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Objective

Microstructure-Properties: I

Materials Properties:

Strength, Ductility

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

27-301

Lecture 3

Fall, 2007

Profs. A. D. Rollett,

M. de Graef

Processing

Microstructure

Performance

Properties

Objective

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

material property is.

Strength and ductility are defined and used to illustrate the

relationship between materials properties and microstructure.

The measurement of a stress-strain curve is described.

More specifically, this lecture explains the Taylor Equation

that relates yield strength to dislocation content of a material

(and other obstacles to dislocation flow):

y = M G b

Look at www.steeluniversity.org, or

http://www.steeluniversity.org/content/html/eng/default.asp?ca

tid=1&pageid=1016899460,

and specifically Tensile Test, Hardness Test, for selflearning guides

Notation

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

L, l :=

:=

G (or ) :=

b :=

r :=

f VV() :=

:=

:=

u :=

A :=

:=

:=

<L3> :=

:=

F :=

A :=

m :=

M :=

2 :=

, :=

specimen length

strain

shear modulus

Burgers vector

Particle size (radius)

volume fraction (of precipitates)

stress (macroscopic)

shear stress (critical value, in some cases)

displacement

area (cross section of specimen)

geometrical constant (~1)

angle between dislocation and line perpendicular to the obstacle line

mean intercept length (of precipitates)

mean spacing (of dislocations, precipitates)

force

area (cross section of specimen)

Schmid factor

Taylor factor

nearest neighbor distance

angles between tensile axis and slip direction, slip plane normal,

respectively

Key Concepts

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

Strain, engineering versus logarithmic strain

Stress-strain curves

Ductility, necking limit, relationship to hardening parameters,

Considres Criterion

Dislocation loops, obstacle spacings

Critical resolved shear stress, relationship to shear modulus

Schmid factors, average Taylor factor for polyxtal

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

A Material Property is some quantifiable behavior of

a material.

For a property to be a material property, it should

be a characteristic of the material, not the

configuration in which it is used.

Example: the load carrying capacity of a beam

depends on the cross-section of the beam,

therefore is not a material property.

The yield strength is a material property because it

is the same no matter how the material is tested.

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

Many properties are controlled by the propagation of defects

within the material.

The defect propagation is an example of a mechanism that

controls the property.

Example: yield strength measures the resistance to plastic

flow, which is controlled by the mechanism of dislocation

motion. Dislocations are line defects whose motion is more

sensitive to precipitates, grain boundaries etc. than to the

lattice. The latter constitutes microstructure, as previously

discussed.

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

The following new ideas or concepts have been

introduced.

1. Strength

Properties

2. Hardness

3. Ductility

4. Military non-diffusional transformations

5. Martensite (a lower symmetry crystal structure,

formed as a result of a military transformation)

6. The Fe-C phase diagram (not completely new)

7. Diffusional transformations, decomposition

8. Pearlite (a two-phase structure, formed as a result

of a diffusional transformation)

Processes

9. Tempering

Strength

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

measure it in terms of force per unit area: = F/A

Strength means resistance to irreversible deformation or, if

you prefer, the upper limit of elastic stress that is safe to apply

to a material.

Strength is highly dependent on microstructure because it is

proportional to the difficulty of moving dislocations through

(and between) the grains.

Typical values? Most useful structural metals have strengths

in the range 100-1000 MPa; ultra-high strength steel wire can

be produced up to 5,500 MPa!

Engineers are often taught strength as being related to

(chemical) composition. Materials engineers study

strengthening mechanisms and therefore understand how to

control strength.

Strength is typically measured in a tension test, but we will

also examine this test when we discuss ductility.

Comparisons

http://www.time-travellers.org/Historian/Rome2001/romephotos.html

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

SOFT:

SOFT Lead piping

(Roman!)

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

strength (pearlitic) steels,

used for bridges, tyre cord

Processing and mechanical behavior

of hypereutectoid steel wires, D.

Lesuer et al., Metallurgy, Processing

and Applications of Metal Wires, TMS,

1996.

www.brantacan

.co.uk

uk// suspension.htm

www.brantacan.co.

suspension.htm

Types of Strength

10

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

quantities. For now, we will treat them as scalar quantities,

i.e. a single number.

There are different modes of loading materials:

Dynamic Strength: ambient conditions, high strain rate

Creep Strength: high temperature strength, low strain rate

Torsion Strength: strength in twisting

Fatigue Strength: alternating stresses

Each type of strength is controlled by a variety of

strengthening mechanisms.

11

Yield strength

A yield strength is boundary between elastic and

plastic flow.

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

=0

elastic

plastic

Polyxtal

Yield

= yield

Ductility

12

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

deformation without fracture intervening.

Ductility is the hallmark of structural materials because it

makes structures damage tolerant. If one element of a

structure is overloaded, it will deform before it breaks and thus

not jeopardize the entire structure.

We cannot discuss ductility without first defining strain and

then examining stress-strain behavior.

Ranges of ductility: most oxides break (in tension) before they

yield plastically. Useful structural metals have at least 5%

ductility. Superplastic materials (not just metals!) can exhibit

enormous ductilities, >500%!

High strain rate superplasticity of an Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo dualphase stainless steel. Grain refinement of (+) duplex

structure up about 1m has established a large

elongation over 1000% even at high-strain rates in the

order of 0.1 s-1.

http://hightc.mtl.kyotou.ac.jp/english/laboratory/m

icrostructure/microstructure

.htm

Strain

13

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

you apply a force to a body, naturally there is a

change in size. By normalizing the change in a

given dimension by the original dimension, one

arrives at a quantity that again can be used to

characterize the properties of a material. For now,

we'll simply state that strain, properly described is

also a second rank tensor.

=L/L0=(L-L0)/L0.

Reminder: strain is a tensor because a body can

change shape in all three directions at once.

14

Strain - diagram

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

Courtney

Strain - notes

15

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

of points in a body. Take a tensile strain as an example: if we

fix one end of the body and apply a tensile force, then the

fixed point does not move. The point at the other end of the

body moves the most. The change in position, i.e. the

displacement, is then proportional to the distance away from

the fixed point. The strain can then be defined as the gradient

in displacement, u; = du/dx, where x is the position along the

body.

In order to measure strain, one must choose points on a

specimen, measure their spacing, perform the test, and then

re-measure.

Since strain is always a ratio of lengths then it is

dimensionless. Per-cent (%) is useful because many

materials have ductilities less than 50%. Fractional strain is

also used, however.

Stress-Strain: measurement

16

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

material, which we will perform in the second laboratory in

301, requires us to examine some practical aspects.

At ambient conditions and easily attained strain rates (room

temperature, one atmosphere of air, strain rates between 10-5

and 100 per second), the most straightforward test is the

tensile test. A bar of constant cross section [area] is stretched

at controlled displacement rate. The load required for the

stretch is recorded.

Essentially all materials exhibit a maximum strain, beyond

which failure (fracture) occurs.

Note that, although strength is a tensor quantity, one can only

measure in one direction at once. In many cases, it is

reasonable to assume isotropy.

Stress-strain curves

17

material (of uniform cross-section) plastic

deformation will result in the following (typical)

behavior.

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

subtracted from the total strain in

order to produce a curve of stress

versus plastic strain only, which is

useful for many problems. A

linear stress-(elastic) strain

response is assumed; for each

data point, the elastic strain

corresponding to that stress

(stressmodulus) is subtracted

(translate to the left, parallel to

the strain axis).

This procedure can also be used

to correct for machine

compliance.

Plastic

Elastic

Courtney

Compliance Correction

18

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

not perfectly stiff and the lack of

stiffness is evident in the test results

as an apparent elastic modulus that

is lower than the expected value (i.e.

what you find in a handbook). The

reason is that applying a load to the

specimen produces elastic

displacements in the machine as

well as in the specimen.

Displacement is measured at the

cross-head and so additional,

apparent strain occurs. This can be

corrected for in a straightforward

manner by measuring the difference

in slope between the measured,

Emeasuredl, and the known elastic

modulus, Ematerial. The permits a

machine displacement to be

computed at any given load, and the

resulting strain subtracted from the

measured strain value.

= "measured #

= "measured

$e

M machine

% 1

1 (

# $ e'

#

*

E

E

& measured

material )

Stress-strain characteristics

19

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

The initial part of the curve represents the elastic regime of the

material. If the load is released, the strain of the specimen will return

to zero and no permanent deformation occurs. The slope of this part

of the curve is called Young's modulus or Modulus of Elasticity.

Further imposed strain results in a drastic change in slope of the

curve which signals the onset of permanent plastic deformation. The

yield strength is a measure of the stress required for permanent

plastic flow. The usual definition of this property is the offset yield

strength determined by the stress corresponding to the intersection

of the curve and a line parallel to the elastic part but offset by a

specific strain (usually 0.2%). Beyond this point, the material work

hardens until the ultimate tensile strength is attained. At this point,

the incremental increases in stress due to decrease in crosssectional area becomes greater than the increase in load carrying

ability due to strain hardening. Starting at this point, all further strain

is concentrated in the "necked" portion of the specimen.

Ductility measures

20

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

are used as percent reduction of the original area and

percentage increase of the original gage length. The

percentage reduction of area at fracture is only slightly

affected by the shape of the tensile test specimen. As long as

the ratio of the width to thickness does not exceed about 5:1,

for a rectangular cross-section, the percent reduction of area

remains the same as for circular cross-sections.

Elongation to failure = f = (lfinal-l0)/l0 x 100%

Reduction in Area = (Afinal-A0)/A0 x 100%

The reduction of area is usually larger than the elongation to

fracture.

Derived Quantities

21

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

specimen

Elongation to fracture is usually measured by fitting the broken

specimen back together and measuring the distance between

punch or scribe marks. Elongation may also be calculated

from the load-extension diagram; the two do not necessarily

agree. Elongation is so much affected by the gauge length

over which it is measured that the gauge length must always

be specified when reporting data.

Tensile Strength, or, Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) is the

maximum stress that the material experiences during the test.

Work Hardening or Strain Hardening is the increase in stress

during the test.

22

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

tests arises from the change in area.

Load-displacement curves are all that can be measured in a

tensile test. Load must be divided by area to arrive at stress.

Displacement must be divided by an initial length (such as a

gauge length) to arrive at a strain.

If the initial cross-sectional area, A0, is used to calculate

stress, then this is known as nominal or engineering stress.

n = F/A0

Engineering stress -strain plots are useful because they show

the maximum load carrying capacity of the material by the

change in sign of the slope (peak in the curve at dn/d=0).

Similarly, use of linear strain based on the initial length is

known as nominal or engineering strain.

n = l / l0

23

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Al = A0l0

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

or true stress is obtained. The current area is easily obtained

from the length.

Constancy of volume: it is an experimental fact that the

volume change experienced in ductile flow is negligible. This

is a result of plastic flow being accommodated by shear/slip.

Therefore,

This permits us to write,

n(1+n)

#l&

dl

! = " = ln%% ((

l

$ l0 '

l0

l

! = ln(1+ ! n )

Why Ductility?

24

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

metals is that they work harden.

The key concept is the re-distribution of strain. That is to say,

if one sub-region of a material hardens as a result of the

accumulation of dislocations then its load carrying capacity is

higher than that of the neighboring regions. More specifically,

the flow stress is lower in the non-hardened regions than in the

hardened region. Therefore plastic flow is larger in the nonhardened region(s) and, in effect, the strain is redistributed to a

different part of the specimen.

Many polymer systems also exhibit bulk ductility because the long

chain molecules are present in folded form, either regularly arranged

as in the semi-crystalline polymers, or irregularly as in the

amorphous polymers. This conformation of the long chain molecules

allows for considerable stretching during plastic deformation and

often to a few hundred percent.

25

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

decreases with strain.

Straining does not continue indefinitely. There are several ways

in which plastic deformation will cease; collectively, the various

phenomena are discussed as fracture. One limit to straining

comes when the material exhausts its ability to redistribute strain.

This exhaustion is dependent on the geometry of the test,

however. For example, the tensile deformation results in a

steady decrease in the cross section which sets up a competition

between strain hardening and geometric softening from the

perspective of load carrying capacity of a given element of

material. When the strain hardening no longer "keeps up with"

the geometric softening then strain redistribution ceases and a

neck will start to form.

Analysis of ductility

26

F=A

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

dF = dA + dA

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

Differentiate:

given element of material is less than or equal to zero, dF=0.

The load increase is positive from work hardening (and

dominates at first) but negative from the change in area. Note

that we must work with current values, i.e. the true stress.

Analysis, contd.

27

dF = 0 dA + dA = 0

dT/T = -dA/A

Objective

= ln(A0/A)

d = -dA/A

dT/T = d

dT/d = T

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

In words, the hardening rate (of the true stress) is equal to the

(true) stress at the point at which the material can no longer

support an increasing load. Beyond this point on the stressstrain curve, the deformation will tend to localize in a (diffuse)

neck.

Considres Criterion

28

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

Considre developed an

elegant geometrical

construction for determining

the maximum load in a

tensile test. The true stress

is plotted against the

engineering strain. A straight

line is drawn through the

point A, (-1,0), and tangent to

the curve. The stress at the

tangent point is the maximum

stress/load.

If the stress-strain curve can

be described as a power-law

relationship with exponent n,

T = Kn ,

then the engineering strain at

the maximum load, eu = n.

29

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

Ductility-Microstructure

How does microstructure influence ductility?

Provided that dislocations move easily through the

material and macroscopic instabilities (such as

necking) do not intervene, ductility can be very large.

Any microstructural element that leads to local

cracking will tend to lower ductility by decreasing the

load carrying capacity of the material.

Inclusions, second phase particles, grain boundaries,

for example, are all potential fracture sites.

Qualitatively, cleaner, purer materials have higher

ductility.

30

Example Problem

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

[Courtney]

31

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

Summary (intermediate)

Tensile strength and ductility have been explained.

Standards methods of calculating these quantities

from the load-displacement curve from a tensile

testing machine have been described.

32

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

Dislocation Motion

Dislocations control most aspects of strength and

ductility in structural (crystalline) materials.

Our objective in reviewing the characteristics of

dislocations is so that we can understand and control

strengthening mechanisms.

The strength of a material is controlled by the

density of defects (dislocations, second phase

particles, boundaries).

For a polycrystal:

Dislocation glide

33

Objective

Example

passage causes one half of the crystal to be

displaced relative to the other. This is a shear

displacement, giving rise to a shear strain.

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

[Dieter]

34

Objective

Straight lines are not a good approximation for the

shape of dislocations, however: dislocations really

move as expanding loops.

Example

Strength

[Dieter]

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

of obstacles that dislocations encounter as they

move across the slip plane. Higher obstacle

density higher strength.

35

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

elasticity: larger stresses imply longer distances for dislocation

motion. This is not the case: dislocations only move large

distances once the stress rises above a threshold or critical

value (hence the term critical resolved shear stress).

Consider the expansion of a dislocation loop under a shear

stress between two pinning points (Frank-Read source).

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

[Dieter]

36

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

1

2r

positions of the dislocation loop, it is

not hard to see that the shear stress

!

required to support the line tension of

the dislocation is roughly equal for positions 1 and 3, but

higher for position 2. Moreover, the largest shear stress

required is at position 2, because this has the smallest radius

of curvature. A simple force balance (ignoring edge-screw

differences) between the force on the dislocation versus the

line tension force on each obstacle then gives

maxb = (Gb2/2), max = Gb/

where is the separation between the obstacles (strictly

speaking one subtracts their diameter), b is the Burgers vector

and G is the shear modulus (Gb2/2 is the approximate

dislocation line tension).

37

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

consider the relationship between the

shape of the dislocation loop and the

force on the dislocation.

Line tension = Gb2/2

Force resolved in the vertical direction

= 2cos Gb2/2

Force exerted on the dislocation per

unit length (Peach-Koehler Eq.) = b

Force on dislocation per obstacle (only

the length perpendicular to the shear

stress matters) = b

At each position of the dislocation, the

forces balance, so

= cos Gb2/b

The maximum force occurs when the

angle = 0, which is when the

dislocation is bowed out into a

complete semicircle between the

obstacle pair:

= Gb/

Gb2/2

Gb2/2

Gb2/2

Gb2/2

=0

MOVIES: http://www.gpm2.inpg.fr/axes/plast/MicroPlast/ddd/

Critical stress

38

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

short distances if the stress on the crystal is less than the

Orowan bowing stress. Once the stress rises above this value

then any dislocation can move past all obstacles and will

travel across the crystal or grain. This explains why plastic

deformation is highly non-linear.

This analysis is correct for all types of obstacles, including

second phase particles (precipitates) and dislocations (that

intersect the slip plane). For weak obstacles, the shape of the

critical configuration is not the semi-circle shown above (to be

discussed later) - the dislocation does not bow out so far

before it breaks through.

Arrays of Obstacles

39

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

spectrum of obstacle strengths. Again, it turns out that this makes a

relatively minor difference to the critical resolved shear stress, crss,

which can be estimated from a knowledge of the average obstacle

spacing, , the Burgers vector magnitude, b, and the shear modulus,

G, of the material, and a geometrical factor, , that takes account of

the flexibility of the dislocations (i.e. that they do not have to bow out

to the maximum stress semi-circular position:

crss = Gb/.

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

For dislocations that are flexible (or, the

obstacles are strong), we need the

nearest neighbor distance, 2.

- The geometrical factor, , is generally

taken to be 0.5. This is a because

dislocations break through obstacles, on

average, at an angle, , less than 90.

40

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

(in a plane), 2, can be

obtained from the point density

in a plane, PA.

The probability density, P(r), is

given by considering

successive shells of radius, r:

the density is the shell area,

multiplied by the point density ,

PA, multiplied by the remaining

fraction of the cumulative

probability.

For strictly 1D objects such as

dislocations, 2 may be used

as the mean free distance

between intersection points on

a plane.

Not examinable

0

P(r)dr = 2#rPAe

!#r 2 PA

$ 2 = "0 rP(r)dr

$2 =

1

2 PA

r

dr

Ref: Underwood, pp 84,85,185.

Dislocations as obstacles

41

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

randomly oriented lines within a crystal, or as a

set of parallel, straight lines. The latter is easier

to work with whereas the former is more realistic.

Dislocation density, , is defined as either line

length per unit volume, LV. It can also be defined

by the areal density of intersections of

dislocations with a plane, PA.

For randomly oriented dislocations, use standard

stereology:

= LV = 2PA; 2 = (2PA)-1/2;

thus = (2{LV/2})-1 (2{/2})-1.

is the obstacle spacing in any plane.

Straight, parallel dislocations: use

= L V = PA

where PA applies to the plane perpendicular to the

dislocation lines only; 2=(PA)-1/2;

thus = 1/LV 1/

where is the obstacle spacing in the plane

orthogonal to the dislocation lines only.

Thus, we can write crss

= G b

42

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

To make the connection between dislocation

behavior and yield strength as measured in tension,

consider the deformation of a single crystal.

Given an orientation for single slip, i.e. the resolved

shear stress reaches the critical value on one

system ahead of all others, then one obtains a

pack-of-cards straining.

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

[Dieter]

43

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

Geometry of slip: how big an

applied stress is required for slip?

To obtain the resolved shear

stress based on an applied tensile

stress, take the component of

the stress along the slip direction

which is given by Fcos, and divide

by the area over which the (shear)

force is applied, A/cos. Note that

the two angles are not complementary unless the

slip direction, slip plane normal and tensile direction

happen to be co-planar.

= F/A cos cos = cos cos = m

Schmid factor = m

44

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

critical resolved shear stress. This is verified by measuring

the yield stress of single crystals as a function of orientation.

The example below is for Mg which is hexagonal and slips

most readily on the basal plane (all other crss are much

larger).

= /coscos

Soft orientation,

with slip plane at

45to tensile axis

Hard orientation,

with slip plane at

~90to tensile axis

45

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

This brief review of single slip in crystals raises the question of how to

determine the Schmid factor for an arbitrarily oriented crystal.

Recall the general formula for how to resolve a general (tensor) stress onto a

slip plane: = b n = bi ij nj

Then simplify this formula for the case where the stress is a tensile stress

parallel to a direction, A: = bA nA = cos cos

It is best to use a spreadsheet (e.g. Excel), or a Math program such as Mathematica or

Maple, and make a list of all possible combinations of slip plane (111, -111, 1-11, -111) and slip direction (e.g. 111 is orthogonal to 110, -101 and 0-11), taking only

positive versions of each (unit) vector. This will give you a table with 12 rows, one

for each slip system (3 X 4 = 12 combinations of plane and direction). Then calculate

the dot products of the tensile axis, A, with each combination of plane+direction in

turn in order to obtain cos and cos respectively (2 more columns). Then calculate

the Schmid factor as cos*cos (1 more column). Finally, identify the row with the

largest absolute value of the Schmid factor in it (i.e. positive or negative).

You can expand the table to include the negatives of each slip direction in addition:

this will give you 24 rows (e.g. 111 is orthogonal to 110, -101, 0-11, 1-10, 10-1 and

01-1). If you use the 24 row version, you will find that you obtain a pair of positive

and negative Schmid factors for each pair of positive and negative slip directions.

This positive/negative pairing corresponds to positive and negative directions of slip.

46

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

Polycrystal Deformation

Consider how a polycrystal deforms with slips in

individual grains, each of which has a different

orientation.

(a) undeformed

(b) single slip, leading to

gaps and overlaps

(hypothetical)

(c) creation of geometrically

necessary dislocations

(d) compatible deformed

grains

Note varying orientations of slip planes

[Dieter]

47

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

single crystal level is related to (ductile) deformation of a

polycrystal.

In polycrystals, each grain must deform in multiple slip,

meaning that several slip systems have to be active at once in

order for an individual grain to change shape in the same way

as the bulk material.

Each grain has a Taylor factor, M, which is analogous to (but

generally larger than) the reciprocal of the Schmid factor, 1/cos

cos = 1/m. The Taylor factors can be averaged over all the

grains.

For a polycrystal, yield = <M> crss = M G b

Typical value of <> = 3.1, i.e. the apparent hardness of the

polycrystal is approximately three times the critical resolved

shear stress.

Work Hardening

48

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

Where does the stress-strain curve come from? Why does the

flow stress (critical resolved shear stress) increase with strain?

As slip takes place in a crystal, even in cases where only one

slip system appears to be active (macroscopically), more than

one system (or set of dislocations) is in fact active. Whenever

two slip systems cross each other (intersect), the dislocations

react with each other, leading to tangling. This tangling up of

dislocations means that dislocation line length is left behind in

the crystal, thus generating more obstacles to dislocation

motion (and raising the critical resolved shear stress).

Work hardening is still a very difficult theoretical problem, so

we rely on empirical descriptions such as the power law

mentioned earlier:

T = yield + Kn

49

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

features of plasticity from a material perspective.

Stress-strain curves provide a straightforward way to measure

yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and ductility.

The maximum load and maximum uniform elongation are

predictable from the stress-strain curve (e.g. power law),

which is known as Considres construction.

Single crystal behavior reflects the anisotropy of the crystal for

both elastic (see lecture on elasticity) and plastic behavior.

Single crystal plastic behavior is controlled by dislocation

movement; deformation twinning can supplement dislocation

glide, however, and is more common in lower symmetry

crystals.

The presence of dislocations that can glide at low (critical

resolved) shear stresses means that metals yield plastically at

stresses far below the theoretical strength.

Summary, contd.

50

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

There is a critical shear stress for dislocation flow on any given slip

system; this phenomenon is known as Schmid's Law. The response is

elastic if all resolved shear stresses are less than the critical value:

system and work hardening is low.

Larger strains in single crystal tests, or coincidence of the principal

stress with a high symmetry axis leads to multiple slip (slip on more

than one system); in this case the stress-strain behavior is polycrystallike.

A polycrystals can be thought of as a composite of single crystals.

The appropriate model for this composite is the iso-strain model

(equivalent to the affine deformation assumption discussed previously

for polymers). By averaging the stresses (or strains) required for

multiple slip in each crystal, an average for the "inverse Schmid

factor", or (more usually) "Taylor factor", can be obtained whose value

is 3.07 for cubic materials deformed in tension or compression with

{111}<110> (or {110}<111>) slip systems.

51

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

Summary

The concept of material property has been

explored.

An illustration of the dependence of structural

properties on microstructure has been given.

Basic mechanical properties (strength, hardness,

ductility) have been defined and illustrated with

respect to practical methods for measurement.

The Taylor Equation that relates yield strength to

dislocation content of a material has been

explained.

Sample Problem

52

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

Question: Al-4%Cu (by wt.) has a yield stress of 600MPa. Estimate the

particle size and spacing.

Solution: recognize that this stress relates to age hardening beyond the

peak hardness. Therefore use the Orowan bowing stress to estimate

the stress.

= <M> crss = <M> Gb/

G=27.6GPa; b=0.25nm; <M>=3.1:

spacing = 3.1*27,600*0.25.10-9/ 600= 35.7 nm

Now we must estimate the volume fraction of particles for which we use

the phase diagram, assuming that we are dealing with the equilibrium

phase, , which is 54 w/o Cu, and the in equilibrium with it, 0.5 w/o

Cu.

Wt. % Al = (54-4)/(54-0.5) = 93.5; wt. % = 4-0.5/(54-0.5)=6.5

Volume of = 93.5gm/2.7 gm/cm3 =34.6 cm3

Volume of = 6.5/ 4.443 gm/cm3 = 1.5 cm3

Volume fraction of = 0.96; volume fraction of = 0.04.

Use =4r(1-f)/3f (slide 22): r =3*0.04*35.7/4/(1-0.04) = 1.12 nm.

53

" = L3

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

1# (VV )$

(VV )$

=4

(VV )$ 1# (VV )$

(SV )$ (VV )$

=4

(VV )$ D$ 1# (VV )$

6(VV )$ (VV )$

2 1# (VV )$ 2 D$

= D$

%

3

3 (VV )$

(VV )$

If the dislocations are relatively inflexible and therefore straight (or the

obstacles are weak) then we need the mean free distance, , between

obstacles, instead of the nearest neighbor distance. This applies to any

kind of obstacle (dislocations or particles).

The mean free distance, , between particle edges is given by the above

equation. Note that it is closely related to the mean intercept distance,

<L3>. Finite volume fraction, (Vv), or f, decreases the distance between

particle edges.

Alpha () represents the particle phase.

Thus, for mono-disperse spheres we can write for the c.r.s.s.:

crss = Gb3f/2D.

crss = Gb2(6f/)/D.

These two formulae differ only by a numerical factor, and the presence of

the volume fraction in a square root term.

Ref: Underwood, pp 80-85.

54

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

References

Materials Principles & Practice, Butterworth

Heinemann, Edited by C. Newey & G. Weaver.

G.E. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy, McGrawHill,

3rd Ed.

D. Hull and D. J. Bacon (1984). Introduction to

Dislocations, Oxford, UK, Pergamon.

T. H. Courtney (2000). Mechanical Behavior of

Materials, Boston, McGraw-Hill.

Summary: 3

55

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

rate depends on the kind of obstacle that dislocations have to move

past. In fcc metals, yield is dominated by other dislocations (the

"forest hardening model") such that the strain rate/temperature

variation is dominated by the (weak) variation in shear modulus

(with temperature) through the "Taylor equation", =MGb.

In bcc metals, yield at low temperatures is dominated by lattice

friction (i.e. the Peierls stress) and large strain rate/temperature

sensitivities are observed.

Most ceramics follow the bcc model because they too have high

lattice frictions at low temperatures (but become plastic and ductile

at elevated temperatures).

Single crystals are important because many high temperature

applications require single crystal or coarse polycrystals in order to

maximize creep resistance, i.e. by minimizing grain boundary area.

Microelectronic applications use single crystals of Si where the

absence of grain boundaries is not important unless MEMS devices

are being designed.

Summary: 4

56

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

stages: stage I is known as "easy glide"; stage II as "linear, athermal

hardening"; stage III as "dynamic recovery"; and stage IV as "linear

hardening".

For a polycrystal to exhibit ductility, it must be possible for every grain

to deform plastically in an arbitrary manner. This is summarized as von

Mises criterion which states that a minimum of five independent systems

are required for ductility. This can be understood most easily by

considering that an arbitrary strain has five independent components:

there is an equation (linear) that links the slip on an individual slip

system (or twinning system) to the macroscopic shape change (i.e.

strain); therefore five independent systems are needed in order to satisfy

the five independent strain components.

Summary: 5

57

Objective

Example

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Orowan

Bowing

Single

Crystal

Yield

Polyxtal

Yield

entangled in one another as they expand over their slip planes. The major

consequence of this is that any dislocation motion (over a distance larger than the

mean spacing) leaves behind a certain amount of dislocation; this is called

dislocation storage and hardens the crystal. By a combination of collapse of

tangles and cross-slip (switching of slip planes by screw-configuration

segments), however, dislocations of opposite sign can meet and annihilate; this is

called dynamic recovery (because it only happens during continuing straining)

and decreases the hardening rate (i.e. the net storage rate of dislocations

decreases because of dynamic recovery). Eventually dynamic recovery balances

storage and the flow stress saturates, or nearly so.

At high temperatures, dynamic recovery occurs early on in straining and, with

the ease of non-conservative motion (climb), the work hardening becomes

negligible. With rapid dynamic (and static) recovery, the dislocation structure

becomes a sub-grain structure with well defined, low angle boundaries. If a

single crystal is bent, then the dislocations left behind after the deformation tend

to re-arrange themselves into walls of edge dislocations of the same type and

sign. Such a recovered or polygonized structure is a clear example of

geometrically necessary dislocations.