korea a multiethnic society, as the
infow of migrant workers addresses labor shortage resulting from rapid aging and low
fertility.The rapid rise in intermarriage, initially limited to farmers and blue-collar
workers, will proliferate into wider social classes as the decades-long practice of sonpreference results in a shortage of females.As a consequence, interracial and interethnic
births are on the rise.Taiwan, which seems to be ahead of Korea by about ten years in
experiencing labor importation and bride importation, provides a glimpse into changes
that are in store for Korea in the near future: cross-border marriages accounted for 20.1
per cent of total marriages in Taiwan in 2005 (the fgure reached its peak in 2003 when
it was 31.9 per cent), while births of bi-ethnic and bi-racial children accounted for 12.9
per cent of total births (Kojima 2006).
These patterns generally correspond to the fve general trends in international migration
identifed by Castles and Miller (2003, pp. 7-9): 1) the globalization of migrationmore
countries are afected by migration and migrants come from more diverse areas; 2) the
acceleration of migrationinternational migration of people is growing across the globe;
3) the diferentiation of migrationmost countries have a range of types of immigration,
including labor migration, refugees and permanent settlement; 4) the feminization of
migrationwomen are playing a greater role in most types of migration, in both labor
and marriage migration.; and 5) the growing politicization of migrationinternational
migration is having a greater impact on domestic politics and national security policies of
states as well as bilateral relationships among them.The growing multiethnic character
of Korea is consistent with broad trends of migration; the growth in the number of
migrant workers and foreign brides in Korea indicates the acceleration of migration; the
infux of foreigners into Korea began with migrant workers, but expanded to include
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foreign brides, illustrating the diferentiation of migration; in addition to the sizable


number of female migrant workers, the growing number of foreign brides is emblematic
of the feminization of migration; and the Korean governments monitoring of labor-and
bride-sending countries is indicative of the growing politicization of migration.
Despite all the indications that the country is rapidly becoming a multicultural society,
the Korean government still insists on almost zero-immigration.In contrast to such
immigration countries as the United States, Canada, and Australia that have extended
citizenship to many new residents and encouraged their integration and assimilation,
Korea remains a non-immigration country, much like Japan and many Western
European countries, its policy objectives centering on controlling infows, restricting longterm stays, discouraging permanent residence and limiting citizenship.
The current Lee Myung-bak government is continuing to promote the previous
administrations goal of changing policy toward foreigners from control and
management to understanding and respect.But if changes in law are to be efective,
there will have to be accompanying changes in the mindset and attitude of Koreans to
embrace the multiethnic society that is emerging.

Andrew Kim is an Associate Professor in the International Studies Division of Korea


University. He is the coauthor with John Lie of South Korea in 2007: Scandals and
Summits, Asian Survey, Jan-Feb, 2008 pp. 116123. This is a revised version of an
article published in Ethnic and Racial Studies Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 70-92. Published at the
Asia-Pacifc Journal on February 1, 2009.
Recommended citation: Andrew Eungi Kim, Demography, Migration and Multiculturalism
in South Korea The Asia-Pacifc Journal , Vol. 6-2-09, February 1, 2009.

Notes:
[1] Flows of immigration from Korea to Japan have been minimal in the post-WWII
period. A part of the reason for this is that Japan grants citizenship based on jus
sanguinis or the law of blood, meaning that it ascribes citizenship by blood, not by place
of birth (jus soli).This has made it difcult for Koreans in Japan to become full-fedged
citizens and the discriminations against them has become popularly known in Korea.
[2] The focus of this article is on temporary migrant workers in post-war Korea.The
earliest labor migration in modern Korean history actually took place at the turn of the
twentieth century.Between 1903 and 1905, more than 7,000 Koreans migrated to
Hawaii to work as laborers for sugar plantations.The contact between Koreans and
recruiters for Hawaiian sugar planters was largely provided by American missionaries
stationed in Korea at the time.These migrant workers came from a wide range of social
classes.Later, during the Japanese colonial period (1910-1945), hundreds of thousands
of Korean migrant workers were sent overseas by Japanese authorities to work in
mines and factories and many others migrated to Manchukuo.
[3] It must be noted that even before the government formally began implementing
labor-importing policies, a considerable number of transnational migrant workers were in
Korea.This was a result of the fact that the Korean government eased conditions for
tourist visas in preparations for the Asian Games in 1986 and the Seoul Olympics in
1988.
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[4] The reasons for the low fertility rate in Korea include the following: 1) people are
marrying at older ages due to longer schooling and working; 2) more people are staying
unmarried; 3) the stress of raising children, particularly due to education frenzy; 4) high
living costs; 5) high education costs (Koreas per capita private spending on education is
the second highest in the world after the United States); and 6) high childcare costs.A
noteworthy fact about the relationship between the low fertility rate and high living costs
is that Korean women with higher levels of educational attainment, hence higher socioeconomic class, actually have higher fertility rates (around 1.5 for women with college
education and less than 1 for those with elementary education).This is at odds with a
universal trend which shows that educational attainment is negatively correlated with
fertility rate, meaning that the higher the educational attainment, the lower the fertility
rate.
[5] Both of the patterns, i.e., migration of mainly unskilled Asian laborers and foreign
brides, took place earlier in Japan.

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Yeoh and Katie Willis (eds.), State/Nation/Transition: Perspectives on Transnationalism
in the Asia-Pacifc, New York: Routledge, pp. 67-92.
-- 2006 Intermarriage between Nepali migrant men and citizen women in Japan, a
paper presented in the conference entitled Cross-border Marriages with Asian
Characteristics? Transformational Marriages between Southeast and Northeast Asia,
October 20-21, 2006, Academia Sinica, Taiwan.

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Diplomaatia Countering Russias Hybrid Threats

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Diplomaatia Countering Russias Hybrid Threats

Countering Russias Hybrid Threats

Richard Weitz

Due to recent reforms and enlarged budgets, the Russian military


is now a stronger force with improved capabilities, equipment, and
tactics. Yet, the Ukraine confict shows that the most notable

Hybrid war: A fghter of the Donetsk


Peoples Republic near Novoazovsk.
Photo: TASS / Scanpix

manifestation of Russias increased military strength has been less the augmentation of Russias conventional
or nuclear capabilities and more Russias improved operational procedures--its strategy and tactics. In
particular, Russians have demonstrated increasing profciency in employing what are variously termed
asymmetric, unconventional, hybrid, non-linear, ambiguous, unrestricted, and next-generation
warfare tactics.
Defense analyst Frank Hoffman describes hybrid threats as: Any adversary that simultaneously employs a
tailored mix of conventional weapons, irregular tactics, terrorism, and criminal behavior in the same time and
battlespace to obtain their political objectives. In its 2011 Field Manual 3-0 Operations, the U.S. Army defned
the term as: The diverse and dynamic combination of regular forces, irregular forces, and/or criminal
elements all unifed to achieve mutually beneftting effects. Former U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates
observed that [t]he categories of warfare are blurring and no longer ft into neat, tidy boxes. One can expect
to see more tools and tactics of destruction from the sophisticated to the simple being employed
simultaneously in hybrid and more complex forms of warfare.
In recent years, Russian policy makers have skillfully mixed military and non-military tactics to achieve
geopolitical gains at the expense of the United States and its partners and allies. Recent Russian aggression
against the countrys neighbors has involved cyber attacks, information operations, psychological pressure,
media manipulation, economic threats, proxy actions, sophisticated propaganda, exploitation of ethnic strife,
and courting deliberate and accidental agents of infuence in foreign countries through infuence-buying and
framing issues in attractive ways to sympathetic audiences. While these tactics do not cause signifcant harm
individually, when combined they can weaken a country and prime it for invasion or insurrection.
The aggregate effect of employing these tools has also presented a potent hybrid mix that NATO and the
United States have found diffcult to counter. For example, Russian actions in Ukraine and elsewhere have
deliberately fallen below the threshold normally deemed necessary for invoking NATOs Article 5 collective
defense guarantee. Russian tactics have also exploited ambiguities to make it more diffcult for Western
leaders to reach a consensus that all these activities are orchestrated by Moscow or any other single

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Diplomaatia Countering Russias Hybrid Threats

aggressor.
Although some of the terms, tools, and techniques that Russia has employed are new, the concept of hybrid
warfare is not. At the start of World War II, German soldiers dressed in Polish uniforms and shot at regular
German forces to provide justifcation for Hitlers invasion of Poland. The Soviets would regularly establish
friendly governments of exiled communists and fellow-travelers to legitimize their foreign military invasions
and occupations. The Chinese have advanced a three warfares strategy that includes legal, media,
information, and psychological elements. Other malign actors are probably closely studying recent Russian
tactics with an eye to augmenting their own hybrid toolbox.
There is no explicit Russian government doctrine for hybrid warfare, but even before Moscows recent military
interventions, Russian strategists embraced information warfare, studied intensely how social forces can
affect security developments, and developed a refexive control concept that applied measures to lead an
adversary to refexively pursue actions sought by Moscow. In 2008, for instance, Russia may have induced
Georgian forces to launch an offensive against Russian proxies in South Ossetia, providing the Russian
government with its desired justifcation to invade Georgia. Russian leaders have in practice though not
explicitly joined the Obama administration in emphasizing a whole-of-government approach to generating
smart power tools for foreign policy. Russias Chief of the General Staff, Valery Gerasimov, explicitly stated
in 2013 that Moscow would apply the broad use of political, economic, informational, humanitarian, and other
nonmilitary measures supplemented by military means of a covert nature character, to achieve Russian
interests. In May 2014, Russian Defence Minister Sergei Shoygu told Arab military offcials that Russia
believed that the United States had engineered the Arab Spring and Euromaiden protests in Ukraine to gain
control of natural resources and subvert foreign governments. Shoygu stated that Russia would also engage
in information operations to counter U.S. and Western expansionism.
The Russian governments Ukraine campaign highlighted how Moscow orchestrates strategic communication,
psychological operations, psychological pressure, economic threats, and sub-military force as well as
conventional military power. In summary, Russias hybrid tactics on display in Ukraine and elsewhere have
included:
Information operations entailing a mix of propaganda, disinformation, diplomatic duplicity, media
manipulation, and outright falsehoods designed to confuse and divide opinion in the targeted state and
elsewhere (i.e., failing to keep pledges to deescalate a crisis). The subsequent ambiguous operating
environment makes it increasingly diffcult for Russias opponents to craft an effective counterstrategy or
mobilize support against Moscow. Russian information operations also exploit political, economic,
regional, ethnic, sectarian, social, and other divisions in the targeted state. For instance, information
campaigns vilify the non-Russian populations by claiming that they are disenfranchising the target states
ethnic Russians, highlighting real or fabricated injustices, and offering Russian support for protection of
their minority rights. A common tactic is to denounce local opposition groups as fascists and NAZI
sympathizers, while accusing these groups Western backers as seeking natural resources or social
revolutions designed to replace pro-Moscow governments with Western puppet regimes. In foreign
countries, Russian information operations try to win support among international peace groups, Russiale:///C|/Users/HACKERLINK/Desktop/Backupan/Diplomaatia Countering Russias Hybrid Threats.htm[4/25/2015 2:08:28 PM]

Diplomaatia Countering Russias Hybrid Threats

friendly media, supportive businesses, and right- and left-wing extremists opposed to NATO and Western
values. The Russian government also provides funding for pro-Russian NGOs, political parties, and
transnational criminal organizations in foreign countries to support proxy operations. The Russian
government has recently sought to gain sympathizers among Western social conservatives through
attacks on homosexual activists and other controversial social behavior in defense of conservative
Christian values. Within Russia, the government promotes nationalism in order to mobilize patriotic fervor
on behalf of the states actions. The media also exaggerates foreign threats to Russia to rally support
behind the government.
Psychological operations employing Russian-controlled media and agents of infuence in order to create
a narrative favorable to the Kremlin, incite subversive activity by the targeted states population through
controlled chaos, intimidate civilian support networks (such as military contractors), spur fows of
refugees, and create other distractions that weaken the targeted governments ability to resist Russian
actions. For example, the resurrection of the concept of Novorossiya gave pro-Russian Ukrainians a
new sense of legitimacy and identity that fortifed their separatist ambitions. Moscows actions target a
part of a country in a way that threatens escalation to the entire country if the government resists
Russian gains.
Covert deliveries of weapons to pro-Russian fghters under the guise of rendering help to distressed
populations. This tactic involves rendering relief aid to territories in which Russia has created the
conditions for a humanitarian crisis in the frst place, thereby allowing Moscow to provide both bullets
and bandages. Moreover, when the targeted government objects to the Russian deliveries on its territory
without its permission, Moscow shows that it can ignore the foreign governments wishes. Russia also
relies on direct arms sales and purchases to infuence foreign actors.
Economic destabilization involving formal sanctions, Russian-induced labor stoppages, transnational
criminal organizations, threats to cut energy sales and other vital commercial ties, and additional implicit
or explicit economic coercion designed to weaken the targeted population and deter external intervention
on its behalf. Russian offcials have also consistently warned about the high mutual costs of economic
sanctions and publicly denigrated the effectiveness of foreign sanctions. Furthermore, Russia can
supplement these coercive measures by offering others positive incentives to cooperate with Russia,
such as purchasing the Mistral amphibious ships from France, offering lucrative investment opportunities
to foreign businesses, or subsidizing energy sales to foreign countries.
The employment of paramilitary proxies such as little green men (undeclared Russian military
personnel operating without insignia or offcial affliation), retired Russian military personnel, active duty
Russian soldiers on vacation and other Russian volunteers who join local irregular units, self-declared
Cossack fghters, and other regional militants including criminal gangs. They engage in rapid localized
actions that present others with fait accompli and, through staged incidents of supposed attacks against
Russian interests or humanitarian crises, justify more direct Russian military intervention in addition to
diplomatic, logistical, and other non-military support. Russias elite commandos (Spetsnaz) can organize
and lead these irregular groups as well as hinder the movement of enemy forces, seize control of key
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Diplomaatia Countering Russias Hybrid Threats

infrastructure, and conduct provocateur operations such as dressing as local ethnic Russians and
provoking non-ethnic Russians. Russians can also infltrate the civil society institutions and local security
forces of a targeted state.
Seeking partial deniability by employing Russian soldiers irregularly, patriotic Russian hackers not
belonging to government agencies, and other groups not formally part of the Russian government or
armed forces. The intent is to allow Russian offcials to deny direct responsibility for the disorders in the
targeted country while making evident to select audiences that there is some offcial Russian involvement
in the disorders that could escalate if provoked, thereby deterring countermeasures by the targeted
government or by third parties.
Employing force feints that use exercises, troop deployments, and other military activities to intimidate
countries, disrupt the targeted states military response (i.e., forcing the Ukrainians to disperse their
forces and bring air defenses that have no use in fghting the pro-Russian separatists), and deter
intervention by third parties through threats of escalation. If another state bordering Russia confronts a
Moscow-backed separatist movement, then that state cannot apply its full military potential against the
rebels but would have to hold some troops back either to avoid provoking Moscow or to prevent Russian
troops from attacking them where and when they are most vulnerable (near Russia and engaged with
Russian proxies, as with Russias last-minute counteroffensive in Ukraine in late August which shattered
Ukrainian forces and saved the separatists from imminent defeat). The mobilization of Russian military
power near a target country also positions Russia to intervene more effectively if necessary, as the
exercises enable Russian forces to launch conventional operations with less warning time. The shadow
of escalation also makes Russias non-military subversion efforts more effective. Without the risk of
potential Russian military intervention, a targeted government could more easily suppress pro-Russian
proxies and Russias little green men by applying its full police powers and conventional force against
them. But in Ukraine, the governments response was limited to avoid giving Russia a pretext for
escalation to direct intervention, which nevertheless did occur when the pro-Russian insurgency
performed poorly. Russian leaders mistakenly expected more Russian Ukrainians to join the uprising or
the insurgents to fght better. Instead, the Russian government had to expand its direct intervention over
time by providing more equipment and training to the insurgents and increasing the number of Russian
volunteers who eventually reinforced them. Russia also used its air defense systems to establish a de
facto no-fy-zone over eastern Ukraine and engaged in military (including nuclear) exercises during the
Ukraine confict. Nonetheless, Moscow would generally like to avoid, or at least conceal and minimize
under the cover of conducting military exercises or humanitarian interventions, any conventional military
campaigns in foreign countries.
Tactically shifting between offensive and defensive postures designed to keep the targeted state and its
foreign supporters off guard and force them to remain reactive rather than engage in proactive moves.
To maintain the initiative in Ukraine, Russian offcials have accused their opponents of taking
destabilizing and aggressive actions in what former NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen
termed a smokescreen designed to cover up Russia's own broken promises, interference and

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Diplomaatia Countering Russias Hybrid Threats

escalation. Russian media outlets also promote conspiracy theories to discredit Western motives and
actions, claiming for instance that the West (not Russia) violates international law, threatens Russia by
expanding NATO, promoted social revolutions to subvert pro-Moscow regimes, and builds missile
defenses to counter Russia under the pretext of protecting against Iran. Russian information organs also
promote the notion that Russians are paranoid about their security needs so it would be best for foreign
governments to avoid taking strong actions that could result in irrational Russian escalation. Moreover,
Russia has sometimes paused its aggression by, as in Ukraine, offering a compromise after the
successful initial campaign reached its culminating point, thus allowing Russia to keep the Crimea under
its control while temporarily freezing the confict in eastern Ukraine. Russia gains additional leverage by
positioning itself to unfreeze the confict at any time. For example, Russian offcials might reignite the
separatist conficts in Georgia, Moldova, or Ukraine should any of these countries try to join NATO.
Cyber attacks against critical public and private infrastructure networks that delay and disrupt the targets
response to Russian actions, along with cyber disruptions or other anti-access attacks against NATO
communications, information, and other critical networks. The uncertain consequences of launching
major cyber attacks has thus far limited Moscows use of cyber weapons, but, as with Russias unused
nuclear arsenal, Russia hopes to exploit its possession of these weapons (with their potential to infict
catastrophic damage on a target) to deter Western actions against Russia and its proxies. Another
constraint of Moscows inclination to disrupt foreign information networks is that Russia employs cyber
tools to supplement other data collection methods, ranging from reading public sources to espionage
activities by Russian agents.
The Russian strategy of refexive control, which was seen most clearly in Georgia in 2008, when the
South Ossetian government was staffed by many Russians, one of whom was the minister of defense.
Presumably with Russian approval and perhaps following Moscows instructions, the South Ossetians
escalated their local confict with Georgian authorities in the summer of 2008 to the point that Georgia
was compelled to mobilize its forces in response to a threatened South Ossetian offensive and to launch
a major campaign to reconquer the region. At this stage, the Russians exploited the Georgians refexive
defensive act--which they indirectly provoked via their proxies in the frst place--to justify their own
mobilization and movement southward. Consequently, the Georgians were forced to launch a desperate
all-out assault on the South Ossetian capital of Tskhinvali in the hope of seizing it before the Russians
could arrive. While Georgian forces succeeded in taking the city, their apparent victory quickly turned to
defeat as Russia used it as an excuse for the outright invasion of the country.
Russia seems to be applying refexive control in a similar manner in Ukraine. The rebels were at frst
bolstered by Russian volunteers, all of whom were allowed to travel to the warzone unmolested by the
Russian government, many of whom may have been armed by the Russian government, and some of whom
may even be Russian soldiers or intelligence personnel. These proxy forces overran much of the Donbass,
forcing Ukraine to launch a so-called counter-terrorist operation in response, which was certain to infict
civilian casualties and further alienate many of its own citizens. While Russia denied repeated pleas from the
self-proclaimed Peoples Republics of Donetsk and Lugansk for the deployment of peacekeepers, the

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Diplomaatia Countering Russias Hybrid Threats

passage of independence referendums in the two breakaway regions on May 11, followed by their next-day
request for annexation by Russia, offered Moscow the excuse that it needed to intervene. Although less
visible and more indirectly than in South Ossetia--and with an apparent pause in the hopes that the rebels
could defeat the Ukrainian government without an overly large Russian military footprint--the Russian
government created a war via proxy and provoked its opponent into attacking that proxy, thus giving it the
excuse to ride in to the rescue in late August, smashing the Ukrainian forces as they were about to liquidate
the remaining rebel strongholds and opening up a new front in southern Ukraine in territory that would
connect the recently occupied Crimea Peninsula with the Russian Federation.
These new tactics have presented NATO planners with a major challenge. On the one hand, they must still
prepare to fght a limited conventional war against Russia in Europe. This is an improbable but not impossible
occurrence. Despite the risks, if Russia were able to threaten a NATO member militarily without triggering an
adequate collective NATO response, it could shatter members faith in the alliance and its Article 5 security
guarantees. On the other hand, U.S. and NATO planners must respond to ambiguous Russian threats whose
nature makes it hard to achieve a political consensus among all 28 members for launching a vigorous
response. Through the EU and other coordinating mechanisms, Western governments have proven willing to
apply sanctions against Russia, but Western leaders generally resist enduring major economic costs on their
own businesses and voters to infict pain on other countries. The transience and ineffectiveness of many
previous Western sanctions campaigns against Russia, such as those imposed after the Russia-Georgia War
in 2008, likely discourages Russian leaders from making major concessions to end the sanctions. Russians
can also hope to work with Western groups, such as businesses with interests in Russia, to dilute or
circumvent those sanctions that the West does adopt.
Looking ahead, the United States and its allies and partners need to consider how to better respond to
Russias hybrid threats. For example, NATO could partner with other organizations more effective for dealing
with specifc non-military hybrid techniques, such as collaborating with the EU to promote energy
independence, minority rights, and political reform. NATO members might more readily use Article 5 if they
understood that the alliances response can involve measures other than a direct military response, which
could be reserved only for responding to extremely damaging attacks. The United States and other NATO
members might develop unifed national security budgets to accompany the separate defense, state, etc.,
budgets generated by their individual departments and ministries to ensure that they adequately fund the nonmilitary capabilities needed to counter Russian hybrid tacticssuch as the U.S. public diplomacy conducted
by the Voice of America and the RFE/RL. The United States might also revisit the 1999 decision (made
primarily as a political compromise between the Clinton administration and congressional conservatives when
the propaganda tools of Russia, China, and other countries were much weaker) to eliminate the U.S.
Information Agency. In principle, NATO can employ cyber countermeasures against an aggressor, provide
paramilitary forces such as gendarmerie for battling proxy forces, and conduct counterinformation campaigns.
Furthermore, by focusing more on the ends of aggressive action, rather than the means, the allies could
more readily employ Articles 4 and 5 to deter further aggression.
In terms of military power, if more NATO forces are able to rapidly deploy to subversion-susceptible front-line

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Diplomaatia Countering Russias Hybrid Threats

states, they can give a targeted countrys armed forces a shield behind which they can concentrate on
suppressing a Russian-backed insurgency without worrying as much about triggering direct Russian
intervention. At its recent Wales summit, NATO announced that it will take some steps to achieve these
capabilities, but their implementation has only just begun. For example, NATOs recently launched
spearhead force can be more rapidly deployed in Eastern Europe, but the new force needs to be adequately
resourced.
Furthermore, Russias activities, especially its willingness to employ conventional military force and violate
arms control treaties, have implications for U.S. and NATO nuclear policies. In addition to raising the
readiness of Russian air defenses near eastern Ukraine and making other conventional military preparations
to intervene in Ukraine, Russian offcials, including President Putin, made implicit threats to counter NATO
military responses and to reinforce Russian control over the Crimea by bringing it under Russias nuclear
umbrella. Therefore, Western policy makers need to address NATOs nuclear policies less as an arms control
and alliance management issue and consider more the operational and deterrence implications of their
nuclear policies.

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EU - Photos and All Basic Informations

Contents 1 History 1.1 Structural evolution 2 Geography 2.1 Member states 2.2 Environment 3 Politics 3.1 Constitutional nature 3.2 Governance 3.2.1 European Council 3.2.2 European Commission 3.2.3 European Parliament 3.2.4
Council of the European Union 3.3 Budget 3.4 Competences 4 Legal system 4.1 Courts of Justice 4.2 Fundamental rights 4.3 Acts 5 Area of freedom, security and justice 6 Foreign relations 6.1 Military 6.2 Humanitarian aid 7 Economy 7.1
Internal market 7.2 Competition 7.3 Monetary union 7.4 Energy 7.5 Infrastructure 7.6 Agriculture 8 Demographics 8.1 Languages 8.2 Religion 8.3 Education and science 8.4 Health care 9 Culture 9.1 Sport 9.2 Symbols 10 See also 11
Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

History Main articles: History of the European Union and History of Europe Play media Robert Schuman proposing the Coal and Steel Community on 9 May 1950. After World War II, moves towards European integration were seen by
many as an escape from the extreme forms of nationalism that had devastated the continent.[26] The 1948 Hague Congress was a pivotal moment in European federal history, as it led to the creation of the European Movement
International and also of the College of Europe, a place where Europe's future leaders would live and study together.[27] 1952 saw the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community, which was declared to be "a frst step in the
federation of Europe", starting with the aim of eliminating the possibility of further wars between its member states by means of pooling the national heavy industries.[28] The founding members of the Community were Belgium,
France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The originators and supporters of the Community include Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Paul-Henri Spaak.[29] The continental territories of the
member states of the European Union (European Communities pre-1993), coloured in order of accession. In 1957, the six countries signed the Treaty of Rome, which extended the earlier co-operation within the European Coal and
Steel Community (ECSC) and created the European Economic Community (EEC), establishing a customs union. They also signed another treaty on the same day creating the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for cooperation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958.[29] The EEC and Euratom were created separately from ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The executives of the new
communities were called Commissions, as opposed to the "High Authority". The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein (Hallstein Commission) and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand (Armand Commission) and then tienne Hirsch.
Euratom would integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union between members.[30][31] Throughout the 1960s, tensions began to show with France seeking to limit supranational power. However,
in 1965, an agreement was reached and hence in 1967, the Merger Treaty was signed in Brussels. It came into force on 1 July 1967 and created a single set of institutions for the three communities, which were collectively referred to as
the European Communities.[32][33] Jean Rey presided over the frst merged Commission (Rey Commission).[34] In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the union to expand further. (Berlin Wall) In 1973, the Communities enlarged to
include Denmark (including Greenland, which later left the Community in 1985, following a dispute over fshing rights), Ireland, and the United Kingdom.[35] Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters
rejected membership in a referendum. In 1979, the frst direct, democratic elections to the European Parliament were held.[36] Greece joined in 1981; Portugal and Spain in 1986.[37] In 1985, the Schengen Agreement led the way
toward the creation of open borders without passport controls between most member states and some non-member states.[38] In 1986, the European fag began to be used by the Community[39] and the Single European Act was
signed. The euro was introduced in 2002, replacing 12 national currencies. Seven countries have since joined; the latest entrant, Lithuania, in 2015. In 1990, after the fall of the Eastern Bloc, the former East Germany became part of the
Community as part of a reunited Germany.[40] With further enlargement planned for former communist states, Cyprus, and Malta, the Copenhagen criteria for candidate members to join the EU were agreed upon in June 1993. The
European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treatywhose main architects were Helmut Kohl and Franois Mitterrandcame into force on 1 November 1993.[16] The treaty also gave the name European community
to the EEC, even if it was referred as such before the treaty. In 1995, Austria, Finland, and Sweden joined the EU. In 2002, euro banknotes and coins replaced national currencies in 12 of the member states. Since then, the eurozone has
increased to encompass 19 countries. In 2004, the EU saw its biggest enlargement to date when Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia joined the Union.[41] Europe Day in
Warsaw, Poland, a celebration of the European integration and peace between the European nations, awarded with the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize. On 1 January 2007, Romania and Bulgaria became EU members. In the same year,
Slovenia adopted the euro,[41] followed in 2008 by Cyprus and Malta, by Slovakia in 2009, by Estonia in 2011, by Latvia in 2014 and by Lithuania in 2015. In June 2009, the European Parliament elections were held, leading to the second
Barroso Commission, and by July, Iceland formally applied for EU membership, but has since suspended negotiations. On 1 December 2009, the Lisbon Treaty entered into force and reformed many aspects of the EU. In particular, it
changed the legal structure of the European Union, merging the EU three pillars system into a single legal entity provisioned with a legal personality, created a permanent President of the European Council, the frst of which was
Herman Van Rompuy, and strengthened the High Representative, Catherine Ashton.[42] In 2012 the Union received the Nobel Peace Prize for having "contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy, and
human rights in Europe."[43][44] On 1 July 2013, Croatia became the 28th EU member.[45][46][47] Structural evolution Main article: Treaties of the European Union The following timeline illustrates the integration that has led to the
formation of the present union, in terms of structural development driven by international treaties: Signed In force Document 1948 1948 Brussels Treaty 1951 1952 Paris Treaty 1954 1955 Modifed Brussels Treaty 1957 1958 Rome
treaties 1965 1967 Merger Treaty 1975 N/A European Council conclusion 1985 1985 Schengen Treaty 1986 1987 Single European Act 1992 1993 Maastricht Treaty 1997 1999 Amsterdam Treaty 2001 2003 Nice Treaty 2007 2009 Lisbon
Treaty Three pillars of the European Union: EuropeanCommunities: European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty expired in 2002 European Union (EU)
European Economic Community (EEC) Schengen Rules European Community (EC) TREVI Justice and Home Afairs (JHA) Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC) European Political Cooperation(EPC)
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) Unconsolidated bodies Western European Union (WEU) Treaty terminated in 2011 v t e

Geography Main article: Geography of the European Union The 65,993km (41,006mi) coastline dominates the European climate (Cyprus). Mont Blanc in the Alps is the highest peak in the union. The EU's member states cover an area of
4,423,147 square kilometres (1,707,787sqmi).[c] The EU's highest peak is Mont Blanc in the Graian Alps, 4,810.45 metres (15,782ft) above sea level.[48] The lowest point(s) in the EU is Lammeforden (Denmark) and Zuidplaspolder
(Netherlands), at 7m (23ft) below sea level.[49] The landscape, climate, and economy of the EU are infuenced by its coastline, which is 65,993 kilometres (41,006mi) long. Including the overseas territories of France which are located
outside the continent of Europe, but which are members of the union, the EU experiences most types of climate from Arctic (North-East Europe) to tropical (French Guyana), rendering meteorological averages for the EU as a whole
meaningless. The majority of the population lives in areas with a temperate maritime climate (North-Western Europe and Central Europe), a Mediterranean climate (Southern Europe), or a warm summer continental or hemiboreal
climate (Northern Balkans and Central Europe).[50] The EU's population is highly urbanised, with some 75% of inhabitants (and growing, projected to be 90% in seven member states by 2020) living in urban areas. Cities are largely
spread out across the EU, although with a large grouping in and around the Benelux. An increasing percentage of this is due to low density urban sprawl which is extending into natural areas. In some cases, this urban growth has been
due to the infux of EU funds into a region.[51] Member states Main article: Member state of the European Union The following 28 sovereign states (of which the map only shows territories situated in and around Europe) constitute the
union:[52] Ireland United Kingdom France Netherlands Germany Denmark Poland Lithuania Latvia Estonia Finland Sweden Czech Republic Austria Hungary Romania Bulgaria Greece Slovakia Slovenia Croatia Italy Belgium Luxembourg
Portugal Spain Malta Cyprus Name Capital Accession Population[53] Area (km2) Austria Vienna 01995-01-01-00001 Jan 1995 70068451900000000008,451,900 700483855000000000083,855 Belgium Brussels 01957-03-25Founder
700711161600000000011,161,600 700430528000000000030,528 Bulgaria Sofa 02007-01-01-00001 Jan 2007 70067284600000000007,284,600 7005110994000000000110,994 Croatia Zagreb 02013-07-01-00001 Jul 2013
70064262100000000004,262,100 700456594000000000056,594 Cyprus Nicosia 02004-05-01-00001 May 2004 7005865900000000000865,900 70039251000000000009,251 Czech Republic Prague 02004-05-01-00001 May 2004
700710516100000000010,516,100 700478866000000000078,866 Denmark Copenhagen 01973-01-01-00001 Jan 1973 70065602600000000005,602,600 700443075000000000043,075 Estonia Tallinn 02004-05-01-00001 May 2004
70061324800000000001,324,800 700445227000000000045,227 Finland Helsinki 01995-01-01-00001 Jan 1995 70065426700000000005,426,700 7005338424000000000338,424 France Paris 01957-03-25Founder
700765633200000000065,633,200 7005674843000000000674,843 Germany Berlin 01957-03-25Founder[d] 700780523700000000080,523,700 7005357021000000000357,021 Greece Athens 01981-01-01-00001 Jan 1981
700711062500000000011,062,500 7005131990000000000131,990 Hungary Budapest 02004-05-01-00001 May 2004 70069908800000000009,908,800 700493030000000000093,030 Ireland Dublin 01973-01-01-00001 Jan 1973
70064591100000000004,591,100 700470273000000000070,273 Italy Rome 01957-03-25Founder 700759685200000000059,685,200 7005301338000000000301,338 Latvia Riga 02004-05-01-00001 May 2004
70062023800000000002,023,800 700464589000000000064,589 Lithuania Vilnius 02004-05-01-00001 May 2004 70062971900000000002,971,900 700465200000000000065,200 Luxembourg Luxembourg 01957-03-25Founder
7005537000000000000537,000 70032586400000000002,586.4 Malta Valletta 02004-05-01-00001 May 2004 7005421400000000000421,400 7002316000000000000316 Netherlands Amsterdam 01957-03-25Founder
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700716779600000000016,779,600 700441543000000000041,543 Poland Warsaw 02004-05-01-00001 May 2004 700738533300000000038,533,300 7005312685000000000312,685 Portugal Lisbon 01986-01-01-00001 Jan 1986
700710487300000000010,487,300 700492390000000000092,390 Romania Bucharest 02007-01-01-00001 Jan 2007 700720057500000000020,057,500 7005238391000000000238,391 Slovakia Bratislava 02004-05-01-00001 May 2004
70065410800000000005,410,800 700449035000000000049,035 Slovenia Ljubljana 02004-05-01-00001 May 2004 70062058800000000002,058,800 700420273000000000020,273 Spain Madrid 01986-01-01-00001 Jan 1986
700746704300000000046,704,300 7005504030000000000504,030 Sweden Stockholm 01995-01-01-00001 Jan 1995 70069555900000000009,555,900 7005449964000000000449,964 United Kingdom London 01973-01-01-00001 Jan
1973 700763730100000000063,730,100 7005243610000000000243,610 Through successive enlargements, the Union has grown from the six founding states Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands
to the current 28. Countries accede to the union by becoming party to the founding treaties, thereby subjecting themselves to the privileges and obligations of EU membership. This entails a partial delegation of sovereignty to the
institutions in return for representation within those institutions, a practice often referred to as "pooling of sovereignty".[54][55] To become a member, a country must meet the Copenhagen criteria, defned at the 1993 meeting of the
European Council in Copenhagen. These require a stable democracy that respects human rights and the rule of law; a functioning market economy; and the acceptance of the obligations of membership, including EU law. Evaluation of
a country's fulflment of the criteria is the responsibility of the European Council.[56] No member state has ever left the Union, although Greenland (an autonomous province of Denmark) withdrew in 1985.[57] The Lisbon Treaty now
contains a clause providing for a member to leave the EU.[58] There are six countries which are recognized as candidates for membership: Albania, Iceland, Macedonia,[e] Montenegro, Serbia, and Turkey.[59] However, on 13 June 2013,
Iceland's Foreign Minister, Gunnar Bragi Sveinsson, informed the European Commission that the newly elected government intended to "put negotiations on hold".[60] Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo are ofcially recognised as
potential candidates,[59] but have not submitted membership applications. Due to the lack of recognition by fve of the 28 EU member states, the European Commission refers only to "Kosovo*", with an asterisked footnote containing
the text agreed to by the BelgradePristina negotiations: "This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo Declaration of Independence." Four countries
forming the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) (that are not EU members) have partly committed to the EU's economy and regulations: Iceland (a candidate country for EU membership), Liechtenstein and Norway, which are a part
of the single market through the European Economic Area, and Switzerland, which has similar ties through bilateral treaties.[61][62] The relationships of the European microstates, Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, and the Vatican include
the use of the euro and other areas of co-operation.[63] Environment Further information: European Commissioner for the Environment and European Climate Change Programme Viru Bog in Lahemaa National Park in Estonia, a
protected habitat under the Habitats Directive In 1957, when the EU was founded, it had no environmental policy, no environmental bureaucracy, and no environmental laws.[64] Today, the EU has some of the most progressive
environmental policies of any state in the world. The environmental policy of the EU has therefore developed in remarkable fashion in the past four decades. An increasingly dense network of legislation has emerged, which now
extends to all areas of environmental protection, including: air pollution control, water protection, waste management, nature conservation, and the control of chemicals, biotechnology and other industrial risks.[65] The Institute for
European Environmental Policy estimates the body of EU environmental law amounts to well over 500 Directives, Regulations and Decisions.[66] Environmental policy has thus become a core area of European politics. Such dynamic
developments are surprising in light of the legal and institutional conditions which existed in the late 1950s and 60s.[67] Acting without any legislative authority, European policy-makers initially increased the EU's capacity to act by
defning environmental policy as a trade problem. The most important reason for the introduction of a common environmental policy was the fear that trade barriers and competitive distortions in the Common Market could emerge
due to the diferent environmental standards.[68] However, in the course of time, EU environmental policy emerged as a formal policy area, with its own policy actors, policy principles and procedures. The legal basis of EU
environmental policy was not more explicitly established until the introduction of the Single European Act in 1987.[66] The Black Stork, an Annex A protected species under Regulation (EC) No. 338/97 Initially, EU environmental policy
was rather introspective. More recently, however, the Union has demonstrated a growing leadership in global environmental governance. The role of the EU in securing the ratifcation and entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol in the
face of US opposition is an example in this regard. This international dimension is refected in the EU's Sixth Environmental Action Programme, which recognises that its strategic objectives can only be achieved if a series of key
international environmental agreements are actively supported and properly implemented both at an EU level and worldwide. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty further strengthens the EU's global environmental leadership
ambitions.[69] The vast body of EU environmental law which now exists has played a vital role in improving habitat and species protection in Europe as well as contributed to improvements in air and water quality and waste
management.[66] However, signifcant challenges remain, both to meet existing EU targets and aspirations and to agree new targets and actions that will further improve the environment and the quality of life in Europe and beyond.
One of the top priorities of EU environmental policy is combatting climate change. In 2007, member states agreed that the EU is to use 20% renewable energy in the future and that it has to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in 2020 by
at least 20% compared to 1990 levels.[70] This includes measures that in 2020, 10% of the overall fuel quantity used by cars and trucks in EU 27 should be running on renewable energy such as biofuels. This is considered to be one of
the most ambitious moves of an important industrialised region to fght climate change.[71] The EU recently adopted an emissions trading system to incorporate carbon emissions into the economy.[72] The European Green Capital is
an annual award that is given to cities that focuses in the environement, energy efciency and quality of life in urban areas to create smart city.

Politics Main article: Politics of the European Union Political system of the European Union The EU operates within those competencies conferred on it by the treaties and according to the principle of subsidiarity (which dictates that
action by the EU should only be taken where an objective cannot be sufciently achieved by the member states alone). Laws made by the EU institutions are passed in a variety of forms. Generally speaking, they can be classifed into
two groups: those which come into force without the necessity for national implementation measures and those which specifcally require national implementation measures.[73] Constitutional nature Further information: Treaties of
the European Union The classifcation of the European Union in terms of international or constitutional law has been much debated, often in the light of the degree of integration that is perceived, desired, or expected. Historically, at
least, the EU is an international organisation, and by some criteria, it could be classifed as a confederation; but it also has many attributes of a federation, so some would classify it as a (de facto) federation of states.[74][75][76] For this
reason, the organisation has, in the past, been termed sui generis (incomparable, one of a kind), though it is also argued that this designation is no longer true.[77][78] The organisation itself has traditionally used the terms
"community", and later "union". The difculties of classifcation involve the diference between national law (where the subjects of the law include natural persons and corporations) and international law (where the subjects include
sovereign states and international organisations); they can also be seen in the light of difering European and American constitutional traditions.[77] Especially in terms of the European constitutional tradition, the term federation is
equated with a sovereign federal state in international law; so the EU cannot be called a federal state or federationat least, not without qualifcation. Though not, strictly, a federation, it is more than a free-trade association.[79] It is,
however, described as being based on a federal model or federal in nature. Walter Hallstein, in the original German edition of Europe in the Making called it "an unfnished federal state".[80] The German Constitutional Court refers to the
European Union as an association of sovereign states and afrms that making the EU a federation would require replacement of the German constitution.[81] Others claim that it will not develop into a federal state but has reached
maturity as an international organisation.[82] Governance Main articles: Institutions of the European Union and Legislature of the European Union The European Union has seven institutions: the European Parliament, the Council of the
European Union, the European Commission, the European Council, the European Central Bank, the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Auditors. Competencies in scrutinising and amending legislation are
divided between the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union while executive tasks are carried out by the European Commission and in a limited capacity by the European Council (not to be confused with the
aforementioned Council of the European Union). The monetary policy of the eurozone is governed by the European Central Bank. The interpretation and the application of EU law and the treaties are ensured by the Court of Justice of
the European Union. The EU budget is scrutinised by the European Court of Auditors. There are also a number of ancillary bodies which advise the EU or operate in a specifc area. European Council The President of the European
Council, Donald Tusk European Union This article is part of a series on the politicsandgovernment oftheEuropeanUnion Parliament President Martin Schulz Largest groups; EPP (Manfred Weber) S&D (Gianni Pittella) 8th session (201419) 751 MEPs Bureau Vice Presidents Quaestor Conference Legislative procedure European Council President Donald Tusk Parties List of meetings Council of the European Union Presidency Latvia Confgurations General Foreign Justice
and Home Economic Euro Legislative procedure Voting Secretariat Secretary-General Uwe Corsepius Directorates-general COREPER Commission Juncker Comm. President Jean-Claude Juncker Vice Presidents Frans Timmermans
Federica Mogherini Kristalina Georgieva Jyrki Katainen Valdis Dombrovskis Andrus Ansip Maro efovi Commissioners Civil Service Secretary-General Catherine Day Court of Justice Court of Justice General Court Civil Service
Tribunal Members Rulings Central Bank Central Bank President ESCB Euro EMU Eurozone Court of Auditors Court of Auditors Budget OLAF Agencies Other bodies Investment Bank CoR EESC Ombudsman National parliaments Policies
and issues Budget Four Freedoms Economic area Single market Area of FS&J Schengen Policies Agricultural Energy Fisheries Regional Citizenship Identity Pro-Europeanism Euroscepticism Integration Supranationalism Federalism
United States of Europe Multi-speed Opt-outs Enhanced co-op Withdrawal Foreign relations High Representative Federica Mogherini Ext. Action Service Foreign Policy Defence Policy Enlargement Elections 1979, 1984, 1989 1994, 1999,
2004, 2009 2014 (last election) Political parties Constituencies Referendums Law Acquis Primacy Subsidiarity Treaties Fundamental Rights Membership v t e The European Council gives direction to the EU, and convenes at least four
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times a year. It comprises the President of the European Council, the President of the European Commission and one representative per member state; either its head of state or head of government. The European Council has been
described by some as the Union's "supreme political authority".[83] It is actively involved in the negotiation of the treaty changes and defnes the EU's policy agenda and strategies. The European Council uses its leadership role to sort
out disputes between member states and the institutions, and to resolve political crises and disagreements over controversial issues and policies. It acts externally as a "collective head of state" and ratifes important documents (for
example, international agreements and treaties).[84] On 19 November 2009, Herman Van Rompuy was chosen as the frst permanent President of the European Council. On 1 December 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force and
he assumed ofce. Ensuring the external representation of the EU,[85] driving consensus and settling divergences among members are tasks for the President both during the convocations of the European Council and in the time
periods between them. The European Council should not be mistaken for the Council of Europe, an international organisation independent from the EU. European Commission The Commission President, Jean-Claude Juncker The
European Commission acts as the EU's executive arm and is responsible for initiating legislation and the day-to-day running of the EU. The Commission is also seen as the motor of European integration. It operates as a cabinet
government, with 28 Commissioners for diferent areas of policy, one from each member state, though Commissioners are bound to represent the interests of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. One of the 28 is the
Commission President (currently Jean-Claude Juncker) appointed by the European Council. After the President, the most prominent Commissioner is the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Afairs and Security Policy who is
ex-ofcio Vice-President of the Commission and is chosen by the European Council too.[86] The other 26 Commissioners are subsequently appointed by the Council of the European Union (also known as the Council of Ministers) in
agreement with the nominated President. The 28 Commissioners as a single body are subject to a vote of approval by the European Parliament. European Parliament The hemicycle of the parliamentary building in Brussels The
European Parliament forms one half of the EU's legislature (the other half is the Council of the European Union, see below). The 751 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are directly elected by EU citizens every fve years on the
basis of proportional representation. Although MEPs are elected on a national basis, they sit according to political groups rather than their nationality. Each country has a set number of seats and is divided into sub-national
constituencies where this does not afect the proportional nature of the voting system.[87] The ordinary legislative procedure of the union The Parliament and the Council of the European Union pass legislation jointly in nearly all areas
under the ordinary legislative procedure. This also applies to the EU budget. Finally, the Commission is accountable to Parliament, requiring its approval to take ofce, having to report back to it and subject to motions of censure from it.
The President of the European Parliament carries out the role of speaker in parliament and represents it externally. The EP President and Vice-Presidents are elected by MEPs every two and a half years.[88] Council of the European Union
The Council of the European Union (also called the "Council"[89] and sometimes referred to as the "Council of Ministers")[90] forms the other half of the EU's legislature. It consists of a government minister from each member state and
meets in diferent compositions depending on the policy area being addressed. Notwithstanding its diferent confgurations, it is considered to be one single body.[91] In addition to its legislative functions, the Council also exercises
executive functions in relations to the Common Foreign and Security Policy. Budget Main article: Budget of the European Union The 2011 EU budget (141.9 bn. in total; commitment appropriations):[92] Cohesion and
competitiveness for growth and employment (45%) Citizenship, freedom, security and justice (1%) The EU as a global partner (6%) Rural development (11%) Direct aids and market related expenditures (31%) Administration (6%)
The EU had an agreed budget of 120.7billion for the year 2007 and 864.3billion for the period 20072013,[93] representing 1.10% and 1.05% of the EU-27's GNI forecast for the respective periods. By comparison, the United
Kingdom's expenditure for 2004 was estimated to be 759billion, and France was estimated to have spent 801billion. In 1960, the budget of the then European Economic Community was 0.03% of GDP.[94] In the 2010 budget of
141.5billion, the largest single expenditure item is "cohesion & competitiveness" with around 45% of the total budget.[95] Next comes "agriculture" with approximately 31% of the total.[95] "Rural development, environment and
fsheries" takes up around 11%.[95] "Administration" accounts for around 6%.[95] The "EU as a global partner" and "citizenship, freedom, security and justice" bring up the rear with approximately 6% and 1% respectively.[95] The Court
of Auditors aims to ensure that the budget of the European Union has been properly accounted for. The court provides an audit report for each fnancial year to the Council and the European Parliament. The Parliament uses this to
decide whether to approve the Commission's handling of the budget. The Court also gives opinions and proposals on fnancial legislation and anti-fraud actions.[96] The Court of Auditors is legally obliged to provide the Parliament and
the Council with "a statement of assurance as to the reliability of the accounts and the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions".[97] The Court has refused to do so every year since 1993, qualifying their report of the
Union's accounts every year since then.[98] In their report on 2009 the auditors found that fve areas of Union expenditure, agriculture and the cohesion fund, were materially afected by error.[99] The European Commission
estimated[when?] that the fnancial impact of irregularities was 1,863million.[100] Competences EU member states retain all powers not explicitly handed to the European Union. In some areas the EU enjoys exclusive competence.
These are areas in which member states have renounced any capacity to enact legislation. In other areas the EU and its member states share the competence to legislate. While both can legislate, member states can only legislate to the
extent to which the EU has not. In other policy areas the EU can only co-ordinate, support and supplement member state action but cannot enact legislation with the aim of harmonising national laws.[101] That a particular policy area
falls into a certain category of competence is not necessarily indicative of what legislative procedure is used for enacting legislation within that policy area. Diferent legislative procedures are used within the same category of
competence, and even with the same policy area. The distribution of competences in various policy areas between Member States and the Union is divided in the following three categories: As outlined in Title I of Part I of the
consolidated Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union view talk edit Exclusive competence Shared competence Supporting competence "The Union has exclusive competence to make directives and conclude international
agreements when provided for in a Union legislative act." the customs union the establishing of the competition rules necessary for the functioning of the internal market monetary policy for the Member States whose currency is the
euro the conservation of marine biological resources under the common fsheries policy common commercial policy conclusion of certain international agreements "Member States cannot exercise competence in areas where the
Union has done so." the internal market social policy, for the aspects defned in this Treaty economic, social and territorial cohesion agriculture and fsheries, excluding the conservation of marine biological resources environment
consumer protection transport trans-European networks energy the area of freedom, security and justice common safety concerns in public health matters, for the aspects defned in this Treaty "Union exercise of competence shall not
result in Member States being prevented from exercising theirs in" research, technological development and(outer) space development cooperation, humanitarian aid "The Union coordinates Member States policies or implements
supplemental to theirs common policies, not covered elsewhere" coordination of economic, employment and social policies common foreign, security and defence policies "The Union can carry out actions to support, coordinate or
supplement Member States' actions in" the protection and improvement of human health industry culture tourism education, youth, sport and vocational training civil protection (disaster prevention) administrative cooperation

Legal system Further information: European Union law, Treaties of the European Union and Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union The Court of Justice, seated in Luxembourg. The EU is based on a series of treaties.
These frst established the European Community and the EU, and then made amendments to those founding treaties.[102] These are power-giving treaties which set broad policy goals and establish institutions with the necessary legal
powers to implement those goals. These legal powers include the ability to enact legislation[f ] which can directly afect all member states and their inhabitants.[g] The EU has legal personality, with the right to sign agreements and
international treaties.[103] Under the principle of supremacy, national courts are required to enforce the treaties that their member states have ratifed, and thus the laws enacted under them, even if doing so requires them to ignore
conficting national law, and (within limits) even constitutional provisions.[h] Courts of Justice The judicial branch of the EUformally called the Court of Justice of the European Unionconsists of three courts: the Court of Justice, the
General Court, and the European Union Civil Service Tribunal. Together they interpret and apply the treaties and the law of the EU.[104] The Court of Justice primarily deals with cases taken by member states, the institutions, and cases
referred to it by the courts of member states.[105] The General Court mainly deals with cases taken by individuals and companies directly before the EU's courts,[106] and the European Union Civil Service Tribunal adjudicates in disputes
between the European Union and its civil service.[107] Decisions from the General Court can be appealed to the Court of Justice but only on a point of law.[108] Fundamental rights The awarding ceremony of the 1990 Sakharov Prize
awarded to Aung San Suu Kyi (here by Martin Schulz) inside the Parliament's Strasbourg hemicycle, in 2013. Suu Kyi could not collect it before as she had been political prisoner for years. The treaties declare that the EU itself is "founded
on the values of respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities... in a society in which pluralism, non-discrimination,
tolerance, justice, solidarity and equality between women and men prevail."[109] In 2009 the Lisbon Treaty gave legal efect to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The charter is a codifed catalogue of
fundamental rights against which the EU's legal acts can be judged. It consolidates many rights which were previously recognised by the Court of Justice and derived from the "constitutional traditions common to the member
states."[110] The Court of Justice has long recognised fundamental rights and has, on occasion, invalidated EU legislation based on its failure to adhere to those fundamental rights.[111] The Charter of Fundamental Rights was drawn
up in 2000. Although originally not legally binding the Charter was frequently cited by the EU's courts as encapsulating rights which the courts had long recognised as the fundamental principles of EU law. Although signing the
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is a condition for EU membership,[i] previously, the EU itself could not accede to the Convention as it is neither a state[j] nor had the competence to accede.[k] The Lisbon Treaty and
Protocol 14 to the ECHR have changed this: the former binds the EU to accede to the Convention while the latter formally permits it. Although, the EU is independent from Council of Europe, they share purpose and ideas especially on
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rule of law, human rights and democracy. Further European Convention on Human Rights and European Social Charter, the source of law of Charter of Fundamental Rights are created by Council of Europe. The EU also promoted
human rights issues in the wider world. The EU opposes the death penalty and has proposed its worldwide abolition. Abolition of the death penalty is a condition for EU membership.[112] Acts The main legal acts of the EU come in
three forms: regulations, directives, and decisions. Regulations become law in all member states the moment they come into force, without the requirement for any implementing measures,[l] and automatically override conficting
domestic provisions.[f ] Directives require member states to achieve a certain result while leaving them discretion as to how to achieve the result. The details of how they are to be implemented are left to member states.[m] When the
time limit for implementing directives passes, they may, under certain conditions, have direct efect in national law against member states. Decisions ofer an alternative to the two above modes of legislation. They are legal acts which
only apply to specifed individuals, companies or a particular member state. They are most often used in competition law, or on rulings on State Aid, but are also frequently used for procedural or administrative matters within the
institutions. Regulations, directives, and decisions are of equal legal value and apply without any formal hierarchy.[113]

Area of freedom, security and justice Further information: Area of freedom, security and justice The borders inside the Schengen Area between Germany and Austria Since the creation of the EU in 1993, it has developed its
competencies in the area of freedom, security and justice, initially at an intergovernmental level and later by supranationalism. To this end, agencies have been established that co-ordinate associated actions: Europol for co-operation
of police forces,[114] Eurojust for co-operation between prosecutors,[115] and Frontex for co-operation between border control authorities.[116] The EU also operates the Schengen Information System[17] which provides a common
database for police and immigration authorities. This co-operation had to particularly be developed with the advent of open borders through the Schengen Agreement and the associated cross border crime. Furthermore, the Union
has legislated in areas such as extradition,[117] family law,[118] asylum law,[119] and criminal justice.[120] Prohibitions against sexual and nationality discrimination have a long standing in the treaties.[n] In more recent years, these
have been supplemented by powers to legislate against discrimination based on race, religion, disability, age, and sexual orientation.[o] By virtue of these powers, the EU has enacted legislation on sexual discrimination in the workplace, age discrimination, and racial discrimination.[p]

Foreign relations Main articles: Foreign relations of the European Union, Common Foreign and Security Policy and European External Action Service The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Afairs and Security Policy, Federica
Mogherini. Foreign policy co-operation between member states dates from the establishment of the Community in 1957, when member states negotiated as a bloc in international trade negotiations under the Common Commercial
policy.[121] Steps for a more wide ranging co-ordination in foreign relations began in 1970 with the establishment of European Political Cooperation which created an informal consultation process between member states with the aim
of forming common foreign policies. It was not, however, until 1987 when European Political Cooperation was introduced on a formal basis by the Single European Act. EPC was renamed as the Common Foreign and Security Policy
(CFSP) by the Maastricht Treaty.[122] The aims of the CFSP are to promote both the EU's own interests and those of the international community as a whole, including the furtherance of international co-operation, respect for human
rights, democracy, and the rule of law.[123] The CFSP requires unanimity among the member states on the appropriate policy to follow on any particular issue. The unanimity and difcult issues treated under the CFSP sometimes lead
to disagreements, such as those which occurred over the war in Iraq.[124] The EU participates in all G8 and G20 summits. (G20 summit in Seoul) The coordinator and representative of the CFSP within the EU is the High Representative
of the Union for Foreign Afairs and Security Policy (currently Federica Mogherini) who speaks on behalf of the EU in foreign policy and defence matters, and has the task of articulating the positions expressed by the member states on
these felds of policy into a common alignment. The High Representative heads up the European External Action Service (EEAS), a unique EU department[125] that has been ofcially implemented and operational since 1 December
2010 on the occasion of the frst anniversary of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon.[126] The EEAS will serve as a foreign ministry and diplomatic corps for the European Union.[127] Besides the emerging international policy of
the European Union, the international infuence of the EU is also felt through enlargement. The perceived benefts of becoming a member of the EU act as an incentive for both political and economic reform in states wishing to fulfl the
EU's accession criteria, and are considered an important factor contributing to the reform of European formerly Communist countries.[128] This infuence on the internal afairs of other countries is generally referred to as "soft power",
as opposed to military "hard power".[129] Military Main article: Military of the European Union NATO Summit 2006 in Riga, Latvia. The European Union does not have one unifed military. The predecessors of the European Union were
not devised as a strong military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufcient for defence purposes.[130] 22 EU members are members of NATO[131] while the remaining member states follow policies of
neutrality.[132] The Western European Union, a military alliance with a mutual defence clause, was disbanded in 2010 as its role had been transferred to the EU.[133] According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
(SIPRI), France spent more than 44 billion ($59bn) on defence in 2010, placing it third in the world after the US and China, while the United Kingdom spent almost 38 billion ($58bn), the fourth largest.[134] Together, France and the
United Kingdom account for 45 per cent of Europe's defence budget, 50 per cent of its military capacity and 70 per cent of all spending in military research and development.[135] Britain and France are also ofcially recognised nuclear
weapon states and are the only two European nations to hold permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council. In 2000, the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and Germany accounted for 97% of the total military research budget
of the then 15 EU member states.[136] The Eurofghter Typhoon and Eurocopter Tiger are built by consortia of companies based in EU member states. Following the Kosovo War in 1999, the European Council agreed that "the Union
must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO". To that
end, a number of eforts were made to increase the EU's military capability, notably the Helsinki Headline Goal process. After much discussion, the most concrete result was the EU Battlegroups initiative, each of which is planned to be
able to deploy quickly about 1500personnel.[137] EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from middle and northern Africa to the western Balkans and western Asia.[138] EU military operations are supported by a
number of bodies, including the European Defence Agency, European Union Satellite Centre and the European Union Military Staf.[139] In an EU consisting of 28 members, substantial security and defence co-operation is increasingly
relying on co-operation of the great powers.[140] Humanitarian aid Further information: ECHO (European Commission) Collectively, the EU is the largest contributor of foreign aid in the world. [141] [142] The European Commission's
Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department, or "ECHO", provides humanitarian aid from the EU to developing countries. In 2012, its budget amounted to 874 million, 51% of the budget went to Africa and 20% to Asia, Latin
America, the Caribbean and Pacifc, and 20% to the Middle East and Mediterranean.[143] Humanitarian aid is fnanced directly by the budget (70%) as part of the fnancial instruments for external action and also by the European
Development Fund (30%).[144] The EU's external action fnancing is divided into 'geographic' instruments and 'thematic' instruments.[144] The 'geographic' instruments provide aid through the Development Cooperation Instrument
(DCI, 16.9 billion, 20072013), which must spend 95% of its budget on overseas development assistance (ODA), and from the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), which contains some relevant
programmes.[144] The European Development Fund (EDF, 22.7 bn, 20082013) is made up of voluntary contributions by member states, but there is pressure to merge the EDF into the budget-fnanced instruments to encourage
increased contributions to match the 0.7% target and allow the European Parliament greater oversight.[144] However, four countries have reached the 0.7% target: Sweden, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Denmark.[145] In 2011,
EU aid was 0.42% of the EU's GNI making it the world's most generous aid donor.[146] The previous Commissioner for Aid, Louis Michel, has called for aid to be delivered more rapidly, to greater efect, and on humanitarian
principles.[147]

Economy Main articles: Economy of the European Union and Regional policy of the European Union The fve largest economies in the world according to the IMF by GDP in 2011.[148] The EU has established a single market across the
territory of all its members. 19 member states have also joined a monetary union known as the eurozone, which uses the Euro as a single currency.[149] In 2012, the EU had a combined GDP of 16.073 trillions international dollars, a 20%
share of the global gross domestic product (in terms of purchasing power parity).[24] According to Credit Suisse Global Wealth Report 2012, the EU owns the largest net wealth in the world; it is estimated to equal 30% of the $223
trillion global wealth. GDP (in PPS) per inhabitant by NUTS 2 regions in 2009. Of the top 500 largest corporations measured by revenue (Fortune Global 500 in 2010), 161 have their headquarters in the EU.[150] In 2007, unemployment
in the EU stood at 7%[151] while investment was at 21.4% of GDP, infation at 2.2%, and current account balance at 0.9% of GDP (i.e., slightly more import than export). In 2012, unemployment in the EU stood, per August 2012, at
11.4%[151] There is a signifcant variance for GDP (PPP) per capita within individual EU states, these range from 11,300 to 69,800 (about US$15,700 to US$97,000).[152] The diference between the richest and poorest regions (271
NUTS-2 regions of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) ranged, in 2009, from 27% of the EU27 average in the region of Severozapaden in Bulgaria, to 332% of the average in Inner London in the United Kingdom. On the
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high end, Inner London has 78,000 PPP per capita, Luxembourg 62,500, and Bruxelles-Cap 52,500, while the poorest regions, are Severozapaden with 6,400 PPP per capita, Nord-Est with 6,900 PPP per capita, Severen
tsentralen with 6,900 and Yuzhen tsentralen with 7,200.[152] Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds are supporting the development of underdeveloped regions of the EU. Such regions are primarily located in the states of central
and southern Europe.[153][154] Several funds provide emergency aid, support for candidate members to transform their country to conform to the EU's standard (Phare, ISPA, and SAPARD), and support to the former USSR
Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS). TACIS has now become part of the worldwide EuropeAid programme. EU research and technological framework programmes sponsor research conducted by consortia from all EU
members to work towards a single European Research Area.[155] Internal market Main article: Internal market A standardised passport design, displaying the name of the member state, the national arms and the words "European
Union" given in their ofcial language(s). (Irish model) Two of the original core objectives of the European Economic Community were the development of a common market, subsequently renamed the single market, and a customs
union between its member states. The single market involves the free circulation of goods, capital, people, and services within the EU,[149] and the customs union involves the application of a common external tarif on all goods
entering the market. Once goods have been admitted into the market they cannot be subjected to customs duties, discriminatory taxes or import quotas, as they travel internally. The non-EU member states of Iceland, Norway,
Liechtenstein and Switzerland participate in the single market but not in the customs union.[61] Half the trade in the EU is covered by legislation harmonised by the EU.[156] Free movement of capital is intended to permit movement of
investments such as property purchases and buying of shares between countries.[157] Until the drive towards economic and monetary union the development of the capital provisions had been slow. Post-Maastricht there has been a
rapidly developing corpus of ECJ judgements regarding this initially neglected freedom. The free movement of capital is unique insofar as it is granted equally to non-member states. The free movement of persons means that EU
citizens can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country. This required the lowering of administrative formalities and recognition of professional qualifcations of other states.[158] The free
movement of services and of establishment allows self-employed persons to move between member states to provide services on a temporary or permanent basis. While services account for 6070% of GDP, legislation in the area is not
as developed as in other areas. This lacuna has been addressed by the recently passed Directive on services in the internal market which aims to liberalise the cross border provision of services.[159] According to the Treaty the provision
of services is a residual freedom that only applies if no other freedom is being exercised. Competition Further information: European Union competition law and European Commissioner for Competition The EU operates a competition
policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the single market.[q] The Commission as the competition regulator for the single market is responsible for antitrust issues, approving mergers, breaking up cartels, working for
economic liberalisation and preventing state aid.[160] The Competition Commissioner, currently Joaqu n Almunia, is one of the most powerful positions in the Commission, notable for the ability to afect the commercial interests of
trans-national corporations.[161] For example, in 2001 the Commission for the frst time prevented a merger between two companies based in the United States (GE and Honeywell) which had already been approved by their national
authority.[162] Another high-profle case against Microsoft, resulted in the Commission fning Microsoft over 777million following nine years of legal action.[163] Monetary union Main articles: Eurozone and Economic and Monetary
Union of the European Union The seat of the Central Bank in Frankfurt. 19 of the 28 member states of the union have adopted the euro as their legal tender. 10 euro note from the new Europa series written in Latin (EURO) and Greek
(EYP) alphabets, but also in the Cyrillic (EBPO) alphabet, as a result of Bulgaria joining the European Union in 2007. The creation of a European single currency became an ofcial objective of the European Economic Community in
1969. In 1992, after having negotiated the structure and procedures of a currency union, the member states signed the Maastricht Treaty and were legally bound to fulfll the agreed-on rules including the convergence criteria if they
wanted to join the monetary union. The states wanting to participate had frst to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. The euro has been designed to help build a single market by, for example: easing travel of citizens and
goods providing price transparency creating a single fnancial market eliminating exchange rate problems providing price stability providing a currency used internationally and protected against shocks by the large amount of internal
trade within the eurozone It is also intended as a political symbol of integration and stimulus for more.[164] In 1999 the currency union started, frst as an accounting currency with eleven member states joining. In 2002, the currency
was fully put into place, when euro notes and coins were issued and national currencies began to phase out in the eurozone, which by then consisted of 12 member states. The eurozone (constituted by the EU member states which
have adopted the euro) has since grown to 19 countries, the most recent being Lithuania which joined on 1 January 2015. Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Sweden decided not to join the euro.[165][r] Since its launch the euro has
become the second reserve currency in the world with a quarter of foreign exchanges reserves being in euro.[166] The euro, and the monetary policies of those who have adopted it in agreement with the EU, are under the control of
the European Central Bank (ECB).[167] The ECB is the central bank for the eurozone, and thus controls monetary policy in that area with an agenda to maintain price stability. It is at the centre of the European System of Central Banks,
which comprehends all EU national central banks and is controlled by its General Council, consisting of the President of the ECB, who is appointed by the European Council, the Vice-President of the ECB, and the governors of the
national central banks of all 28 EU member states.[168] The European System of Financial Supervision is an institutional architecture of the EU's framework of fnancial supervision composed by three authorities: the European Banking
Authority, the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and the European Securities and Markets Authority. To complement this framework, there is also a European Systemic Risk Board under the responsibility of the
ECB. The aim of this fnancial control system is to ensure the economic stability of the EU.[169] To prevent the joining states from getting into fnancial trouble or crisis after entering the monetary union, they were obliged in the
Maastricht treaty to fulfll important fnancial obligations and procedures, especially to show budgetary discipline and a high degree of sustainable economic convergence, as well as to avoid excessive government defcits and limit the
government debt to a sustainable level. Some states joined the euro but violated these rules and contracts to an extent that they slid into a debt crisis and had to be fnancially supported with emergency rescue funds. These states were
Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Cyprus and Spain. Even though the Maastricht treaty forbids eurozone states to assume the debts of other states ("bailout"), various emergency rescue funds had been created by the members to support the
debt crisis states to meet their fnancial obligations and buy time for reforms that those states can gain back their competitiveness. Energy Main article: Energy policy of the European Union Consumed energy (2012)[170] Renewable
(dom. prod.) (7%) Nuclear[s] (dom. prod.) (13%) Coal and lignite (dom. prod.) (10%) Gas (dom. prod.) (9%) Gas (import) (14%) Oil (dom. prod.) (6%) Oil (import) (33%) Other (dom. prod.) (1%) Other (import) (7%) In 2006, the EU-27
had a gross inland energy consumption of 1,825million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe).[171] Around 46% of the energy consumed was produced within the member states while 54% was imported.[171] In these statistics, nuclear energy
is treated as primary energy produced in the EU, regardless of the source of the uranium, of which less than 3% is produced in the EU.[172] The EU has had legislative power in the area of energy policy for most of its existence; this has
its roots in the original European Coal and Steel Community. The introduction of a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was approved at the meeting of the European Council in October 2005, and the frst draft
policy was published in January 2007.[173] The EU has fve key points in its energy policy: increase competition in the internal market, encourage investment and boost interconnections between electricity grids; diversify energy
resources with better systems to respond to a crisis; establish a new treaty framework for energy co-operation with Russia while improving relations with energy-rich states in Central Asia[174] and North Africa; use existing energy
supplies more efciently while increasing renewable energy commercialisation; and fnally increase funding for new energy technologies.[173] The EU currently imports 82% of its oil, 57% of its natural gas[175] and 97.48% of its
uranium[172] demands. There are concerns that Europe's dependence on Russian energy is endangering the Union and its member countries. The EU is attempting to diversify its energy supply.[176] Infrastructure Further information:
European Commissioner for Transport, European Commissioner for Industry and Entrepreneurship and European Investment Bank The resund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden is part of the Trans-European Networks. The EU is
working to improve cross-border infrastructure within the EU, for example through the Trans-European Networks (TEN). Projects under TEN include the Channel Tunnel, LGV Est, the Frjus Rail Tunnel, the resund Bridge, the Brenner
Base Tunnel and the Strait of Messina Bridge. In 2001[needs update] it was estimated that by 2010 the network would cover: 75,200 kilometres (46,700mi) of roads; 78,000 kilometres (48,000mi) of railways; 330 airports; 270 maritime
harbours; and 210 internal harbours.[177][178] The developing European transport policies will increase the pressure on the environment in many regions by the increased transport network. In the pre-2004 EU members, the major
problem in transport deals with congestion and pollution. After the recent enlargement, the new states that joined since 2004 added the problem of solving accessibility to the transport agenda.[179] The Polish road network in
particular was in poor condition: at Poland's accession to the EU, a number of roads needed to be upgraded, particularly the A4 autostrada, requiring approximately 13billion.[180][181] The Galileo positioning system is another EU
infrastructure project. Galileo is a proposed Satellite navigation system, to be built by the EU and launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), and is to be operational by 2012.[needs update] The Galileo project was launched partly
to reduce the EU's dependency on the US-operated Global Positioning System, but also to give more complete global coverage and allow for far greater accuracy, given the aged nature of the GPS system.[182] It has been criticised by
some due to costs, delays, and their perception of redundancy given the existence of the GPS system.[183] Agriculture Main article: Common Agricultural Policy Vineyards in Romania; EU farms are supported by the CAP, the largest
budgetary expenditure. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one of the oldest policies of the European Community, and was one of its core aims.[184] The policy has the objectives of increasing agricultural production, providing
certainty in food supplies, ensuring a high quality of life for farmers, stabilising markets, and ensuring reasonable prices for consumers.[t] It was, until recently, operated by a system of subsidies and market intervention. Until the 1990s,
the policy accounted for over 60% of the then European Community's annual budget, and still accounts for around 34%.[185][dated info] The policy's price controls and market interventions led to considerable overproduction,
resulting in so-called butter mountains and wine lakes. These were intervention stores of produce bought up by the Community to maintain minimum price levels. To dispose of surplus stores, they were often sold on the world market
at prices considerably below Community guaranteed prices, or farmers were ofered subsidies (amounting to the diference between the Community and world prices) to export their produce outside the Community. This system has
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been criticised for under-cutting farmers outside Europe, especially those in the developing world.[186] The overproduction has also been criticised for encouraging environmentally unfriendly intensive farming methods.[186]
Supporters of CAP say that the economic support which it gives to farmers provides them with a reasonable standard of living, in what would otherwise be an economically unviable way of life. However, the EU's small farmers receive
only 8% of CAP's available subsidies.[186] Since the beginning of the 1990s, the CAP has been subject to a series of reforms. Initially, these reforms included the introduction of set-aside in 1988, where a proportion of farm land was
deliberately withdrawn from production, milk quotas (by the McSharry reforms in 1992) and, more recently, the 'de-coupling' (or disassociation) of the money farmers receive from the EU and the amount they produce (by the Fischler
reforms in 2004). Agriculture expenditure will move away from subsidy payments linked to specifc produce, toward direct payments based on farm size. This is intended to allow the market to dictate production levels, while
maintaining agricultural income levels.[184] One of these reforms entailed the abolition of the EU's sugar regime, which previously divided the sugar market between member states and certain African-Caribbean nations with a
privileged relationship with the EU.[152]

Demographics Main articles: Demographics of the European Union and Largest population centres in the European Union The combined population of all member states, excluding Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013, was forecast to
be 503,679,730 on 1 January 2012.[187] v t e Largest population centres of European Union Larger Urban Zones, according to Eurostat[188][189] Rank City name State Pop. London Paris 1 London United Kingdom 11,905,500 Madrid
Berlin 2 Paris France 11,532,409 3 Madrid Spain 5,804,829 4 Berlin Germany 4,971,331 5 Barcelona Spain 4,440,629 6 Athens Greece 4,013,368 7 Rome Italy 3,457,690 8 Hamburg Germany 3,134,620 9 Milan Italy 3,076,643 10
Katowice Poland 2,710,397 The EU contains 16cities with populations of over one million, the largest being London. Besides many large cities, the EU also includes several densely populated regions that have no single core but have
emerged from the connection of several cites and now encompass large metropolitan areas. The largest are Rhine-Ruhr having approximately 11.5million inhabitants (Cologne, Dortmund, Dsseldorf et al.), Randstad approx. 7million
(Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht et al.), Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region approx. 5.8million (Frankfurt, Wiesbaden et al.), the Flemish Diamond approx. 5.5million (urban area in between Antwerp, Brussels, Leuven
and Ghent), Katowice and its Upper Silesian metropolitan area approx. 5.3million and the resund Region approx. 3.7million (Copenhagen, Denmark and Malm, Sweden).[190] In 2010, 47.3 million people lived in the EU, who were
born outside their resident country. This corresponds to 9.4% of the total EU population. Of these, 31.4 million (6.3%) were born outside the EU and 16.0 million (3.2%) were born in another EU member state. The largest absolute
numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4 million), France (5.1 million), the United Kingdom (4.7 million), Spain (4.1 million), Italy (3.2 million), and the Netherlands (1.4 million).[191] Vital statistics in recent
years[192][193] (in thousands) Year Population Live births Deaths Natural change Net migration Total change 2012 505 730.5 5 231,1 10.4 5 013,9 9.9 217,3 0.4 882,2 1 099,5 2013 507 416.6 5 075,7 10.0 4 999,2 9.9 76,5 0.1 653,1
729,6 Languages Main article: Languages of the European Union Language Native speakers Total English 13% 51% German 16% 27% French 12% 24% Italian 13% 16% Spanish 8% 15% Polish 8% 9% Romanian 5% 5% Dutch 4% 5% Greek
3% 4% Hungarian 3% 3% Portuguese 2% 3% Czech 2% 3% Swedish 2% 3% Bulgarian 2% 2% Slovak 1% 2% Danish 1% 1% Finnish 1% 1% Lithuanian 1% 1% Croatian 1% 1% Slovenian <1% <1% Estonian <1% <1% Irish <1% <1% Latvian
<1% <1% Maltese <1% <1% Published in June 2012.[194] Survey conducted in February March 2012. Native: Native language[195] Total: EU citizens able to hold a conversation in this language[196] Among the many languages and
dialects used in the EU, it has 24 ofcial and working languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese,
Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, and Swedish.[197][198] Important documents, such as legislation, are translated into every ofcial language. The European Parliament provides translation into all languages for documents and its
plenary sessions.[199] Some institutions use only a handful of languages as internal working languages.[200] Catalan, Galician, Basque, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh are not ofcial languages of the EU but have semi-ofcial status in that
ofcial translations of the treaties are made into them and citizens of the EU have the right to correspond with the institutions using them. Language policy is the responsibility of member states, but EU institutions promote the
learning of other languages.[u][201] English is the most spoken language in the EU, being spoken by 51% of the EU population when counting both native and non-native speakers.[202] German is the most widely spoken mother
tongue (about 88.7million people in 2006). 56% of EU citizens are able to engage in a conversation in a language other than their mother tongue.[203] Most ofcial languages of the EU belong to the Indo-European language family,
except Estonian, Finnish, and Hungarian, which belong to the Uralic language family, and Maltese, which is a Semitic language. Most EU ofcial languages are written in the Latin alphabet except Bulgarian, written in Cyrillic, and Greek,
written in the Greek alphabet.[204] With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Cyrillic became the third ofcial script of the European Union, following the Latin and Greek scripts.[205] Besides the 24
ofcial languages, there are about 150 regional and minority languages, spoken by up to 50million people.[204] Of these, only the Spanish regional languages (Catalan, Galician, and Basque), Scottish Gaelic, and Welsh[206] can be used
by citizens in communication with the main European institutions.[207] Although EU programmes can support regional and minority languages, the protection of linguistic rights is a matter for the individual member states. The
European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages ratifed by most EU states provides general guidelines that states can follow to protect their linguistic heritage. The European Day of Languages is held annually on 26 September
and is aimed at encouraging language learning across Europe. Religion Self described religion in the European Union (2012)[208] Catholic (48%) Protestant (12%) Orthodox (8%) Other Christian (4%) Non believer/Agnostic (16%)
Atheist (7%) Muslim (2%) Other religion/None stated (3%) The EU is a secular body with no formal connection to any religion. The Article 17 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union recognises the "status under
national law of churches and religious associations" as well as that of "philosophical and non-confessional organisations".[209] The preamble to the Treaty on European Union mentions the "cultural, religious and humanist inheritance
of Europe".[209] Discussion over the draft texts of the European Constitution and later the Treaty of Lisbon included proposals to mention Christianity or God, or both, in the preamble of the text, but the idea faced opposition and was
dropped.[210] Christians in the EU are divided among members of Catholicism (both Roman and Eastern Rite), numerous Protestant denominations, and the Eastern Orthodox Church. In 2009, the EU had an estimated Muslim
population of 13million,[211] and an estimated Jewish population of over a million.[212] The other world religions of Buddhism, Hinduism and Sikhism are also represented in the EU population. According to new polls about
Religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer, Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union accounting 72% for EU population.[208] Catholics are the largest Christian group in EU, accounting for 48% EU
citizens, while Protestants make up 12%, and Eastern Orthodox make up 8%, and other Christians account for 4% of the EU population.[213] Eurostat's Eurobarometer opinion polls showed in 2005 that 52% of EU citizens believed in a
God, 27% in "some sort of spirit or life force", and 18% had no form of belief.[214] Many countries have experienced falling church attendance and membership in recent years.[215] The countries where the fewest people reported a
religious belief were Estonia (16%) and the Czech Republic (19%).[214] The most religious countries are Malta (95%, predominantly Roman Catholic) as well as Cyprus and Romania (both predominantly Orthodox) each with about 90%
of the citizens professing a belief in God. Across the EU, belief was higher among women, increased with age, those with religious upbringing, those who left school at 15 or 16, and those "positioning themselves on the right of the
political scale (57%)."[214] Education and science Main articles: Educational policies and initiatives of the European Union and Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development Erasmus Programme logo,
representing the humanist Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam. Basic education is an area where the EU's role is limited to supporting national governments. In higher education, the policy was developed in the 1980s in programmes
supporting exchanges and mobility. The most visible of these has been the Erasmus Programme, a university exchange programme which began in 1987. In its frst 20years, it has supported international exchange opportunities for
well over 1.5million university and college students and has become a symbol of European student life.[216] There are now similar programmes for school pupils and teachers, for trainees in vocational education and training, and for
adult learners in the Lifelong Learning Programme 20072013. These programmes are designed to encourage a wider knowledge of other countries and to spread good practices in the education and training felds across the
EU.[217][218] Through its support of the Bologna Process, the EU is supporting comparable standards and compatible degrees across Europe. Scientifc development is facilitated through the EU's Framework Programmes, the frst of
which started in 1984. The aims of EU policy in this area are to co-ordinate and stimulate research. The independent European Research Council allocates EU funds to European or national research projects.[219] EU research and
technological framework programmes deal in a number of areas, for example energy where it aims to develop a diverse mix of renewable energy for the environment and to reduce dependence on imported fuels.[220] Health care
Further information: Healthcare in Europe European Health Insurance Card. (French version pictured) Although the EU has no major competences in the feld of health care, Article 35 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the
European Union afrms that "A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the defnition and implementation of all Union policies and activities". All the member states have either publicly sponsored and regulated
universal health care or publicly provided universal health care. The European Commission's Directorate-General for Health and Consumers seeks to align national laws on the protection of people's health, on the consumers' rights, on
the safety of food and other products.[221][222][223] Health care in the EU is provided through a wide range of diferent systems run at the national level. The systems are primarily publicly funded through taxation (universal health
care). Private funding for health care may represent personal contributions towards meeting the non-taxpayer refunded portion of health care or may refect totally private (non-subsidised) health care either paid out of pocket or met
by some form of personal or employer funded insurance.[citation needed] All EU and many other European countries ofer their citizens a free European Health Insurance Card which, on a reciprocal basis, provides insurance for
emergency medical treatment insurance when visiting other participating European countries.[224] A directive on cross-border healthcare aims at promoting co-operation on health care between member states and facilitating access
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to safe and high-quality cross-border healthcare for European patients.[225][226][227]

Culture Main articles: Culture of Europe, Western culture and Cultural policies of the European Union Acropolis and Colosseum, symbols of the Graeco-Roman world. Athens (Greece) and Florence (Italy) were the frst European Capitals
of Culture. Cultural co-operation between member states has been a concern of the EU since its inclusion as a community competency in the Maastricht Treaty.[228] Actions taken in the cultural area by the EU include the Culture 2000
7-year programme,[228] the European Cultural Month event,[229] the MEDIA Programme,[230] orchestras such as the European Union Youth Orchestra[231] and the European Capital of Culture programme where one or more cities
in the EU are selected for one year to assist the cultural development of that city.[232] Sport Main articles: Sport policies of the European Union and Sport in Europe Sport is mainly the responsibility of an individual member states or
other international organisations rather than that of the EU. However, there are some EU policies that have had an impact on sport, such as the free movement of workers which was at the core of the Bosman ruling, which prohibited
national football leagues from imposing quotas on foreign players with European citizenship.[233] The Treaty of Lisbon requires any application of economic rules to take into account the specifc nature of sport and its structures based
on voluntary activity.[234] This followed lobbying by governing organisations such as the International Olympic Committee and FIFA, due to objections over the applications of free market principles to sport which led to an increasing
gap between rich and poor clubs.[235] The EU does fund a programme for Israeli, Jordanian, Irish, and British football coaches, as part of the Football 4 Peace project.[236] Symbols Main article: Symbols of Europe Clockwise from top
left: The European fag seen at the occasion of the 2004 enlargement; the reliquary bust of Charlemagne (c. 1350); Europa and the bull, depicted as the personifcation of Europe in a map by Fredericus de Wit (1700) The fag of the union
consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue feld. The blue represents the west, while the number and position of the stars represent completeness and unity, respectively.[237] Originally designed in 1955 for the Council of Europe,
the fag was adopted by the European Communities, the predecessors of the present union, in 1986. United in Diversity was adopted as the motto of the union in the year 2000, having been selected from proposals submitted by school
pupils.[238] Since 1985 the fag day of the union has been Europe Day, on 9 May, i.e. the date of the 1950 Schuman declaration. The anthem of the union is an instrumental version of the prelude to the Ode to Joy, the 4th movement of
Ludwig van Beethoven's ninth symphony. The anthem was adopted by European Community leaders in 1985 and has since been played on ofcial occasions.[239] Besides naming the continent, the Greek mythological fgure of Europa
has frequently been employed as a personifcation of Europe. Known from the myth in which Zeus seduces her in the guise of a white bull, Europa has also been referred to in relation to the present union. Statues of Europa and the bull
decorate several of the Union's institutions, and a portrait of her is seen on the 2013 series of Euro banknotes. The bull is for its part depicted on all residence permit cards.[240] Charles the Great, also known as Charlemagne (Latin:
Carolus Magnus), established an empire that represented the most expansive European unifcation since the Roman era, and thereby founded what became the French and German monarchies.[241][241][242][243][244] Known as
Pater Europae (Father of Europe),[241][245] he enjoyed an important afterlife in European culture. The present symbolic relevance of Charlemagne pertains to his embodiment of Franco-German relations, on which European
integration relies. The Commission has named one of its central buildings in Brussels after Charlemagne, and the Charlemagne Prize has since 1949 annually been awarded to champions of European unity.[citation needed] Religious
symbols of Europe and its integration include Saint Benedict, who in 1964 was named patron saint of Europe by Pope Paul VI, and Saint Hedwig, who in 1997 was canonised as patron saint of European unifcation by Pope John Paul
II.[246][247]

See also Outline of the European Union European Union Wikipedia book

Notes ^ Not including overseas territories ^ .eu is representative of the whole of the EU; member states also have their own TLDs. ^ This fgure includes the extra-European territories of member states which are part of the European
Union and excludes the European territories of member states which are not part of the Union. For more information see Special member state territories and the European Union. ^ On 01990-10-03-0000October 3, 1990, the
constituent states of the former German Democratic Republic acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany, automatically becoming part of the EU. ^ Referred to by the EU as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia". ^ a b See
Article 288 (ex Article 249 TEC) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, on eur-lex.europa.eu ^ According to the principle of Direct Efect frst invoked in the Court of Justice's decision in Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse
Administratie der Belastingen, Eur-Lex (European Court of Justice 1963). See: Craig and de Brca, ch. 5. ^ According to the principle of Supremacy as established by the ECJ in Case 6/64, Falminio Costa v. ENEL [1964] ECR 585. See Craig
and de Brca, ch. 7. See also: Factortame litigation: Factortame Ltd. v. Secretary of State for Transport (No. 2) [1991] 1 AC 603, Solange II (Re Wuensche Handelsgesellschaft, BVerfG decision of 22 October 1986 [1987] 3 CMLR 225,265)
and Frontini v. Ministero delle Finanze [1974] 2 CMLR 372; Raoul George Nicolo [1990] 1 CMLR 173. ^ It is efectively treated as one of the Copenhagen criteria, Assembly.coe.int. It should be noted that this is a political and not a legal
requirement for membership. ^ The European Convention on Human Rights was previously only open to members of the Council of Europe (Article 59.1 of the Convention), and even now only states may become member of the
Council of Europe (Article 4 of the Statute of the Council of Europe). ^ Opinion (2/92) of the European Court of Justice on "Accession by the Community to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental
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require the drafting of legislation which would have to cope with the frequently divergent legal systems and administrative systems of all of the now 28 member states. See Craig and de Brca, p. 115 ^ See Articles 157 (ex Article 141)
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Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK. Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshhold. ^ a b
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europa web portal. Retrieved November 2010. ^ Jewish population fgures may be unreliable. Sergio DellaPergola. "World Jewish Population (2002)". American Jewish Year Book. The Jewish Agency for Israel. Retrieved 3 May 2007. ^
"Discrimination in the EU in 2012". Special Eurobarometer. 383 (European Union: European Commission): 233. 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2013. ^ a b c Eurostat (2005). "Social values, Science and Technology". Special Eurobarometer
225 (Europa, web portal): 9. Retrieved 11 June 2009. ^ Ford, Peter (22 February 2005). "What place for God in Europe". USA Today. Retrieved 24 July 2009. ^ European Commission. "The Erasmus programme celebrates its 20th
anniversary". Europa web portal. Retrieved 21 July 2007.; Jean-Sbastien, Lefebvre (22 January 2007). "Erasmus turns 20 time to grow up?". Caf Babel. Retrieved 10 August 2007. ^ EACEA. "About the Education, Audiovisual and
Culture Executive Agency". Europa web portal. Retrieved 21 July 2007. ^ European Commission. "Lifelong Learning Programme". Europa web portal. Retrieved 21 July 2007. ^ European Research Council. "What is the ERC?". Europa web
portal. Retrieved 21 July 2007. ^ European Commission. "Energy". Europa web portal. Retrieved 12 November 2007. ^ "Europa web portal". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 26 November 2010. ^ "Europa web portal". Europa (web
portal). Retrieved 26 November 2010. ^ "Europa web portal". Europa (web portal). 18 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. ^ "info about health care and EHIC". Nhs.uk. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. ^
"Consilium.europa.eu" (PDF). Retrieved 3 June 2013. ^ "Eur-lex.europa.eu". Retrieved 3 June 2013. ^ "NHSconfed.org". NHSconfed.org. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2013. ^ a b Bozoki, Andras. "Cultural Policy and Politics in the
European Union" (PDF). Cultural Policy and Politics in the European Union.pdf. Retrieved 4 June 2013. ^ European Commission. "European Culture Month". Europa web portal. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008. Retrieved
27 February 2008. ^ "Media Programme". Europa. European Commission. Retrieved 13 June 2013. ^ "An Overture to the European Union Youth Orchestra". The European Youth Orchestra. Archived from the original on 11 June 2007.
Retrieved 12 August 2007. ^ European Commission. "European Capitals of Culture". Europa web portal. Retrieved Nov 2010. ^ Fordyce, Tom (11 July 2007). "10years since Bosman". BBC News. Retrieved 13 July 2007. ^ Cases C-403/08
and C-429/08, Opinon of Advocate General Kokott, para 207 ^ "IOC, FIFA presidents welcomes new EU treaty, call it breakthrough to give sports more power". International Herald Tribune. 19 October 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2007.
^ "Sports coaches from Israel travel to UK for training". Eeas.europa.eu. 29 March 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2013. ^ Thirty-sixth meeting of the ministers' deputies: resolution (55) 32, Council of Europe, 9 December 1955, retrieved 2
February 2008 ^ In varietate concordia is the Latin motto chosen by European citizens in 2000. Its ofcial English translation is "Unity in Diversity" in ''Eurodiversity: a business guide to managing diference'', page 110, by George F.
Simons & Arjen Bos, 2002. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-01-01. ^ Emblemes[dead link] ^ Demey, Thierry (2007). Brussels, capital of Europe. S. Strange (trans.). Brussels: Badeaux. p.387. ISBN2-9600414-2-9. ^ a b c Rich, Preface
xviii, Pierre Rich refects: "[H]e enjoyed an exceptional destiny, and by the length of his reign, by his conquests, legislation and legendary stature, he also profoundly marked the history of Western Europe." ^ humnet.ucla.edu ^
"karlspreis.de". karlspreis.de. Retrieved 2012-01-01. ^ Chamberlin, Russell, The Emperor Charlemagne, p.??? ^ "Der Karlspreistrger Seine Heiligkeit Papst Johannes Paul II. auerordentlicher Karlspreis 2004". Karlspreis.de. Retrieved
2012-01-01. ^ http://www.catholicculture.org/news/features/index.cfm?recnum=57724 ^ "talismancoins.com". talismancoins.com. 1 September 1939. Retrieved 2012-01-01.

Further reading Bindi, Federiga, ed. The Foreign Policy of the European Union: Assessing Europe's Role in the World (Brookings Institution Press; 2010). The E.U.'s foreign-policy mechanisms and foreign relations, including with its
neighbours. Bomberg, Elizabeth, Peterson, John, and Richard Corbett, eds. The European Union: How Does it Work? (3rd ed) (2012, Oxford University Press). ISBN 978-0-19-957080-5 and ISBN 0-19-957080-9. Corbett, Richard; Jacobs,
Francis; Shackleton, Michael (2011). The European Parliament (8th ed.). London: John Harper Publishing. ISBN978-0-9564508-5-2. Craig, Paul; de Brca, Grinne (2007). EU Law, Text, Cases and Materials (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford
University Press. ISBN978-0-19-927389-8. Jordan, A.J. and Adelle, C. (eds) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA. Kaiser, Wolfram. Christian
Democracy and the Origins of European Union (2007) McCormick, John (2007). The European Union: Politics and Policies. Westview Press. ISBN978-0-8133-4202-3. Pinder, John, and Simon Usherwood. The European Union: A Very
Short Introduction (2008) excerpt and text search Rifkin, Jeremy (2004). The European Dream: How Europe's Vision of the Future Is Quietly Eclipsing the American Dream. Jeremy P. Tarcher. ISBN978-1-58542-345-3. Smith, Charles
(2007). International Trade and Globalisation (3rd ed.). Stocksfeld: Anforme. ISBN1-905504-10-1. Staab, Andreas. The European Union Explained: Institutions, Actors, Global Impact (2008) excerpt and text search Steiner, Josephine;
Woods, Lorna; Twigg-Flesner, Christian (2006). EU Law (9th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN978-0-19-927959-3. Yesilada, Birol A. and David M. Wood. The Emerging European Union (5th ed. 2009) Piris, Jean-Claude (2010).
Lisbon Treaty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.448. ISBN978-0-521-19792-2.

External links Find more about European Union at Wikipedia's sister projects Defnitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from
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Spiegel interview with Helmut Schmidt and Valery Giscard d'Estaing Educational resources European Studies Hub interactive learning tools and resources to help students and researchers better understand and engage with the
European Union and its politics. Tupy, Marian L. (2008). "European Union". In David R. Henderson (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Library of Economics and Liberty. ISBN978-0-86597-665-8.
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Fareed Zakaria: How to Change Ugly Regimes

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Fareed Zakaria: How to Change Ugly Regimes


BY FAREED ZAKARIA 6/26/05 AT 8:00 PM

FILED UNDER: News

As you read about yet another Iranian "election"--in which candidates have been
carefully vetted by the ruling mullahs--keep in mind that the real story in Iran is
that the government has tightened its grip on power in recent years. Despite an
unhappy population, the mullahs have shut down newspapers, persecuted
nongovernmental groups and imprisoned opponents. An interesting contrast in
the same region is Libya, surely the strangest country to be taking baby steps
toward reform. Once a key sponsor of terror, it is now opening up its economy,
welcoming tourism and trade, presenting economic-reform plans and even talking
about political changes. While all these steps are small and easily reversible-Libya is still ruled by a wacky megalomaniac--there is some real movement here.
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Fareed Zakaria: How to Change Ugly Regimes

What's striking about these two countries is that we have had different policies
toward them. Simply put, we have tried regime change with Iran and conditional
engagement with Libya.
It isn't just these two countries where you see this pattern. For almost fve decades
the United States has put in place a series of costly policies designed to force
Cuba to dismantle its communist system. These policies have failed totally.
Contrast this with Vietnam, also communist, where Washington has adopted a
different approach, normalizing relations with its former enemy. While Vietnam
remains a Leninist regime in many ways, it has opened up its society, and the
government has loosened its grip on power, certainly far more than that of Fidel
Castro. For the average person in Libya or Vietnam, American policy has
improved his or her life and life chances. For the average person in Iran or Cuba,
U.S. policy has produced decades of isolation and economic hardship.
Don't get me wrong. I think the regimes in Tehran and Havana are ugly and
deserve to pass into the night. But do our policies actually make that more likely?
Washington has a simple solution to most governments it doesn't like: isolate
them, slap sanctions on them and wait for their downfall. As Richard Haass
argues intelligently in his new book, "The Opportunity," regime change has
become a substitute for an actual policy toward countries like North Korea and
Iran, with which we have serious security problems. Rather than tackling the
issue of North Korean nukes, we're waiting for the country to collapse. We might
be waiting awhile.
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Critics could argue that I'm forgetting the many surprising places where regimes
have fallen and freedom has been given a chance to fourish. Who would have
predicted that Ukraine, Georgia and Kyrgyzstan would see so much change in the
past year and a half? But these examples only prove my point. The United States
had no "regime change" policy toward any of these countries, and it had relations
with all of them. In fact, these relationships helped push the regimes to change
and emboldened civil-society groups.

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Fareed Zakaria: How to Change Ugly Regimes

Ah, you might say, but these regimes were not truly evil. Well, what about Mao's
China at the height of the Cultural Revolution? Nixon and Kissinger opened
relations with what was arguably the most brutal regime in the world at the time.
And as a consequence of that opening, China today is far more free-economically and socially--than it has ever been. If we were trying to help the
Chinese people, would isolation have been a better policy?
I realize that it feels morally righteous and satisfying to "do something" about
cruel regimes. But in doing what we so often do, we cut these countries off from
the most powerful agents of change in the modern world--commerce, contact,
information. To change a regime, short of waging war, you have to shift the
balance of power between the state and society. Society needs to be empowered.
It is civil society--private business, media, civic associations, nongovernmental
organizations--that can create an atmosphere which forces change in a country.
But by piling on sanctions and ensuring that a country is isolated, Washington
only ensures that the state becomes ever more powerful and society remains weak
and dysfunctional. In addition, the government benefts from nationalist
sentiment as it stands up to the global superpower. Think of Iraq before the war,
which is a rare case where multilateral sanctions were enforced. As we are
discovering now, the sanctions destroyed Iraq's middle class, its private sector
and its independent institutions, but they allowed Saddam to keep control. When
the regime was changed by war, it turned out that nation-building was vastly
more diffcult because the underpinnings of civil society had been devastated.
In a careful study, the Institute for International Economics has estimated that
U.S. sanctions on 26 countries, accounting for more than half the world's
population, cost America between $15 billion and $19 billion in lost exports
annually and have worked less than 13 percent of the time. But what if it's even
worse? What if our policies have exactly the opposite effect than is intended?
Look around the world today, and you will see regime change in places where
Washington has no such policy and regime resilience in places where it does.

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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue

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Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang

Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea


Kil-Sang Yoo
R&S HOME

Korea Labor Institute

Opinion Leader
Seminars (OLS)

Introduction

Comparative
Immigration and
Integration Program
(CIIP)

Prior to the fnancial crisis occurred in November 1997, Korea has achieved its economic
miracle over the last three decades. Between 1965 and 1996, GNP per capita in Korea
increased 100 times, from US $105 to $10,543.

Comparative Eforts to
Manage Emigration
(CEME)

Until the early 1970s, Korea was an agrarian society containing a big rural population. With
the successful economic growth, however, the Korean labor market passed the era of the
Lewis-type "unlimited labor supply" around 1974_1975(Bai, 1981). Nevertheless, steady
migration from rural to urban areas enabled continuous high economic growth without labor
shortage until the mid 1980s.

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Due to continuous high economic growth and the end of migration from rural to urban areas,
Korean labor market began to face labor shortage from the late 1980s. The shortage of labor
supply rapidly increased the wage of Korean workers, and labor-intensive sectors such as
textile industry began to lose competitiveness in international markets and cannot attract
domestic workers with the wage level ofered to them.
Relative high wage and enough employment opportunities in Korean labor market began to
attract foreign workers from late 1980s. Between late 1980s and 1997, many foreign workers
from China, Indonesia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Philippine, and other countries emigrated to
Korea searching for "Korean dream", and the number of foreign workers was 268 thousands in
1997 which was equal to 1.3 percent of total Korean labor force.
The fnancial crisis occurred in November 1997 has drastically changed Korean economy and
its labor market. The economic growth rate sharply decreased from 5.5% in 1997 to -5.3% in
frst half of 1998. The unemployment rate increased from 2.5 percent in 1997 to 7.6 percent
in July 1998. Sharp economic downturn and high unemployment rate reduced demand for
foreign workers in Korean labor market. Foreign workers began to leave Korea after fnancial
crisis, and this resulted in reduced number of foreign workers in Korea. From January to June
of 1998, 104 thousands of foreign workers, which is 40 percent of foreign workers in Korea,
left Korea.
_. Korean Labor Market Before Financial Crisis

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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
1. Transition of Labor Supply
Before the mid-1980s, Korea was in the situation of excess supply of labor and was one of the
labor exporting countries. In 1963, out of total employed persons, 63.0 percent were
employed in the agriculture, forestry and fshing, and only 8.7 percent were employed in
mining and manufacturing. The unemployment rate was 8.1 percent in 1963. The difculties in
fnding a job in the domestic market led Koreans to look at foreign labor markets.
Korea's labor export dated back to 1963 when 247 mine workers emigrated to West Germany.
From then on, emigration of mine workers' to West Germany increased and in 1965 Korean
nurses began to emigrate to West Germany.
Emigration of seemen on foreign ships and construction workers in Thailand's express
construction were followed in 1965. These were starting points of emigration of Korean
workers(Kang, 1996).
From 1962, Korean government launched the Five-Year Economic Development Plans. With
the success of the Five-Year Economic Development Plans, a lot of new jobs were created in
the urban areas, and this created massive migration of young people from rural to urban
areas. This unlimited supply of labor from rural areas made it possible for Korea to develop its
industry with very low labor cost until the mid 1970s. The success of industrialization
increased employment in the manufacturing and service sectors and decreased employment in
the agricultural, forestry and fshing industry.
In 1970s, Korean constructuring companies extended their businesses to the Middle East.
Right after the frst oil crisis in 1974, Korean construction companies rushed to the Middle
East, and there was a "Middle East Construction Boom" in Korea. A lot of Korean workers
emigrated to the Middle East countries searching for oil dollars and this created shortage of
skilled workers in Korean labor market in mid 1970s.
It is said that a country reaches its turning point in migration when the unlimited supply of
labor from the traditional sector of that economy to the modern sector is not available
anymore (Lewis, 1954). It is believed that Korea passed that turning point in the mid
1970s(Bai, 1981).
With rapid economic development and increasing outward direct investment to other countries,
Korea began to solve high unemployment problem from 1970s.
From the late 1960s, the unemployment rate dropped drastically and it remained at 3_4
percent level until 1987 except 1980 right after the second oil crisis(See Figure 1).
From 1988 to 1997, the unemployment rate dropped further and it remained at two percent
level(See Figure 1). The two percent level of unemployment rate means labor shortage in
Korean labor market. As shown in Table 1, labor shortage problem became key issue from
1998 in Korea. Especially labor shortage of unskilled workers and production workers was very
severe, and the shortage of labor forced Korean government to import foreign workers under
the "technical trainee" program from 1992.
The excess demand for labor rapidly increased wage of Korean workers as shown in Table 2.
The rate of nominal wage increase from 1987 to 1996 was 14.6 percent and the rate of real
wage increase during the same period was 8.1 percent.
What caused the labor shortage in Korea during that period?
On the demand side labor shortage was due to overheated demand. The accelerated economic
growth over the past 1986_1988 period was the main reason for the labor shortage in the
manufacturing sector. The average economic growth rate during 1986_1988 period was 11.5

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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
percent and high economic growth rate around 8_9 percent was continued until 1996.
On the supply side, the labor market entry of the baby boom generation born between the
late 1950s and early 1960s has mostly ended. This change in the population structure imply
that the labor shortage problem is not cyclical but structural.
The labor shortage was severe especially among blue-collar workers, among small and
medium size frms, and among unskilled and semi-skilled workers. Such labor shortage
problem forced Korean government to change the policy toward foreign workers, so-called
"open door policy".
2. Foreign Workers Before Financial Crisis
There are three types of foreign workers in Korea: legal employees, trainees and illegal
workers.
The Korean Immigration Law allows the employment of skilled workers to only a few
categories whose skills are necessary to Korea. For a foreigner to be legally admitted into
Korea under these categories, he or she should submit an evidence of having a job in Korea.
The Korean government issues a visa as long as there is a Korean employer who wants to
ofer a job to the foreigner. Therefore legal migrant workers are all professional and technical
workers such as professors, researchers, or entertainers.
The Korean Immigration Law does not allow unskilled foreign workers to enter Korea for the
purpose of employment except in the case of technical trainees. The "technical trainee"
program was introduced in 1992 to help small and medium-sized businesses cope with the
severe shortage of labor.
With globalization of production since late 1980s, big companinies needed to train foreign
workers in their Korean factories, who would go back to work in their overseas branches. The
Korean government permitted this kind of training within one year and this was the beginning
of the industrial and technical training program. Later, this program was extended to the
medium and small size companies in the manufacturing sector. Employer who were sufered
from labor shortage welcomed the foreign trainees. In this way, the training program has
been changed to the migration program in Korea.
Three industries can bring foreign trainees without any foreign afliation; small manufacturing,
fshing, and construction. This system was frst introduced to help small manufacturing sector.
In 1996, it was expanded to include the fshing and the construction sectors.
The foreign trainee system for manufacturing frms without a foreign afliation is managed by
the Foreign Training Cooperation Corporation(FTCO) under the Korea Federation of Small
Business. Trainees under this category are to return to their home countries after a maximum
of three years.
The maximum number of foreign trainees per frm is 10 percent of the workforce with the
limit of 20 trainees. The FTCO manages the trainee system with the aim of helping the small
manufacturing sector by supplying unskilled labor.
Companies need to put a security deposit of 300,000 Korean wons per trainee with FTCO. If a
trainee fees due to the companies' faults, the deposit has to be given up. The recruiting
agency also has to give up the security deposit of 100 US dollars per trainee which is hold by
the FTCO while the trainee stays in Korea However, quite a few foreign trainees leave their
companies.
After the frst two years, a trainee who passes a qualifcation test can stay for another year as
a worker, which was introduced in 1997. Only the trainees brought after April 1998 are

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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
entitled to this change.
As wages have been increased and labor shortage became much more severe since early
1990s, illegal migrant workers came to Korea to fnd employment opportunities. They are
illegal in the sense of violation of Korean Immigration Law. Most of illegal workers are persons
who have stayed to work longer than the period of permission. Also, many illegal workers
violated their purpose of stay(namely, the status of visa). Not many but some foreign workers
entered Korea without any legal permission of stay. All those workers can be classifed as
illegal migrant workers.
Any foreigner who stays in Korea after his/her visa expires is subject to the fne of up to 1
million Korean wons. The Korean immigration authorities diferentiate fnes depending on the
length of period the foreigners overstayed. Illegal foreign workers also have to pay the cost
incurred to send them back to their home countries.
Korean employers who hire illegal foreign workers are also subject to penalties. In October
1996, the Korean government toughened these sanctions in order to reduce the growing
number of illegal foreign workers. Korean employers can be imprisoned for less than three
years (one year before October 1996) or they can be given a fne of less than 10 million
Korean wons (5 million Korean wons before October 1996). The Korean employers also have
to pay the cost of returning their foreign employees to their home countries if the illegal
foreign workers can not pay the cost.
Table 3 shows the trend of foreign workers in Korea in recent years.
_. Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers.
1. Financial Crisis and IMF Programs
For the past several decades, Korean Economy has grown rapidly. With per capita GDP rising
at an annual rate of nearly 7 percent, a once poor agrarian economy has been transformed
into an advanced industrial economy. In 1996, Korea became the world's 11st largest
economy and became the member of OECD countries.
However, since the beginning of 1997, an unprecedented number of highly leveraged
conglomerates("chaebols") had moved into bankruptcy. The bankruptcies severely weekened
the fnancial system of Korea and nonperforming loans rose sharply to the equivalent of 7.5
percent of GDP. At the same time, the steep decline in stock prices cut the value of banks'
equity and further reduced their net worth. These developments exacerbated the existing
weekness in the Korean banking system. The weak state of the banking sector has led to
successive downgrades by the international credit rating agencies and a sharp tightening in
the availability of external fnancing.
Thus Korean economy narrowly survived on overnight loans from international fnancial
institutions. The value of Korean won fell by more than 100 percent against the U.S. dollars
between October and December 1997.
In order to solve fnancial crisis Korean government decided to approach the International
Monetary Fund(IMF) for a rescue plan on November 19, 1997 and IMF approved a
comprehensive fnancing package of about 58.4 billion U.S. dollars on both a multilateral and
bilateral basis.
On the condition of receiving IMF's rescue programs, the Korean government should provide:
(1) strong macroeconomic measures designed to facilitate the orderly reduction of the
external current account defcit; rebuilding of foreign reserve at the Bank of Korea; and
containment of infationary pressure through tighter monetary and fscal policy;

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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
(2) a comprehensive strategy to restructure and recapitalize the fnancial sector, and make it
more transparent and market-oriented, and improve the supervision of fnancial institutions;
(3) measures to reduce the high degree of short-term debt of private corporations and
fnancial institutions and to allow a better diversifcation of risk in the economy.
The IMF programs, as originally designed, were intended to narrow the external current
account defcit to below 1 percent of GDP in 1998 and 1999, contain the infation rate at or
below 5(later changed to 9) percent, and limit real GDP growth rate to about 3(later chanted
to -4.2) percent in 1998, followed by a recovery toward full potential in 1999.
Despite the IMF's rescue package, during the last week of December 1997, Korea was on the
verge of defaulting on its foreign debts. It narrowly avoided that fate by working out a last
minute emergency loan package put together by the IMF and G-7 countries including the
United States.

2. Korean Economy and Labor Market under IMF Programs


Ever since Korea applied for the IMF rescue programs, Korean economy has been
experiencing a severe trouble.
The IMF insists that Korea's frst priority should be its structural adjustment. In order to
induce structural adjustment of private corporations and to invite foreign capital, the IMF
insists that the interest rate should be very high through very tight monetary and fscal
policies. The IMF also insists that all fnancial institutions must keep their owned capital ratio
in terms of the BIS(Bank for International Settlement) criterion as higher than 8 percent by
the end of 1998 and that any fnancial institution which fails in upgrading its BIS ratio should
be closed immediately after 1998.
Because the BIS ratios of most fnancial institutions in Korea were much lower than 8 percent,
fnancial institutions began to withdraw loans to the private frms and almost stop new loans.
Interest rates soared to as high as 40 percent and this superhigh interest rates and
withdrawal of loans increased default risks of frms. Increasing bankruptcies of frms soared
interest rates further and froze loan to the frms.
This vicious circle of fnancial institutions and frms has created credit crunch and has
paralyzed function of fnancial system in Korea.
Collapse of fnancial system has weekened growth potential of Korean economy. Even the
frms that are fnancially sound and very competitive in the internal market are being pushed
to the point of bankruptcy.
The economic growth rate in terms of real GDP recorded -3.9 percent in the frst quarter and 6.6 percent in the second quarter of 1998(Table 4). Production activities have shrunk
suddenly. As shown in Table 4, production contracted by 2.8 percent in the frst quarter and
6.0 percent in the second quarter of 1998. The reduction of production was especially severe
in manufacturing and construction industry. Due to severe credit crunches and sudden fall in
the value of real estates, consumption expenditure shrank by 9.7 percent in the frst quarter
and 12.2 percent in the second quarter of 1998. Contraction of consumption expenditure
increased inventory stock of products, and thus average operation ratio of production plants
fell from 80.6 percent on October 1997 to 63.7 percent on July 1998. The severe shrink of
consumption expenditure and operational ratio and too high interest rates have reduced
investment expenditure by 23.0 percent in the frst quarter and 29.8 percent in the second
quarter of 1998.
The immediate impact of the sharp economic downturn on the labor market is the drastic
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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
increase of unemployment. The unemployment rate in Korea has been increased drastically
from 2.1% in October 1997 to 7.6 percent in July 1998 and the unemployed persons
increased from 454 thousands to 1,651 thousands(See Table 5).
The rising unemployment rates are mainly due to the job destruction. From July 1997 to July
1998, total employment contracted by 6.5 percent coupled with the 1.0 percent reduction of
the labor force as shown in Table 5.
However, when we consider that population who are not in the labor force has been rapidly
increased throughout this year, which represents so called "discouraged worker efect", the
situation of unemployment is more serious than that the statistics show(See Table 5).

3. Foreign Workers after Financial Crisis


After the fnancial crisis, many Korean people believe that foreign workers should be sent to
their home countries since even Korean nationals fnd it difcult to fnd a job. The frst step for
reducing foreign workers was to banish undocumented foreign workers. So Korean
government ofered an amnesty program to undocumented foreign workers. Those who
reported to the authorities from January to March 1998 were allowed to leave the country
without paying the fnes. About 53 thousand undocumented foreign workers left the country
under this program. Only a small number of Chinese workers did not take the program(Table
7). Many of the other nationals accepted the ofer. The number of undocumented foreign
workers decreased from 148,048 persons on December 1997 to 95,027 persons on June 1998.
A growing number of the foreign trainees are also loosing their jobs. From January to
November 1997, 589 companies gave up 2,024 trainees, while 4,050 foreign trainees in 1,226
companies lost their training companies from December 1997, when Korea asked help from
the IMF to March 1998.(Y. Park, 1998)
During the period of from December 1997 to June 1998, 50,253 foreign trainees left Korea,
which is 48.5 percent of foreign trainees. During the same period, total number of foreign
workers has been reduced from 267,546 persons to 159,994 persons, which means 107,552
persons(40.2 percent of foreign workers in Korea) left Korea (See Table 6). This means about
six hundred of foreign workers are leaving Korea everyday after fnancial crisis.
However, Korea still needs unskilled foreign workers. Despite rapidly growing number of
unemployed persons, not many Korean workers want to have a so-called three-D(difcult,
dangers and dirty) job. Small frms in labor-intensive manufacturing sector still have
difculties in recruiting Korean workers. The Korea Federation of Small Business strongly
insists that the number of foreign trainees should not be reduced and some measures should
be done to facilitate the process of relocating the foreign trainees who loose their jobs to a
new training place.
The Foreign Training Cooperation Corporation(FTCO) under the Korea Federation of Small
Business did a survey on May 1998 on the use of foreign trainees of 6,418 companies which
hired the foreign trainees. The labor shortage of surveyed companies' was not serious. Only
7.9 percent of the surveyed companies (510 companies) answered that they are in the
situation of labor shortage. The number of needed workers was 1,605 persons which was 0.55
percent of the existing workers. Among the 6,418 surveyed companies, 31.1 percent(2,011
companies) answered that they used less foreign trainees on May 1998 than on December
1997. The number of foreign trainees declined by 6.4 percent during the same period. On the
other hand, in the companies which used less foreign trainees, Korean workers replaced only
14.3 percent of the jobs which were previously hold by the foreign trainees.
Base on the results of this survey, the concerned government ministries reached the following

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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
agreements:
(1) The quota of foreign trainees will be frozen during 1998. However, the case of fshing
industry will be reconsidered in the second half of 1998;
(2) Since drastic change of the "technical trainee" program may deteriate labor shortage of
small frms, replacement of trainees will be allowed within the existing quota of trainees,
when trainees go back to their countries after completing training. The case of those feeing
the training place will be decided based on the employment situation of the second half of
1998;
(3) For the trainees in the process of being brought in Korea, only those for manufacturing
will be allowed.
The number of legal migrant foreign workers who are all professional and technical workers
has been decreasing after fnancial crisis. Legal foreign employees in Korea shrank from
15,900 persons on December 1997 to 11,622 persons on June 1998 (See Table 6).
It has been pointed that foreign workers often face inferior working conditions since trainees
are not considered workers under the Korean Labor Standard Act and many foreign workers
are in illegal status. The working conditions of the foreign workers are believed to become
worse after the fnancial crisis hit Korea, which is confrmed by local newspapers. Even
working conditions of Korean workers have been becoming inferior due to many Korean frms'
fnancial difculties. Most workers in Korea have to accept their pay-cut and it is reported that
the cases of unfair labor practices are greatly increasing after fnancial crisis. The government
has introduced various measures to deal with unfair labor practices. However, the foreign
workers are mostly neglected partly due to the lack of the administrative capacity to protect
the foreign workers.
By ofering the amnesty program to undocumented foreign workers right after the fnancial
crisis, Korean government revealed its intention of using foreign workers as a bumper to ease
economic impacts of the crisis. The Korean government seemed to achieve its objective.
About one thirds of the illegal workers left Korea under this program. However, by sending the
foreign workers to their home countries, employment opportunities for local workers were not
generated, either. Many Korean frms still have difculties in hiring local workers for the jobs
which were previously hold by the foreign workers.
This indicates that foreign workers in Korea are helping the Korean economy by taking the
jobs with the conditions which the Korean workers would not consider. The position of Korean
government on the foreign labor has been that Korea does not need unskilled foreign workers;
only trainees have been brought through a legal channel. However, two thirds of the foreign
labor is still undocumented.
The Korean government should reconsider its position. Foreign trainees should be accepted as
a worker. The need of changing the foreign labor policy has been debated in Korea. The
Ministry of Justice recently revealed its position of illegal foreign workers being also protected
by the Korean Labor Standard Act. Considering the overall employment situation in Korea, the
employment opportunities will be certainly decreased. However, the government should give
fair treatments to the foreign labor who is already in the country. This can be achieved only
by recognizing the foreign labor as a worker(S. Uh 1998, Y. Park 1998).

Figure 1. Trend of Annual unemployment rate in Korea : 1963_1997


Table 1. Labor Shortage Ratio(1985_97)
(Unit : percent) 1985 1988 1990 1993 1995 1997

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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
- By type of workers
_Total employees
_Ofce workers
_Production workers
- Skilled
- Unskilled
1.8
0.9
2.4
2.0
4.9
3.5
1.2
5.2
3.9
12.3
4.3
1.3
6.9
5.3
16.2
3.6
1.8
6.0
5.1
14.7
3.7
1.8
5.8
5.0
11.4
2.4
1.2
3.9
3.3
12.6
Note: Labor shortage ratio = unflled vacancies/current employees.

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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
Source: Ministry of Labor, Employment Forecasting Survey, Each Issue.
Table 2. GDP Growth Rate and Wage Increase Rate in Korea
(Unit : percent) Year GDP
Growth Rate Wage Increase Rate
Noninal Wage Real Wage
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
6.5
11.6
11.5
11.3
6.4
9.5
9.1
5.1
5.8
8.6
8.9
7.1
5.5
9.2
8.2
10.1
15.5

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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
21.1
18.8
17.5
15.2
12.2
12.7
11.2
11.9
7.0
6.7
5.3
6.8
7.8
14.5
9.5
7.5
8.4
7.0
6.1
6.4
6.7
2.4
Source: KLI Labor Statistics, 1998, Korea Labor Institute

Table 3. Foreign workers in Korea by visa status


(Unite : person, %) Year Total legal stay illegal stay
subtotal employees trainees
1991 44,850(100.0) 2,973(6.6) 2,973(6.6) - 41,877(93.4)
1992 73,868(100.0) 8,340(11.3) 3,395(5.0) 4,945(6.7) 65,528(88.7)
1993 66,919(100.0) 12,411(18.5) 3,767(5.6) 8,644(12.9) 54,508(81.5)
1994 81,824(100.0) 33,593(41.1) 5,265(6.4) 28,328(34.6) 48,231(58.9)
1995 128,906(100.0) 47,040(36.5) 8,228(6.4) 38,812(30.1) 81,866(63.5)
1996 210,494(100.0) 81,440(38.7) 13,420(6.4) 68,020(32.3) 129.054(61.3)
1997 267,546(100.0) 119,498(44.7) 15,900(5.9) 103,598(38.7) 148,048(55.3)
1998. 6 159,994(100.0) 64,967(40.6) 11,622(7.3) 53,345(33.3) 95,027(59.4)
Source: Ministry of Justice

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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
Table 4. Major Macroeconomic Indicators in Korea
(Unite : percent) 1997 1998
1/4 2/4 3/4 4/4 1/4 4/4
GDP growth rate 5.7 6.6 6.1 3.9 -3.9 -6.6
Production
_Mining & manufacturing
_Construction
6.1
5.7
-0.9
7.0
7.2
2.5
6.7
7.5
4.8
4.7
4.6
3.6
-2.8
-6.5
-7.3
-6.0
-10.10
-12.1
Consumption Expenditure 4.4 5.1 5.1 -0.2 -9.7 -12.2
Gross fxed investment 0.3 0.2 -3.7 -9.8 -23.0 -29.8
Source : Bank of Korea
Table 5. Major Labor Market Indicators in Korea
(Unit : thousand persons, percent) 1997 1998
1/4 2/4 Yearly 1/4 2/4 July
Population over 14 years old
Labor Force
Labor Force Participation Rate
Employed
Unemployed
Unemployment Rate
Population not in Labor Force
34,532
(1.8)
21,112

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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
(3.4)
61.1
20,466
(2.5)
645
(41.8)
3.1
13,421
(-0.7)
34,668
(1.6)
21,868
(1.8)
63.1
21,319
(1.8)
550
(33.2)
2.5
12,799
(0.3)
34,736
(1.6)
21,604
(2.0)
62.2
21,048
(1.4)
556
(30.8)
2.6
13,132
(1.1)
35,070
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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
(1.6)
20,892
(-1.0)
59.6
19,710
(-3.7)
1,182
(83.3)
5.7
14,179
(5.6)
35,187
(1.5)
21,663
(-0.9)
61.6
20,178
(-5.4)
1,485
(170.0)
6.9
13,524
(5.7)
35,267
(1.4)
21,650
(-1.0)
61.4
19,999
(-6.5)
1,651
(246.8)
7.6

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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
13,617
(5.6)
Note : Numbers in parentheses are rates of change with respect to the same period of the
previous year.
Source : Ofce of Statistics, Monthly Employment Trend, each issue.
Table 6. Foreign Workers in Korea
(Unit : person) Total Employees Trainees Illegal Stay
Subtotal Firms with foreign afliation Firms without foreign afliation
Dec. 1994
Dec. 1995
Dec. 1996
Dec. 1997
Feb. 1998
June 1998
81,824(100.0)
128,906(100.0)
210,494(100.0)
267,546(100.0)
194,057(100.0)
159,994(100.0)
5,265(6.4)
8,228(6.4)
13,420(6.4)
15,900(5.9)
13,246(6.8)
11,622(7.3)
28,328(34.6)
38,812(30.1)
68,020(32.3)
103,598(38.7)
57,512(29.6)
53,345(33.4)
9,512(11.6)
15,238(11.8)
29,724(14.1)
32,656(12.2)

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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
20,344(10.5)
17,698(11.1)
18,816(23.0)
23,574(18.3)
38,296(18.2)
70,942(26.5)
37,168(19.1)
35,647(22.3)
48,231(58.9)
81,866(63.5)
129,054(61.3)
148,048(55.4)
123,299(63.5)
95,027(59.4)
Note: 1) Numbers in parentheses are proportion of each category out of total.
2) The number of trainees until December, 1997 included the trainees who fed the training
places.
Source: Ministry of Justice. Korea(unpublished data)
Table 7. Undocumented Foreign Workers in Korea by National December 1997 June 1998
China
(Korean Chinese)
Philippines
Bangladesh
Thailand
Vietnam
Pakistan
Indonesia
Nepal
Others
57,722
(29,858)
13,909
9,033
8,200
6,389

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Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea -- Kil-Sang Yoo - Research & Seminars | Migration Dialogue
5,935
2,353
1,059
43,448
53,429
(26,153)
6,302
6,939
2,528
3,181
3,350
1,013
639
17,646
Total 148,048 95,027
Source: Ministry of Justice, Korea(unpublished data)
References
Bai, Moo-ki, Labor Economics, 1981.
Kang, Su Dol, Globalization of the Labor Market: Foreign Labor Issues in Korea, Korea Labor
Institute, September 6, 1996.
Korea Labor Institute, KLI Labor Statistics, 1998.
Lewis, W. Arthur, Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labor, Manchester School, May
1954.
Ministry of Labor, Employment Forecasting Survey, Each Issue.
Park, Young-bum, "Financial Crisis and Foreign Workers in Korea", July 1998. (Unpublished
paper).
Uh, Soobong, "Immigration and Labor Market Issues in Korea", Workshop on International
Migration and Labor Markets in Asia, 29 and 30 January 1998, Japan Institute of Labor.

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Following the Money: Chinese Labor Migration to Zambia | migrationpolicy.org

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Following the Money: Chinese Labor Migration to Zambia


FEBRUARY 20, 2015 FEATURE

ByHannah Postel
Chinese migration to Zambia has increased in recent years following the
development of a strong economic relationship between the two countries,
and against a backdrop of rising Chinese migration to resource-rich areas of
the world. China has invested billions of dollars in Zambias most proftable
industries, and is responsible for most major infrastructure projects in the
country. In 2014 it also began funding Mandarin instruction in Zambian
government secondary schools. Flows of people have begun to follow the
fows of investment capital: the number of Chinese nationals entering Zambia
has increased by 60 percent since 2009.

Many Chinese workers enter Zambia in supervisory roles on


major infrastructure projects. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Ching
Kwan Lee)

The design of Zambias immigration system and its migration relationship


with China ofers insight into the migration policies and trends of developing
countries, providing a more nuanced view of migration fows worldwide.
Prevailing migration theory largely applies to conventional fows of people
from poorer to richer countries (known as South-North migration). The

Chinese fow to Zambia, characterized by highly skilled migrants, exemplifes


the phenomenon of South-South migration, which represents more than one-third of global migration.
This article examines the newly emerging migration pattern from China to Zambia, a nontraditional destination, based on original
research including the authors coding of more than 25,000 Zambian entry permits for 2012 and 2013 and in-depth interviews with
key ofcials and community members. Though the Chinese population in Zambia has received much negative media attention,
mainly due to the anti-Chinese rhetoric of late President Michael Sata, the Zambian government now largely recognizes the
importance of the economic relationship. While integration of Chinese arrivals into Zambian society has been minimal to date,
continuing Chinese investment suggests the population is only going to grow further.
The Zambian Immigration System
All visitors require a visa to enter Zambia, with stays past 30 days requiring an additional permit. The six major permit types are:

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Following the Money: Chinese Labor Migration to Zambia | migrationpolicy.org

residence, visiting, study, employment, temporary, and self-employment (investor). Permitted length of stay varies from three
months to ten years, with employment permits lasting for two years. Zambia does not have a separate permit for family reunion
family members enter on the same permit as the initial holder. This complicates collection of accurate statistics, as only the
individual granted a permit is written into the immigration records.
The Zambian government prioritizes migrants with high socioeconomic status, and does not intend to provide social welfare to
new residents, as indicated by the following four tenets of Zambian immigration policy, which are that an immigrant to Zambia:
1.
2.
3.
4.

must have a contribution to make in the form of skills, profession, or capital


should not deprive a Zambian of employment
should not be a charge on the state
must be in possession of a permit.

Zambia is not a traditional migration destination; ranking 141 of 187 on the United Nations Human Development Index, it has not
historically attracted many aspiring newcomers. It therefore serves as a useful counterpoint to frequently analyzed destinations
such as the United States and the United Kingdom.
Migration in Developing Countries
Zambia ofers a strong example of developing-country policies. Nontraditional destinations are often left out of migration studies,
due to the continued focus on archetypal low-skilled migration to high-income countries. However, almost half of the worlds
estimated 321.5 million international migrants reside in a developing country; 36 percent (82.3 million) were born and still reside
in the global South. This fgure exceeds all other geographic migration patterns and is therefore crucial to understand.
To accurately assess the impact of these South-South fows, one must frst understand the main characteristics of the South-North
archetype, which has been characterized as fows of low-skilled and culturally distinct people from poorer countries [to wealthy
countries], increasingly perceived as a problem in need of control, according to migration scholar Hein de Haas. While many
prospective migrants look for greater economic opportunity abroad, traditional migration destinations are also attractive for their
relatively higher levels of safety, employment, and social services. Receiving countries typically employ strict entry rules including
extensive border enforcement to keep out these lower-skilled newcomers.
In contrast, immigration to developing countries tends to be characterized by higher admission rates and individuals with more
diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Immigration policies in developing countries may not necessarily be less stringent than
elsewhere, but the capability to strictly enforce borders is often lacking. Much South-South migration is therefore unauthorized;
almost 80 percent is estimated to take place between countries with contiguous borders and limited procedural formalities.
Though most countries welcome skilled migration, developing-country policies in particular favor the admission of better-educated
individuals to help improve the domestic economy. The combination of these two characteristics leads to a diverse migration
system.
Recent Zambian Migration Trends
The total volume of migration to Zambia is low, with approximately 16,500 permit applications submitted in 2011, the highest level
in recent years. (It is also important to keep in mind that family members are admitted with the permit holder and not on their own
separate permits; one permit thus does not necessarily equal one person.)

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Following the Money: Chinese Labor Migration to Zambia | migrationpolicy.org

The author manually transcribed 25,000 Zambian immigration permits (Photos: Hannah Postel)
The author was granted access to employment permit data for 2012 and 2013 by the Zambian Department of Immigration,
manually transcribing details from more than 25,000 permits. The 2012 records provided information on nationality, occupation,
and employer of each permit holder. While the 2013 records did not include individual occupations, locational data was recorded
for some of the permit-sponsoring employers, providing insight into patterns of residence in-country. The author also conducted
interviews with Zambian government ofcials, Chinese government and industry representatives, and international organization
staf. Total immigration numbers and important metadata for permit transcription were obtained from the Employment Permit
Secretariat and Department of Immigration ofcials.
Zambia is quite open to foreigners: on average, just 5.8 percent of applicants were denied admission over the 2009-12 period
surveyed (see Figure 1). Educated, investment-focused applicants were favored for their potential to contribute to the domestic
economy.
Figure 1. Zambian Entry Permit Applications by Approval, 2009-12

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Following the Money: Chinese Labor Migration to Zambia | migrationpolicy.org

Source: Zambian Department of Immigration, Immigration Permit Details (Lusaka: Department of Immigration),
2009-12.

China, India, and South Africa supply the largest numbers of migrants to Zambia, followed by Zimbabwe, the United Kingdom, and
the United States (see Figure 2). Migration to Zambia is diverse, with at least one-third of approved permits allocated to individuals
from countries other than the top six senders.
Figure 2. Approved Permits by Nationality, 2009-12

Source: Zambian Department of Immigration, Immigration Permit Details.

In general, the quality of ofcial statistics is poor; this is especially true for exit records. Those leaving are supposed to turn in their
permits and get their passport stamped upon exit, however, most people do not follow these requirements and it is unclear if exit
stamps are recorded with any frequency. It is thus nearly impossible to determine either the overall size of the immigrant
population or annual net infows and outfows. Analysis of permit trends instead of short-term visa issuances focuses on migrants
who indicate at least a three-month planned stay, but there is no way to know exactly how long permit holders remain in Zambia.
Conversations with immigration ofcials and independent immigration consultants confrmed the impression that most permit
holders from the United States and United Kingdom enter on short-term work permits and leave after the duration of their
contract. Indians, South Africans, and Zimbabweans tend to migrate more permanently. Consensus on the Chinese was divided.
Though migrants from neighboring African countries (apart from those mentioned above) do not fgure prominently in permit and
visa data, this is likely because they do not enter Zambia through formal channels. Such data are collected manually and
inconsistently at border posts, and there is no enforcement along the majority of the border. The Zambian government is largely
unaware of the volume or characteristics of migrants crossing into the country informally, according to the Deputy Chief of
Operations of the Department of Immigration. Though Somali and Congolese immigrants have built a sizeable community in
Lusaka, Zambia is still mainly a transit point for Central and East African migrants traveling to South Africa; many do not choose to
reside in Zambia permanently.

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Following the Money: Chinese Labor Migration to Zambia | migrationpolicy.org

Chinese Migration to Zambia


Though Zambia has long been a hotspot for Sino-African economic relations, Chinese migration to the country remained minimal
until 2008. Home to Chinas frst foreign aid project, the TAZARA Railway, Zambia also hosts Chinas frst operational special
economic zone on the continent. As in much of Africa, China is responsible for most major infrastructure projects, and has
invested billions of dollarsabout 11 percent of Zambias estimated $26.8 billion in gross domestic product (GDP)in copper
mining, construction, and manufacturing. Chinese migration to Zambia exemplifes sociologist Stephen Castles statement that
migrations are not an isolated phenomenon: movements of commodities and capital almost always give rise to movements of
people.
The Chinese population in Zambia has been the focus of disproportionate media attention, largely due to late Zambian President
Michael Satas infamous anti-Chinese platform in the 2006 elections. His alarmist claim of 80,000 Chinese residents in Zambia has
pervaded coverage of the subject. The Chinese presence in Zambia has been continuously overstated due to this extreme
overestimation. Others have previously suggested a population in the 4,000-15,000 range; a recent estimate conducted by the
author using census and immigration data ranged from 5,000 to 18,000, with a likely center around 12,000-15,000. Even though
developing a precise and accurate estimate is nearly impossible (due to unreliable statistics and high numbers of temporary
migrants), it is important to maintain a sense of scale when discussing Chinese migration to Zambia. Even at a high bound of
18,000, the Chinese community represents just one-tenth of 1 percent of the Zambian population.
With this in mind, Chinese migration to Zambia has indeed increased in recent years. Figure 3 shows the number of approved
permits for Chinese nationals against the total number of permits granted. Though the total number of Chinese entering the
country decreased between 2011 and 2012, the percentage of permits granted to Chinese applicants has continued to grow.
Approved work permits for Chinese immigrants jumped to 5,897 in 2013, according to a preliminary count. The overwhelming
majority of Chinese move to Zambia to work (see Figure 4). Of the 9,067 total employment permits recorded in 2012, more than
one-third (3,722) were granted to Chinese nationals.
Figure 3. Approved Entry Permits for Chinese and All Nationalities to Zambia, 200912

Source: Zambian Department of Immigration, Immigration Permit Details.

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Following the Money: Chinese Labor Migration to Zambia | migrationpolicy.org

Figure 4. Types of Zambian Entry Permits Granted to Chinese Nationals, 2012

Source: Zambian Department of Immigration, Immigration Permit Details.

Roles and Integration of Chinese Immigrants in Zambia


Chinese migration to Africa is often categorized into three diferent types: temporary labor migrants, small-scale entrepreneurs,
and transit migrants. The frst category can be divided into two subgroups: semi-skilled laborers largely returning to China after
completing their contracts, and a smaller group of managers and professionals often remaining in Africa as entrepreneurs. In her
study of Chinese activities in Zambia, Solange Guo Chatelard also includes a small number of expatriates sent over by central and
provincial government agencies to fulfll diplomatic, managerial and consultant functions in diferent sectors.
Quantitative evidence from Zambia largely supports these typologies. As shown in Figure 4, 95 percent of the Chinese entering
Zambia in 2012 (3,649 permits) were labor migrants. All but a few were employed by Chinese-owned companies. National or
regional Chinese state-owned enterprises sponsored 2,026 individuals. Zambian government ministries directly hired 736 Chinese,
while many more were working on Zambian government contracts won by large Chinese construction companies (see Table 1). One
particularly interesting example is the 436 individuals hired by the Zambian Ministry of Defense and Air Force. Though at frst
glance the possibility that Chinese nationals might be stafng Zambias military roster could be a cause for concern (especially
given extensive media focus on the Chinese takeover of Africa), permit details show that most if not all of these individuals were
working to build the new Air Force barracks on a government contract with the Chinese construction giant Sinomach.
Table 1: Zambian Employment Permits by Selected Companies, 2012-13

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Following the Money: Chinese Labor Migration to Zambia | migrationpolicy.org

Source: Zambian Department of Immigration, Immigration Permit Details.

These fgures illustrate how crucial government contracts are to the fow of Chinese labor migrants to Zambia. While not a single
Sinohydro employee entered the country in 2012, this fgure jumped to 136 in 2013 (direct employees; 333 when including their
contract workers). The reverse is also true: while in 2012, 200 employees were hired by Sinomach and 446 by the contracting
Ministry of Defense, after the project was completed the number dropped in 2013to 43 and 89, respectively.
While the distinction between diferent categories of Chinese labor migrants to Africa largely holds true in Zambia, a number of
Chinese managers said that staying in Zambia would end their careers. Personal connections are central to successful business
networking in China and are impossible to maintain from such a distance. Those who do remain to begin their own companies
often in turn hire more Chinese employees. For example, an individual granted an investors permit in 2011 to establish the
company Camland Construction sponsored 11 work permits for Chinese migrant employees in 2013. It is likely that most of the
migrants falling into the other category work for small Chinese-owned businesses (typically restaurants, import-export shops,
and spin-of construction companies). Due to the imprecision of Zambian data and the degree of state infuence on private
Chinese businesses, it is impossible to determine the exact nature of many of these enterprises. However, after accounting for joint
ventures and third-country corporations, among others, a conservative estimate of 60 percent of these other workers are in
Zambia on small-time private interests. Chinese entrepreneurs accounted for 237 investment permits from January 2012 to June
2014. These new businesses were largely concentrated in the construction, manufacturing, and mining industries.

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Following the Money: Chinese Labor Migration to Zambia | migrationpolicy.org

Chinese transit migrants are likely quite few. It is impossible to estimate the number due precisely to their transient nature and
poor immigrant exit records, but a large majority of the Chinese community as observed and self-described either planned to
remain in Zambia or return to China in the medium term.
Employment data on Chinese nationals in Zambia illuminate the economic and social role they play in-country. Many aspiring
Chinese migrants ft Zambian immigration policy aims of admitting highly educated, investment-seeking foreigners to combat the
local skills gap. This is demonstrated by extremely high admission rates: less than 1 percent of Chinese work-permit applicants
were rejected in 2012. Coding for terms such as manager, director, and senior, 2,754 permit holders were identifed in
managerial occupations. Chinese nationals accounted for 923 of these managerial permits, entering Zambia to play a supervisory
role.
Importing Chinese Labor
One of the most contentious aspects of the Chinese presence in Africa is Chinese labor imports. Many major Chinese companies are
said to hire almost entirely from China to the exclusion of local workers, citing language and cultural diferences. One of late
President Satas major accusations in 2006 was that the Chinese infesters were taking jobs away from Zambians. The data
support this claim to some extent: Chinese companies were the most likely to pad their employment rolls with individuals not
necessarily bringing specifc education and expertise to the table. Almost every large company hired at least one Chinese chef,
while 628 permits (17 percent of the total) in 2012 were granted to people with vague titles like constructor and skilled worker.
Increasing Diversity
The Chinese population in Zambia shows that emigration from China is increasingly diverse. The typical Chinese migrant is no
longer a 20- to 30-something male from coastal regions such as Guangdong, Zhejiang, and Fujian. Though no formal data on
gender, age, and other demographics exist, women especially are present in much higher numbers than the prevailing literature
would suggest. Women account for an estimated 10-20 percent of the Chinese population in Zambia, though observation suggests
this fgure could be even higher. Importantly, many of these women are in Zambia of their own right rather than accompanying a
permit holder. Geographic diversity is also quite broad, with increasing representation from central and northern China. Though a
departure from the traditional demographics, this can be largely explained by the employment-driven nature of Chinese migration.
Most large companies hire workers from their home regions; for example, the Chengdu-based Lusaka Pan Brick Company hires
workers from the same province of Sichuan.
Though outsiders often refer to the Chinese as a homogenous group, the Chinese population in Zambia is relatively disjointed.
Multiple long-term residents described how the community has splintered as numbers have grown. In the 1990s, the approximately
200 Chinese residents of Lusaka all knew each other and united around their shared identity. As the Chinese migrant population
has grown and diversifed, individuals now self-segregate into smaller, more specialized groups, illustrated by the expanding
numbers of Chinese community organizations. Twenty years ago only the Chinese Embassy existed; two new regional migrant
associations were created in 2014 alone.
This diversity is also politically signifcant, as Chatelard asserts: Individuals and families have their own agenda which is often
quite separate from the concerns of the Chinese governmentit is not a homogeneous community of agents collectively working to
forward a coherent government agenda. Chinese government representatives freely admit to maintaining contact almost
exclusively with the large state-owned enterprises seeking Zambian government contracts, and rarely, if ever, interacting with the
sizeable group of individuals pursuing private interests. In fact, they reported they are unable to even estimate the size of the
Chinese community. The growing Chinese presence in Africa continues to set of global alarm bells, often viewed as a coherent
neocolonialist strategy fully planned and implemented by the Chinese state. This new Chinese migration, however, is typifed by a
multitude of both public and private actors with independent motives, similar to other global population fows.
Migrant Assimilation
In some countries, migrants...are virtually indistinguishable from the receiving population, according to Castles. This is true in

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Zambia, where South African, Zimbabwean, and British immigrants share many cultural, occupational, and physical similarities
with native Zambians. Due to the strong colonial and regional ties among these countries, it can be impossible to discern an
individuals nationality. India and Zambia also have a long migration and shared cultural history as former British colonies; many
Indian migrants have so assimilated into Zambian society that they identify as Zambian.
Chinese migrants are more conspicuous and less assimilated into Zambian society than other migrant groups, at least partially due
to the sheer newness of their presence. They also attract disproportionate attention due to their work on high-profle projects in
visible industries such as construction, and a distinct appearance relative to most Zambian residents. Though no Zambian
integration initiatives exist for any migrant population, the Chinese have remained by far the most segregated. Many attribute this
to persistent language and cultural diferences. Though an increasing number of Chinese migrants speak English, few Zambians are
profcient in Chinese. However, the Chinese-sponsored introduction of Mandarin instruction in Zambian government secondary
schools in 2014 has the potential to close this language gap.
Some Zambians praise the Chinese for living and working side-by-side with locals, rarely seen amongst other groups of expatriates.
Others, however, are angered by what they view as Chinese migrants perceived sense of superiority, exploitation of local workers,
and unwillingness to learn local languages. Cultural diferences drive misunderstandings on both sides: the Chinese consistently
complain about Zambians work performance, calling them lazy, while Zambians are mystifed by the Chinese tendency to migrate
without their families, feeling this signals a cold and unapproachable temperament.
The Chinese straddle a visible divide in the foreign populations in Zambia. More permanent migrants, mainly from other African
countries such as South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Somalia, but also Indians and Lebanese, tend to interact on a peer-to-peer level
with local Zambians. They are more established and integrated in-country. Expatriates are the second major group, mainly
Americans and Europeans on contract with international organizations, governments, or religious organizations. It is highly
unusual for anyone from this demographic to remain in Zambia longer than two years. The fact that Chinese both bridge and
challenge these paradigms further makes them an enigma to observers.
Mirror of Larger Emigration Patterns
Since Zambia admits the majority of permit applicants, selection policies do not play a major role in determining immigrant
demographics. Therefore, Zambian immigration data can provide insight into emigration patterns from major sending countries.
Chinese immigration was negligible until the infux began around 2008, according to the Deputy Director of Operations at the
Zambian Department of Immigration. This trend tracks with the overall growth in the stock of Chinese emigrants worldwide, which
increased by 128.6 percent between 1990 and 2013from around 4.1 million in 1990 to 9.3 million in 2013. Chinas bid to join the
World Trade Organization (WTO) necessitated reform of the countrys entry-and-exit procedures; simplifcation of the passport
application process enabled many more Chinese nationals to travel and move abroad. Beijings increased attention to the continent
demonstrated by the establishment of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation in 2008including investment and trade
promotion likely spurred increased migration to Africa in particular.
Migration to Zambia as an example of South-South migration does not ft the prevailing global model of low-skilled migration to
high-income countries. Zambian labor immigration is largely characterized by educated foreigners ofering sectoral expertise and
management experience. Dual labor market theory, which argues that cheap immigrant labor at the secondary end of the labor
market will always be in demand since primary workers do not take such undesirable jobs, thus applies to the Zambian casein
reverse. Labor migrants enter the country not to occupy low-skilled jobs undesirable to frst-tier natives, but instead to manage
and share expertise with a relatively uneducated Zambian populace.
The global reach of multinational frms, worldwide demand for certain specialties, and formal treaty arrangements contribute to the
function of migration systems as international labor markets. These elements are key to Chinese migration to Zambia, which has
arisen from a growing history of political and economic cooperation between the two countries. Migration systems theory also
applies to the Zambian immigration system more broadly, explaining many migrant fows through prior links including
colonization, trade, and investment. The theorys main weaknessits sheer breadthcan also be its strength, rendering it
applicable to a larger spectrum of migration patterns.

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Chain Migration from China?


Chinese migration to Zambia (and Africa more broadly) will likely continue to increase over the short- to medium term. Chinas
population pressures and recent international business expansions drive this trend. Chinese emigration historically follows a chain
migration pattern, with pioneer migrants creating opportunities in the destination country for friends and family to follow behind.
The Chinese population in Zambia is still quite new; as life in Zambia is publicized and further business opportunities are created,
more migrants will surely follow.
Despite the highly publicized anti-Chinese rhetoric in Zambia, local ofcials are very aware of the important role the Chinese play
in-country. Chinese infuence is evident in the number of individuals present when stepping into any major government ofce, and
extends beyond the ofcial sphere into public life via daily vegetable markets and the recent proliferation of Chinese restaurants.
The Zambian governments recent commitment to fund public school Chinese-language instruction is only one example of its longrun dedication to the bilateral relationship. Despite the temporary nature of many Chinese migrants, the community as a whole will
only continue to grow.
Sources
Castles, Stephen and Miller, Mark J. 2009. The Age of Migration. 4th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Chatelard, Solange Guo. 2011. Unpacking the new scramble for Africa: a critical and local perspective of Chinese activities in
Zambia. In States, regions and the global system: Europe and Northern Asia-Pacifc in globalized governance, eds. Andreas
Vasilache, Reimund Seidelmann, and Jose Luis de Sales Marques. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
de Haas, Hein. 2011. The determinants of international migration: Conceptualizing policy, origin and destination efects. IMI
Working Paper 32, DEMIG Project Paper 2, University of Oxford, International Migration Institute, April 2011. Available Online.
Liu, Guofu. 2009. Changing Chinese Migration Law: From Restriction to Relaxation.Journal of International Migration and
Integration 10 no. 3 (2009): 311-33.
Massey, Douglas S., Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino, and J. Edward Taylor. 1998.Worlds in
Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Mung, Emmanuel. 2008. Chinese Migration and China's Foreign Policy in Africa.Journal of Chinese Overseas 4 no. 1: 91-109.
Park, Yoon Jung. 2009. Chinese Migration to Africa. SAIIA Occasional Paper 24, South African Institute of International Afairs,
Johannesburg, 2009. Available Online.
Piore, Michael J. 1979. Birds of Passage: Migrant Labor and Industrial Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ratha, Dilip and William Shaw. 2007. South-South Migration and Remittances. Washington, DC: World Bank. Available
Online.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Afairs. Population Ofce. 2013. International Migration 2013: Migrants by
Origin and Destination. New York: United Nations. Available Online.
Wang, Huiyao. 2014. Recent Trends in Migration between China and Other Developing Countries. Presentation at the International
Organization for Migration, South-South Migration: Partnering Strategically for Development conference, Geneva, March 24-25,
2014. Available Online.
Zambian Department of Immigration. 2014. Immigration Permit Details. Lusaka: Department of Immigration.

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IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS ABOUT THIS ARTICLE, CONTACT US AT Source@MigrationPolicy.org

NEWSLETTER SIGNUP

AUTHOR
Hannah Postel works for an international development contractor in Washington, DC. She is a graduate of
Middlebury College, where she focused on international political economy and Chinese studies. A Fulbright
research grantee, she spent a year in Zambia studying Chinese migration trends.

RELATED ARTICLES
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Foreign_policy_of_the_United_States - Photos and All Basic Informations

Contents 1 Powers of the President and Congress 2 Historical overview 2.1 20th century 2.1.1 World War I 2.1.2 World War II 2.1.3 Cold War 2.2 21st century 3 Law 4 Alliances 4.1 NATO 5 Geography 5.1 United Kingdom 5.2 Canada 5.3 Mexico 5.4 Australia 5.5 Middle East 5.6 Japan 5.7 South Korea 5.8 China 5.9 Taiwan 5.10 ASEAN 5.10.1 Indonesia 5.10.2 Malaysia 5.10.3 Myanmar 5.10.4
Philippines 5.10.5 Thailand 5.10.6 Vietnam 5.11 Eastern Europe 5.12 Kosovo 5.13 Hub and spoke vs multilateral 6 Oil 6.1 Persian Gulf 6.2 Canada 6.3 Africa 7 Foreign aid 8 Military 8.1 Aid 8.2 Missile defense 8.3 Exporting democracy 8.3.1 Opinion that U.S. intervention does not export democracy 8.3.2 Opinion that U.S. intervention has mixed results 8.3.3 Opinion that U.S. intervention
efectively exports democracy 9 Covert actions 10 Human Rights 11 War on Drugs 12 Criticism 13 Support 14 See also 14.1 Constitutional and international law 14.2 Diplomacy 14.3 Intelligence 14.4 Military 14.5 Policy and doctrine 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

Powers of the President and Congress[edit] The US Constitution gives much of the foreign policy decision-making to the presidency, but the Senate has a role in ratifying treaties, and the Supreme Court interprets treaties when cases are presented to it. Main articles: Treaty Clause, War Powers Clause, Appointments Clause and Foreign Commerce Clause Subject to the advice and consent
role of the U.S. Senate, the President of the United States negotiates treaties with foreign nations, but treaties enter into force if ratifed by two-thirds of the Senate. The President is also Commander in Chief of the United States Armed Forces, and as such has broad authority over the armed forces; however only Congress has authority to declare war, and the civilian and military budget is
written by the Congress. The United States Secretary of State is the foreign minister of the United States and is the primary conductor of state-to-state diplomacy. Both the Secretary of State and ambassadors are appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. Congress also has power to regulate commerce with foreign nations.[3]

Historical overview[edit] Main articles: History of U.S. foreign policy and Timeline of United States diplomatic history The Jay Treaty of 1795 aligned the U.S. more with Britain and less with France, leading to political polarization at home The main trend regarding the history of U.S. foreign policy since the American Revolution is the shift from non-interventionism before and after World
War I, to its growth as a world power and global hegemony during and since World War II and the end of the Cold War in the 20th century.[4] Since the 19th century, US foreign policy also has been characterized by a shift from the realist school to the idealistic or Wilsonian school of international relations.[5] Foreign policy themes were expressed considerably in George Washington's
farewell address; these included among other things, observing good faith and justice towards all nations and cultivating peace and harmony with all, excluding both "inveterate antipathies against particular nations, and passionate attachments for others", "steer[ing] clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world", and advocating trade with all nations. These policies
became the basis of the Federalist Party in the 1790s. But the rival Jefersonians feared Britain and favored France in the 1790s, declaring the War of 1812 on Britain. After the 1778 alliance with France, the U.S. did not sign another permanent treaty until the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949. Over time, other themes, key goals, attitudes, or stances have been variously expressed by
Presidential 'doctrines', named for them. Initially these were uncommon events, but since WWII, these have been made by most presidents. In general, the United States followed an isolationist foreign policy until attacks against U.S. shipping by Barbary corsairs spurred the country into developing a naval force projection capability, resulting in the First Barbary War in 1801.[6] Despite
occasional entanglements with European Powers such as the War of 1812 and the 1898 Spanish-American War, U.S. foreign policy was marked by steady expansion of its foreign trade and scope during the 19th century, and it maintained its policy of avoiding wars with and between European powers. Concerning its domestic borders, the 1803 Louisiana Purchase doubled the nation's
geographical area; Spain ceded the territory of Florida in 1819; annexation brought Texas in 1845; a war with Mexico in 1848 added California, Arizona and New Mexico. The U.S. bought Alaska from the Russian Empire in 1867, and it annexed the Republic of Hawaii in 1898. Victory over Spain in 1898 brought the Philippines, and Puerto Rico, as well as oversight of Cuba. The short
experiment in imperialism ended by 1908, as the U.S. turned its attention to the Panama Canal and the stabilization of regions to its south, including Mexico. 20th century[edit] World War I[edit] The 20th century was marked by two world wars in which the United States, along with allied powers, defeated its enemies and increased its international reputation. President Wilson's Fourteen
Points was developed from his idealistic Wilsonianism program of spreading democracy and fghting militarism so as to end wars. It became the basis of the German Armistice (really a surrender) and the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The resulting Treaty of Versailles, due to European allies' punitive and territorial designs, showed insufcient conformity with these points and the U.S.
signed separate treaties with each of its adversaries; due to Senate objections also, the U.S. never joined the League of Nations, which was established as a result of Wilson's initiative. In the 1920s, the United States followed an independent course, and succeeded in a program of naval disarmament, and refunding the German economy. New York became the fnancial capital of the world,
but the downside was that the Wall Street Crash of 1929 hurled the entire world into the Great Depression. American trade policy relied on high tarifs under the Republicans, and reciprocal trade agreements under the Democrats, but in any case exports were at very low levels in the 1930s. World War II[edit] Main article: Diplomatic history of World War II United States Allies of World
War II at the Yalta Conference: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. The United States adopted a non-interventionist foreign policy from 1932 to 1938, but then President Franklin D. Roosevelt moved toward strong support of the Allies in their wars against Germany and Japan. As a result of intense internal debate, the national policy was one of becoming the
Arsenal of Democracy, that is fnancing and equipping the Allied armies without sending American combat soldiers. Roosevelt mentioned four fundamental freedoms, which ought to be enjoyed by people "everywhere in the world"; these included the freedom of speech and religion, as well as freedom from want and fear. Roosevelt helped establish terms for a post-war world among
potential allies at the Atlantic Conference; specifc points were included to correct earlier failures, which became a step toward the United Nations. American policy was to threaten Japan, to force it out of China, and to prevent its attacking the Soviet Union. However, Japan reacted by an attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, and the United States was at war with Japan, Germany,
and Italy. Instead of the loans given to allies in World War I, the United States provided Lend-Lease grants of $50,000,000,000. Working closely with Winston Churchill of Britain, and Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union, Roosevelt sent his forces into the Pacifc against Japan, then into North Africa against Italy and Germany, and fnally into Europe starting with France and Italy in 1944 against
the Germans. The American economy roared forward, doubling industrial production, and building vast quantities of airplanes, ships, tanks, munitions, and, fnally, the atomic bomb. Much of the American war efort went to strategic bombers, which fattened the cities of Japan and Germany. Cold War[edit] Main article: History of the Cold War Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao
Zedong meets with U.S. President Richard Nixon, 1972 After the war, the U.S. rose to become the dominant non-colonial economic power with broad infuence in much of the world, with the key policies of the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine. Almost immediately however, the world witnessed division into broad two camps during the Cold War; one side was led by the U.S., and
the other by the Soviet Union, but this situation also led to the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement. This period lasted until almost the end of the 20th century, and is thought to be both an ideological and power struggle between the two superpowers. A policy of containment was adopted to limit Soviet expansion, and a series of proxy wars were fought with mixed results. In
1991, the Soviet Union dissolved into separate nations, and the Cold War formally ended as the United States gave separate diplomatic recognition to the Russian Federation and other former Soviet states. With these changes to forty-fve years of established diplomacy and military confrontation, new challenges confronted U.S. policymakers. American foreign policy is characterized by
the protection of its national interests. 21st century[edit] In the 21st century, U.S. infuence remains strong but, in relative terms, is declining in terms of economic output compared to rising nations such as China, India, Russia, Brazil, and the newly consolidated European Union. Substantial problems remain, such as climate change, nuclear proliferation, and the specter of nuclear
terrorism. Foreign policy analysts Hachigian and Sutphen in their book The Next American Century suggest all six powers have similar vested interests in stability and terrorism prevention and trade; if they can fnd common ground, then the next decades may be marked by peaceful growth and prosperity.[7]

Law[edit] Main articles: Treaty and Treaty Clause In the United States, there are three types of treaty-related law: Executive agreements Congressional-executive agreements are made by the president and Congress. A majority of both houses makes it binding much like regular legislation after it is signed by the president. The constitution does not expressly state that these agreements are
allowed, and constitutional scholars such as Laurence Tribe think they are unconstitutional.[citation needed] However, the U.S. Supreme Court has upheld their validity.[citation needed] Sole executive agreements are made by the president alone. Treaties are formal written agreements specifed by the Treaty Clause of the Constitution. The president makes a treaty with foreign powers,
but then the proposed treaty must be ratifed by a two-thirds vote in the Senate. For example, President Wilson proposed the Treaty of Versailles after World War I after consulting with allied powers, but this treaty was rejected by the U.S. Senate; as a result, the U.S. subsequently made separate agreements with diferent nations. While most international law has a broader interpretation
of the term treaty, the U.S. sense of the term is more restricted. In Missouri v. Holland, the Supreme Court ruled that the power to make treaties under the U.S. Constitution is a power separate from the other enumerated powers of the federal government, and hence the federal government can use treaties to legislate in areas which would otherwise fall within the exclusive authority of
the states. International law in most nations considers all three of the above agreements as treaties. In most nations, treaty laws supersede domestic law. So if there is a confict between a treaty obligation and a domestic law, then the treaty usually prevails. In contrast to most other nations, the United States considers the three types of agreements as distinct. Further, the United States
incorporates treaty law into the body of U.S. federal law. As a result, Congress can modify or repeal treaties afterwards. It can overrule an agreed-upon treaty obligation even if this is seen as a violation of the treaty under international law. Several U.S. court rulings confrmed this understanding, including the 1900 Supreme Court decision in Paquete Habana, a late 1950s decision in Reid v.
Covert, and a lower court ruling in 1986 in Garcia-Mir v. Meese. Further, the Supreme Court has declared itself as having the power to rule a treaty as void by declaring it "unconstitutional", although as of 2011, it has never exercised this power. The State Department has taken the position that the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties represents established law. Generally when the
U.S. signs a treaty, it is binding. However, because of the Reid v. Covert decision, the U.S. adds a reservation to the text of every treaty that says, in efect, that the U.S. intends to abide by the treaty, but if the treaty is found to be in violation of the Constitution, then the U.S. legally can't abide by the treaty since the U.S. signature would be ultra vires.

Alliances[edit] NATO[edit] A map of allies of the United States NATO member states, including their colonies and overseas possessions Major non-NATO allies, plus Republic of China (Taiwan) Signatories of Partnership for Peace with NATO The United States is a founding member of NATO, the world's largest military alliance. The 28-nation alliance consists of Canada and much of
Europe, including the nation with NATO's second largest military, the United Kingdom. Under the NATO charter, the United States is compelled to defend any NATO state that is attacked by a foreign power. NATO is restricted to within the North American and European areas. In 1989, the United States also granted fve nations the major non-NATO ally status (MNNA); this number was
increased in the late 1990s and following the September 11 attacks; it currently includes 28 nations. Each such state has a unique relationship with the United States, involving various military and economic partnerships and alliances.

Geography[edit] The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (November 2013) United Kingdom[edit] Main article: United KingdomUnited States relations Further information: Special Relationship and Anglosphere Queen Elizabeth II welcomes President Obama and
First Lady Michelle Obama to Buckingham Palace on April 1, 2009. United States foreign policy afrms its alliance with the United Kingdom as its most important[citation needed] bilateral relationship in the world, evidenced by aligned political afairs between the White House and 10 Downing Street, as well as joint military operations carried out between the two nations. While both the
United States and the United Kingdom maintain close relationships with many other nations around the world, the level of cooperation in military planning, execution of military operations, nuclear weapons technology, and intelligence sharing with each other has been described as "unparalleled" among major powers throughout the 20th and early 21st century.[8] The United States
and Britain share the world's largest foreign direct investment partnership. American investment in the United Kingdom reached $255.4 billion in 2002, while British direct investment in the United States totaled $283.3 billion.[9] Canada[edit] Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper (right) and President Obama (left) meet in Ottawa in February 2009 Main article: CanadaUnited States
relations The bilateral relationship between Canada and the United States is of notable importance to both countries. About 7585% of Canadian trade is with the United States, and Canada is the United States' largest trading partner and chief supplier of oil. While there are disputed issues between the two nations, relations are close and the two countries share the "world's longest
undefended border."[10] The border was demilitarized after the War of 1812 and, apart from minor raids[clarifcation needed], has remained peaceful. Military collaboration began during World War II and continued throughout the Cold War on both a bilateral basis and a multilateral relationship through NATO. A high volume of trade and migration between the United States and Canada
since the 1850s has generated closer ties, despite continued Canadian fears of being culturally overwhelmed by its neighbor, which is nine times larger in terms of population and eleven times larger in terms of economy.[11][12] The two economies have increasingly merged since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of 1994, which also includes Mexico. Mexico[edit] Main
article: MexicoUnited States relations The United States shares a unique and often complex relationship with Mexico. A history of armed confict goes back to the Texas Revolution in the 1830s, the MexicanAmerican War in the 1840s, and an American invasion in the 1910s. Important treaties include the Gadsden Purchase, and multilaterally with Canada, the North American Free Trade
Agreement. The central issue in recent years has been illegal immigration, followed by illegal gun sales (from the U.S.), drug smuggling (to the U.S.) and escalating drug cartel violence just south of the U.S.-Mexico border.[13][14] Australia[edit] Main article: AustraliaUnited States relations Former Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd talks with United States President Barack Obama in
Washington The United States' relationship with Australia is a very close one, with Secretary of State Hillary Clinton stating that "America doesn't have a better friend in the world than Australia".[15] The relationship is formalized by the ANZUS treaty and the AustraliaUnited States Free Trade Agreement. The two countries have a shared history, both have previously been British Colonies
and many Americans focked to the Australian goldfelds in the 19th century. At a strategic level, the relationship really came to prominence in World War II, when the two nations worked extremely closely in the Pacifc War against Japan, with General Douglas MacArthur undertaking his role as Supreme Allied Commander based in Australia, efectively having Australian troops and
resources under his command. During this period, the cultural interaction between Australia and the U.S. were elevated to a higher level as over 1 million U.S. military personnel moved through Australia during the course of the war. The relationship continued to evolve throughout the second half of the 20th Century, and today now involves strong relationships at the executive and mid
levels of government and the military, leading Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacifc Afairs, Kurt M. Campbell to declare that "in the last ten years, [Australia] has ascended to one of the closest one or two allies [of the U.S.] on the planet".[16] Middle East[edit] Main article: United States foreign policy in the Middle East The United States has many important allies in the
Greater Middle East region. These allies are Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Jordan, Afghanistan, Israel, Egypt, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar. Israel and Egypt are leading recipients of United States foreign aid, receiving $2.775 billion[17] and 1.75 billion[18] in 2010. Turkey is an ally of the United States through its membership in NATO, while all of the other countries except Saudi Arabia and
Qatar are major non-NATO allies. The United States toppled the government of Saddam Hussein during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[19] Turkey is host to approximately 90 B61 nuclear bombs at Incirlik Air Base.[20] Other allies include Qatar, where 3,500 U.S. troops are based,[21] and Bahrain, where the United States Navy maintains NSA Bahrain, home of NAVCENT and the Fifth Fleet.
Japan[edit] Main article: JapanUnited States relations The relationship began in the 1850s as the U.S. was a major factor in forcing Japan to resume contacts with the outer world beyond a very restricted role. In the late 19th century the Japanese sent many delegations to Europe, and some to the U.S., to discover and copy the latest technology and thereby modernize Japan very rapidly
and allow it to build its own empire. There was some friction over control of Hawaii and the Philippines, but Japan stood aside as the U.S. annexed those lands in 1898. Likewise the U.S. did not object when Japan took control of Korea. The two nations cooperated with the European powers in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900, but the U.S. was increasingly troubled about
Japan's denial of the Open Door Policy that would ensure that all nations could do business with China on an equal basis.[22] President Theodore Roosevelt admired Japan's strength as it defeated a major European power, Russia. He brokered an end to the war between Russia and Japan in 19056. Anti-Japanese sentiment (especially on the West Coast) soured relations in the 190724
era. In the 1930s the U.S. protested vehemently against Japan's seizure of Manchuria (1931), its war against China (193745), and its seizure of Indochina (Vietnam) 194041. American sympathies were with China and Japan rejected increasingly angry American demands that Japan pull out of China. The two nations fought an all-out war 194145; the U.S. won a total victory, with heavy
bombing (including two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki) that devastated Japan's 50 largest industrial cities. The American army under Douglas MacArthur occupied and ruled Japan, 194551, with the successful goal of sponsoring a peaceful, prosperous and democratic nation.[23] In 1951, the U.S. and Japan signed Treaty of San Francisco and Security Treaty Between the
United States and Japan, subsequently revised as Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan in 1960, relations since then have been excellent. The United States considers Japan to be one of its closest allies, and it is both a Major Non-NATO ally and NATO contact country. The United States has several military bases in Japan including Yokosuka,
which harbors the U.S. 7th Fleet. The JSDF, or Japanese Self Defense Force, cross train with the U.S. Military, often providing auxiliary security and conducting war games. When the U.S.President Barack Obama met with Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso in 2009, he said the relationship with Japan as the "cornerstone of security in East Asia".[24] After the several years of critical moment
during Japan's Democratic Party administration, President Obama and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe reconfrmed the importance of its alliance and currently the U.S. and Japan negotiating to participate Trans-Pacifc Strategic Economic Partnership.[25][26] South Korea[edit] Main article: South KoreaUnited States relations South KoreaUnited States relations have been most extensive
since 1945, when the United States helped establish capitalism in South Korea and led the UN-sponsored Korean War against North Korea and China (19501953).[27] Stimulated by heavy American aid[by whom?], South Korea's rapid economic growth, democratization and modernization greatly reduced its U.S. dependency. Large numbers of U.S. forces remain in Korea. At the 2009 G20 London summit, U.S. President Barack Obama called South Korea "one of America's closest allies and greatest friends." [28] China[edit] Main article: Sino-American relations President Barack Obama addresses the opening session of the frst U.S.China Strategic and Economic Dialogue. American relations with the People's Republic of China are quite strong, yet complex. A great
amount of trade between the two countries necessitates positive political relations, although occasional disagreements over tarifs, currency exchange rates and the Political status of Taiwan do occur. Nevertheless, the United States and China have an extremely extensive partnership. The U.S. criticizes China on human rights issues. Taiwan[edit] Main article: Republic of ChinaUnited
States relations Taiwan (ofcially the Republic of China), does not have ofcial diplomatic relations with America and no longer receives diplomatic recognition from the State Department of the United States, but it conducts unofcial diplomatic relations through its de facto embassy, commonly known as the "American Institute in Taiwan (AIT)", and is considered to be a strong Asian ally
and supporter of the United States.[29] ASEAN[edit] Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is an important partner for United States in both economic and geostrategic aspects. ASEAN's geostrategic importance stems from many factors, including: the strategic location of member countries, the large shares of global trade that pass through regional waters, and the alliances and
partnerships which the United States shares with ASEAN member states. In July 2009, the United States signed ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, which establishes guiding principles intended to build confdence among its signatories with the aim of maintaining regional peace and stability.[30] Trade fows are robust and increasing between America and the ASEAN region. Since
2002 exports to the United States have gained 40% in value while U.S. exports to ASEAN increased 62%.[31] Indonesia[edit] Main article: IndonesiaUnited States relations As the largest ASEAN member, Indonesia has played an active and prominent role in developing the organization.[32] For United States, Indonesia is important for dealing with certain issues; such as terrorism,[33]
democracy, and how United States project its relations with Islamic world, since Indonesia has the world's largest Islamic population, and one that honors and respects religious diversity.[34] US eyes Indonesia as potential strategic allies in Southeast Asia.[35] During his stately visit to Indonesia, U.S. President Barack Obama has held up Indonesia as an example of how a developing nation
can embrace democracy and diversity.[36][37] Malaysia[edit] Main article: MalaysiaUnited States relations Despite increasingly strained relations under the Mahathir Mohamad government, ties have been thawed under Najib Razak's administration. Economic ties are particularly robust, with the United States being Malaysia's largest trading partner and Malaysia is the tenth-largest
trading partner of the U.S. Annual two-way trade amounts to $49 billion. The United States and Malaysia launched negotiations for a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) in June 2006. The United States and Malaysia enjoy strong security cooperation. Malaysia hosts the Southeast Asia Regional Center for Counterterrorism (SEARCCT), where over 2000 ofcials from various countries have
received training. The United States is among the foreign countries that has collaborated with the center in conducting capacity building programmes. The U.S. and Malaysia share a strong military-to-military relationship with numerous exchanges, training, joint exercises, and visits. Myanmar[edit] Main article: BurmaUnited States relations Bilateral ties have generally been strained but
are slowly improving. The United States has placed broad sanctions on Burma because of the military crackdown in 1988 and the military regime's refusal to honour the election results of the 1990 People's Assembly election. Similarly, the European Union has placed embargoes on Burma, including an arms embargo, cessation of trade preferences, and suspension of all aid with the
exception of humanitarian aid.[38] US and European government sanctions against the military government, alongside boycotts and other types direct pressure on corporations by western supporters of the Burmese democracy movement, have resulted in the withdrawal from Burma of most U.S. and many European companies. However, several Western companies remain due to
loopholes in the sanctions.[39] Asian corporations have generally remained willing to continue investing in Myanmar and to initiate new investments, particularly in natural resource extraction. Ongoing reforms have improved relations between Burma and the United States. Philippines[edit] Main article: PhilippinesUnited States relations The United States ruled the Philippines from
1898 to 1946. The Spanish government ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish-American War. The United States fnally recognized Philippine independence on July 4, 1946 in the Treaty of Manila.[40] July 4 was observed in the Philippines as Independence Day until August 4, 1964 when, upon the advice of historians and the urging of
nationalists, President Diosdado Macapagal signed into law Republic Act No. 4166 designating June 12 as the country's Independence Day.[41] Since 2003 the U.S. has designated the Philippines as a Major Non-NATO Ally. Thailand[edit] Main article: ThailandUnited States relations Thailand and the US are both former Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) members, being close
partners throughout the Cold War, and are still close allies. Since 2003, the U.S. has designated Thailand as a Major Non-NATO Ally. Vietnam[edit] Main article: United StatesVietnam relations United States involved in Vietnam War in 1955 to 1975. In 1995, President Bill Clinton announced the formal normalization of diplomatic relations with Vietnam. Today US eyes Vietnam as a potential
strategic ally in Southeast Asia.[35] Eastern Europe[edit] President Barack Obama talks with Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk of Ukraine at the conclusion of their bilateral meeting in the Oval Ofce, March 12, 2014. U.S. Marines greet local Albanian boys in Kosovo on June 25, 1999 American relations with Eastern Europe are infuenced by the legacy of the Cold War. Since the collapse of
the Soviet Union, former Communist-bloc states in Europe have gradually transitioned to democracy and capitalism. Many have also joined the European Union and NATO, strengthening economic ties with the broader Western world and gaining the military protection of the United States via the North Atlantic Treaty. Kosovo[edit] Main article: KosovoUnited States relations The UN
Security Council divided on the question of Kosovo's declaration of independence. Kosovo declared its independence on February 17, 2008, whilst Serbia objected that Kosovo is part of its territory. Of the fve members with veto power in the UN Security Council, the USA, UK, and France recognized the declaration of independence, and China has expressed concern, while Russia
considers it illegal. "In its declaration of independence, Kosovo committed itself to the highest standards of democracy, including freedom and tolerance and justice for citizens of all ethnic backgrounds", President George W Bush said on February 19, 2008.[42][43] Hub and spoke vs multilateral[edit] While America's relationships with Europe have tended to be in terms of multilateral
frameworks, such as NATO, America's relations with Asia have tended to be based on a "hub and spoke" model using a series of bilateral relationships where states coordinate with the United States and do not collaborate with each other.[44] On May 30, 2009, at the Shangri-La Dialogue Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates urged the nations of Asia to build on this hub and spoke model as
they established and grew multilateral institutions such as ASEAN, APEC and the ad hoc arrangements in the area.[45] However in 2011 Gates said that the United States must serve as the "indispensable nation," for building multilateral cooperation.[46]

Oil[edit] Persian Gulf[edit] Further information: Energy policy of the United States and Petroleum politics A U.S. soldier stands guard duty near a burning oil well in the Rumaila oil feld, Iraq, April 2003 As of 2014, the U.S. currently produces about 66% of the oil that it consumes.[47] While its imports have exceeded domestic production since the early 1990s, new hydraulic fracturing
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techniques and discovery of shale oil deposits in Canada and the American Dakotas ofer the potential for increased energy independence from oil exporting countries such as OPEC.[48] Former U.S. President George W. Bush identifed dependence on imported oil as an urgent "national security concern".[49] Two-thirds of the world's proven oil reserves are estimated to be found in the
Persian Gulf.[50][51] Despite its distance, the Persian Gulf region was frst proclaimed to be of national interest to the United States during World War II. Petroleum is of central importance to modern armies, and the United Statesas the world's leading oil producer at that timesupplied most of the oil for the Allied armies. Many U.S. strategists were concerned that the war would
dangerously reduce the U.S. oil supply, and so they sought to establish good relations with Saudi Arabia, a kingdom with large oil reserves.[52] The Persian Gulf region continued to be regarded as an area of vital importance to the United States during the Cold War. Three Cold War United States Presidential doctrinesthe Truman Doctrine, the Eisenhower Doctrine, and the Nixon
Doctrineplayed roles in the formulation of the Carter Doctrine, which stated that the United States would use military force if necessary to defend its "national interests" in the Persian Gulf region.[53] Carter's successor, President Ronald Reagan, extended the policy in October 1981 with what is sometimes called the "Reagan Corollary to the Carter Doctrine", which proclaimed that the
United States would intervene to protect Saudi Arabia, whose security was threatened after the outbreak of the IranIraq War.[54] Some analysts have argued that the implementation of the Carter Doctrine and the Reagan Corollary also played a role in the outbreak of the 2003 Iraq War.[55][56][57][58] Canada[edit] Almost all of Canada's energy exports go to the United States, making it
the largest foreign source of U.S. energy imports: Canada is consistently among the top sources for U.S. oil imports, and it is the largest source of U.S. natural gas and electricity imports.[59] Africa[edit] In 2007 the U.S. was Sub-Saharan Africa's largest single export market accounting for 28.4% of exports (second in total to the EU at 31.4%). 81% of U.S. imports from this region were
petroleum products.[60]

Foreign aid[edit] Main articles: United States foreign aid and United States Agency for International Development Foreign assistance is a core component of the State Department's international afairs budget, which is $49 billion in all for 2014.[61] Aid is considered an essential instrument of U.S. foreign policy. There are four major categories of non-military foreign assistance: bilateral
development aid, economic assistance supporting U.S. political and security goals, humanitarian aid, and multilateral economic contributions (for example, contributions to the World Bank and International Monetary Fund).[62] In absolute dollar terms, the United States government is the largest international aid donor ($23 billion in 2014).[61] The U.S. Agency for International
Development (USAID) manages the bulk of bilateral economic assistance; the Treasury Department handles most multilateral aid. In addition many private agencies, churches and philanthropies provide aid. Although the United States is the largest donor in absolute dollar terms, it is actually ranked 19 out of 27 countries on the Commitment to Development Index. The CDI ranks the 27
richest donor countries on their policies that afect the developing world. In the aid component the United States is penalized for low net aid volume as a share of the economy, a large share of tied or partially tied aid, and a large share of aid given to less poor and relatively undemocratic governments. Foreign aid is a highly partisan issue in the United States, with liberals, on average,
supporting foreign aid much more than conservatives do.[63]

Military[edit] The United States has fought wars and intervened militarily on many occasions. See, Timeline of United States military operations. The U.S. also operates a vast network of military bases around the world. See, List of United States military bases. In recent years, the U.S. has used its military superiority as sole superpower to lead a number of wars, including, most recently, the
invasion of Iraq in March 2003 as part of its global "War on Terror." Aid[edit] Main articles: United States military aid, United States Foreign Military Financing and Foreign Military Sales U.S. Soldiers unload humanitarian aid for distribution to the town of Rajan Kala, Afghanistan, December 2009 The U.S. provides military aid through many diferent channels. Counting the items that appear
in the budget as 'Foreign Military Financing' and 'Plan Colombia', the U.S. spent approximately $4.5 billion in military aid in 2001, of which $2 billion went to Israel, $1.3 billion went to Egypt, and $1 billion went to Colombia.[64] Since 9/11, Pakistan has received approximately $11.5 billion in direct military aid.[65] As of 2004, according to Fox News, the U.S. had more than 700 military
bases in 130 diferent countries.[66] Estimated US foreign military fnancing and aid by recipient for 2010: Recipient Military aid (USD Billions) Iraq 6.50 Afghanistan 5.60[67] Israel 2.75[17] Egypt 1.75[18] Pakistan 1.60[68] Colombia .834[69] Jordan .300[70] Palestinian Authority .100[18] Yemen .070 Missile defense[edit] Main articles: National missile defense and Strategic Defense
Initiative The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposal by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[71] to use ground and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles,[72] later dubbed "Star Wars".[73] The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the prior strategic ofense doctrine of mutual assured
destruction (MAD). Though it was never fully developed or deployed, the research and technologies of SDI paved the way for some anti-ballistic missile systems of today.[74] In February 2007, the U.S. started formal negotiations with Poland and Czech Republic concerning construction of missile shield installations in those countries for a Ground-Based Midcourse Defense system[75] (in
April 2007, 57% of Poles opposed the plan).[76] According to press reports the government of the Czech Republic agreed (while 67% Czechs disagree)[77] to host a missile defense radar on its territory while a base of missile interceptors is supposed to be built in Poland.[78][79] Russia threatened to place short-range nuclear missiles on the Russia's border with NATO if the United States
refuses to abandon plans to deploy 10 interceptor missiles and a radar in Poland and the Czech Republic.[80][81] In April 2007, Putin warned of a new Cold War if the Americans deployed the shield in Central Europe.[82] Putin also said that Russia is prepared to abandon its obligations under an Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty of 1987 with the United States.[83] On August 14,
2008, The United States and Poland announced a deal to implement the missile defense system in Polish territory, with a tracking system placed in the Czech Republic.[84] "The fact that this was signed in a period of very difcult crisis in the relations between Russia and the United States over the situation in Georgia shows that, of course, the missile defense system will be deployed not
against Iran but against the strategic potential of Russia", Dmitry Rogozin, Russia's NATO envoy, said.[75][85] Exporting democracy[edit] See also: American democracy promotion in the Middle East and North Africa In United States history, critics have charged that presidents have used democracy to justify military intervention abroad.[86][87] Critics have also charged that the U.S.
helped local militaries overthrow democratically elected governments in Iran, Guatemala, and in other instances. Studies have been devoted to the historical success rate of the U.S. in exporting democracy abroad. Some studies of American intervention have been pessimistic about the overall efectiveness of U.S. eforts to encourage democracy in foreign nations.[88] Until recently,
scholars have generally agreed with international relations professor Abraham Lowenthal that U.S. attempts to export democracy have been "negligible, often counterproductive, and only occasionally positive."[89][90] Other studies fnd U.S. intervention has had mixed results,[88] and another by Hermann and Kegley has found that military interventions have improved democracy in
other countries.[91] Opinion that U.S. intervention does not export democracy[edit] Professor Paul W. Drake argued that the U.S. frst attempted to export democracy in Latin America through intervention from 1912 to 1932. Drake argued that this was contradictory because international law defnes intervention as "dictatorial interference in the afairs of another state for the purpose of
altering the condition of things." The study suggested that eforts to promote democracy failed because democracy needs to develop out of internal conditions, and can not be forcibly imposed. There was disagreement about what constituted democracy; Drake suggested American leaders sometimes defned democracy in a narrow sense of a nation having elections; Drake suggested a
broader understanding was needed. Further, there was disagreement about what constituted a "rebellion"; Drake saw a pattern in which the U.S. State Department disapproved of any type of rebellion, even so-called "revolutions", and in some instances rebellions against dictatorships.[92] Historian Walter LaFeber stated, "The world's leading revolutionary nation (the U.S.) in the
eighteenth century became the leading protector of the status quo in the twentieth century."[93] Mesquita and Downs evaluated 35 U.S. interventions from 1945 to 2004 and concluded that in only one case, Colombia, did a "full fedged, stable democracy" develop within ten years following the intervention.[94] Samia Amin Pei argued that nation building in developed countries usually
unravelled four to six years after American intervention ended. Pei, based on study of a database on worldwide democracies called Polity, agreed with Mesquita and Downs that U.S. intervention eforts usually don't produce real democracies, and that most cases result in greater authoritarianism after ten years.[95] Professor Joshua Muravchik argued U.S. occupation was critical for Axis
power democratization after World War II, but America's failure to encourage democracy in the third world "prove... that U.S. military occupation is not a sufcient condition to make a country democratic."[96][97] The success of democracy in former Axis countries such as Italy were seen as a result of high national per-capita income, although U.S. protection was seen as a key to
stabilization and important for encouraging the transition to democracy. Steven Krasner agreed that there was a link between wealth and democracy; when per-capita incomes of $6,000 were achieved in a democracy, there was little chance of that country ever reverting to an autocracy, according to an analysis of his research in the Los Angeles Times.[92] Opinion that U.S. intervention
has mixed results[edit] Tures examined 228 cases of American intervention from 1973 to 2005, using Freedom House data. A plurality of interventions, 96, caused no change in the country's democracy. In 69 instances the country became less democratic after the intervention. In the remaining 63 cases, a country became more democratic.[88] However this does not take into account the
direction the country would have gone with no US intervention. Opinion that U.S. intervention efectively exports democracy[edit] Hermann and Kegley found that American military interventions designed to protect or promote democracy increased freedom in those countries.[91] Peceny argued that the democracies created after military intervention are still closer to an autocracy
than a democracy, quoting Przeworski "while some democracies are more democratic than others, unless ofces are contested, no regime should be considered democratic."[98] Therefore, Peceny concludes, it is difcult to know from the Hermann and Kegley study whether U.S. intervention has only produced less repressive autocratic governments or genuine democracies.[99] Peceny
stated that the United States attempted to export democracy in 33 of its 93 20th-century military interventions.[100] Peceny argued that proliberal policies after military intervention had a positive impact on democracy.[101]

Covert actions[edit] See also: Covert United States foreign regime change actions and Reagan Doctrine United States foreign policy also includes covert actions to topple foreign governments that have been opposed to the United States. In 1953 the CIA, working with the British government, initiated Operation Ajax against the democratically elected Prime Minister of Iran Mohammad
Mossadegh who had attempted to nationalize Iran's oil, threatening the interests of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company.[102] A year later, in Operation PBSUCCESS, the United States government and the CIA toppled the democratically elected left-wing government of Jacobo rbenz in Guatemala and installed the military dictator Carlos Castillo Armas. The United Fruit Company lobbied for
rbenz overthrow as his land reforms jeopardized their land holdings in Guatemala, and painted these reforms as a communist threat. The coup triggered a decades long civil war which claimed the lives of 200,000 people.[103] During the massacre of alleged communists in 1960s Indonesia, the U.S. government provided assistance to the Indonesian military that, according to Bradley
Simpson, Director of the Indonesia/East Timor Documentation Project at the National Security Archive, helped facilitate the mass killings.[104][105][106][107] This included the U.S. Embassy in Jakarta supplying Indonesian forces with lists of up to 5,000 names of suspected PKI members, who were subsequently killed in the massacres.[108][109][110][111] In 1970, the CIA worked with
coup-plotters in Chile in the attempted kidnapping of General Ren Schneider, who was targeted for refusing to participate in a military coup upon the election of Salvador Allende. Schneider was shot in the botched attempt and died three days later. The CIA later paid the group $35,000 for the failed kidnapping.[112]

Human Rights[edit] See also: List of authoritarian regimes supported by the United States and United States and state-sponsored terrorism The inclusion of Human Rights in U.S. foreign policy had a controversial start. For one thing, human rights driven foreign policy did not originate in the Executive branch but was instead enforced upon it by Congress, starting in the 1970s.[113]
Following the Vietnam War, the feeling that U.S. foreign policy had grown apart from traditional American values was seized upon by Senator Donald M. Fraser (D, MI), leading the Subcommittee on International Organizations and Movements, in criticizing Republican Foreign Policy under the Nixon administration. In the early 1970s, Congress concluded the Vietnam War and passed the
War Powers Act. As "part of a growing assertiveness by Congress about many aspects of Foreign Policy,"[114] Human Rights concerns became a battleground between the Legislative and the Executive branches in the formulation of foreign policy. David Forsythe points to three specifc, early examples of Congress interjecting its own thoughts on foreign policy: Subsection (a) of the
International Financial Assistance Act of 1977: ensured assistance through international fnancial institutions would be limited to countries "other than those whose governments engage in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights."[114] Section 116 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended in 1984: reads in part, "No assistance may be
provided under this part to the government of any country which engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights."[114] Section 502B of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended in 1978: "No security assistance may be provided to any country the government of which engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of
internationally recognized human rights."[114] These measures were repeatedly used by Congress, with varying success, to afect U.S. foreign policy towards the inclusion of Human Rights concerns. Specifc examples include El Salvador, Nicaragua, Guatemala and South Africa. The Executive (from Nixon to Reagan) argued that the Cold War required placing regional security in favor of
US interests over any behavioral concerns of national allies. Congress argued the opposite, in favor of distancing the United States from oppressive regimes.[113] Nevertheless, according to historian Daniel Goldhagen, during the last two decades of the Cold War, the number of American client states practicing mass murder outnumbered those of the Soviet Union.[115] On December 6,
2011, Obama instructed agencies to consider LGBT rights when issuing fnancial aid to foreign countries.[116] He also criticized Russia's law discriminating against gays,[117] joining other western leaders in the boycott of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Russia.[118] In June 2014, a Chilean court ruled that the United States played a key role in the murders of Charles Horman and Frank
Teruggi, both American citizens, shortly after the 1973 Chilean coup d'tat.[119]

War on Drugs[edit] Main article: War on Drugs United States foreign policy is infuenced by the eforts of the U.S. government to control imports of illicit drugs, including cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and cannabis. This is especially true in Latin America, a focus for the U.S. War on Drugs. Those eforts date back to at least 1880, when the U.S. and China completed an agreement that
prohibited the shipment of opium between the two countries. Over a century later, the Foreign Relations Authorization Act requires the President to identify the major drug transit or major illicit drug-producing countries. In September 2005,[120] the following countries were identifed: Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, India,
Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Two of these, Burma and Venezuela are countries that the U.S. considers to have failed to adhere to their obligations under international counternarcotics agreements during the previous 12 months. Notably absent from the 2005 list were Afghanistan, the People's Republic of China and Vietnam; Canada
was also omitted in spite of evidence that criminal groups there are increasingly involved in the production of MDMA destined for the United States and that large-scale cross-border trafcking of Canadian-grown cannabis continues. The U.S. believes that the Netherlands are successfully countering the production and fow of MDMA to the U.S.

Criticism[edit] Main article: Criticism of American foreign policy Demonstration at Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin against the NSA surveillance program PRISM, June 2013 Critics from the left cite episodes that undercut leftist governments or showed support for Israel. Others cite human rights abuses and violations of international law. Critics have charged that the U.S. presidents have used
democracy to justify military intervention abroad.[86][87] It was also noted that the U.S. overthrew democratically elected governments in Iran, Guatemala, and in other instances. Noam Chomsky, a vociferous critic of U.S. foreign policy, argues that "in both cases the consequences reach to the present" and that Guatemala in particular "remains one of the world's worst horror
chambers."[121] Critics also point to declassifed records which indicate that the CIA under Allen Dulles and the FBI under J. Edgar Hoover aggressively recruited more than 1,000 Nazis, including those responsible for war crimes, to use as spies and informants against the Soviet Union in the Cold War.[122][123] Studies have been devoted to the historical success rate of the U.S. in
exporting democracy abroad. Some studies of American intervention have been pessimistic about the overall efectiveness of U.S. eforts to encourage democracy in foreign nations.[88] Some scholars have generally agreed with international relations professor Abraham Lowenthal that U.S. attempts to export democracy have been "negligible, often counterproductive, and only
occasionally positive."[89][90] Other studies fnd U.S. intervention has had mixed results,[88] and another by Hermann and Kegley has found that military interventions have improved democracy in other countries.[91] A 2013 global poll in 68 countries with 66,000 respondents by Win/Gallup found that the U.S. is perceived as the biggest threat to world peace.[124][125][126]

Support[edit] Regarding support for certain anti-Communist dictatorships during the Cold War, a response is that they were seen as a necessary evil, with the alternatives even worse Communist or fundamentalist dictatorships. David Schmitz says this policy did not serve U.S. interests. Friendly tyrants resisted necessary reforms and destroyed the political center (though not in South
Korea), while the 'realist' policy of coddling dictators brought a backlash among foreign populations with long memories.[127][128] Many democracies have voluntary military ties with United States. See NATO, ANZUS, Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, Mutual Defense Treaty with South Korea, and Major non-NATO ally. Those nations with
military alliances with the U.S. can spend less on the military since they can count on U.S. protection. This may give a false impression that the U.S. is less peaceful than those nations.[129][130] Research on the democratic peace theory has generally found that democracies, including the United States, have not made war on one another. There have been U.S. support for coups against
some democracies, but for example Spencer R. Weart argues that part of the explanation was the perception, correct or not, that these states were turning into Communist dictatorships. Also important was the role of rarely transparent United States government agencies, who sometimes mislead or did not fully implement the decisions of elected civilian leaders.[131] Empirical studies
(see democide) have found that democracies, including the United States, have killed much fewer civilians than dictatorships.[132][133] Media may be biased against the U.S. regarding reporting human rights violations. Studies have found that The New York Times coverage of worldwide human rights violations predominantly focuses on the human rights violations in nations where
there is clear U.S. involvement, while having relatively little coverage of the human rights violations in other nations.[134][135] For example, the bloodiest war in recent time, involving eight nations and killing millions of civilians, was the Second Congo War, which was almost completely ignored by the media. Niall Ferguson argues that the U.S. is incorrectly blamed for all the human
rights violations in nations they have supported. He writes that it is generally agreed that Guatemala was the worst of the US-backed regimes during the Cold War. However, the U.S. cannot credibly be blamed for all the 200,000 deaths during the long Guatemalan Civil War.[128] The U.S. Intelligence Oversight Board writes that military aid was cut for long periods because of such
violations, that the U.S. helped stop a coup in 1993, and that eforts were made to improve the conduct of the security services.[136] Bahraini pro-democracy protesters killed by the U.S.-allied regime, February 2011 Today the U.S. states that democratic nations best support U.S. national interests. According to the U.S. State Department, "Democracy is the one national interest that helps
to secure all the others. Democratically governed nations are more likely to secure the peace, deter aggression, expand open markets, promote economic development, protect American citizens, combat international terrorism and crime, uphold human and worker rights, avoid humanitarian crises and refugee fows, improve the global environment, and protect human health."[137]
According to former U.S. President Bill Clinton, "Ultimately, the best strategy to ensure our security and to build a durable peace is to support the advance of democracy elsewhere. Democracies don't attack each other."[138] In one view mentioned by the U.S. State Department, democracy is also good for business. Countries that embrace political reforms are also more likely to pursue
economic reforms that improve the productivity of businesses. Accordingly, since the mid-1980s, under President Ronald Reagan, there has been an increase in levels of foreign direct investment going to emerging market democracies relative to countries that have not undertaken political reforms.[139] Leaked cables in 2010 suggested that the "dark shadow of terrorism still dominates
the United States' relations with the world".[140] The United States ofcially maintains that it supports democracy and human rights through several tools [141] Examples of these tools are as follows: A published yearly report by the State Department entitled "Supporting Human Rights and Democracy: The U.S. Record" in compliance with a 2002 law (enacted and signed by President
George W. Bush, which requires the Department to report on actions taken by the U.S. Government to encourage respect for human rights.[142] A yearly published "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices." [143] In 2006 (under President George W. Bush), the United States created a "Human Rights Defenders Fund" and "Freedom Awards." [144] The "Human Rights and Democracy
Achievement Award" recognizes the exceptional achievement of ofcers of foreign afairs agencies posted abroad.[145] The "Ambassadorial Roundtable Series", created in 2006, are informal discussions between newly confrmed U.S. Ambassadors and human rights and democracy non-governmental organizations.[146] The National Endowment for Democracy, a private non-proft
created by Congress in 1983 (and signed into law by President Ronald Reagan, which is mostly funded by the U.S. Government and gives cash grants to strengthen democratic institutions around the world

See also[edit] History of U.S. foreign policy International relations of the Great Powers (18141919) Timeline of United States diplomatic history Constitutional and international law[edit] Advice and consent List of United States treaties Missouri v. Holland Treaty Clause Diplomacy[edit] Council on Foreign Relations Cowboy diplomacy List of diplomatic missions of the United States
George Washington's Farewell Address United States and the United Nations United States Agency for International Development List of diplomatic missions in the United States United States foreign aid The Washington Diplomat Intelligence[edit] Covert United States foreign regime change actions Extraordinary rendition Special Activities Division Torture and the United States
Military[edit] 2003 invasion of Iraq American intervention in the Middle East NATO United States Foreign Military Financing United States involvement in regime change United States military aid Policy and doctrine[edit] United States and state terrorism United States and state-sponsored terrorism Anti-Americanism American imperialism American exceptionalism Bush Doctrine Carter
Doctrine China containment policy Containment Dtente Foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration Human rights in the United States Kirkpatrick Doctrine Human Rights Record of the United States (Chinese publication) Monroe Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Powell Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Roosevelt Corollary Special Relationship Truman Doctrine Criticism of American foreign
policy History of U.S. expansion and infuence Foreign policy Military history Timeline of military operations List of wars List of bases Manifest destiny Non-interventionism Overseas interventions Pax Americana America's Backyard Territorial acquisitions view talk edit

References[edit] ^ "Bureau of Budget and Planning". Retrieved 18 February 2015. ^ "About the Committee". Retrieved 18 February 2015. ^ James M. McCormick, American Foreign Policy and Process (2009) ch 7-8 ^ George C. Herring, ''From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776 (2008) ^ Richard Russell, "American Diplomatic Realism: A Tradition Practised and

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Foreign_policy_of_the_United_States - Photos and All Basic Informations

Preached by George F. Kennan," Diplomacy and Statecraft, Nov 2000, Vol. 11 Issue 3, pp15983 ^ Oren, Michael B. (2005-11-03). "The Middle East and the Making of the United States, 1776 to 1815". ^ Nikolas K. Gvosdev (2008-01-02). "FDR's Children". National Interest. Retrieved 2010-01-13. Hachigian... and Sutphen... recognize that the global balance of power is changing; that despite
America's continued predominance, the other pivotal powers "do challenge American dominance and impinge on the freedom of action the U.S. has come to enjoy and expect." Rather than focusing on the negatives, however, they believe that these six powers have the same vested interests: All are dependent on the free fow of goods around the world and all require global stability in
order to ensure continued economic growth (and the prosperity it engenders). ^ James, Wither (March 2006). "An Endangered Partnership: The Anglo-American Defence Relationship in the Early Twenty-frst Century". European Security 15 (1): 4765. doi:10.1080/09662830600776694. ISSN0966-2839. |accessdate= requires |url= (help) ^ US Department of State, Background Note on the
United Kingdom ^ John Herd Thompson, and Stephen J. Randall, Canada and the United States: Ambivalent Allies (4th ed. McGill-Queen's University Press, 2008) is the standard scholarly survey ^ "5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. 2011-11-09. Retrieved 2011-11-09. 15,064 billions (fgure for 2011) 313 million persons ^ "Canada". International
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"Q+A: Guyon Espiner interviews Kurt Campbell". Television New Zealand. October 11, 2009. Retrieved September 30, 2011. ^ a b http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/US-Israel/aid2010.html Congress Approves FY2010 Aid to Israel ^ a b c http://www.smh.com.au/world/us-aid-tied-to-purchase-of-arms-20100101-llsb.html US aid tied to purchase of arms ^
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for world". BBC News. Retrieved 18 February 2015. ^ Obama delivers a speech in the University of Indonesia ^ "The EU's relations with Burma / Myanmar". European Union. Archived from the original on 25 July 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-13. ^ The List: Burma's Economic Lifelines. Foreign Policy. October 2007 ^ TREATY OF GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
AND THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. SIGNED AT MANILA, ON 4 JULY 1946, United Nations, retrieved 2007-12-10 ^ REPUBLIC ACT NO. 4166 - AN ACT CHANGING THE DATE OF PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE DAY FROM JULY FOUR TO JUNE TWELVE, AND DECLARING JULY FOUR AS PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC DAY, FURTHER AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE SECTION TWENTY-NINE OF THE
REVISED ADMINISTRATIVE CODE, Chanrobles law library, August 4, 1964, retrieved 2008-06-11 ^ Bush Hails Kosovo Independence, U.S. Department of State's Bureau of International Information Programs ^ Bush insists Kosovo must be independent and receives hero's welcome in Albania, The Guardian ^ Hufbauer, Gary Clyde; Schott, Jefrey J. (1994). Western Hemisphere Economic
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Leverage With Russia, Iran, China Falls as Oil Prices Rise, Bloomberg.com ^ Shrinking Our Presence in Saudi Arabia, New York Times ^ The End of Cheap Oil, National Geographic ^ James Paul - Global Policy Forum. "Crude Designs:". Retrieved 18 February 2015. ^ The war is about oil but it's not that simple, msnbc.com ^ The United States Navy and the Persian Gulf ^ What if the Chinese
were to apply the Carter Doctrine?, Haaretz - Israel News ^ Selling the Carter Doctrine, TIME ^ Alan Greenspan claims Iraq war was really for oil, Times Online ^ Oil giants to sign contracts with Iraq, The Guardian ^ See Energy Information Administration, "Canada" (2009 report) ^ http://www.agoa.gov/resources/US_African_Trade_Profle_2009.pdf ^ a b See "FY 2014 Omnibus State and
Foreign Operations Appropriations" (Jan 2014) ^ Foreign Aid: An Introductory Overview of U.S. Programs and Policy ^ Stanford University Press. "The Politics of American Foreign Policy: How Ideology Divides Liberals and Conservatives over Foreign Afairs - Peter Hays Gries". Retrieved 18 February 2015. ^ "U.S. Policy in Colombia | Amnesty International USA". Amnestyusa.org. Retrieved
2014-08-18. ^ "The News International: Latest, Breaking, Pakistan, Sports and Video News". Retrieved 18 February 2015. ^ Fox News, 1 November 2004 Analysts Ponder U.S. Basing in Iraq ^ Afghanistan: US foreign assistance ^ Aid to Pakistan ^ http://www.ciponline.org/facts/below_the_radar_eng.pdf ^ Jordan: Background and U.S relations ^ Federation of American Scientists. Missile
Defense Milestones. Accessed March 10, 2006. ^ Johann Hari: Obama's chance to end the fantasy that is Star Wars, The Independent, November 13, 2008 ^ Historical Documents: Reagan's 'Star Wars' speech, CNN Cold War ^ "Son of "Star Wars" - How Missile Defense Systems Will Work". HowStufWorks. Retrieved 18 February 2015. ^ a b Missile defense backers now cite Russia threat ^ U.S.
Might Negotiate on Missile Defense, washingtonpost.com ^ Citizens on U.S. Anti-Missile Radar Base in Czech Republic ^ Europe diary: Missile defence, BBC News ^ "Missile Defense: Avoiding a Crisis in Europe". Retrieved 18 February 2015. ^ Russia piles pressure on EU over missile shield, Telegraph ^ China, Russia sign nuclear deal, condemn U.S. missile defense plans, International Herald
Tribune ^ Russia threatening new cold war over missile defence, The Guardian ^ U.S., Russia no closer on missile defense, USATODAY.com ^ Russia Lashes Out on Missile Deal, The New York Times, August 15, 2008 ^ Russia angry over U.S. missile shield, Al Jazeera English, August 15, 2008 ^ a b Mesquita, Bruce Bueno de (Spring 2004). "Why Gun-Barrel Democracy Doesn't Work". Hoover
Digest 2. Also see this page. ^ a b Meernik, James (1996). "United States Military Intervention and the Promotion of Democracy". Journal of Peace Research 33 (4): 391402. doi:10.1177/0022343396033004002. ^ a b c d e Tures, John A. "Operation Exporting Freedom: The Quest for Democratization via United States Military Operations" (PDF). Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and
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Revolutions: The United States in Central America. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN0-393-30964-9. ^ Factors included limits on executive power, clear rules for the transition of power, universal adult sufrage, and competitive elections. ^ Pei, Samia Amin (March 17, 2004). "Why Nation-Building Fails in Mid-Course". International Herald Tribune. ^ Peceny, p. 186. ^ Muravchik, Joshua
(1991). Exporting Democracy: Fulflling America's Destiny. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute Press. pp.91118. ISBN0-8447-3734-8. ^ Przeworski, Adam; Przeworski, Adam; Limongi Neto, Fernando Papaterra; Alvarez, Michael M. (1996). "What Makes Democracy Endure" ( Scholar search). Journal of Democracy 7 (1): 3955. doi:10.1353/jod.1996.0016.[dead link] ^ Peceny, p.
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(2007). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Infuence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Martinus Nijhof Publishers. ISBN 90-04-15691-7 pp.8081 ^ Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54262-6 p. 157 ^ Friend, Theodore (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01137-6 p.
117 ^ CIA Admits Involvement in Chile. ABC News. September 20 ^ a b Crabb, Cecil V.; Pat Holt (1992). Invitation to Struggle: Congress, the President and Foreign Policy (2nd ed.). Michigan: Congressional Quarterly. pp.187211. ISBN978-0-87187-622-5. ^ a b c d Forsythe, David (1988). Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy: Congress Reconsidered. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
pp.123. ISBN978-0-8130-0885-1. ^ Daniel Goldhagen (2009). Worse Than War. PublicAfairs. ISBN 1-58648-769-8 p.537 "During the 1970s and 1980s, the number of American client states practicing mass-murderous politics exceeded those of the Soviets." ^ McVeigh, Karen (December 6, 2011). "Gay rights must be criterion for US aid allocations, instructs Obama". The Guardian (London).
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1,000 Nazis. The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2014. ^ The Nazis Next Door: Eric Lichtblau on How the CIA & FBI Secretly Sheltered Nazi War Criminals. Democracy Now! October 31, 2014. ^ Goodenough, Patrick. "And The Country Posing The Greatest Threat to Peace as 2013 Ends is ". CNS News. Retrieved 2014-08-18. ^ "US the biggest threat to world peace in 2013 poll
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Further reading[edit] Bailey, Thomas. A Diplomatic History of the American People (10th ed. Prentice Hall, 1980) Blum, William. Killing Hope: U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions since World War II (Common Courage Press, 2003) Borgwardt, Elizabeth. "A New Deal for the World" (Harvard UP, 2005) Chomsky, Noam. Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest for Global Dominance
(Metropolitan Books, 2003) Cohen, Warren I. The Cambridge History of American Foreign Relations: Volume 4, America in the Age of Soviet Power, 19451991 (Cambridge UP, 1995) Fawcett, Louise, ed. International Relations of the Middle East (3rd ed. Oxford U.P. 2013) Freedman, Lawrence. A Choice of Enemies: America Confronts the Middle East (PublicAfairs, 2009) Gries, Peter Hays.
The Politics of American Foreign Policy: How Ideology Divides Liberals and Conservatives over Foreign Afairs (Stanford University Press, 2014) Hastedt, Glenn P. Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy (Facts on File, 2004) Hermann, Margaret G.; Kegley, Charles (1998). "The U.S. Use of Military Intervention to Promote Democracy: Evaluating the Record". International Interactions 24 (2):
91114. doi:10.1080/03050629808434922. Herring, George C. From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776 (Oxford History of the United States) (2008) Hook, Steven W. and John Spanier. American Foreign Policy Since WWII (19th ed. 2012) Ikenberry, G. John, ed. American Foreign Policy: Theoretical Essays (6th ed. Wadsworth, 2010), 640pp; essays by scholars Iriye, Akira.
The Cambridge History of American Foreign Relations: Volume 3, The Globalizing of America, 19131945 (Cambridge UP, 1995) Jentleson, Bruce W. American Foreign Policy: The Dynamics of Choice in the 21st Century (4th ed. W. W. Norton, 2010) Jentleson, Bruce W. and Thomas G. Paterson, eds. Encyclopedia of U.S. Foreign Relations (4 vol 1997), long historical articles by scholars
LaFeber, Walter. The Cambridge History of American Foreign Relations: The American Search for Opportunity, 18651913, vol. 2 (Cambridge UP, 1995) Lowenthal, Abraham F. (March 1, 1991). Exporting Democracy: The United States and Latin America. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN0-8018-4132-1. McCormick, James M. et al. The Domestic Sources of American Foreign Policy:
Insights and Evidence (2012) McDougall, Walter. "Promised Land, Crusader State" (2004) Mead, Walter Russell, and Richard C. Leone. Special Providence: American Foreign Policy and How It Changed the World (2002) Meernik, James (1996). "United States Military Intervention and the Promotion of Democracy". Journal of Peace Research 33 (4): 391402.
doi:10.1177/0022343396033004002. JSTOR424565. Nichols, Christopher McKnight. "Promise and Peril: America at the Dawn of a Global Age" (2011) Paterson, Thomas G. and others. American Foreign Relations (6th ed. 2 vol, Wadsworth, 2004), a detailed history Perkins, Bradford. The Cambridge History of American Foreign Relations: Volume 1, The Creation of a Republican Empire,
17761865 (Cambridge UP, 1995) Schulzinger, Robert. A Companion to American Foreign Relations (Wiley Blackwell Companions to American History) (2006). 26 essays by scholars; emphasis on historiography Smith, Tony; Richard C. Leone (1995). America's Mission: The United States and the Worldwide Struggle for Democracy in the Twentieth Century. Princeton University Press. ISBN0691-04466-X. Wittkopf, Eugene R. et al. American Foreign Policy: Pattern and Process (2007)

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FSA terrorists in Syria ask their israeli friends to impose a no y zone over Syria | Uprootedpalestinians's Blog
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FSA terrorists in Syria ask their israeli friends to impose a


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Posted on September 17, 2014 by michaellee2009

FSA Rebels Urge Israel to Impose No-Fly Zone Over Syria

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Claims Intervention Would Win Hearts of All Syrians

Authors
fada1

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The Free Syrian Army (FSA), the vetted, moderate rebels the US are constantly
arming, but who are also allied with ISIS, have urged Israel to join in the Syrian
Civil War by imposing a no-fy zone across the nations south.

mala114
michaellee2009
Richard Edmondson
samivesusu
uprootedpalestinians

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Israel has the opportunity to win


the hearts of all Syrians, whom the
entire world has forsaken,
declared the FSA commander,
quoted in the Times of Israel, going
on to assure Israel that the border
with Syria would be secure postAssad.
The reality, however, is that the
Israel-Syria frontier is controlled
almost entirely by al-Qaeda at this
point, and analysts believe it will be
only a matter of time before alQaeda starts attacking Israel across the Golan Heights.

What every Muslim


needs to know

Though Israel has long insisted it is neutral in the Syria War, they have attacked Syrian
military targets in Golan repeatedly, including when they were fghting al-Qaeda forces
in the recent takeover. It is hard to imagine, however, that the FSA narrative of Syrian

Muslim Alliance with Rum

gratitude for Israeli intervention will come to pass, particularly with al-Qaeda and ISIS in
the rebellions drivers seat.
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BBC & CNN


10 Signs That ISIS is a
Scripted Psyop
NATO Invents Russian
Threats in the Baltic but
Putins Next Big Play is
Greece

Islamic jurisprudence crisis

Recent Posts

At Least 5 Drones Fly over


Paris during Night, Police Fail
to CatchOperators
GCC Turning against Itself:
Flirts with Qatar, Apologizes
toEgypt
White House Denies
Interference In Venezuela &
then promises More OfIt
10 good reasons why western
leaders hatePutin

Pillars of Islam and the pillars


of faith

NATO General Sir Adrian


Bradshaw as crazy as a box
offrogs
Hashemi Rafsanjani: Iran not
seeking nuclearweapons
Russia offers Iran advanced
defensive Anti-

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FSA terrorists in Syria ask their israeli friends to impose a no y zone over Syria | Uprootedpalestinians's Blog
AircraftMissiles
Racist talk from Frances

More here (1 to 44) The

Cukierman intended to cause


confict between

Quran, Morality and Critical


Reason(PDF)

religiousgroups
Say No to Netanyahus
Attempt to Drag the US into a
War with Iran by: Rabbi

The Story of
Palestine

MichaelLerner
#SpyCables confrm Mossad
and Netanyahu have known
for years Iran wasnt, and
isnt, trying to build
nuclearbombs
US Plans to Separate
Kurdistan fromIraq
Do our leaders really want to
provoke a war with Russia
overUkraine?

TALMUD AT WORK

USA: 4,000 Lynched By


White ChristianTerrorists
israels hand behind ISIS &
the planned destruction of
Iraq, Syria, Iran, Lebanon,
Libya,Egypt
Israel, after stealing tax
revenues, begins cutting off
electricity to WestBank

Recent Comments
joekano76 on israels hand
behind ISIS & the planned
destruction of Iraq, Syria, Iran,
Lebanon, Libya,Egypt
joekano76 on Israel, after
stealing tax revenues, begins
cutting off electricity to
WestBank
joekano76 on israels hand
behind ISIS & the planned
destruction of Iraq, Syria, Iran,
Lebanon, Libya,Egypt

Why US and Israel


wants to ban this
video..

joekano76 on NATO General


Sir Adrian Bradshaw as crazy
as a box offrogs
joekano76 on USA: 4,000
Lynched By White
ChristianTerrorists

Sharmine Narwani
WHAT THE
SYRIAN

Gaza is the Real

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DEATH

Arab Spring

TOLL
REALLY
TELLSUS
Assads Removal is Not on
MoscowsMind
MoscowsMind
Lebanons Red Lines,Bared
Russia and China: Arms
around the MiddleEast
Debate on Syria: Chemical
Weapons, Foreign
Intervention, Regime Change
andMore
I Want My SunniBack
New Phase in Syria Crisis:
Dealmaking Toward AnExit
Questioning the Syrian
CasualtyList
How Iran Changed TheWorld
Homs Opposition: Al Farouq
Battalion is KillingUs
Excuse Me, But Israel Has No
Right ToExist
Crunch Time in Syria: The
UN Protocols
JihadistLoophole
Whos Afraid of the UN
ObserverMission?


24 | |
2015 02
|

2015 02 23 |
| _# |
2015 02 23 _#
| |
2015 02 23
|
| |
2015 02 22
| _
2015 02 23 |

23 |
2015 02

Hollywood in Homs andIdlib?

|
2015 02 23 |

High-Tech Trickery inHoms?

Ruppert Murdoch &


Hezbollahs"Scuds"
Western Journalist:
VisaDenied
Hamas: Anyone who is
awaiting change from the
West today will not get
anychange

2015 02 23 |
|
2015 02 23 |

Syria 36o%
Al-Jaafari: Turkish regime
gathered terrorists from many
regions to make Syria a base
for their operations

Reham Alhelsi

Four civilians killed, scores


injured in terrorist attacks on
Damascus Countryside
ISIS terrorists massacre
civilians, burn Tal Hermez
antique church in Hasaka

The Black Sunday of


Palestine: Oyoun Qarra

US Easing Into War with


Syria Using ISIS

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Massacre,20.05.1990
My Name is Palestine: 64

Turkeys transgression into


Syrian territory proves its

Years Later, Time


forJustice!

connection with ISIS

Salute to the Daughters

terrorism, condemns Turkish


transgression into Syrian
territory

of Palestine; the Mothers


of Palestinian
PoliticalPrisoners
Palestinian Political
Prisoners: Breaking the
Chains of Oppression,
Marching
towardsFreedom
Palestinian Prisoners on
Hunger Strike: The
Struggle for Freedom, for
Justice, for
PalestineContinues
On Land Day: In
Occupied Palestine,
Existence isResistance
A Letter to Mother
Palestine and
herDaughters
Hunger Strikers for
Freedom, for Justice, for
Dignity, forPalestine
A Homage to
PalestinianMothers
The Women of Palestine
and the Struggle
forLiberation
On International
Womens Day,
Palestinian Political
Prisoners Remain the
Spearhead ofResistance

Iran criticizes U.S. support for

Secret Document on US-UKIsraeli Intelligence


Coordination against Iran
Syria in Last 24 Hours
Al-Jaafari: Commission of
Inquiry on Syria biased,
politically motivated
Israel Worried about
Upcoming War with
Hezbollah

The Vineyard of
the Saker
The new Saker blog (v3) is
now ready. February 23, 2015
Dear friends,An American
saying says that "the third
time is the charm". I hope that
this is true, because I am
offcially announcing the "new
new blog v3" is now online at
the following
URL:thesaker.isThis domain
name was chosen by my
webmaster who came up with
this idea at the time when our
community was attacked on
all sides. It is als []
noreply@blogger.com
(VINEYARDSAKER:)

Hana Ash-Shalabi; A
Struggle Against

23.02.2015 Ukrainian crisis


news. Latest news of Ukraine,

AdministrativeDetention

Donbass, Kharkov, USA,


Europe February 23, 2015
noreply@blogger.com
(VINEYARDSAKER:)

Ash-Shalabi: A Family
fromPalestine
Khader Adnan;
Ledendary
Steadfastness
fromPalestine

Kiev offcer on Debalcevo HQ


incompetence and self

Jaba, the Tears of

organized breakout February


23, 2015
Comment by the Saker:This

Palestine and
ZionistRacism

is a very interesting
interview. First, it basically

Khader Adnan: 60 Days


of
LegendarySteadfastness
Call me a Palestinian
fromPalestine

confrms everything the


Novorussians were saying.
But secondly, the offcer
speaking, Andrei Vysota, CO
of 25th "Kievan Rus"
battalion, declares at the end

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FSA terrorists in Syria ask their israeli friends to impose a no y zone over Syria | Uprootedpalestinians's Blog
PA Political Terminology
101: When Talks Are
NotTalks
One Heart; Beating
forPalestine
A free Palestine: Free from
the River to theSea
Embracing theLand
A Trilogy: The Road to
Independence(2)

A Trilogy: The Road to


Independence(1)
Returning toJerusalem
63 Years Later, Palestine
From River ToSea
They Call it
Independence We
Call itNakba
The On-Going Nakba of
Palestine 63
YearsLater
Remember Beita .
RememberAwarta
On Land Day, Listen to
theLand
Occupied Palestine from
A to Z: Basma a
Woman fromPalestine
On International
Womens Day:
Remember Palestinian
FemalePrisoners
Because They Are Not
Just Numbers in a List:
Generals ofPatience
To a Child who Dreamt
ofFreedom
Traffc Accidents in
occupied Palestine:
Another Form of
ZionistTerrorism
This is Our Land and
This is OurBlood
No Justice for
Jerusalem: Murdering
Palestinian
Jerusalemites in
ColdBlood
Palestinian Prisoners: A
Symbol of Resistance,
Steadfastness andPride

that even though Poroshenko


awarded the title and medal to
Commander Sergei Shaptala
of the 128th Mukachevo
mount []
noreply@blogger.com
(VINEYARDSAKER:)
Three fronts for Russia: How
Washington will fan the
fames of chaos in Central
Asia February 23, 2015
by Ivan Lizan for
OdnakoSource:
http://www.odnako.org/blogs/trifronta-dlya-rossii-kakvashington-razduet-plamyahaosa-v-sredney-azii/
Translated by Robin U.S.
Gen. Ben Hodges
statement that within four or
fve years Russia could
develop the capability to wage
war simultaneously on three
fronts is not only an
acknowledgment of the
Russian Federations gro []
noreply@blogger.com
(VINEYARDSAKER:)
Short message for some
commentators February 22,
2015
I would like the following
commentators to email
me:Seamus Padraigelsieimar
clarkPlease email me at
vineyardsaker@gmail.comThanks
Saker
noreply@blogger.com
(VINEYARDSAKER:)
The press in Banderastan
February 22, 2015
The new Eurocraine has
decided to mark the frst
anniversary of its glorious
revolution by removing the
accreditation of over 100
Russian news organizations
from any offcial state body.
We should salute that.
Initially, Russian journalists
were simply kidnapped and
often murdered, now they are
simply denied accreditation
and the Russian media
banned from []
noreply@blogger.com
(VINEYARDSAKER:)
Email from a friend: Picture
from Lvov 2/19/14 February
22, 2015

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FSA terrorists in Syria ask their israeli friends to impose a no y zone over Syria | Uprootedpalestinians's Blog
Oyoun Qarra Massacre,
20 May1990
Our Paradise onEarth
62 Years, 62 Messages:
We have A Home and its
CalledPalestine
Palestinian Women and
Children in
Jewishgulags
A Nation Behind Bars:
Palestinian Political
Prisoners in
IsraeliDetention
How little they have
changed in 62years
A Thousand Carnations
for PalestinianMothers
Zionist Defnition of
Religious Tolerance: If
its not Jewish, either we
Judaize it or we Destroy
it!(II)
Palestine, forgiveus;
One Year On: Gaza
Steadfast and Defant
amidst a World that has
lost itsHumanity
The Tale of 3
PalestinianVillages
This is how a Nakba is
carriedout
61 Years of On-Going
Nakba: the Old Still Live
through Us and the
Young NeverForgot
61 years of Nakba, 418
Palestinian
villagesdestroyed
Get up, stand up for
Palestinian Rights on
May Day and EveryDay
Palestinian Prisoners:
Imprisoned for their Love

Saker:Regarding your article


today, I hope you will publish
this picture on your website:I
screencaptured this some
time back from a notorious
German expatriate neo-Nazi
on Twitter.Its worth
memorializing just who stole
heavy military weapons from
the government security
forces and entered them into
the Maidan confict, which
would be the people of Lvov,
Lem []
noreply@blogger.com
(VINEYARDSAKER:)
Ukraine... It's a Heist!!!
February 22, 2015
Excellent video made by a
friend. Please distribute!
noreply@blogger.com
(VINEYARDSAKER:)
The Maidan - one year later
February 21, 2015
Today is the frst anniversary
of the deal made between
Yanukovich and the
"opposition" and guaranteed
by foreign ministers Radosaw
Sikorski of Poland, Laurent
Fabius of France and FrankWalter Steinmeier of
Germany. As we all know,
the deal resulted in a
withdrawal of the security
forces from the Kiev city
center immediately followed
by an armed []
noreply@blogger.com
(VINEYARDSAKER:)
Novorussian and Ukrainian
POWs February 21, 2015
noreply@blogger.com
(VINEYARDSAKER:)

Ya Suri

ofFreedom
They cant take that away
from me: "settlers" stealing
Palestinian land from
under ourfeet

Archives
February 2015

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January 2015

Rehmat

December 2014

Jewish Lobby puts Canadian

November 2014

Muslim professor in French


Jail

October 2014

Armenian Holocaust and

September 2014

Jews: 100 years after

August 2014

Malcolm X: 50 years after


Martyrdom

July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013

Mouqawamah
Music
Sayyed Hashim al-Haidari:
Only Iran helped prevent fall
of Iraq to ISIS February 14,
2015 MaddColdSonofKufa
From Classic to PostResistance: On Hizbullahs
Transformation February 13,
2015 MaddColdSonofKufa
Venezuela Foils USSponsored Coup Attempt
Maduro February 13, 2015
MaddColdSonofKufa
Sheikh Naim Qassem:
Wherever Resistance Exists,
ISIS and Nusra Collapse
February 13, 2015
MaddColdSonofKufa
Muqtada al-Sadr: Jihad

December 2012

Mughniyehs Martyrdom Will


Begin Demise Of State Of
Absolute Evil February 13,
2015 MaddColdSonofKufa

November 2012

Mughniyeh to Franjiyeh: Our

February 2013
January 2013

October 2012
September 2012
August 2012

Most Important Instructor Is


the Israeli Enemy February
13, 2015
MaddColdSonofKufa

June 2012

Putins trust rating hits 85%


historical high February 13,
2015 MaddColdSonofKufa

May 2012

Major General Suleimani:

July 2012

April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012

ISIS Experiencing Last Days


February 12, 2015
MaddColdSonofKufa
Resistance Forces
Preemptive Strike in Southern
Syria Frustrates Israeli-

December 2011

Jordanian-Takfri Plots

November 2011

February 12, 2015


MaddColdSonofKufa

October 2011
September 2011

Takfri terrorists ask


illegitimate Israeli regime to

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August 2011
July 2011

bomb southern Syria


February 12, 2015
MaddColdSonofKufa

June 2011
May 2011

Reading future:

April 2011

Hafez al-Assad

March 2011

Speech about

February 2011

Wahhabism

January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009

The Late
President Hafez
Al-Assad: We
are the rightful
owners and the
owners of a just
cause

November 2009
October 2009

Stephen Lendman

May 2009

Al Jazeera Spy Cables


Reveal Netanyahu Lies about
Iran's Nuclear Program
February 24, 2015
Al Jazeera Spy Cables
Reveal Netanyahu Lies about
Iran's Nuclear Programby

April 2009

Stephen LendmanNetanyahu
is an embarrassment to

March 2009

legitimate governance. He's


unft to serve. Why Israelis put

February 2009

up with him they'll have to


explain.On March 17, they'll
have a chance to replace him.
He's in a close race he could
lose. Letting him remain prime
min []

September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009

January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
June 1843
June 1813
January 1514
June 113

Lavrov in New York February


23, 2015
Lavrov in New Yorkby
Stephen LendmanIf America
had a foreign minister like
Lavrov and others like him in
top positions, we'd have world
peace, not multiple direct and
proxy wars of aggression

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Follow Uprootedpalestinians's Blog

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against one country after


another.The scourge of mass
slaughter and destruction
would end. So would the
threat of nuclear war.The
Bulletin of the Atomic
Scientist []
Al Jazeera Spy Cables
February 23, 2015
Al Jazeera Spy Cablesby
Stephen LendmanOn
February 23, Al Jazeera
headlined "The Spy Cables: A
Glimpse into the world of
espionage."Saying "(s)ecret
documents, leaked from
numerous intelligence
agencies, offer rare insights
into the interactions between
spies."Hold the cheers. Al
Jazeera is owned, operated
and controlled by Qatar's g
[]
No Let Up in Intense AntiRussian Propaganda
February 23, 2015
No Let Up in Intense AntiRussian Propagandaby
Stephen LendmanIts
viciousness exceeds anything
in recent memory. Big Lies
bury hard truths.A February
20 Offce of the Vice
President statement said Joe
Biden discussed "the latest
situation in eastern Ukraine"
with (US installed) president
Poroshenko and prime
minister Yatsenyuk.He lied
claiming []
Kharkov False Flag?
February 22, 2015
Kharkov False Flag?by
Stephen LendmanUS/Kiev
dirty hands instigated
numerous previoius false
fags throughout months of
war on Donbass. Ukraine's
military downing MH17 was
the most fagrant.More recent
ones included Volnovakha
and Donetsk bus attacks,
Mariupol's shelling, and
attacks on schools, hospitals,
residential neighborhoods
and city streets []
Deconstructing John Kery's
Big Lies in London February
22, 2015
Deconstructing John Kerry's

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Big Lies in Londonby Stephen
LendmanAn earlier article
explained he disgraces the
offce he holds. He represents
the worst of America's dark
side.He'sorld-class thug. Pure
evil best describes him. He
deplores peace. He supports
war. He's a longtime serial
liar.He and his British
counterpart in crime Foreign
[]
Kerry Threatens Russia
February 22, 2015
Kerry Threatens Russiaby
Stephen LendmanHis bluster,
bullying and Big Lies wore
thin long ago. He uses
diplomacy as a weapon
against sovereign
independent countries.On
February 5, the Washington
Post cited a poll of 1,615
scholars from 1,375 colleges
and universities. Kerry was
rated America's worst
Secretary of State in the past
50 years.On February 21 []
Greece Surrenders to Troika
February 21, 2015
Greece Surrenders to
Troikaby Stephen
LendmanInstead of
renouncing its odious debt
and walking away, Athens
agreed to pay bankers frst,
maintain austerity, and let
long-suffering Greeks
continue taking the
hindmost.SYRIZA campaign
pledges proved hollow.
Pleasing Brussels and
Washington matters
more.After weeks of
negotiations, Greece got what
the Wall Stree []
Caracas Mayor Part of US
Coup Plot February 21, 2015
Caracas Mayor Part of US
Coup Plotby Stephen
LendmanWashington spent
16 years unsuccessfully trying
to topple Venezuela's model
democracy.On February 19,
London's Guardian published
an edited Venezuela
Solidarity Campaign
statement on its coup plot
signed by 70 distinguished
fgures - including John Pilger

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FSA terrorists in Syria ask their israeli friends to impose a no y zone over Syria | Uprootedpalestinians's Blog
and George Galloway.The
unedited version []
Russia Bashing Big Lies
Persist February 21, 2015
Russia Bashing Big Lies
Persistby Stephen
LendmanWashington and goalong presstitute media Big
Lies exceed anything in
memory throughout the Cold
War.Despite Ukraine's military
chief, OSCE monitors,
Ukrainian offcials inspecting
its border areas with Russia,
Dutch experts, and French
President Francois Hollande
concurring on no Russia
troops involved i []

Uprooted Palestinian
Geneva II Battle: Failure is staring
at Brahimi and Friends of Syria in
theface

Geneva 2: Syrian lesson to the the


enemy, the enemy within and the
theory ofeveryone

The War on Terror: Hezbollah hails


Lebanese army great achievements
againstterrorists

THE MIND MAZE OF


DANIELMABSOUT

The Liar wants his Liesremoved

A LESSON TO ALL (Except


DanielMabsout)

Terrorism is not Wahabism Omar


Atrash Charged in Haret Hreik 2 Blasts
Military Court Judge Charges 12
People for Forming (SO-CALLED)
TerroristGroup

The liar, Brotherhood, AL SISI, Assad,


AND THE UPROOTED
PALESTINIANCAUSE

THE GIANT IS NEITHER SLEEPING


NORDEAD

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The Zionists Muslim war


onResistanceJune 16, 2013

O traitor Meshaal: Martyr Shaikh


Ahmed Yassin said hours before
hisdeath,April 2, 2013

Qatar killed commander Ahmed Jabari


with Wristwatch bearing high
explosives C4materialMarch 30, 2013

From the Grand Imam of Umayyad


Mosque to the Grand Brother
ofAmericaMarch 29, 2013

O Hamas guys Hamas needs a


revolution .. Vedioadded March 29,
2013

How to unite muslims?? Two ways to


stop the "Shiitetsunami"??February
18, 2013

"Do not return to Kufr, killing one


another, after I am gone." Why Is
"Muslim" Morsi
KillingEgyptians?February 3, 2013

Updated:Terrorist Saqr al-Qassam (a


Hamas leader) killed while fghting in
Nusrae front ranks inIdlebJanuary 5,
2013

Is Alan Hart Running Cover For


AIPAC?? By Brother
NathanaelKapnerDecember 24, 2012

Netanyahu and Meshaal: Honeymoon


in 2 Adjoining BedRooms December
14, 2012

Damascus, opened its seven gates


doors to Meshaal .. He betrayed Syria
and chosed to be a slave in the court
ofHamadDecember 8, 2012

Italian newspaper: Wesam al-Hassan


held a secret meeting with a delegation

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from the "Hamas" in Berlin one day
before he wasassassinatedDecember
3, 2012

On Abbas statehood, Hamastan,


Jordan Option and the War
onSyriaDecember 3, 2012

Hypocrite Khaled Meshaal

Updated: "Slip of Clintons tongue":


"Hamas" assassinated the chief of
Syrian missileprogram!?November 26,
2012

Hamas to Mursi: "May God have Bless


Mubarak" .. Open crossings and
freeAqsa!! November 10, 2012

Meet Syrias
"freedomfghters"November 2, 2012

Brotherhoods Sectarian War


onSyriaOctober 28, 2012

THE ZIONIST WAR


AGAINSTISLAMOctober 10, 2012

"Ottoman sultan" between heating the


Syrian front and the collapse of
theSultanate

Syria, PKK and Hamas: Loyalty


andBetrayalOctober 9, 2012

The ungrateful "son" of Hamas would


be the next NatoMuftiOctober 7, 2012

Damuscus: The new Whorehoods First


Qibla, and SecondHaramSeptember
7, 2012

On American Brothers Hamayreh and


"Shiiteextremists"September 3, 2012

Palestinian Reconciliation:
CockingaggregatesJuly 27, 2012

Uris MuslimBrothersJuly 25, 2012

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Egypt Brothers: ErasingHistory July 24,
2012

Khalid "Ibn Sabaa" faning SunniShaeFitnaJuly 16, 2012

"US Marines stick together" the story of


a "Palestinian"BastardJune 14, 2012

Khalid Amayereh calling for"UNITY"?


?June 3, 2012

Brothers of America calls for


intervention inSyriaMay 28, 2012

Clueless Arab and Palestinian leaders


andpunditsMay 14, 2012

Khalid Amayereh: The "sincere" Man is


behaving in a theatrical manner these
days- just theseday!!April 16, 2012

Egypts Muslim stupidhood


ReassuresWashingtonApril 10, 2012

Iran, Syria, "Brotherhood Spring" and


the ongoinig war onGazaMarch 13,
2012

"Success will never come


fromdeviant"March 2, 2012

What AboutSyria? February 29, 2012

Uri Avnery is worried: Obama on the


wrong side of history, Uri
isnot?February 20, 2011

How about an international award


forhypocrisy?February 9, 2012

The Case Of Uri Avnery I: Shukran,


Israel Analyzed AndRefuted February
4, 2012

What Hamas wants? Whatever you try,


today, you will not get a Hamas clear
answer to the Question: Is Qatar and
Saudi are supported resistance?
Orothers?February 3, 2012

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Khalid Amayreh:
"Weexpect"January 17, 2012

Rats desert a sinking ship,


foolsrideJanuary 15, 2012

"Is it a pre-condition to recognize Israel


in order togovern?"January 8, 2012

The Ugly Face of the


MuslimBrotherhoodJanuary 7, 2012

Brothers ofAmerica January 1, 2012

Amayereh, indirectly,addressing himself


and his brothers: Dont allow yourselves
to fall into thetrap.December 25, 2011

Inventing awar December 15, 2011

Nasser On Socialism, The Muslim


Brotherhood, &IslamDecember 10,
2011

Feltman: Brotherhood will respect


Camp David Palestinian
Reconciliation would not be achieved,
because Hamas is a
TerroristOrganization December 9,
2011

"We cant take peoples support


forgranted."December 7, 2011

Divide to Rule: "Arab Spring" between


Secularism andsectarianism.December
3, 2011

The Abbas-Mishaal encounter: what is


next? The start of a real"
PalestinianpartnershipNovember 27,
2011

UN Trusteeship Not Membership


Another way to change the regime
inPalestineNovember 8, 2011

Exclusive: Gordaff at Gaddafs


Capture and the
"nextmission"November 4, 2011

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Biden prescription for winning wars
without losing a single life. (Making new
BinLadens)November 4, 2011

Gordon Duff Calling for unity??? What


Time isIt?October 29, 2011

Real Islam in harmony with


realdemocracy.October 28, 2011

On Alan Hart and


nakedHypocrisyOctober 8, 2011

"All vows, oaths, promises,


engagements, andswearing,
"September 29, 2011

Prof William A. Cook: Tearing the Veil


From Israels Civility-a book review
Commented byUPSeptember 20,
2011

Is Israel getting the message? Asks


Mr.Amayreh,

"Veteran" Sami Jadallah: Time For


Regime Change
inPalestineSeptember 19, 2011

A letter from a 1948 settler to 1967


settlers inGazaSeptember 1, 2010

On Khalid Amayreh, Syrian Brothers


"revolution" and the great day
forPalestineMay 1, 2011

Khalid Amayreh: "The Syrian regime


must change, or it will bechanged"April
28, 2011

KEN OKEEFE-GORDON DUFF: NEW


ATTACKS IN GAZA, CENSORED
FROM WESTERN
PRESS(EXCLUSIVE-VIDEO)February
11, 2011

They Invented a Religion to Steal a


Land from ItsOwnersJanuary 4, 2011

On "Socialist Workers wake up!", after

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"Each village is areminder"September
8, 2010

DesertPoison: PALESTINE BETRAYED


BY ITSOWNSeptember 6, 2010

Palestinian Idiot: Advice to Erdogan


and to Turkey: Dont Trust the Arab
Throngs, Dont lose your old Friends,
Nato andIsraelJune 10, 2010

Nahida the Exiled


Palestinian A
MUST READ

Redemption:
AChallengeJanuary 1, 2014
Child In Gaza Has A Message
ForYOUJanuary 1, 2014
Bashing Islam is progressive,
discussing Judaism
isantisemiticDecember 21,
2013
God gave me this land, a few
thousand years ago, NICE, isnt
it!December 21, 2013
MEET THE NEW
ISRAELIPIONEERSNovember28
, 2013
No alternative to
FULLLIBERATIONOctober 18,
2013
The world is antisemitic, Oh
Really!October 10, 2013

What can we call


thisattitude?October 7, 2013

DetachedOctober 7, 2013
Do you know how it feels to live
inGaza?October 05, 2013
The Jewish State What It Really
Means?October 5, 2013

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Ezz Al Zanoon, Son
ofPalestineSeptember 28, 2013
Beware of
SideBattlesSeptember 27, 2013
Gods
chosenPsychopaths
September 23, 2013
I cantanymore September19,
2013
SIMPLYSUPERB September19,
2013

HiddenHandsSeptember 17,
2013
A Tale of a Palestinian
littlegirlSeptember8, 2013
Waving the
Protocols!September4, 2013
Dont letthem Aug 24,, 2013
Gas the Arabs inAction Aug
23, 2013
Nahida Izzat; The Curse
ofChutzpaMarch 14, 2013
Defant Land Faithful Land.
HolyLandMarch 12, 2013

I am all ofthose February 18,


2013
The Curse ofChutzpa March 15,
2013
Shia Sunni?
CuiBono?February 11, 2013
Vote-Giving? No Thank you.
We ChooseLIBERATION January
16, 2013
Why we must defend those who
dare to speak about the ideology
of Jewishsupremacy December
27, 2012
To My Dear
StatelessPalestinianDecember
15, 2012
When I was seven, Jesus cried
December 11, 2012
Evidence of God?
YoubetDecember 11, 2012
Celebrating
TalmudReadingDecember 10,
2012
Moshiach Advert in
JerusalemPostDecember 10,

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2012
Tale In TheDarkness December
9, 2012
"Moshiach"Again!December 9,
2012
Who CreatesGhettos?December
8, 2012
Civilian Society??December 7,
2012
Palestine: NowWhat? December
3, 2012
PALESTINE: SUE ISRAEL
FORGENOCIDEDecember 2,
2012
DontDecember 1, 2012
Beginning of theENDDecember
1, 2012
FACTS: WMS (Weapons of
MassSalvation)November 30,
2012
"Another fghter on
theway"November 26, 2012
Biased
WashingtonPost!November 26,
2012
The Jewish state is a "state
ofsoldiers"November 26, 2012
America Under
IsraeliOccupationNovember 25,
2012
Netanyahus Message
toChabadNovember 24, 2012
People with
GreenHeartsNovember 23, 2012
Gaza, the
HumanStoryNovember 23, 2012
Who could dothat?November 23,
2012
Beloved People
ofGazaNovember 23, 2012
"Genocidal Supremacy? What
Supremacy? This is
BloodLibel!"November 23, 2012
Do you know how it feels to live
inGaza?November 22, 2012
Hassan NasrullahNovember 22,
2012
EWES: Hamad Bin Jasim
November 22,
2012

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"Light unto
theNations"November 22, 2012
We in Gaza fne Worried about
you
!November 22, 2012
X+Y+Z=GenocideNovember 21,
2012
In Palestine Something
MiraculousHappensNovember
21, 2012
The "Art" of Violence and
Racism!November 20, 2012
Sleazy Snake November 19, 2012
The ultimatechallenge November
19, 2012
GazaSpeaksNovember 16, 2012
Confict of Interest and the
Obliteration of Concept
ofLiberationNovember 16, 2012
The House
ofRothschildNovember 13, 2012
Birth of Terrorism &FalseFlagNovember 13, 2012
What would you
callthis?November 13, 2012
What is Wrong with
ThesePeople?November 8, 2012
Terrorist!November 6, 2012
Palestinian
ZionistsExistNovember 6, 2012
A lioness of
Palestine!November 6, 2012
Ooops, I just Committed a
ThoughtCrime!November 4,
2012
The HiddenTruth November 3,
2012
This is MyPalestine October 26,
2012
YES, WE HAVE THE EVERY
RIGHT October 26, 2012
Lala-LandOctober 25, 2012
My HajjExperience October 24,
2012
Electronic Intifada: Integrity and
ConsistencyPlease!October 19,
2012
Make up your mind October 14,
2012
The Moral Compass of

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USArmyOctober 14, 2012
GrowingSpine!October 12, 2012
URGENT
BREAKINGNEWSOctober 7,
2012
Supremacy of "Peace
Now"activistsOctober 5, 2012
World, I LoveYou October 3,
2012
Palestine- What its
AllAboutOctober 2, 2012
October 2, 2012
Temple of"Israel" September 30
2012
World. . . BeWarned September
29 2012
What ReallyMatters!September
29 2012
Ken OKeefe and False
FlagsSeptember 27 2012
Hijacking and Steering
BDSMovementSeptember 27
2012
JPost "Moshiach now
inIsrael"September 27 2012
ISRA-HELL
ONEARTHSeptember 26 2012
Breaking!! False Flag attack
onIran!September 26 2012
Is that ChildAbuse? September
25, 2012
FinalCallSeptember 24, 2012
BelovedJerusalemSeptember
22, 2012
Only inPalestineSeptember 20,
2012
An OpenInvitation September 4,
2012
When you are
aPalestinianSeptember 4, 2012
PALESTINE, Not Just
aName!September 1, 2012
Look who is training
terrorist!August 23, 2012
When Talmudic Law is Put
intoPracticeAugust 16, 2012

July 30, 2012
DO NOT Take theBait July 9,

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2012
Bemused!July 9, 2012
Once and forAll June 25, 2012
A Palestinian Stone
SpeaksoutJune 25, 2012
ChildhoodFriendsJune 24, 2012
TheJourneyJune 23, 2012
Violence of the "Chosen" is a
"virtue" and a "moralvalue"June
19, 2012
Once upon a time, I lived
inHeavenJune 14, 2012
AVAAZ Ever Wondered Who Is
Behind It? Youshould!June 14,
2012
Most PreciousGiftsJune 14,
2012
My Beloved has ManyFaces
June 11, 2012
Humanity is
DoomedWhenJune 7, 2012
MotherhoodRedefnedJune 7,
2012
Beauty and theBeast June 6,
2012
Spot thedifferenceMay 29, 2012
Palestine. A Moment
ofRefectionApril 27, 2012
Untill our Liberation
andReturnApril 2, 2012
Not in myname! March 16, 2012
Breaking the Chains
ofArroganceMarch 5, 2012
Solving theproblem? March 1,
2012
DONOR OPIUM, February 28,
2012
The Mother of
AllConspiraciesFebruary 26,
2012
Advice to BankrobbedcountriesFebruary 24,
2012
The Question ofFaithFebruary
24, 2012
InhumanityFebruary 22, 2012
Are you a
"certifedcuckoo"?February 20,
2012

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Types ofSoulsFebruary 17, 2012
Poison in theCake February 10,
2012
Forbidden !!February 9, 2012
Setting the
recordsstraightFebruary 9, 2012
BeyondBeliefFebruary 1, 2012
"Just Keep looking the
OtherWay"January 23, 2012
IdiocracyJanuary 22, 2012
Will PSC rise to
theChallenge?January 22, 2012
Logic of theAbsurd January 17,
2012
"Chosen", so theycan! January
15, 2012
I met Jesustoday January 7,
2012
Of Exclusivity, Loyalty and
Liberation ofPalestineJanuary 2,
2012
GLOBAL MARCH
TOJERUSALEMDecember 30,
2011
Repeat after me: "The Earth
isFlat"December 21, 2011
Defamation as a
PoliticalToolDecember 20, 2011
InventedPeopleDecember 13,
2011
Chabad rabbis in the US Knesset
(sorry)SenateDecember 8, 2011
Open Debate: Their
DeadliestEnemy!December 6,
2011
Today! November 21, 2011
Who are
theWarmongers?November 17,
2011
Arent we luckyfolks! November
14, 2011
Calling a Spade
aSpadeNovember 13, 2011
THEY DID IT!November 6, 2011
HijackingRevolutionsNovember
4, 2011
From Tribalism
toHumanismNovember 4, 2011
Panic-struckNovember 1, 2011

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Did the Age of Enlightenment
neveroccur?October 31, 2011
FINALLY !! The TRUTH Comes
Out!October 29, 2011
The LIGHTListSeptember 29,
2011
Concerning Mondoweiss, Racism
and Freedom
ofSpeechSeptember 21, 2011
ThoughtTerrorismSeptember
19, 2011

September 19, 2011
Will it ever stop getting
"better"!September 17, 2011
Dare I say itsname? September
4, 2011
Dedicated to the Children
ofGAZA.September 4, 2011
Open youreyesSeptember 3,
2011
"O . . . BLESS THEE
OISRAEL"September 2, 2011
For Those With Eyes
ThatSeesSeptember 1, 2011
Eureka !!! itsEurabia! August
27, 2011
Another "Religion" in
theMakingAugust 26, 2011
NO, BUT NO
THANKYOUSeptember 20, 2011
More sense to thesenses August
9, 2011
Keep meAfoatJuly 29, 2011
CosmicVerses July 23, 2011
Yes, Iam July 9, 2011
A song forLiftaJuly 8, 2011
WouldYou?July 6, 2011
Mirror Mirror on the Wall, Whos
the Fairest One ofAll?July 5,
2011
Halle-freakin-lujah July 4, 2011
The "Eternal Victims"
MoanAgain!July 1, 2011
MercyHalalJune 28, 2011
A "Benign" culture with
"Benignindividuals"!June 28,
2011
Demonizing Islam, Cui

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Bono?June 25, 2011
The Great CancerHoax June 17,
2011
AboutIslamJune 16, 2011
MorphingZionismJune 16, 2011
The Question ofSufferingJune
15, 2011
The coming
AmericanNakbaJune 10, 2011
"Give the entire Middle East to
the Jews "June 10, 2011
Sharing our House
with"Settlers"June 9, 2011
Jewish Voice for Peace?Really?
?June 7, 2011
A mysticalvisitMay 26, 2011
The SpidersWebMay 18, 2011
This is How Liberationis May 18,
2011
Supremacist Chabad Rabbi
Accidentally Tells theTruth May
17, 2011
The Wanted18May 16, 2011
Pathetic orwhat!May 9, 2011
I have adream May 7, 2011
Photos PalestineApril 29,
2011
Holding the WorldHostage April
29, 2011
RisingaboveApril 25, 2011
Stranger thanFiction!April 21,
2011
Doves andHawksApril 20, 2011
A "culture" ofHate!April 17, 2011
A culture ofSupremacy April 17,
2011
A VERY IMPORTANT MESSAGE
from KenOkeefeApril 16, 2011
Quran in SignLanguage April 15,
2011
Jerusalemite Child
ChallengesSoldiersApril 14,
2011
The Situation in
Egypt"Explained"April 13, 2011
EDL Anger and the
"MuslamicInfdels"April 7, 2011
Farid Ghadry firting with Jewish-

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zionistchild-murderersApril 4,
2011
SimpletruthMarch 31, 2011
Bahrain and
ChabadLubavitchMarch 29,
2011
ZIONIST SCOOP!!March 26,
2011
Meet the JewishSettlers March
15, 2011
The Left, Secularism
andIslamMarch 12, 2011
Dreams andRealities March 11,
2011
LittleBoxesMarch 11, 2011
We March to Jerusalem, Martyrs
in theMillionsMarch 5, 2011
EGYPTBEWARE March 1, 2011
DistortionFebruary 28, 2011
Such Spirit Cannot
beDestroyedFebruary 27, 2011
The Chabadist Dershowitz Joins
WikiLeaks U.S.
DefenseTeamFebruary 27, 2011
Egypt Sings:
FREEPALESTINE!February 22,
2011
Why do People Choose Islam &
Why Revolution is
aMUST?February 21, 2011
I want to tell theworld February
20, 2011
More Lies against Hamas from
a"supporter"February 19, 2011
A GREATWOMAN! February 9,
2011
Gods
ChosenTerrorists February 7,
2011
ContrastFebruary 6, 2011
Hamas VS zionist
hasbaraFebruary 6, 2011
JustAmazing!February 4, 2011
The Deadly Ideology: Who is up
for thechallenge?February 3,
2011
Cries forFreedom February 3,
2011
Palestine was NEVER a
"lostcause"January 29, 2011

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Chabad in the US Senate


andCongress January 24, 2011
Our Problem isPR January 23,
2011
Who would speak up against
"Israeli and
JewishExceptionalism"?
January 8, 2011
Sowing hateJanuary 8, 2011
Life onholdJanuary 5, 2011
Majority of Jews will be UltraOrthodox by2050December 27,
2010
Why we must defend those who
dare to speak about the ideology
of Jewishsupremacy December
27, 2012
NOTHING SHORT OF FULL
LIBERATION OF PALESTINE
ISACCEPTABLE! December 19,
2010
Who would investigate these
Jewish schools,
Iwonder?December 19, 2010
World Leaders and
theRebbeDecember 16, 2010
Antisemitism on the rise! Hate
Must Be Created, But Let Us Be
TheVictims!
Why Rebbe Schneerson
HatesIslam?November 19, 2010
A MUST WATCH, The link
between Chabad andEDL
November 19, 2010
Chabad & US zionistLawmakersNovember 17, 2010
Palestine What Next? Nothing
but fullliberationNovember 15,
2011
Who is trying to bluff
thePalestinians?November 3,
2010
BEHOLD WORLD . . . BREAKING
NEWS!October 13, 2010
Meet the Supremacist Jewish
Rebbe Meachem
MendelSchneersonOctober 13,
2010
NO These are not photos from
aSynagogueOctober 11, 2010
Alice inHoly-land October 4,
2010

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Oh mightyisraHellAugust 26,
2010
I Stand With Truth
besideNahida.August 16, 2010
I Stand withTruth August 10,
2010
In Defense of a Palestinian.
(Censored at
RizzostinesPTT)August 9, 2010
How to Create Supremacists?
and How to Manufacture Consent
toGenocide?July 26, 2010
Oxymoron of a Jewish BinationalState!July 23, 2010
More Thoughts
onResistanceJuly 20, 2010
Some Thoughts
onResistanceJuly 17, 2010
Nahida: BreakingTaboos July 13,
2010
Muslim Women . .. July 1, 2010
" I Have aDream" June 26,
2010
More Fog ofDeception June 26,
2010
Palestinians versus the
SamsonsblackmailJune 23,
2010
You think you could defeat my
will tobe?June 20, 2010
HYPOCRITESJune 20, 2010
Equal Rights for serial killers, and
for their victims?June 19, 2010
Look atmeJune 19, 2010
The Worm is in theCan June 18,
2010
We are notalone June 2, 2010
The Fog ofDeception May 29,
2010
A Strategy of Liberation
requiresemancipationMay 23,
2010
MathematicalPoliticsMay 17,
2010
ThePlayMay 15, 2010
About antiSemitism May 12,
2010
Save YourSouls May 11, 2010
A letter from the heart of a

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MuslimwomanMay 4, 2010
Let me get this straight
updated May 4, 2010
NoescapeApril 30, 2010
HardTalkApril 21, 2010
Lovers dontrape April 19, 2010
The Other Side of theStory! April
19, 2010
Supremacist and Racist Chabad
at the Hub of WorldPowerApril
14, 2010
About Jihad April 10, 2010
I want to tell theworld April 5,
2010

Franklin Lamb

Why Obama is Declaring


War onSyria?
US and Israel Lobby Reels
from Hezbollah alQusayrVictory
West to Pay a High Price for
Targeting the
SyrianGovernment
US and Israel Lobby Reels
from Hezbollah alQusayrVictory
How Damascene Jews Hope
to Return toNormalcy
Anti-Iran Sanctions (No. 7)
Franklin Lamb: International
Law Is Overwhelmingly on
the Side of Iran Friday, March
29,2013
When Yarmouk Camp Fled
toShatila
Has the Arab League Mortally
Wounded Itself by Declaring
War onSyria?
Whos playing with the Imam
Sadr case andwhy?
A Zionist Friendly, Right-wing
Texan Islamist to LeadSyria?

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The Oft-Predicted Fickle
Syrian Tipping Point
HasTipped
Israel instructs Obama:
Iranian and Syrian Sanctions
are Not PainfulEnough!
Will Washington grasp the
hand being offered by the
Iranianpeople?
US offcials confess to
targeting Irans
civilianpopulation
Syrias First Line of Defense:
Dial133
Sanctions: Its War by Any
OtherName
Shedding Crocodile Tears
while Collaborating with USledSanctions
Watershed Speech at the
Opera, Tipping Point or
TurningPoint?
Will Al-Nusrah Front
Announce Islamic Emirate for
Yarmouk PalestinianCamp?
Will Syria Go on Offense at
TheHague?
Political Grinches Stealing
Christmas From Palestinian
and SyrianRefugees
Is Yarmouk Headed for the
Same Fate as Nahr alBared?
As Yarmouk goes, so goes
Damascus. As Damascus
goes, so goesSyria
Syrian Update.the US led
sanctions.By FranklinLamb
"An historic victory for
Palestine-another rejection
ofOccupation"
How the Victory in Gaza can
bring civil rights to
Palestinians inLebanon
Resisting Hells Maelstrom:
Syrian Volunteers Exhibit
theirHumanity
Flooding Syria with Foreign
Arms: A View fromDamascus
Why There Wont Be a
Ceasefre this Eid al-Adha
inSyria
Syria on the ground vs. Syria

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on Westernairwaves
Damascus StreetNotes
Lebanons coming election:
women demand civilrights
Fall Semester brings new
hope for
LebanonsPalestinians
AIPAC: Israels Agent
FeelingSqueezed?
30th Anniversary of SabraShatila Massacre:
NewChallenges
The Pope and
thePalestinians
Obama surrenders again on
Palestine but will hebeneft?
Is the Syrian crisis being
leveraged to
weakenHezbollah?
America planning for a postIsrael MiddleEast?
The Sinai Peninsula Rejoins
the Axis ofResistance
Obama Trumps AIPAC,
Romney, Republicans with
Yet more IranianSanctions
Nows not the Time for
Hezbollah to Cut andRun
Why Iran should take the US
led sanctions issue to the
International Court ofJustice
When Opportunity
Knocks..Israel Disses US with
Bi-lateral RussiaAlliance
How High will Obama Jump
for Israel in Nov.Election?
Imam Musa Sadr and the
manbehind
Expelling Diplomats
undermines the Vienna
Convention on Diplomatic
Relations and needlessly
endangersAmericans
Racism mars spring for many
foreigners and Palestinians
inLebanon
The Lutfallah II
caper..Another
Watergateunfolding?
Egypt just annulled
Mubaraks natural gas
giveaway- Will Sadats Camp

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David and the Zionist
Embassy benext?
How many walls will secure
the Zionist occupation
ofPalestine?
Who is responsible fot the
Fall of Talal-Zaatar
Lebanons wretched triad:
Domestic workers
WomenPalestinians
South Libya Wavers Between
Violence andMarginalization
Iran/Israel locked in Mutual
Assured Destruction (MAD)
deterrencestatus
How many violations of US
arms laws are toomany?
Perceptions of the Syrian
"uprising" from Shatila
"PalestinianActivists"
I need to get in and get
outfast
Will the Islamic Republic
support the Sacred
Palestinian Resistance
inLebanon?
Mohammed Hussein
Fadlallah continues to
serveLebanon
Why did Palestinian refugees
come toLebanon?
30 years after the Massacre
at Sabra-Shatilla Lebanese
politicians still block
Palestinianrights
Lebanons Maid of Darkness
facing US hates
crimesinvestigation
Will a pro-Gadhaf Green
Revolution topple theNTC?
Will 2012 Bring Tribal War
toLibya?
A tale of two Egyptian
Women, two Squares and
twoMovements
Santa-Jeff Feltman Delivers
his Annual Yuletide Gifts
toLebanon
A Tireless Advocate of Justice
forPalestinians
Lebanons Palestinians
continue their decend to the

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abyss on the 64th anniversary
of UN Resolution181
ICC Prosecutor Ocampos
career move switches horses
and legal theories inLibya
ICC: Libya Can Try Seif AlIslam, Our Judges Must
BeInvolved
Bad moon rising over Great
SirteBay
Libyas new Liberation Front
organizing in theSahel
Revulsion, resistance & angry
words from TripoliUniversity
Targeted for assassination by
NATO?Will Seif al Islam
Gadhaf survive to have his
day incourt?
Despite Newfound Friends
Lebanons Pals. Want UN
Action to Obtain CivilRights
US MUST STOP FUNDING
ISRAELICRIMES
29 years after the Massacre
at SabraShatila
Sanctioning Messenger Dr.
Bouthainia Shaaban Assaults
AmericanValues
Ma`a as-salaamah
Mohammad.. May Allah
protectyou!
Qaddafs MissingLegions
Really fastnote.
Its notover
Franklin Lamb: NATOs
Qana Massacre at
Majer,Libya
Where have Libyas children
gone? Long timemissing
End Game for Benghazi
Rebels as Libyan Tribes
Prepare to Weighin?
Seeking context and
understanding from
Libyasyouth
Feltman brandishes the
Dahiyeh Doctrine but seeks a
fgleaf
US has decided to recognize
Libyas rebels as the
legitimategovernment

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Franklin Lamb in Tripoli
Libyans ask "WhyNow?"
NATOs War Against Libyas
Civilians Live fromLibya
Libyas neighborhoods
prepare for NATOboots
When Hanan metPeter
Obamas Middle East Speech
and Nakba Day2011
NAKBA 2011
Commemorations :
Palestinians gate
crashborder
Majesty and massacre at
Maroun al Ras with
PhotoStory
The tide is still in favor of
Reform-Resistanceoption
Panic from the Houses of
Congress andAipac?
Dr. Franklin Lamb: Israel will
not collapse peacefully but it
willdissolve
Lebanon Wiki-Cables Tell of
Treason, USInterference
They came, they saw and
now its time toact
CONGRESSMAN PETER
KINGS GREAT
MUSLIMSCARE
As Tahrir Square Goes, So
Goes the MiddleEast?

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