Sie sind auf Seite 1von 105

Technical Report No.

Vol: 01/Bib/Civil/DrMGRU/2012

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MASONRY STRUCTURES-TECHNICAL REPORT

PROF. S.SAILEYSH SIVARAJA

PROF.S.MOSES ARANGANATHAN
&
PROF.T.S.THANDAVAMOORTHY

Reference for M.Tech (Struct) & PhD Scholars

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING,


Dr. M.G.R Educational and Research Institute University,
Maduravayal, Chennai-600 095, Tamil Nadu, India
E Mail: sivaraja05@gmail.com & tan_44@yahoo.co.in

May 2012

ABSTRACT: Considering the slow development in the research relating to masonry


structures and to give an impetus and accelerate this annotated bibliography has been
prepared by reviewing the available literature. This bibliography presents various
aspects of research on masonry structures.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER No.

1.0

TITLE.

INTRODUCTION

PAGE No.

An exhaustive bibliography is of masonry structures namely bricks, mortars, cement,


reinforced cement concrete, Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Polymer Concrete and
construction, etc, has become a necessity to accelerate the research on this topics;
Literature relating to these various aspects have been reviewed and compiled as a
report here.
The following topics have been dealt with herein:

(i)Structural Brickwork
(ii) Materials Properties
(iii) Testing
(iv) Analysis and Design
(v) Dynamic Loading and Responses
(vi) Seismic Behaviour
(vii) Case Studies
(viii) Retrofitting.
The chapters on Case studies have been included to throw light on Applications
aspects. Finally the chapter on Retrofitting highlights the use of different masonry
system in Repair and Rehabilitation process.
The objective of this bibliographic collection is to bring under one roof all
information about various masonry systems and masonry components available in
open literature. Such an exercise has been necessitated as no such documents is
available as at present. It is hoped that this work would serve as a useful guide for
future research in the area of masonry and all aspects relating thereto.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER No.

TITLE.

PAGE No.

2.0

STRUCTURAL BRICKWORK

04

3.0

MATERIALS PROPERTIES

07

4.0

TESTING

12

5.0

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

25

6.0

DYNAMIC LOADING AND RESPONSES

37

7.0

SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR

46

8.0

CASE STUDIES

72

9.0

RETROFITTING

81

10.0

SUMMARY

105

11.0

REFERENCES

105

2.0 STRUCTURAL BRICKWORK


2.1) Thomas, K., Structural Brickwork-Materials and Performance, The Structural
Engineer, 1971, Vol.49, No.10, pp.441-450.
Calculated load bearing brickwork is discussed and the basic requirements are
specified materials and their effects on strength and performance are considered and
recommendations made. The mechanism of brickwork failure under vertical and
lateral loading is covered and the results of current research in this field are included.
Factors affecting strength are discussed and information is provided on composite
action with concrete beams, also quality control.
2.2) Alani, A.F., EL-Katib,M.T., Ovanessian, R.A and Korkees, I.N., Structural
Elevation of Load Bearing Brick Cavity Walls with Brick Ties, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 1989, Vol.16, No.3., pp.85-93.
This research work forms a part of a project to investigate the structural behaviour of
load bearing double wythes cavity walls built using local material and workmanship.
This investigation was made using a full scale one storey height walls with brick units
acting as connectors across a 50 mm cavity. The walls were subjected to both
concentric and eccentric vertical loads up to failure. The eccentricity to thickness
ratios ranged from 0.0 to 0.30. Twelve specimens were tested. They were divided in
to three groups depending up on the type of mortar, cement: sand (1:3), Cement: lime:
sand (1:1:6), and gypsum mortar (locally known as Juss mortar).Based on
experimental results an empirical equation is produced to calculate the ultimate
strength of storey height brick cavity walls. The theoretical results compared quite
well with the test results. Comparison of results with various international design
codes showed good agreement with CP111-Part 2 while both the Canadian and UBC
codes show diverge results.
2.3) Toranzo, L.A., Carr, A.J and Restrepo, J.I., Improvement of Traditional
Masonry Wall Construction for Use in Low Rise or Low Wall Density Building in
Seismically Prone Regions, Proceeding of NZSEE Conference, 2001, pp.1/1-5/5.
The current trend of designing structures to meet performance based demands could
severely limit the use of some traditional construction materials and systems. Masonry
construction used in conjunction with reinforced frames, as used extensively in Latin
America is among those affected. This limitation is due to the poor performance of
conventional masonry system is earthquakes. This paper discusses the option of using
reinforced concrete frames in-filled with masonry, acting together as a series of
rocking walls providing a desired performance level. Such system may be used in
buildings with a low density of elements where the demand expected in
conventionally built masonry walls might result in structural damage in moderate
earthquake. Rocking walls can be designed to rock while ensuring no damage will
occur anywhere else in the structures. During the rocking process the system has a
much lower equivalent stiffness than before rocking in triggered. Most often this
means that the inertial forces are reduced as the response is shifted in to a less
demanding region of the acceleration spectra. The softening of the system also lets
other flexible elements participate in the response. Triggering of the rocking may be

set for levels of excitation greater than frequent earthquakes for which the element
can be designed to behave as a fixed base wall. Rocking also allows the use of
hysteretic energy dissipaters at the base of the wall. It was found that these energy
dissipaters could add up to 20% of equivalent viscous damping to the system.
2.4) Sarangapani, G., Venkatarama Reddy, B.V and Jagadish, K.S., Structural
Characteristics of Bricks, Mortars and Masonry, Journal of Structural Engineering,
Vol.29, No.2, 2002, pp.101-109.
Burnt clay bricks are widely used load bearing masonry in India. There is wide
variation in the characteristics of commonly used bricks from different geographical
locations of the country. For example the compressive strength vary between 2 and 24
Mpa. This paper deals with the characteristics of properties of local low modulus
bricks, mortars and masonry using these materials. Bricks procured from Bangalore
were tested for obtaining the properties such as compressive strength, flexure
strength, water absorption, Initial Rate of Absorption (IRA), porosity and pore size
and stress-strain relationships. Characteristics of two cement mortars (1:4 and 1:6)
and three composite mortars (cement soil and cement lime mortars) were examined
for their strength and elastic properties. Stress-strain characteristics of masonry using
these bricks and mortars were determined. A simple analysis was carried out to
understand the nature of stresses developed in the mortar joint and brick in the
masonry. The results reveal that the bricks around Bangalore have rather low module
compared to cement mortar. The brick modulus is in the range of about 5 to 10 % of
the modulus of 1:6 cement mortar.This kind of situation leads to a masonry were
mortar joints develop lateral tension while brick develops lateral compression (triaxial) and this is an unfavorable situation due to the brittle nature of mortar.
2.5) Punmia, B.C., Asok Kumar Jain and Arun Kumar Jain, A Text Book of Building
Construction, Lakmi Publications (P) Limited, New Delhi, India, 2006.
Man requires different types of buildings for his activities: houses, bungalows and
flats for living; hospitals and health centers for his health; school colleges and
universities for his education; banks, shops, offices, buildings and factories for doing
work; railway buildings, bus stations and air terminals for transportation; clubs,
theatres and cinema houses for re-creation and temples, mosques, churches,
darmashalas etc, for worship. Each type of the above buildings has its own
requirements. The above building activities are an important indicator of the countrys
social progress.
2.6) Ana Radivojevi and Nadja Kurtovi-Foli, Evolution Of Bricks And Brick
Masonry In The Early History Of Its Use In The Region Of Todays Serbia, Journal
of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2006, Vol. 18, No. 5, October 1, pp692699
Brick was proved to be one of the main building materials in the region of todays
Serbia, especially in the time of late antiquity and in the following medieval time.
Hence, the idea was born to make a comparison between the main characteristics of
late antique and medieval bricks and brickworks from this region that could confirm
the continuity and variety of its use. A question of evolution of the use of bricks was
partly based on comparison of their estimated properties and also on comparison of
applied building techniques and known characteristics of brick production. It has been

confirmed that although it is possible to discuss and confirm the continuity in the use
of bricks and adequate building techniques, up-to-date research based on quantitative
analysis of historical bricks do not offer enough comparable data regarding their
quality. There-fore a new field of possible qualitative research is needed in the future.
2.7) Manjunath.S, Renuka Devi. M and K.S.Jagadish, Strength Of Hollow Block
Masonry Walls, 2009-10, Research Centre : R.V.College of Engineering, India.

Masonry has been used as a basic construction material for public and residential
buildings in the past several thousand years; from the tower of Babylon ,to the great wall
of china, which is the only man made structure visible from the moon. A number of well
preserved old masonry building still exist, proving that masonry can successfully resist
loads and environmental impacts, therefore providing shelter for people and their goods
for a long period of time, if adequately conceived and constructed. Although some
specific features have been invented during the course of time to improve the seismic
behavior of masonry buildings , such as connecting stones, strengthening of the corners
and wall intersection zones, as well as tying of the walls even today, masonry
construction represents the most vulnerable part of existing building. This is not only in
the case of developing or underdeveloped countries but it is also in the case of some of
the developed countries of Europe and the USA.

2.8) Maria P. Durante Ingunza, Anaxsandra C. L. Duarte and Rubens M. Nascimento,


Use Of Sewage Sludge As Raw Material In The Manufacture Of Soft-Mud Bricks,
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2011, Vol. 23, No. 6, June-1, pp852856
This article assesses the use of sewage sludge as a raw material in the ceramic
industry, specifically in the manufacture of soft-mud bricks, to determine the
maximum incorporation of sludge that results in technically sound and
environmentally friendly bricks. The results obtained confirm that there was no
alteration in the odor of the bricks, even at high proportions of sludge; however, high
concentrations of sludge had a negative influence on certain properties, such as
mechanical strength and absorption. Compressive strength was significantly
diminished with the addition of sludge: the bricks with 5% sludge lost an average of
45% of the strength obtained by the control brick; the bricks manufactured with 15
and 20% lost around 70% of maximum strength; however, they still met minimum
strength standards. For the specified conditions of this study, it was concluded that
20% was the maximum proportion of sludge that could be incorporated into a ceramic
mass and still meet technical and environmental requirements.
2.9) Jianhai Liang and Ali M. Memari, M.ASCE, Introduction Of A Panelized Brick
Veneer Wall System And Its Building Science Evaluation, Journal of Architectural
Engineering, 2011, Vol. 17, No. 1, March 1, pp114
This paper introduces a panelized brick veneer over steel stud backup wall system to
address some of the shortcomings of conventional systems. Thermal and
hydrothermal analyses of the proposed wall system with different stud gauges and
arrangements are discussed. The movement joint design aspects, a pressure
moderation performance evaluation, the simulated wind-driven water penetration
results, and an example cost analysis are also presented. This study provides
information about some of the attributes of the proposed system such as crack

resistance and water penetration potential as well as the pressure moderation aspect.
Some of the issues that need consideration for the practical application of the system
are also described.

3.0 MATERIAL PROPERTIES:


3.1) Krishna Naraine and Sachchidanand Sinha, Loading And Unloading StressStrain Curves For Brick Masonry, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1989, Vol.
115, No. 10, pp2631-2644
Reloading and unloading stress-strain curves of brick masonry tested under uniaxial
cyclic compressive loadings perpendicular and parallel to the bed joint are discussed.
A simple mathematical model is proposed to predict these curves at different values
of plastic strain. An exponential relationship involving the axial stress, the axial
strain, and the plastic (residual) strain is found to be appropriate to represent the
reloading and unloading curves. It is shown that the reloading curves can be
mathematically represented by a family of parabolas and the unloading curves can be
similarly represented by a family of straight lines. The equations of a parent parabola
and a parent straight line are used to generate the family of parabolas and the family
of straight lines respectively. The families of parabolas and straight lines can then be
used to compute the reloading and unloading curves respectively. Comparisons of the
model predictions with the experimental reloading and unloading curves show very
good agreement.
3.2) Deodhar, S.V and Patel, A.N., Behaviour of Brick Masonry in Compression,
Journal of Structural Engineering, 1996, Vol.22, No.4, pp.221-224.
Brick masonry has been used from time immemorial for construction of low- rise
residential buildings and columns etc., to resist compressive loads. The strength of
masonry depends on the strength of brick, mortar and adhesion between the two,
joint thickness and various other factors. Thus for the same type of brick, using same
proportion of cement and sand, the strength obtained may differ to due to variation
in quantity of water, difference in workshop, arrangement of bricks and many other
reasons. Under the compressive load, mortar deforms laterally and squeezes out
causing cracks at joints. Some additives in mortar increase the adhesion at the brick
faces, increasing the strength. However clay content in sand decreases the adhesion,
and consequently the strength of masonry. The other factor that affects the strength
is joint thickness. The adhesion between brick and mortar depends upon the
effective. Transfer to matrix between these two materials, which in turn depends
upon appropriate thickness of mortar joint used for bonding the bricks. The size of
brick is also one of the important factors that may affect the strength of brick
masonry. The brick that was commonly used in early 1960's was quite thin (25
to30mm) whereas present practice is to use thicker bricks. Large brick size reduces
number of mortar joints which are the weak parts in masonry. Minimization of
mortar joins is likely to increase the strength and makes masonry more economical
and reduces the overall cost of construction. Frog plays an important role in bonding
the brick work. Shape and size of frog may affect the strength of brick masonry to
certain extent. It is presumed that rendering over masonry is incorporated to prevent
the effect of atmospheric agencies on brick masonry. However if masonry is raked at

the joints and rendering is provided, there is every possibility of increasing the load
carrying capacity of brick masonry. With all these parameters in mind an
experimental programme was undertaken to study the effect of these parameter on
crushing strength of masonry and conclusions are reported.
3.3) Deodhar, S.V and Patel, A.N., Strength Relationship of Brick Masonry Brick
and Cement Mortar, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1997, Vol.23, No.4, pp.215218.
Brick and brick masonry have been used extensively in building construction for
many centuries and continues to dominate as the commonly used construction
material either as a load bearing or as a filler wall. It is further well established that if
good quality bricks having crushing strength more than 10.50 N/mm2 are bonded in
1:3 cement-sand mortar for ground and first floor and in 1:6 cement mortar for third
and fourth floor, a four storied building can be constructed with 225 mm thick brick
wall, using conventional brick.
3.4) Jagadish, K.S., Basic Structural Properties of Masonry, Proceeding of the
Workshop on Recent Advances in Masonry Construction, Rookie, India., 1998.,
pp.41-52.
Use of brick masonry has been known, especially in India, for nearly 5000 years.
Even in other countries brick masonry has been in use for more than thousand years.
However, the earliest recent material like concrete has received far greater attention
by the Civil Engineer. For instance, research papers on concrete are found as early as
in 1907. However, the earliest report on brick masonry was produced in 1918. The
paucity literature in the Indian context is also striking, in spite of the fact that a few
sporadic attempts were made to study brick masonry since the mid sixties. The
problem of brick masonry in India is compounded by the fact that bricks and mortars
vary widely in character in different regions. The situation is very different from that
of concrete.
3.5) Milad m. Alshebani and s. N. Sinha, Stress-Strain Characteristics Of Brick
Masonry Under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading, Journal of structural engineering, 1999,
vol.125, no.6, pp600-604
A series of laboratory tests were carried out on half-scale sand plast brickwork panels
subjected to uniaxial cycle loading. Forty-two square panels were tested under cycle
loading until failure for two cases of loading: (1) Normal to the bed joint; and (2)
parallel to the bed joint. Failure due to cyclic compressions was usually characterized
by a simultaneous failure of brick units and head joints or by splitting in the bed joints
depending on whether the panel was loaded normal or parallel to the bed joint,
respectively. The characteristics of the stress-strain relationship of the two loading
conditions are presented in this paper. Envelope, common point, and stability point
stress-strain curves were established based on test data, and an exponential formula
was found to provide a reasonable fit to the test data. It was concluded that the peak
stress of the stability point curve can be regarded as the maximum permissible stress
level that is found to be approximately equal to two thirds of the failure stress. It was
also observed that the permissible stress level depends on the plastic strain level
present in the material due to cyclic loading.

3.6) F. M. Khalaf and a. S. Devenny, New Tests For Porosity And Water Absorption
Of Fired Clay Bricks, Journal Of Materials In Civil Engineering, 2002, Vol. 14, no.
4, august 1, pp334-337
The porosity of bricks, and their permeability and absorption are very important
factors in influencing properties of bricks such as the bond between them and mortar,
the resistance of bricks to freezing and thawing, and their chemical stability. This
paper suggests new tests for calculating the porosity and water absorption values of
clay bricks, which involve the testing of 20-mm brick lumps instead of full brick
units.
3.7) Asteris, P.G., Lateral Stiffness of Brick Masonry In-Filled Plane Frames,
Discussion and closures, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2003, Vol.129, No.8,
pp.1071-1079.
The author investigates the lateral stiffness of in-filled frames, particularly focusing
on the reduction of stiffness due to opening. The finite element method is used to
analyze various configuration. Infill behaviour in itself is quite complex and openings
add to the complexity of the problem. Thus the author is to be commended for
examining problem.
3.8) Bryan D. Ewing and Mervyn J. Kowalsky, Compressive Behavior Of
Unconfined And Confined Clay Brick Masonry, Journal of Structural Engineering,
2004, Vol. 130, No. 4, April 1, pp650-661
Presented in this paper are the results of an investigation of the compressive behavior
of grouted clay brick masonry prisms. The objective is to experimentally capture the
stressstrain characteristics of unconfined and confined clay brick masonry and
compare the response with that predicted with the modified KentPark stress
strain curve. Based on the experimental results, five limit states for clay brick
masonry in compression are proposed, as well as equivalent stress blocks for design.
Thin galvanized steel plates placed in the mortar joints during construction provided
prism confinement. The variables considered included volumetric ratio of confining
steel ~0, ;0.015, and ;0.03! and the presence of machined holes within the
confinement plates to improve the bond between the masonry and steel plate. It is
shown that confinement plates are extremely effective in enhancing the ultimate
compressive strength as well as increasing the deformation capacity of the clay brick
masonry prisms. The use of confinement plates in the test increased the ultimate
compression strength by 40%. Failure of the confined masonry prisms occurred
simultaneously or immediately after yielding of the confinement plates.
Experimentally obtained stressstrain curves agreed reasonably well with the
modified KentPark model.
3.9) Peter J. Walker, Strength And Erosion Characteristics Of Earth Blocks And
Earth Block Masonry, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2004, Vol. 16, No.
5, pp497-506
The paper describes methods currently used for strength and erosion resistance testing
of earth blocks. Following this, an experimental study undertaken to assess the

influence of test procedure and specimen geometry on strength and erosion


characteristics is presented. Cement stabilized pressed earth blocks were fabricated
using different blended soils and compacted using a constant volume manual press.
The effects of specimen geometry on experimental compressive strength are described
and aspect ratio correction factors for unconfined unit strength outlined. Proposals for
a unified approach to compression strength testing are also suggested. Bending
strength testing is commonly used as an indirect method of strength assessment, as it
is more readily suited to in-situ quality control testing than compression testing. The
experimental correlation between compressive and bending strengths is presented.
Results of compression tests on masonry walls are also presented together
recommendations for design. Finally, the influence of test method and specimen
geometry on erosion resistance and the correlation with block strength is discussed.
3.10) Fouad M. Khalaf and Alan S. DeVenny, Performance Of Brick Aggregate
Concrete At High Temperatures, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2004,
Vol. 16, No. 6, December 1, pp556565
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation into the effects of high
temperatures on the properties of concrete made with crushed clay bricks as the
coarse aggregate. Two types of brick of different strength were crushed to coarse
aggregate that was used to produce concretes of different strength. Natural granite
aggregate was also used to produce concretes in order to compare results. The paper
presents the results for brick unit uniaxial compressive strength, aggregate impact
value, aggregate relative density, brick and aggregate water absorption, aggregate
porosity, concrete density, and concrete strength before and after exposure to high
temperatures. The results showed that concrete could be produced using crushed clay
bricks as the coarse aggregate and at high temperatures clay brick concrete preformed
similar or even better than granite concrete.
3.11) Michele Dondi, Francesca Mazzanti, Paolo Principi, Mariarosa Raimondo and
Giorgio Zanarini, Thermal Conductivity Of Clay Bricks, Journal of Materials in
Civil Engineering, 2004, Vol. 16, No. 1, February 1, pp814
In the present work the thermal conductivity of 29 samples of clay bricks was
measured and the correlations of the thermal performance with the compositional,
physical, and micro structural features of products were investigated. The results
obtained directed our attention toward a better understanding of the role played by
some parameters ~i.e., mineralogical components and pore size distribution!, other
than bulk density, in improving or depressing the insulating properties of bricks.
Among them, the unfavorable role of quartz, Ca-rich silicates, and amorphous phase
came out, while the role of pore size and specific surface should be more accurately
evaluated in the structural design of materials.

3.12) Fouad M. Khalaf and Alan S. DeVenny, Properties Of New And Recycled
Clay Brick Aggregates For Use In Concrete, Journal of Materials in Civil
Engineering, 2005, Vol. 17, No. 4, August 1. pp456-464

10

The testing described in this paper was performed to establish the physical and
mechanical properties of new and recycled crushed clay brick aggregates for use in
portland cement concrete ~PCC!. Various physical and mechanical properties of eight
different types of aggregates were determined and compared with the limits set out in
the British Standards for aggregate from natural sources used in concrete. The results
were also compared with granite aggregate that has been proved to be a good natural
aggregate for producing PCC. The results showed that most of the crushed clay-brick
aggregates tested can be used in producing PCC for low-level civil engineering
applications and that some kinds of brick aggregate possess good physical and
mechanical properties that qualify them for producing high-quality concrete.
3.13) Vijayalakshmi, M.M and Shanmugasundaram, V., Innovative Building
Materials and Methods for Better Thermal Performance of Residential Buildings, In:
Proc, Proceedings of National Conference on Innovative Technologies in Civil
Engineering March 20 & 21, Department of Civil Engineering, (Edi)
K.Subramanian, V.G.Srisanthi and M.P.Muthuraj, Coimbatore Institute of
Technology, Coimbatore, India, 2006, pp.309-318.
Energy is an important necessity for the growth of a society. Energy required per
capita continuously increases and it results in serious implications on pollution,
climate change and resource depletion. Making houses energy efficient leads to a
reduction in the amount of energy used. Efficient use of energy will pave way for
sustainable development, as it results in better utilization of energy and less pollution.
3.14) Amuthakkannan, R., Yogendran, B and Vijayalakshmi, K., Measurement of
Various Building Parameters using Virtual Instrumentation and Image Processing
Technique, In: Proc, Proceedings of National Conference on Innovative
Technologies in Civil Engineering March 20 & 21, Department of Civil Engineering,
(Edi) K.Subramanian, V.G.Srisanthi and M.P.Muthuraj, Coimbatore Institute of
Technology, Coimbatore, India, 2006, pp.473-480.
Nowadays virtual Instrumentation systems (Software based Instrumentation) are used
in various fields, such as Business Core Transactions, Modern Cars, Automated Teller
Machine (ATM), Air craft Control Systems, Nuclear Power Plants, Manufacturing
Industries etc. In the modern buildings, It is very essential to predict the various
parameters such as temperature, humidity, vibration, length, breadth and height
accurately to control the various problems like acoustics, overload, over heat etc., The
virtual Instrumentation technique is a software based measurement and control system
using the software Lab View.
3.15) Chakraverty, S., Saini, H and Panigrahi, S.K., Predicting Product Parameters of
Fly Ash-Cement- Sand-Bricks, Construction Materials, 2007, Vol.160, No.CM2,
pp.65-74.
This paper discuss models with ternary systems of fly ash, cement and sand by using
simplex lattice and simplex centroid design for building bricks. A statistical design
with upper and lower bounds of three component mixtures was adopted to select the
mixture proportions of experimental points required for prediction of the product
parameters, namely compressive strength, bulk density and water absorption of
cement fly ash bricks. The experimental points include the process parameters such as

11

percentage of fly ash, cement and sand and the corresponding product parameters at
different curing periods. Regression models of various orders for the above design
methods are developed.
3.16) A. Arulrajah, J. Piratheepan, T. Aatheesan and M. W. Bo, Geotechnical
Properties Of Recycled Crushed Brick In Pavement Applications, Journal of
Materials in Civil Engineering, 2011, print April 7, doi:10.1061 (ASCE-In Press)
This paper presents the findings of a laboratory investigation on the characterization
of recycled crushed brick and an assessment of its performance as a pavement sub
base material. The properties of the recycled crushed brick were compared with the
local state road authority specifications in Australia to assess its performance as a
pavement sub-base material. The experimental programme was extensive and
included tests such as particle size distribution, modified Proctor compaction, particle
density, water absorption, California Bearing Ratio, Los Angeles abrasion loss, pH,
organic content, static triaxial and repeated load triaxial tests. California Bearing
Ratio values were found to satisfy the local state road authority requirements for a
lower sub-base material. The Los Angeles Abrasion Loss value obtained was just
above the maximum limits specified for pavement sub-base materials. The repeat load
triaxial testing established that crushed brick would perform satisfactorily at a 65%
moisture ratio level. At higher moisture ratio levels shear strength of the crushed brick
was found to be reduced beyond the acceptable limits. The results of the repeat load
triaxial testing indicate that only recycled crushed brick with a moisture ratio of
around 65% is a viable material for usage in pavement subbase applications. The
geotechnical testing results indicates that crushed brick may have to be blended with
other durable recycled aggregates to improve its durability and to enhance its
performance in pavement sub-base applications.
4.0 TESTING
4.1) Alani, A.F., El-Katib, M.T., Ovanessian, R.A and Korkees, I.N., Cavity Load
Bearing Brick Wall with Steel and Brick Ties, Journal of Structural Engineering.,
1990, Vol.16, No.4, pp.101-108.
This research paper reports the results of vertical load test on nine full scale double
leaf brick cavity walls. Masonry mortar 1:1:6 (cement: lime: sand) was used as a
binding material in the construction of wall. Two types of ties, brick and standard
steel ties were used to connect the leaves across a 50 mm cavity. One cavity wall
specimen without ties was studied in the test program. The walls were subjected to
vertical loading, both concentric and eccentric; to investigate their behaviour and
ultimate load carrying capacities, with eccentricity to thickness ratios (e/t) from 0.00
to 0.30. Test results show that walls with brick connectors had slight overall
improvement in structural behaviour in terms of ultimate and capacities, moment
curvature relationships, lateral deflections, and tie slippage, when compared to walls
built with British standard steel connectors. Comparison between theoretical and
experimental results are also given
4.2) R. Wang, A. E. Elwi, M. A. Hatzinikolas and J. Warwaruk, Tests Of Tall Cavity
Walls Subjected To Eccentric Loading, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1997, Vol.
123, No.7, pp0912-0919

12

This paper presents a test program on full-scale reinforced slender shear connected
cavity walls subjected to an eccentric compressive loading. A total of nine walls were
tested. All specimens were constructed with a partially grouted andreinforced, 190mm concrete masonry block wythe and a 90-mm burnt clay brick wythe. All had a
slenderness ratio of height to backup wythe thickness of 27.8 and, except for one
specimen, all walls had a 75-mm wide cavity. The primary variable, was the axial
force eccentricity. The eccentricity varied both in magnitude from tl2 to t/3, and in
direction, either towards or away from the brick wythe. Some walls were tested with a
single curvature, others were tested in double curvature. The load-displacement
response, failure mode, and ultimate load capacities are examined and reported along
with the observation and discussion.
4.3) Qamaruddin, M and Mauroof, A.L.M., A New Model for Lateral Stiffness of
Shear Walls with Openings, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1998, Vol.25, No.2,
pp.103-107.
In masonry structures, the walls are designed to carry both the vertical and lateral
loads. The magnitude of lateral load carried by each wall depends on its relative
stiffness compared to overall stiffness of the structure. Although, various methods
are known for the computation of the lateral stiffness of shear walls subjected to
lateral loads resulting from wind and earthquakes, the presence of openings with
appreciable percentage of total area of the wall, greatly affects the stiffness of the
wall. Existing methods assume fixity at the pier-spandrel junction of the wall piers to
estimate their stiffness. A new method is proposed in this paper which considers the
flexibility of the diaphragm/spandrel at the top/bottom of the piers in estimating the
lateral stiffness of the wall. Results obtained by the proposed method and the finite
element method indicate excellent agreement.
4.4) Manamohan Kalgal, R and Prakash, M.R., Effect of Joint Thickness on
Compressive Strength of Stack Bonded Prisms-A Preliminary Investigation, Tech.
Report, Dept of Civil Engineering Department, M.S.Ramaiah Institute of Technology,
Bangalore, India, 1998, pp.96-101.
Strength and thickness of mortar bed joint play vital role in strength and behavior of
the masonry. The paper outlines an experimental study undertaken to investigate the
effect of joint thickness on the strength of masonry prisms. The factors considered are
(a) types of mortar- cement mortar and soil-cement mortar, (b) thickness of mortar
bed joint and (c) type of masonry unit bricks and soil cement blocks. The
investigation is aimed at studying the variation in the strength and mode of failure.
4.5) Matey, M.B., Strength and Behaviour of Concrete Hallow Block Masonry
Walls in Compression, Tech. Report, Civil Engineering dept, Visveshvaraya
Regional College of Engineering, Nagpur, India, 1998, pp.102-106.
This paper includes the characteristics of material used for investigation, method of
producing structurally efficient hollow blocks, construction of wall panels, detailed
test procedure and the test results. The main aim of the investigations is to study
slenderness ratio parameter for hollow block wall panels under uniformly distributed
compressive load. Total ten panels of different height are tested . The end condition of

13

all the wall panels is same. The relation between stress reduction factor and
slenderness ratio is compared with the values in I.S. and experimental results. The
other parameters studied are ratio of wall strength to block strength, ratio of
experimental ultimate load to theoretical permissible load on wall, stress-strain
relationship, strain distribution at the blocks and along the height of the walls and
cracking and failure pattern of wall panels. Behavior of walls was also observed
during application of gradually increasing uniformly distributed load. It was observed
that the wall panels failed by vertical cracking followed by cracking of mortars joints,
blocks and stripping of face panels of blocks. It was observed that the strain along
perpend mortar joints was more than that of bedding mortar joints. The average ratio
of wall strength to block strength was found to be 0.71. The ratio of experimental
ultimate load to theoretical permissible load on walls was found to be 7.32. The stress
reduction factor given in I.S. Code was found to be higher than experimental results
for corresponding slenderness ratio.
4.6) Sarangabani, G and Sajid, S.A., Compressive Strength and Geological
Characteristics of Natural Building Stones, Tech. Report, Dept of Civil Engineering,
NIT., Mysore, India, 1998, pp.107-109.
This paper deals with the determination of compressive strength and geological
characteristics of natural building stones. Stones from twelve different locations have
been considered in this experimental investigation. An attempt has also been made to
correlate the geological characteristics to the compressive strength of the stones.
4.7) Walker, P., Strength and Durability Testing of Earth Blocks, Tech. Report,
Dept of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, UK, 1998, pp.110118.
The paper describes methods currently used for compressive and bending strength
testing of earth blocks. An experimental program undertaken to consider the influence
of both test procedure and specimen geometry on unit compressive strength is
outlined. Un-stabilized and cement stabilized compressed earth blocks have been
fabricated using different blended soils and compacted using a constant volume
manual press. The effects of specimen geometry on experimental compressive
strength are described and aspect ratio correction factors for unconfined unit strength
are outlined. Proposals for a unified approach to compressive strength testing are also
suggested. Bending strength testing is commonly used as an indirect method of
strength assessment, as it is more radialy suited to in-situ quality control testing than
compression testing. The experimental correlation between compressive and bending
strength is presented and general guidelines for flexural testing are also proposed.
Finally, the correlation of strength with other important characteristics, such as
erosion resistance, is presented.
4.8) Santos, F.A., Sinha, B.P and Roman, H.R., Lateral Behaviour of Masonry Shear
Wall with Filled and Unfilled Vertical Mortar Joints, Tech. Report, Dept of Civil
Engineering, University of Edinburgh & Santa Catarina, UK & Brazil, 1999, pp.164170.
This paper describes an investigation carried out to study the behaviour of masonry
shear wall structures under lateral loading. A series of experiments were carried out

14

on 1/3-scale masonry structures with filled and unfilled vertical mortar joints.
Deflection and strains were measured during the experiment. Finite Element analysis
was carried out, which gives very good agreement with experimental results provided
the orthotropic properties of masonry is taken into account. Considering masonry as
isotropic will underestimate the top deflection and the stresses along the wall at the
bottom. From the experiments it seems that the strain along the length of shear wall is
non-linear even at very low level of the shear load.
4.9) Sivarama Sarma, B., Sreenath, H.G., Bhagavan, H.G., Vimalanandam, V.,
Experimental Studies on Un-reinforced and Reinforced Masonry Panels under Inplane Monotonic Lateral Loads, Tech. Report, Structural Engineering Research
Center., Chennai., India, 1999, pp 187-192.
The code of practice for earthquake resistant design of buildings, IS: 1893, is being
revised with the concepts of ductility based design. Shear wall are the main structural
elements that resist the in plane lateral loads developed due to seismic action. The
strength and ductility characteristics of shear walls vary predominantly with the
amount of horizontal and vertical reinforcement, type of masonry panel, strength of
block or brick and mortar, fixed at base etc. This paper lists the summary of various
tests carried out on hollow concrete blocks, bricks, prisms and wall panels
incorporating conventional bricks and structural grade hollow concrete blocks under
in plane monotonic lateral load, along with super imposed gravity loads. Force
reduction factors useful for seismic strength design are also derived. The experimental
results indicate that the reinforcement in masonry shear wall improves the ductility,
and shear load characteristics. The shear stress results are also compared with
permissible values as given in BS: 5628-1995, ACI: 530-95 and IS: 1905-1987
4.10) Aishebani, M.M and Shina, S.N., Stress-Strain Characteristics of Brick
Masonry under Uni-axial Cyclic Loading, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1999,
Vol.125, No.6, pp.600-604.
A series of laboratory tests were carried out on half-scale and plast brick work panels
subjected to uni-axial cycle loading: (1). Normal to the bed joint; (2). Parallel to the
bed joint. Failure due to cyclic compressions was usually characterized by a
simultaneous failure of brick units and head joints or by splitting in the bed joints
depending on the weather the panel was loaded normal or parallel to the bed joint,
respectively. The characteristics of the stress-strain relationship of the two loading
conditions are presented in this paper. Envelope, common point, and stability point
stress strain curves were established based on test data, and an exponential formula
was found to provide a reasonable fit to the test data. It was concluded that the peak
stress of the stability point curve can be regarded as the maximum permissible stress
level that is found to be approximately equal to two thirds of the failure stress. It was
also observed that the permissible stress level depends on the plastic strain level
present in the material due to cyclic loading.
4.11) Choubey, U.B., Gupta, U and Maidasani, A., An Experimental Study of
Flexural Tensile Strength Calcium Silicate Brick Masonry, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 1999, Vol.26, No.2, pp.143-148.

15

Brick panels used essentially as claddings for buildings, have to withstand lateral
wind pressure besides other loads. The results of the experiments show that the tensile
bond strength is affected by the moisture content of brick. It almost reduces to zero if
the bricks are saturated at the time of laying. On the contrary, if brick is dry and has
high suction rate, there will be a partially hydrated zone in the cement paste up to a
depth of several millimeters. Experiments on the interaction between brick and
cement paste have shown that the mechanical bond between these components is
considerably affected by their specific surfaces and capillary dimensions. In a
physical- chemical process a micro layer of ettringite is formed at the interface and
tensile bond strength is critically affected by the respective mean diameter of the
pores of the brick and of the micro crystals of the ettringite. It is necessary that the
pore size of the brick material to be greater than 0.05 mm for a mechanical bond to be
formed and also for the cement to be properly hydrated behind the ettringite layer.
4.12) Alessandra Aprile, Andrea Benedetti and Fabio Grassucci, Assessment Of
Cracking And Collapse For Old Brick Masonry Columns, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2001, Vol. 127, No. 12, December, pp14271435
This paper presents experimental and theoretical research focused on the structural
behavior of old brick masonry columns. To gather data on the role played by the
evolution of brick-mortar interaction stresses when the load is increasing up to failure,
six prototype columns made with 17th century bricks and lime mortar were prepared
and tested. The instrumentation layout allowed the writers to carefully detect the
cracking load and to pick out some selected strain values. Afterward, the obtained
data were discussed on the basis of the well-known hypotheses characterizing the
masonry stress fields and collapse events. A simple modification of the classical
Hilsdorf equilibrium equation motivated by the observed experimental behavior led to
a sensible interpretation of the nested phases of brittle failure endured by the masonry
up to the collapse. In order to account for the changing interaction stress between
mortar layers and brick courses, an influence factor was defined to restore the internal
equilibrium during the evolution of the column damage states. In fact, the introduced
mortar influence factor holds an important position in the definition of the margin
between the cracking and global failure phases, explaining why the collapse load of
the column is higher than the first cracking load. Moreover, thanks to some
simplifications in the analyses, it was shown that this key parameter plays the role of a
strength amplification factor linked to the damage evolution, and that consequently it
can be used in the approximate evaluation of the remaining reliability of the masonry
column after the stabilized cracking phase.
4.13) Hall, J.D., Schuman, P.M and Hamilton, H.R-III., Ductile Anchorage for
Connecting FRP Strengthened of Under Reinforced Masonry Building, Journal of
composites for construction., 2002, Vol.6, No.1, pp.3-10.
Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been examined as a convenient and
cost effective means of strengthening un-reinforced structures. Seismic design in the
United States is almost entirely based on the assumption that the structural systems
provides a ductile failure mode. FRP strengthened masonry walls inherently have
brittle failure modes due to the nature of the strengthening system. The concept
explored in this article is the introduction of ductility using a hybrid strengthening
system. This involves the placement of structural steel or reinforcing steel at critical

16

locations in the lateral force resisting system. This article presents the testing and
analysis of a ductile structural steel connection that can be used to strengthen the
connection of FRP strengthened shear walls to the foundation. The connection also
increases energy dissipation. Results indicate that a ductile failure mode can be
attained when the connection is designed to yield prior to the failure of the FRP
strengthening.
4.14) Asteris, P.G., Lateral Stiffness of Brick Masonry In-Filled Plane Frames,
Discussions and closures, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2003, Vol.129, No.8,
pp.1071-1079.
The author investigates the lateral stiffness of in-filled frames, particularly focusing
on the reduction of stiffness due to opening. The finite element method is used to
analyze various configuration. Infill behaviour in itself is quite complex and openings
add to the complexity of the problem. Thus the author is to be commended for
examining problem
.
4.15) Michael Craig Griffith, nelson t. k. lam, john leonard wilson and kevin doherty,
Experimental Investigation Of Unreinforced Brick Masonry Walls In Flexure,
journal of structural engineering, 2004, vol. 130, no. 3, march 1, pp423432
This paper presents the results of static and dynamic tests on unreinforced brick
masonry wall panels subject to out-of-plane loading. Fourteen wall panels were
tested. The test program included static, free-vibration, and dynamic tests using
harmonic support, impulse support, and earthquake support motion. The experimental
results indicate that displacement, rather than inertia force amplitude, determines
whether an unreinforced masonry wall will collapse during inertial ~seismic! loading.
An empirical forcedisplacement relationship is proposed that can be used for a
substitute structure in a displacement-based method of analysis.
4.16) Ghobarah, A and Galal, K.E.M., Out-of-Plane Strengthening of Un-reinforced
Masonry Walls with Openings, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2004, Vol.8, No.4,
pp.298-305.
Collapse of un-reinforced masonry (URM) walls is the cause of many casualties
during extreme loading events. The objective of this current research was to
investigate effective and practical approaches for strengthening URM block walls
with openings to resist extreme out-of-plane loads. Five full-scale masonry block
walls were constructed. The walls had different opening configurations such as a
single center window, one window off center, two windows, a wide window and a
door. The walls were tested when subjected to uniformly distributed lateral load up to
failure. The walls were then strengthened using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer
laminate strips and then re-tested. The walls were set up in a vertical test frame and
were subjected to cyclic out-of-plane distributed pressure using an airbag. Failure of
the un-strengthened URM block wall was along the mortar joints. In the strengthened
walls, failure occurred in the mortar joints as well as in concrete blocks near the
carbon strips. The lateral load carrying capacity of the strengthened walls was found
to be significantly higher than that of the un-strengthened walls and had much more
ductile performance.

17

4.17) Griffith, M.C., Lam, N.T.K., Wilson, J.L and Doherty, K., Experimental
Investigation of Un-reinforced Brick Masonry Walls in Flexure, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2004, Vol.130, No.3, pp.423-432.
This paper presents the results of static and dynamic tests on un-reinforced brick
masonry wall panels subject to out-of-plane loading. Fourteen wall panels were
tested. The test program included static, free-vibration, and dynamic tests using
harmonic support, impulse support, and earthquake support motion. The experimental
results indicate that displacement, rather than inertia force amplitude, determines
whether an un-reinforced masonry wall will collapse during inertial (seismic) loading.
An empirical force displacement relationship is proposed that can be used for a
substitute structure in a displacement based method of analysis.
4.18) Tan, K.H and Patoary, M.K.H., Strengthening of Masonry Walls against Outof-Plane Loads using Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement, Journal of
Structural Engineering, 2004, Vol.8, No.1, pp.79-87.
Thirty masonry walls strengthened using three different fiber-reinforced polymer
(FRP) systems, with three anchorage methods, were fabricated and tested under a
concentrated load over a 100 mm square area or a patch load over a 500 mm square
area. The test results indicated a significant increase in the out-of-plane wall strength
over the un-strengthened wall. While failure occurred in the un-strengthened wall by
bending, four different mode failure, that is punching shear through the bricks, debonding of FRP reinforcement from the masonry substrate, crushing of bricks in
compression, and tensile rupture of FRP reinforcement, were observed in the
strengthened walls, depending on the types and configuration of FRP and anchorage
systems. With appropriate surface preparation and anchorage systems, premature
failure due to FRP de-bonding is prevented. Based on the principles of strain
compatibility and force equilibrium, simple analytical models are presented to predict
the ultimate load carrying capacity of the strength.
4.19) Paquette,J., Bruneau, M and Brzev, S., Seismic Testing of Repaired UnReinforced Masonry Building having Flexible Diaphragm, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2004, Vol.130, No.10, pp.1487-1496.
The In-plane rocking behaviour of un-reinforced masonry walls is generally perceived
as a stable desirable behaviour. However, there may be instances where the available
lateral resistance of such walls would be in-adequate. In that perspective, fiberglass
strips were applied to damaged un-reinforced masonry (URM) shear wall to increase
theie inplane lateral load resisting capacity. This paper reports on the dynamic
response and behaviour of the full scale one story un-reinforced brick masonry
building specimen having a flexible wood floor disphragm.
4.20) Moerman, W., Taerwe, L., Waele, W.D., Degrieck, J and Himpe, J., Measuring
Ground Anchor Forces of a Quay Wall with Bragg Sensors, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2005, Vol.131, No.2, pp.322-328.
The use of optical fiber sensors for monitoring civil engineering structures is
increasing continuously. One of the most frequently applied sensor types is the so
called Bragg sensors, which is primarily used to measure structural deformations. Due

18

to some inherent advantages these sensors are ideally suited for long term monitoring
purposes. This paper describes the development of the load cell, based on Bragg
sensors, to measure the forces in the ground anchors of the quay wall. The test results
compared well with the analytical predictions.
4.21) Mullins, G., Sen,R., Suh, K and Winters, D., Underwater Fiber Reinforced
Polymers Repair of Pre-stressed Piles in the Allen Creek Bridge, Journal of
Composites for Construction, 2005, Vol.9, No.2, pp.136-146.
This paper presents an overview of a demonstration project in which corroding prestressed piles located in tidal waters were wrapped underwater using carbon and glass
fiber reinforced polymer material. An innovative instrumentation scheme was
developed to allow assessment of the pre-wrap and post-wrap corrosion state using
linear polarization. This system is simple to install and eliminate the need for wiring
and junction boxes, the underwater wrap used to unique water activated urethane resin
system that eliminated the need for cofferdam construction. Linear polarization
measurements taken before and after wrapping indicate that the corrosion rate in the
wrapped specimens is consistently lower than those in its un-wrapped counterpart.
These preliminary findings are encouraging and suggest that underwater wrapping
without cofferdam construction may provide a cost effective solution for pile repair.
4.22) Antoniades, K.K, Salonikios, T.N and Kappos, A.J., Tests on Seismically
Damaged Reinforced Concrete Walls Repaired and Strengthened using FiberReinforced Polymer, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2005, Vol.9, No.3,
pp.236-246.
The behaviour of six 1:2.5 scale reinforced concrete cantilever wall specimens having
an aspect ratio 1.5, tested to failure and subsequently repaired and strengthened using
fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP) sheets is investigated. Specimens were first repaired
by removing heavily cracked concrete., lap splicing the fractured steel bars by
welding new short bars, placing new hoops and horizontal web reinforcement and
finally casting non shrink high strength repair mortar. The specimens were then
strengthened using FRP sheets and strips, with a view to increasing flexural as well as
shear strength and ductility.
4.23) Hamid, A.A., El-Dakhakhni, W.W., Hakam, Z.H.R and Elgaaly, M.,
Behaviour of Composites Un-reinforced Masonry Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Wall
Assemblages under In-Plane Loading, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2005,
Vol.9, No.1, pp.73-83.
An experimental investigation was conducted to study the in-plane behaviour of face
shell mortar bedded un-reinforced masonry (URM) wall assemblages retrofitted with
fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates. Forty two URM assemblages were tested
under different stress conditions present in masonry shear and infill walls. Tests
included prisms loaded in compression with different bed joints orientation, diagonal
tension specimens, and specimens loaded under joint shear.
4.24) Dakhakhni, W.W.E., Drysdale, R.G and Khattab, M.M., Multilaminate
Macromodel for Concrete Masonry: Formulation and Verification, Journal of
Structural Engineering, 2005, Vol.132, No.12, pp.1984-1996.

19

A macromodel was developed to predict the in-plane behaviour of concrete masonry.


In this multilaminate model, the masonry assemblage is replaced by an equivalent
material which consists of a homogenous medium intersected by two sets of planes of
weakness along the head and bed joints.
4.25) Fouad M. Khalaf, New Test For Determination Of Masonry Tensile Bond
Strength, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2005, Vol. 17, No. 6, December
1, pp725732
The bond strength between masonry units and mortar has been of considerable
interest to researchers for some time. The flexural bond strength of masonry in
particular is needed for the design of masonry walls subjected to horizontal forces
applied normal to the face of the wall, such as wind forces. Researchers and standards
have suggested different kinds of specimens and test procedures to determine the
flexural bond strength. These include the test on wallettes (small walls), the bond
wrench test, the Brench test, the direct tensile test, and the crossed couplet test. Each
of these tests has its own drawbacks and problems. This paper presents a test method
to determine the flexural bond strength, f fb, by bending. The test could be used for
laboratory research to investigate the many factors affecting bond strength and also
for deriving design values for masonry standards. The specimen is constructed from
two brick units in a Z-shaped configuration, and three-point loading induces a flexural
bond failure parallel to the bed joint. Three different types of clay brick, one calcium
silicate brick, and three different types of mortar were used in the experimental
program. The results derived show that the proposed new specimen and test procedure
are capable of determining the flexural bond strength easily and accurately.
4.26) Carolin, A and Taljsten, B., Experimental Study of Strengthening for Increased
shear Bearing Capacity, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2005, Vol.9, No.6,
pp.488-496.
The need for structural rehabilitation of concrete structures all over the world is well
known and a great amount of research is going on in this field. The use of carbon fiber
reinforced polymer (CFRT) plate bonding has been shown to be a competitive method
with regard to both structural performance and economic factors. This method
consists of bonding a thin carbon fiber laminate or sheet to the surface of the structure
to act as an outer reinforcement layer. However most research in this area has been
undertaken to study flexural behaviour. This paper deals with shear strengthening of
reinforced concrete members by use of CFRT. Test on rectangular beams 3.5 to 4.5 m
long have been undertaken to study different parameters, such as fatigue, anchorage,
and others. This strain field in shear spans of beams simultaneously subjected to shear
and bending is also studied. The tests presented also contribute to the existing
literature on tests of concrete members strengthened for increased shear capacity.
4.27) Prota, A, Marcari, G., Fabbrocino, G and Aldea, C., Experimental In-Plane
Behaviour of Tuff Masonry Strengthened with Cementitious Matrix-Grid
Composites, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2006, Vol.10, No.3, pp.223233.

20

Tuff building are a significant part of the Mediterranean area and are to be presented
from a structural view point especially in seismic areas. Over the past few decades,
the interest in strengthening of historical tuff masonry structures has led to developing
specific and non-invasive architectural and engineering strategies. In the present
paper, a comprehensive experimental program on tuff masonry panel is presented; the
results are intended as a contribution to the knowledge of in-plane behaviour of tuff
masonry strengthened with composite materials.
4.28) Almusallam, T.H and Al-Salloum, A., Behaviour of FRP Strengthened In-fill
Walls under In-plane Seismic Loading, Journal of Composites for Construction,
2007, Vol.11, No.3, pp.308-318.
The present paper investigates the suitability and effectiveness of fiber-reinforced
polymer (FRP) in strengthening and or repairing un-reinforced masonry infill walls in
reinforced concrete frames which are subjected to in-plane seismic or cyclic loading.
For this purpose, a detailed experimental program was conducted. Specimens
geometry, test setup, instrumentation, and a loading procedure that simulates
earthquake loadings are presented in a detailed fashion.
4.29) Wight, G.D., Kowalsky and Ingham, J.M., Shake Table Testing of PostTensioned Concrete Masonry Walls with Openings, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2007, Vol.133, No.11, pp.1551-1559.
The in-plane seismic response of post tensioned concrete masonry walls with
openings is investigated by means of shake table testing. A test program was initiated
to verify the seismic performance of a wall system for use in residential construction.
Two single story in-plane wall tests were conducted initially to study the effect of
door and window openings and wall corners.
4.30) Flint, G., Usmani, A., Lamont, S., Lane, B and Torero, J., Structural Response
of Tall Buildings to Multiple Floor Fires, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2007,
Vol.133, No.12, pp.1719-1732.
This paper reports on investigation of the effects of fire on long span truss floor
systems in a tall building environment. The effect of the fire spread over multiple
floors of a building are the focus of this research., especially where this may lead to
progressive collapse. The results from an investigation of a two dimensional model of
a multistory office building analysis are presented.
4.31) Moon, F.L., Yi, T., Leon, R.T and Kahn, L.F., Testing of a Full-Scale Unreinforced Masonry Building Following Seismic Strengthening, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2007, Vol.133, No.9, pp.1215-1226.
To investigate the effectiveness of several seismic strengthening techniques, a full
scale un-reinforced masonry (URM) structure was subjected to slowly applied lateral
load reversals after the application of fiber reinforced plastic overlays, near surface
mounted rods, and vertical post tensioning.

21

4.31) Popehn, J.R.B., Schultz, A.E and Drake, C.R., Behaviour of Slender, Posttensioned Masonry Walls under Transverse Loading, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2007, Vol.133, No.11, pp.1541-1550.
A conceptual model of the response of slender, post tensioned masonry walls to
uniformly distributed, transverse loading is introduced and vertical through an
experimental program. To validate the model, 12 simply supported 3.54 m (11.6 ft)
tall walls with 810x100 mm cross-section were tested under monolithically increasing
transverse loads. Six walls were built using cored clay brick and the remaining six
using hallow concrete block. The walls were post tensioned using threaded steel bars
with six walls featuring unrestrained tendons, while the other six had restrained
and three magnitudes of effective pre-stress were investigated. Initial responses to
transverse load was linear, but cracking was observed over a broad range of loading.
The response of the wall specimens is traced through crack propagation, hinge
formation, and development of the plastic section.
4.32) M. Harajli, H. ElKhatib and J. Tomas San-Jose, Static and cyclic out-of-plane
response of masonry walls Strengthened using textile-mortar system, Journal of
Materials in Civil Engineering, 2010, Vol. 22, No. 11, November1, pp1171-1180
The work presented in this paper is a part of a comprehensive research project aimed
at developing and testing a system for strengthening historical buildings. The system
is composed of a combination of textile mesh and mortar. Representative wall
specimens were tested for their out-of-plane flexural behavior under static and cyclic
loadings. The parameters investigated include the types of masonry wall (concrete
block, sandstone, and brick), mortar (natural lime and cement-based), and textile
(bitumen coated E-glass, basalt, or coated basalt fibers). Companion specimens,
strengthened using a steel wire mesh, were also tested for comparison. All textilemortar reinforced masonry (TRM) wall specimens failed in a combination of
transverse detachment of the textile-mortar matrix due to the transverse displacement
of the blocks relative to each other, and combined transverse shear-tension fracturing
of the textile fibers. Regardless of the mode of failure, the TRM specimens developed
a substantial increase in their out-of-plane load and displacement capacities under
static loading, and low stiffness and strength degradation, and considerable
displacement capacities under cyclic loading. The wire mesh-mortar reinforced
masonry specimens developed the highest load capacity but were the least ductile
when compared to the TRM specimens.
4.33) Francesca da Porto, Giovanni Guidi, Enrico Garbin and Claudio Modena, Inplane behavior of clay masonry walls: experimental Testing and finite-element
modeling, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2010, Vol. 136, No. 11, November1,
.pp13791392
Extensive experimental research aimed at defining the in-plane cyclic behavior of
three types of load-bearing masonry walls, assembled with perforated clay units, and
various types of head and bed joints was carried out. Experimental behavior was
modeled with four types of nonlinear finite-element models. Both macromodeling and
micromodeling strategies, implementing either isotropic or orthotropic material laws,
were adopted. Two simplified criteria were proposed for calibrating the models, one
for defining orthotropic properties starting from perforated unit geometry and the

22

other for defining expanded unit and interface element properties in micromodels. The
procedures adopted for model calibration established the reliability of various
modeling strategies. Results allow some conclusions to be drawn about the reliability
of diagonal compression tests for large unit masonry, the stress distribution and
different behaviors of masonry made with different head and bed joints, and the
influence of unit strength on the in-plane behavior of masonry.
4.34) Marco Di Ludovico, Claudio DAmbra, Andrea Prota and Gaetano Manfredi,
FRP Confinement Of Tuff And Clay Brick Columns:Experimental Study And
Assessment Of Analytical Models, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2010,
Vol. 14, No. 5, October 1, pp583596
In recent years, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) wrapping effectiveness has been
clearly confirmed especially with reference to concrete structures. Despite evident
advantages of FRP based confinement on members subjected to compressive
overloads due to static or seismic actions, the use of such technique in the field of
masonry has not been fully explored. Thus, to assess the potential of confinement of
masonry columns, the present paper shows the results of an experimental program
dealing with 18 square cross sections (listed faced tuff or clay brick) masonry scaled
columns subjected to uniaxial compression load. In particular, three different
confinement solutions have been experimentally analyzed in order to evaluate and
compare the effectiveness of uniaxial glass FRP, carbon FRP, and basalt FRP
laminates wrapping. The main experimental outcomes are presented and discussed in
the paper considering mechanical behavior of specimens, axial stress-axial strain
relationships, and effective strains at failure on the reinforcement. Test results have
showed that the investigated confining systems are able to provide significant gains
both in terms of compressive strength and ductility of masonry columns. Results of
the presented experimental activity along with data available in the literature have
been finally used to assess the reliability of the main existing analytical models;
refined equations have been then proposed to minimize the scattering between
theoretical predictions and experimental available data.
4.35) Daniel V. Oliveira, Ismael Basilio and Paulo B. Loureno, Experimental
Behavior Of Frp Strengthened Masonry Arches, Journal of Composites for
Construction, 2010, Vol. 14, No. 3, June1, pp312322
This paper deals with the experimental behavior of solid clay brick masonry arches
strengthened with glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites. Twelve half-scaled
segmental masonry arches subjected to a load applied at the quarter span were tested
under displacement control up to failure. The arches were built using handmade low
strength bricks and a commercial lime-based mortar, trying to mimic ancient
structures. Besides reference unreinforced arches, five different strengthening
arrangements, including the use of spike anchors, were studied. The experimental
results provide significant information for validation of advanced numerical models
and analytical tools and for code drafting. The experimental results also show that (1)
only continuous strengthening strategies are able to prevent typical local failure
mechanisms of unreinforced arches; (2) strengthening at the intrados is the most
effective option to increase strength; and (3) strengthening applied at the extrados
provides the higher deformation capacity prior to failure, endowing arches with
considerable ductility behavior.

23

4.36) Vladimir G. Haach, Graa Vasconcelos and Paulo B. Loureno, Experimental


analysis of reinforced concrete block Masonry walls subjected to in-plane cyclic
loading, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2010, Vol. 136, No. 4, April 1,.pp452
462
An innovative system for reinforced concrete masonry walls based on the
combination of vertical and horizontal trussed reinforcement is proposed. The
mechanical characterization of the seismic behavior of such reinforced masonry walls
is based on static cyclic tests carried out on panels with appropriate geometry. The
influence of the factors influencing the in-plane cyclic behavior of concrete masonry
walls, such as the horizontal reinforcement, precompression, and masonry bond
pattern, is discussed. The results are analyzed in terms of failure modes and force
versus displacement diagrams, from which the seismic performance is assessed based
on the ductility and energy capacity dissipation. The results stressed that the increase
on the precompression level leads to a stiffer and more brittle lateral behavior of the
masonry walls. The presence of horizontal reinforcement ensures better control and
better distribution of cracking, even if only a marginal increase of lateral strength was
found in the particular testing program.
4.37) Khaled Galal and Munir Alp Enginsal, Flexural Behavior Of Gfrp-Reinforced
Concrete Masonry Beams, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2011, Vol. 15,
No. 1, February 1, pp2131
An experimental and analytical study is conducted in order to investigate the flexural
behavior of masonry beams that are internally reinforced using glass fiber-reinforced
polymers _GFRP_ rebars. Seven reinforced masonry beams with 4.0- and 2.4-m spans
were tested under four-point bending setup. The beams were loaded monotonically up
to failure. One had two courses of hollow concrete masonry units and the remaining
six beams had three courses. Two masonry beams were reinforced using conventional
steel rebars and were considered as the control specimens. The remaining five beams
were internally reinforced using GFRP rods with different reinforcement
ratios. Beams were detailed to have sufficient shear reinforcement such that they do
not fail in shear. Flexural capacity, deformation, curvature, and strains of the tested
GFRP-reinforced and steel-reinforced masonry beams were compared and discussed.
Using the acquired data from the experimental and analytical studies, effectiveness of
GFRP rods as internal reinforcement for concrete masonry beams is demonstrated.
4.38) N. Augenti, F. Parisi, A. Prota and G. Manfredi, In-Plane Lateral Response Of
A Full-Scale Masonry Sub Assemblage With And Without An Inorganic Matrix-Grid
Strengthening System, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2011, Vol. 15, No. 4,
August 1, pp578590
A full-scale unreinforced masonry (URM) wall with an opening was tested under inplane lateral loading. The wall was first subjected to monotonically increasing
displacements until a moderate damage level was reached. The damaged specimen
was then cyclically tested up to almost the same maximum drift attained during the
monotonic test to investigate the effects of previous damage on its nonlinear response.
Finally, the masonry wall was repaired with inorganic matrix-grid (IMG) composites
and subjected to a cyclic displacement controlled test up to a near-collapse state. Most

24

of the observed damage developed in the spandrel panel affecting both lateral
resistance and strength degradation. Rocking of piers governed lateral stiffness and
hysteretic response, which was characterized by low residual displacements and recentering behavior. The comparison between the experimental force-displacement
curves demonstrated that the IMG strengthening system was able to provide energy
dissipation capacity to the spandrel panel, restoring load-bearing capacity of the asbuilt wall, and delaying strength degradation that was indeed observed at larger
displacements. Bilinear idealizations of force-displacement curves allowed the
identification of displacement ductility, global over strength, and strength reduction
factor of the tested wall systems.
5.0 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
5.1) Vermeltfroot, A.T., Groot, W.P., Wijen, E., Strains in Re-pointed Masonry
Under Compression: Preliminary Investigation Using ESPI, Tech. Report,
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, 1985, pp.138-147.
This paper reports the results of preliminary investigations on the mechanical
behaviour under compressive load of two combinations of re-pointing and bedding
mortars used in combination with two types of bricks. The mechanical behaviour is
studied using ESPI (Electronic Speckle Pattern Inter-ferometry ). Special attention is
paid to stress concentrations due to the mechanical incompatibility of the bedding and
pointing mortar. In particular, hard re-pointing material applied on :soft bedding
mortar shows a high degree of mechanical incompatibility.
5.2 Cavaiheiro, O.P., Pozzobon, A.N and Santos, M.D.F., Diagonal Tensile and
Compressive Strength of Hollow Clay and Concrete Block Specimens, Tech. Report,
Federal University of Santa maria, Brazil, 1987, pp.157-163.
The paper presents some experimental results of diagonal tensile strength of hollow
clay and concrete blocks specimens with filled and unfilled head (vertical) joints as
well as results of compressive strength of blocks and stack bounded prisms of two and
three units for both types of block. Three types of mortar mixes (low, medium and
high) were used in the investigation. It appears that the diagonal tensile strength is
significantly lower for specimen with unfilled head joints compared to specimen with
filled head joints: and the ratio of compressive strength of the block unit is
considerably higher for concrete block than for clay block.
5.3) Guha, A.L., An Isotropic Elasto Plastic Model for Masonry Wall Subjected to
Biaxial In-plane Loading, Tech. Report, Bengal Eng College., Howrah., India., 1987,
pp.171-186.
A material model suitable for finite element analysis subjected to in-plane loading is
presented. To account for the directional strength properties at failure a generalized
anisotropic quadratic failure criterion has been used to model the non-linear behaviour
of masonry. The magnitude of the interaction term is restrained in such a way that the
shape of the failure surface is ellipsoidal. Sensitivity and analysis has been carried out
to select the type of test results to be used for the determination of the interaction
strength parameter. The failure criterion agrees well with the experimental failure
envelope for uni-axial and biaxial compressive loading. Smeared crack approach with

25

fixed crack angle is adopted for modeling of the cracking behaviour of masonry.
Maximum stress criterion for anisotropic material has been used for initiation and
propagation of cracks. Tensile strain softening is employed for gradual release of
tensile stress after cracking. Closing and reopening of cracks are allowed in this
model following the secant path.The finite element method of analysis incorporating
the proposed material model has been employed to study the in plane behaviour of
the masonry shear walls to demonstrate the suitability of the material model,
structural idealization and numerical techniques by comparing the computed
behaviour with the experimental results. The predicted behaviour is in good
agreement with the experimental results.
5.4) Neto, J.A.D.N., Correa, M.R.S and Ramalho, M.A Analysis of Torsion Effects
on the Bracing Systems of Masonry Buildings, Tech. Report, USP-University of Sao
Paulo, Brazil, 1990, pp.193-201.
The brazing system of a masonry building is usually designed as a plane association
if isolated walls. Although simple to use this model fails to allow for the simulation of
important aspects of bracing system behaviour, such as those related to the overall
torsion of the building. The proposed numerical modeling using beam elements allow
for a three dimensional consideration of the structural system, including bending and
shear effects on displacements, as well as the interaction of bonded walls. A
numerical example of a multistory building loaded horizontally is discussed. Bending
moments and shear force distribution are shown, including the displacements on each
storey level. The analysis is developed based on the linear elastic behaviour of the
masonry, although the proposed modeling can easily be extended to the non linear
behaviour of the material.
5.5) Weerapun Sriboonlue and John H. Matthys, Torsional Behavior Of Reinforced
Brick Beams, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1990, Vol. 116, No. 6, pp16261647.
Laboratory tests of 21 reinforced brick masonry beams under pure torsion are
described. Also, an ultimate torsional strength theory for brick masonry beams
subjected to pure torsion is developed. The study described has been undertaken to
obtain information about the behavior of reinforced brick masonry beams subjected to
pure torsion. Beam specimens are rectangular in cross section and composed of two
wythes of brick facings with a grout core reinforced with varying percentages of steel.
Three types of brick are used with type S Portland cement lime mortar to provide
different ranges of the ultimate compressive strength of masonry. Specimens are
grouped into four series of tests in which the reinforcement patterns were different
between each series. An ultimate strength theory is developed based on the failure
mechanism using elastic bending theory and transformation of the cross section.
Although comparison of the predicted ultimate strength theory of beams under pure
torsion to actual beam test values show appreciable scatter, the results are predictable
to an acceptable degree of confidence.
5.6) Capozucca, R., Analysis of Pre-stressed Brickwork Masonry Column under
Shear Force, Tech. Report, I.S.T.C. University of Ancona, Italy, 1991, pp. 215-227.

26

In seismic areas the behaviour of masonry buildings is greatly influenced by the


presence of slender elements, like brick work masonry columns, which reduce the
bearing capacity to shear force. Masonry buildings, in fact as typical shear wall
structures linked by floors, may even resist to elevated horizontal seismic actions. The
weakness of masonry column is often the cause collapse under horizontal force. The
stability of a brickwork masonry column is due to the vertical load, but during the
seismic action an elevated value of load may cause an increase of bending as
consequence of P-d effect. In seismic area the pre-stressed technique is suitable and
the bending capacity column is increased.
In this paper, the theoretical behaviour of pre-stressed brickwork masonry
columns was analyzed by means of resistant bending moment-normal force diagrams
for reinforced section. Shear resistance and decreasing of resistance due to P-d effect
were also considered. Results obtained by experimental tests on a full-scale brickwork
pre-stressed column were shown.
5.7) Anon., Standard Specification and Analysis for Masonry with Rat-Trap Bond,
Proceedings, South Zone Training Centre, Chennai, India, 1992, pp.1-7.
Specifications for brick work in Rat-Trap for masonry structures and its
Labour and material analysis of cost-effective construction techniques have been
discussed in this report.
5.8) Andreaus, U., Failure Criteria for Masonry Panels under In-plane Loading,
Journal of Structural Engineering, 1996, Vol.122, No.1, pp.37-46.
Failure of masonry panels under in-plane loading can be attributed to three simple
modes: slipping of mortar joints, cracking of clay bricks and splitting of mortar joints,
and middle plane spalling. In this paper a suitable strength criterion is connected to
each collapse mode. In more detail, a frictional law is associated with the slipping,
which accounts for the shear strength depending nonlinearly on normal stress (
modified Mohr-coulomb criterion of intrinsic curve). Splitting can be expected by the
maximum tensile strain criterion (Saint venant), orthotropic non symmetric elasticity
being assumed for the material. Eventually panels exhibit spalling when the maximum
compressive stress (Navier criterion) is attained under biaxial loading, Strength
parameters are then identified on the basis of experimental results and a comparison
with the reliable criteria found in the literature is carried out. The validity of the
proposed failure criteria to predict the experimental failure modes in a nondimensional stress space, normalized with respect to the normal stress, has been tested
in a qualitative manner for the three fundamental failure modes. A quantitative
comparison between experimental and analytical results has been carried out for the
cases where significant scatters are concerned. The proposed failure criteria seem to
be in good agreement with experimental results, within the limits of: small size
panels, single withes, solid units, regular mortar joints, and in-plane loads. Further,
these criteria can be used together with a suitable two dimensional finite element
model, and then directly used to carry out the limit analysis of masonry walls,
modeled by a discrete number of panels of finite size. The potential application of the
proposed criteria to actual cases is also illustrated. In fact, a specific example is
worked out to show how to apply these criteria to predict the failure load failure mode
of a particular masonry panel.

27

5.9) S. Briccoli Bati, G. Ranocchiai and L. Rovero, Suitability of micromechanical


model for elastic analysis Of masonry, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 1999,
Vol. 125, No. 8, August, pp 09220929
A micromechanical model is proposed for determining the overall linear elastic
mechanical properties of simple-texture brick masonry. The model, originally
developed for long-fiber composites, relies on the exact solution due to Eshelby and
describes brickwork as a mortar matrix with insertions of elliptical cylindershaped
bricks. Macroscopic elastic constants are derived from the mechanical properties of
the constituent materials and phase volume ratios. Conformity of the suggested model
to real brickwork behavior has been verified by performing uniaxial compression tests
on masonry panels composed of fired bricks and mud mortar. Composite masonry
panels of varying phase percentages were then constructed and tested by replacing
several of the fired bricks with mud bricks. Comparison of experimental results with
theoretical predictions demonstrates that the model is suitable even in the presence of
strongly differentiated phases, and is moreover able to predict different behavior as a
function of phase concentration. The model fits experimental results more closely
than the micromechanical models previously reported in the literature.
5.10) Vafai, A., Hamadi, M and Ahmadi, G., Numerical Modeling of MDOF
Structures with Sliding Supports Using Rigid-Plastic Link, Earthquake Engineering
and Structural Dynamics, 2001, Vol.30, pp.27-42.
In this paper the responses of multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structures on sliding
supports subjected to harmonic or random base motions are investigated. Modeling of
the friction force under the foundation raft is accomplished by using a fractious rigid
link which has a rigid-perfectly plastic material. This will results in identical
equations of motions for the sliding structure, both in the sliding and non- sliding
(stick) phase which greatly simplifies the implementation of the method in to a
numerical algorithm. In this model the phase transition times are determined with
high accuracy. This has two advantages: first, it prevents the so-called high frequency
oscillation of the relative velocity at the end of the sliding phase and second, the time
steps can be selected so that each falls exactly within one phase of motion. In this
case, the stiffness matrix of the structure remains constant throughout each phase and
thus any method for solving the nonlinear differential equations of motion (e.g :
Network method ) can be used without iteration. The proposed method, besides its
simplicity, is numerically very efficient and considerably reduces the required
analysis time compared with most of the other methods.
5.11) Zhang, X., Singh, S.S., Bull, D.K and Cooke, N., Out-of-plane Performance of
Reinforced Masonry Walls with Openings, Journal of structural engineering, 2001,
Vol.127, No.1, pp.51-57.
The Out-Of-Plane performance of partially grouted, reinforced concrete masonry
walls subjected to simulated seismic loading is investigated. The three full scale walls,
with and without openings, were constructed from 190 mm thick concrete blocks and
were 9.00 m long and 2.40 m with two 2.50 m long return walls. A aluminum quantity
of reinforcement permitted by New Zealand Standard 4229 was used, and additional
diagonal bars were added to the corners of the bond beam at the top of the wall. The
test results show that the specimens exhibited a ductile behaviour with a pinched

28

shape of hysteresis response and that the ultimate out-of-plane capacities of the walls
were considerably greater than the demands calculated using the current New Zealand
masonry and concrete codes. The location and size of the opening s influenced the
load capacities significantly. Yield line theory gives a safe, conservative prediction of
the out-of-plane capacity of partially grouted, reinforced masonry walls. Lateral
deflection criteria are more important than force criteria in the out-of-plane design of
walls.
5.12) Murthy, C.V.R., Learning Earthquake Design and Construction, Journal of
Structural Engineering, 2002, Vol.29, No.2, pp.135-136.
Long time ago, a large collection of material masses coalesced to form the earth.
Large amount of heat was generated by this fusion, and slowly cooled down , the
heavier and denser materials sank to the centre and the lighter ones rose to the top.
The differential Earth consists of the Inner core ( Radius~1290km) , the Outer core (
thickness~ 2200km), the mantle (thickness~ 2900km), and the Crust
(thickness~2200km), the mantle (thickness~2900km) and the Crust (thickness~5 to
40km ). The Inner Core is solid and consists of heavy metals (e.g., nickel and iron),
while the Crust consists of light materials (e.g., basalts and granites ). The Outer core
is liquid in form and the Mantle has the ability to flow. At the core, the temperature is
estimated to be ~ 2500 C, the pressure ~4 million atmospheres and density ~13,5
gm/cc ; this is in contrast to ~25 C, I atmosphere and 1.5 gm/cc on the surface of the
earth.
5.13) Douglas D. Lee, Discussion of contributions of c. A. P. Turner to
development of reinforced concrete flat slabs 19051909 by d. A. Gasparini,
October 2002, Vol. 128, No. 2, pp. 12431252.
The author has admirably presented significant contributions of C. A. P. Turner. In
spite of technical confusions and patent controversies surrounding the development of
flat slabs, the fact that numerous flat slabs of his invention had been built and that his
extant 1906 Marshall building is still in service demonstrates his unique contribution.
He was one of those trailblazers in the concrete field at the turn of the twentieth
century who boldly attempted to transform conceptual innovations into profitable
realities. The authors paper is a welcome tribute to this quintessential American
structural engineer.
5.14) D. A. Gasparini, Closure to contributions of c.a.p. Turner to development of
reinforced concrete flat slabs 19051909, (2002), October, Vol. 128, No. 10, pp.
12431252.
Thank you very much for your discussion. As noted in the paper, McMillans weight
of flexural reinforcement was obtained by simply doubling Turners moment
coefficient, hardly an independent design method.
5.15) Kappos, A.J., Penelis, G.G and Drakopoulos, C.G., Evaluation of Simplified
Models for Lateral Load Analysis of Un-reinforced Masonry Building, Journal of
Structural Engineering, 2002, Vol.128, No.7, pp.890-897.

29

The paper aim at evaluating the relative accuracy of different models, mainly intended
for use by practicing engineers, for the analysis of un-reinforced masonry buildings,
and to determine whether and under what conditions, a simple equivalent frame
model can be used for design and or assessment purposes. Several parametric analysis
involving finite element models of two dimensional and three dimensional structures
have been performed, first in the elastic range, using both refined and coarse planar
meshes. They were followed by analysis of the same structures using equivalent
frames with alternative arrangements of rigid offsets. Subsequently two dimensional
non-linear static analysis of both finite element and equivalent frame models were
performed to check the validity of the conclusions drawn from the elastic analysis.
The result presented here in shed some further light on the feasibility of using
simplified and cost effective analytical models as a tool for practical design and or
assessment of typical masonry structures
5.16) Richard M. Bennett and Roger D. Flanagan, Discussion Of Lateral Stiffness
Of Brick Masonry Infilled Plane Frames by p. G. Asteris, August 2003, Vol. 129,
No. 8, pp. 10711079.
The author investigates the lateral stiffness of infilled frames, particularly focusing on
the reduction of stiffness due to openings. The finite-element method is used to
analyze various frame configurations. Infill behavior in itself is quite complex, and
openings add to the complexity of the problem. Thus, the author is to be commended
for examining this problem. The discussers, however, have several questions with
respect to the analysis, and also offer experimental data on a structural clay tile
infilled frame that had a square opening in the upper corner, similar to those systems
analyzed in the given paper.
5.17) P. G. Asteris, Closure to lateral stiffness of brick masonry in-filled plane
frames, August 2003, Vol. 129, No. 8, pp. 10711079.
The author is thankful to the discussers for their interest in our work and also for
bringing to attention some interesting points, the further elaboration of which will
constitute part of our future research. Given that the real overall behavior of an
infilled frame is a complex indeterminate problem ~Smith 1966!, the following
should be pointed out:In the discussed paper, a new finite-element technique for the
analysis of brickwork infilled plane frames under lateral loads has been presented.
The basic characteristic of this analysis is that the infill/frame contact lengths and the
contact stresses are estimated as an integral part of the solution, and are not assumed
in an ad hoc way, as it is commonly used. For the analysis, a well-known four-node
isoparametric rectangular finite-element model with eight degrees of freedom ~DOF!
has been used, making the application and the control of the proposed method much
easier. It is worth noting that the validation of the method does not depend of the type
of finite element, e.g., an eight-node or nine-node quadrilateral element. The use of a
four-node isoparametric rectangular finite element with a finer mesh has been shown
to be a suitable model for the modeling of masonry (Samarasinghe 1980; Asteris
2000; Asteris and Tzamtzis 2003) as well as for the modeling of infilled frames
(Syrmakezis and Asteris 2001; Asteris 2003).

30

5.18) Wael W. El-Dakhakhni, Mohamed Elgaaly and Ahmad A. Hamid, Three-Strut


Model For Concrete Masonry-Infilled Steel Frames, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2003, Vol. 129, No. 2, February 1, 177185
Masonry infill panels in framed structures have been long known to affect strength,
stiffness, and ductility of the composite structure. In seismic areas, ignoring the
composite action is not always on the safe side, since the interaction between the
panel and the frame under lateral loads dramatically changes the stiffness and the
dynamic characteristics of the composite structure, and hence, its response to seismic
loads. This study presents a simple method of estimating the stiffness and the lateral
load capacity of concrete masonry-infilled steel frames (CMISFs) failing in corner
crushing mode, as well as the internal forces in the steel frame members. In this
method, each masonry panel is replaced by three struts with force-deformation
characteristics based on the orthotropic behavior of the masonry infill. A simplified
steel frame model is also presented based on the documented modes of failure of the
CMISF. The method can be easily computerized and included in nonlinear analysis
and design of three-dimensional CMISF structures.
5.19) Moghaddam, H.A., Lateral Load Behaviour of Masonry In-filled Steel Frames
with Repair and Retrofit, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2004, Vol.130, No.1,
pp.56-63.
This paper introduces a new analytical approach for the evaluation of shear strength
and cracking pattern of masonry infill panels. This method is based on minimizing the
factor of safety with reference to the failure surfaces. This approach can also be used
to determine the shear strength parameters and the modulus of elasticity of brickwork
material. The paper also presents the results of experimental and analytical
investigations on repaired and strengthened brick infilled steel frames. Two main
repair techniques were examined in which the corner material is replaced with
concrete or a concrete cover is placed on the panel. Both experiment and analysis
have confined the efficiency and adequacy of these techniques.
5.20) Masia, M.J., Kleeman, P.W and Melchers, R.E., Modeling Soil/Structure
Interaction for Masonry Structures, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2004,
Vol.130, No.4, pp.641-649.
A soil or structure interaction model for the simulation of the structural response,
including wall cracking of light weight masonry structures to expansive soil
movements is desired. The simulation of swell and shrink in expansive soils due
changes in soil suction is discussed. The model is capable of reproducing the essential
features of the structural responses observed in full scale experiments.
5.21) Pinelli, J.P., Simiu, E., Guriey, K., Subramanian, C., Zhang, L., Cope, A.,
Filliben, J.J and Hamid, S., Harricane Damage Prediction Model for Residential
Structures, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2004, Vol.130, No.11, pp.1685-1691.
The paper reports progress in the development of a practical probabilistic model for
the estimation of expected annual damage induced by hurricane winds in residential
structures. The estimation of the damage is accomplished in several steps. First basic
damage modes for components of specific building types are defined. Second the

31

damage modes are combined in possible damage states, whose probabilities of


occurrence are calculated as functions of wind speeds from Monte Carlo simulations
conducted on engineering numerical models of typical houses.
5.22) Roca, P., Molins, C and Mari, A.R., Strength capacity of Masonry Wall
Structures by the Equivalent Frame Method, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2005,
Vol.131, No.10, pp.1601-1610.
The structural assessment of large traditional and historical masonry buildings poses
significant challenges due to the need for modeling complex geometries and nonlinear material behaviour. Although sophisticated methods have been developed for
the non-linear analysis of such structural systems mostly based on two or three
dimensional finite element modeling- they can hardly be used for practical purposes
due to very large computational requirements.
5.23) Lourenco, P.B., Oliveira, D.V., Roca, P and Orduna, A., Dry Joint Stone
Masonry Walls Subjected to In-Plane Combined Loading, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2005, Vol.131, No.11, pp.1665-1673.
The paper presents the results of experimental research on the structural behaviour of
dry joint masonry. The most relevant experimental results concern the strength
response of stone dry joint masonry walls subjected to in-plane combined
compressive and shear loading.
5.24) Villaverde, R., Approximate Procedure for the Seismic Non-Linear Analysis of
Non-Structural Components in Building, JSEE, Spring, 2005, Vol.7, No.1, pp.9-24.
An approximate method is proposed to estimate the seismic response of non-linear
non-structural components attached to non-linear building structures. The method is
based on a previously developed procedure for the analysis of linear secondary
systems mounted on a linear primary structure, the introduction of simplifying
assumptions similar to those made in the deviation of the lateral equivalent forces
procedure for the seismic analysis of conventional buildings and the use of strength
reduction factors to account for the non-linear behaviour of non-structural
components and supporting structure.
5.25) Priya., Balaji Rao, K and Anoop, M.B., Vulnerability Analysis of Unreinforced Brick Masonry Structures Subjected to Seismic Excitations, In: Proc,
National Symposium on Structural Dynamics, Random Vibrations and Earthquake
Engineering, (Edi) C.S.Manohar and D.Roy, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore,
India, 2005, pp.61-68.
This paper deals with the seismic vulnerability analysis of a two storied un-reinforced
brick masonry structure located in Andra Pradesh or Kanpur region. The vulnerability
function is generated for the structure using a nonlinear static approach and subjecting
it to different levels of seismic excitation. The nonlinear deformation capacity of the
structure is taken in to account using bilinear capacity curves for the walls of the
structure. Both in-plane and out-of-plane behaviour of masonry walls are considered.
In order to take in to account the possible variations in material properties of masonry,
vulnerability analysis is carried out using monte Carlo simulation, treating

32

compressive strength of brick, compressive strength of mortar, modules of elasticity


of masonry and angle of internal friction of masonry as random variables. The
probabilistic vulnerability functions for the structure in the two regions are presented.
From the results obtained, it is noted that the demand displacement, at any given level
of excitation, shows considerable variation. It was also found that variation in
modulus of elasticity of masonry has significant effect on the vulnerability function.
The probabilistic vulnerability functions would be useful in the determination of
characteristic demand displacement, for a particular level of seismic excitation, which
can be used in performance based design.
5.26) Patel, B.D and Dave, U.V., Finite Element Analysis of a Masonry Building and
Experimental Verification, In: Proc, Proceedings of National Conference on
Innovative Technologies in Civil Engineering March 20 & 21, Department of Civil
Engineering, (Edi) K.Subramanian, V.G.Srisanthi and M.P.Muthuraj, Coimbatore
Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India, 2006, pp.382-397.
Although in the 20th century masonry was displaced from many applications by steel
and concrete, it has retained its importance for load bearing walls in low and medium
rise buildings and for internal walls of the buildings. In masory buildings, vertical
load need special consideration mainly in design of such buildings. These lateral loads
can produce critical stresses in the masonry structures.
5.27) Pradeep Kumar, D and Eswaramoorthi, P., Design for Tsunami Resistant
Structures- An Except from Design Codes, In:Proc, Proceedings of National
Conference on Innovative Technologies in Civil Engineering March 20 & 21,
Department of Civil Engineering, (Edi) K.Subramanian,V.G.Srisanthi and
M.P.Muthuraj, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India, 2006, pp.548558.
Disasters, Irrespective of how severe they are, are generally localized events.
Tsunami, a form of natural disaster, is a series of great sea waves caused usually by an
earthquake of sufficient force, or a landslide, or volcanic eruption which leaves
millions dead, homeless and destitute along coastlines around the oceans. Along the
coast lines, structures will be subjected not only to the seismic loads but also to the
Tsunami loads or Wave loads. For the structure to retain its shape from collapsing, it
should be strong enough to withstand against combined seismic-tsunami loads.
Therefore for a Tsunami Resistant Structure in the Tsunami Prone areas the forces
that are carried by Tsunami waves are to be studied.
5.28) Satyakala, V and Prabhukumar, P.K., Prediction of Buffer Penetration in
Critical Chain Project Management using Earned Value Management, In: Proc,
Proceedings of National Conference on Innovative Technologies in Civil
Engineering March 20 & 21, Department of Civil Engineering, (Edi)
K.Subramanian, V.G.Srisanthi and M.P.Muthuraj, Coimbatore Institute of
Technology, Coimbatore, India, 2006, pp.664-671.
Extensions in the early specification and requirement analysis phase of a project
typically flow on to produce much longer delays in the overall projects duration
because such extensions typically produce additional requirements. Critical chain
project management adds a project buffer to secure the final completion date. The

33

buffer projects against delays in tasks, including those arising from feature creep.
However if buffer penetration is excessive, action is taken to protects the critical
chain, so that the overall project schedule will not be compromised. To help predict
such outcomes, we employ earned value management techniques and show how
measures of earned value such as CPI might be used to analyse buffer penetration.
Our results indicate that earned value management may afford early warning of
feature creep and consequential buffer penetration.
5.29) Khire, R.A., Dessel, S.V., Messac, A and Mullur, A., Study of a Honeycomb
Type Regidified Inflatable Structure for Housing, Journal of Structural Engineering,
2006, Vol.132, No.10, pp.1664-1672.
This paper presents a parametric study aimed at uncovering general design principles
that govern the structural performance of honeycomb type rigidified inflatable
structures (RIS) as load bearing wall system for use in residential housing.
5.30) Milani, G., Lourenco, P and Tralli, A., Homogeneration Approach for the
Limit Analysis of Out-of-Plane Loaded Masonry Walls, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2006, Vol.132, No.10, pp.1650-1663.
This paper addresses the usage of a simplified homogenization technique for the
analysis of masonry subjected to out-of-plane loading. The anisotropic failure surface,
based on the definition of a polynomial representation of the stress tensor components
in a finite number of subdomains is combined with finite element triangular elements
employed for the upper and lower bound limit analysis.
5.31) Voon, K.C and Ingham, J.M., Experimental In-Plane Shear strength
Investigation of Reinforced Concrete Masonry Walls, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2006, Vol.132, No.3, pp.400-408.
This paper presents test results of ten single story reinforced concrete masonry shear
walls. Test results are summarized and compared with design formulae specified by
the New Zealand masonry design standard NZS 4230:1990 and by the National
Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program.
5.32) Yi, T., Moon, F.L., Leon, R.T and Kahn, L.F., Analysis of a Two-Story UnReinforced Masonry Building, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2006, Vol.132,
No.5, pp.653-662.
A variety of elastic and Inelastic analytical approaches were used to investigate the
response of a full-scale unreinforced masonry (URM) structure tested in the
laboratory. Elastic analysis, employing a three dimensional finite element model,
revealed little coupling between parallel walls, and pointed to the appropriateness of
two-dimensional analytical tools for further simulation of the test structure.
5.33) Yi, T., Moon, F.L., Leon, R.T and Kahn, L.F., Lateral Load Tests on a TwoStory Un-Reinforced Masonry Building, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2006,
Vol.132, No.5, pp.642-652.

34

A full scale two story unreinforced masonry (URM) building was tested in a
quasistatic fashion to investigate the nonlinear properties of existing URM structures
and to assess the efficiency of several common retrofit techniques. This paper
presents the main experimental findings associated with the non-linear properties of
the original URM structure.
5.34) Kopp, G.A and Chen, Y., Database Assisted Design of Low Rise Buildings:
Aerodynamic Considerations for a Practical Interpolation Scheme, Journal of
Structural Engineering, 2006, Vol.132, No.6, pp.909-917.
Database assisted design (DAD) is becoming a realistic possibility whereby archived
wind pressure time series on building envelopes from wind tunnel experiments are
directly used in structural analysis software for design.
5.35) Rasheed, H.A., Larson., K.H and Peterman, R.J., Analysis and Design
Procedure for FRP-Strengthened Pre-stressed Concrete T-Girders Considering
Strength and Fatigue, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2006, Vol.10, No.5,
pp.419-432.
Controlling the pre-stressed stand-stress range in pre-cracked pre-stressed concrete
girders is critical in the FRP strengthening process to avoid long term fatigue failures.
This paper will address the details of a design procedure that was developed to satisfy
target strengthening requirements while imposing stress range serviceability limit.
Two main CFRP flexural strengthening designs were established for use in the
experimental program herein.
5.36) Attard, M.M., Nappi, A and Tin-Loi, F., Modeling Fracture in Masonry,
Journal of Structural Engineering, 2007, Vol.133, No.10, pp.1385-1392.
Finite element procedures developed for the study of fracture in concrete is extended
for the simulation of tensile and or shears fracture in masonry. Triangular units are
grouped in to rectangular zones mimicking brick units with surrounding mortar joints.
Fracture is captured through a constitutive softening fracture law at the boundary
interface nodes. The mortar joint, which is a plane of weakness, can be modeled as an
interface of zero thickness or of a given thickness. At each nodal location, there exist
essentially two nodes, the relative displacement (i.e., crack opening or sliding) of
which is related to the conjugate inter-nodal force by the appropriate softening
relationship. The model is ideally suited to the modeling of fracture in masonry
because fracture usually runs along a horizontal or vertical joint in the mortar or is
approximately vertical in the brick unit. The in elastic failure surface is modeled using
a Mohr-Coulomb failure surface with a tension cut-off. Examples which include:
Direct tension, micro shear, and three-point bending of masonry panels are used to
verify the formulation.
5.37) Dym, C.L and Williams, H., Estimating Fundamental Frequencies of Tall
Buildings, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2007, Vol.133, No.10, pp.1479-1483.
Empirical estimates of the fundamental frequency of tall buildings vary inversely with
their height, a dependency not exhibited by the various familiar models of beam
behaviour. This paper examines and explains this apparent discrepancy by analyzing

35

the consequences of using two models to estimate such natural frequencies: A two
beam model that couples the bending of a classical cantilever to that of a shear beam
by imposing a displacement constraint; and a Timoshenko beam in which the EulerBernoulli beam model is extended by adding a shear-displacement term to the
classical bending deflection.
5.38) Yagust, V.I and Yankelevsky, D.Z., On Potential Progressive Failure of Large
Panel Buildings, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2007, Vol.133, No.11, pp.15911603.
The potential vulnerability of engineering structures to extreme loading actions, due
to which a progressive failures of the entire structures or of a major part of it may
develop, emphasizes the need to develop comprehensive analytical procedures for the
assessment of the potential progressive collapse of structural systems. This paper aims
at presenting a method for calculation of the stability of large pre-fabricated panel
buildings with interior load bearing walls.
5.39) Liborio Cavaleri, Marinella Fossetti and Maurizio Papia, Modeling Of Out-OfPlane Behavior Of Masonry Walls, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2009, Vol.
135, No. 12, December1, pp15221532
The flexural behavior of rectangular masonry sections is investigated by considering
nonlinear stress-strain in compression and limited-tension material. A preliminary
analysis shows that, with variation in the parameters specializing with the adopted
conventional constitutive law, the experimentally observed behavior of different kinds
of masonry materials can be approximated. Subsequently, moment-curvature
dimensionless curves are derived numerically by satisfying the equilibrium equations
of the section. In the case of negligible tensile strength these curves exhibit a typical
shape that can be approximated by analytical expressions; consequently, suitable
functions are proposed that are governed by only a few parameters which depend on
the compression level of the section and the available ductility of the material. The
reliability of the proposed modeling procedure is also verified by using the
experimental results of a previous study, where masonry elements subjected to an
increasing eccentric normal load were considered. Therefore, the analytically defined
flexural behavior is transferred to the characteristic sections of a discrete model of
slender masonry column, in order to reproduce the experimental results of full-scale
tests on bearing masonry walls subjected to increasing lateral deflections for stability
analyses. Comments on the results obtained with this model would be useful for
further investigations.
5.40) Andreas Stavridis and P. B. Shing, Finite-Element Modeling Of Nonlinear
Behavior Of Masonry-Infilled RC Frames, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2010,
Vol. 136, No. 3, March 1, pp285296
The evaluation of the seismic performance of masonry-infilled reinforced concrete
(RC) frames has been a major challenge for structural engineers. This paper addresses
pertinent issues on the development and calibration of nonlinear finite-element
models for assessing the seismic performance of these structures. The modeling
scheme considered here combines the smeared and discrete crack approaches to
capture the different failure modes of infilled frames, including the mixed-mode

36

fracture of mortar joints and the shear failure of RC members. A systematic approach
is presented here to calibrate the material parameters, and the accuracy of the
nonlinear finite-element models has been evaluated with experimental data. The
comparison of the numerical and experimental results indicates that the models can
successfully capture the highly nonlinear behavior of the physical specimens and
accurately predict their strength and failure mechanisms. The validated models have
been used to assess the sensitivity of the numerical results to the modeling parameters
and to identify the critical material parameters through a parametric study.
6.0 DYNAMIC LOADING AND RESPONSES
6.1) Tomazevic, M., Dynamic Modeling of Masonry Buildings: Storey Mechanism
Model as a Simple Alternative, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics,
1987, Vol.15, pp.731-749.
The dynamic behaviour of a four-storied masonry building model subjected to
simulated earthquake loading has been investigated. The observations of damage
propagation during shaking test indicated the storey mechanism action of model
building. Since the predominant effect of the first natural mode of vibration has been
also observed, the idea of simple mathematical modeling has been followed in the
calculations. Two simple analytical models have been compared when evaluated the
dynamic response of the model building: a four degrees of freedom shear system and
an equivalent single degree of freedom system. Three hysterisis rules have been taken
into account for modeling the non-linear behaviour of the model. Satisfactory
correlation between the measured and calculated response has been obtained in most
cases.
6.2) Zhou, Q., Lu, X., Wang, Q., Feng, D and Yao, Q., Dynamic Analysis on
Structures Base-isolated by a Ball System with Restoring Property, Earthquake
Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 1998, Vol.27, pp.773-791.
A computational model with its analysis method for base-isolated structures by a ball
system with restoring property under seismic force is proposed in this paper, and the
programs using numerical integration method and incremental harmonic balance
method are developed. The analysis method is verified by shaking table test results of
a three storey masonry model. With these programs the effects of some factors on the
seismic behaviour of base isolation system are analysed, and the comparison of
seismic response between structures with and with out base isolation is made.
6.3) Alshebani, M.M and Sinha, S.N., Stress-Strain Characteristics of Brick Masonry
under Uni-axial Cyclic Loading, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1999, Vol.125,
No.6, pp.600-604.
A series of laboratory tests were carried out on half-scale sand plast brickwork panels
subjected to uni-axial cyclic loading. Forty two square panels were tested under
cyclic loading until failure for two cases of loading . (1) Normal to the bed joints and
(2) parallel to the bed joints. Failure due to cyclic compression was usually
characterized by a simultaneous failure of brick units and head joints or by splitting in
the bed joints depending on whether the panel was loaded normal or parallel to the
bed joint, respectively. The characteristics of the stress-strain relationship of the two

37

loading conditions are presented in this paper. Envelope, common point and stability
point stress-strain curved were established based on test data and an exponential
formula was found to provide a reasonable fit to the test data. It was concluded that
the peak stress of the stability point curve can be regarded as the maximum
permissible stress level that is found to be approximately equal to two-thirds of the
failure stress. It was also observed that the permissible stress level depends on the
plastic strain level prevent in the material due to cyclic loading.
6.4) Alshebani, M.M and Sinha, S.N., Stress-Strain Characteristics of Brick
Masonry under Cyclic Bi-axial Compression, Journal of Structural Engineering,
2000, Vol.126, No.9, pp.1004-1007.
Tests on half-scale and plast brick masonry specimens subjected to cyclic biaxial
compression were conducted for five principle ratios. An interaction curves for the
principle stress at failure was obtained experimentally and expressed mathematically
in terms of stress invariants. The failure under biaxial compression was characterized
by mid thickness splitting of the bearing area. The failure was quantified by the
critical orthogonal strain that governed the failure, which in turn defines the critical
stress-strain envelope curves. The critical envelope curve and the corresponding
common point and stability point curves were expressed in mathematical form by
general exponential formulas. The stability point curved can be used to establish the
permissible stress level under in-plane cyclic loading.
6.5) Elgwady, M.A., Lestuzzi, P and Badoux, M., Dynamic In-plane Behaviour of
URM Wall up Graded with Composites, Tech. Report, ROUGH, Swiss Federal
Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2001, pp.1-12.
In main seismically active regions of the world there are large numbers of buildings
featuring Un-reinforced Masonry (URM) bearing walls. Most of these buildings have
not been designed for seismic action. Recent earthquakes have shown that many such
buildings are seismically vulnerable and should be upgraded. This paper presents
preliminary results of laboratory experiments investigating in-plane behaviour of
URM walls up graded with composite materials. Half scale masonry walls were
subjected to a series of simulated earthquake motions on an earthquake simulator.
6.6) Abdel-Halim, M.A.H and Barakat, S.A., Cyclic Performance of ConcreteBacked Stones Masonry Walls, Journal of structural Engineering, 2003, Vol.129,
No.5, pp.597-605.
The seismic performance of concrete-backed stone masonry walls subjected to cyclic
load is experimentally evaluated. Six 1/3 scale, single storey, single bay wall samples
were tested. Three of these samples were constructed using an old construction
method and other three were constructed using new construction method. The
influence of the type of construction, applied vertical loads, and existence of dowels
between the infill concrete panel and the base on the lateral resistance, ductility,
energy-dissipation, stiffness degradation, and failure mechanism were investigated .
The experimental results indicate that an increase in the applied vertical load resulted
in a substantial increase in both the lateral strength and stiffness of the tested samples.
The type of construction had no influence on the ultimate lateral load resistance. The
existence of the dowels caused the diagonal cracks to be shifted upward far from the

38

base. Also the dowels gave a better distribution and smaller widths for these diagonal
cracks. The failure mechanisms of all concrete-backed stone masonry walls were
dominated by diagonal shear cracks.
6.7) Kuzik, M.D., Elwi, A.E and Cheng, J.J.R., Cyclic Flexure Tests of Masonry
Walls Reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Sheets, Journal of
Composites for Construction, 2003, Vol.7, No.1, pp.20-30.
The research work reported investigation the out-of-plane flexural behaviour of
masonry walls reinforced externally with Ass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP)
sheets subjected to cyclic loading. A full scale test program consisting of eight wall
specimens was conducted. Nine test were performed , in which three parameters were
studied. These included the level of compressive axial load, amount of internal steel
reinforcement, and amount of externally bonded GFRP sheet reinforcement. Of the
three parameters studied.
6.8) Jocelyn Paquette and Michel Bruneau, M, Pseudo-dynamic testing of
unreinforced masonry building With flexible diaphragm, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2003, Vol. 129, No. 6, June 1, pp708-716
To complement the computer simulations, component testing, and small-scale shake
table tests done by other researchers, a full-scale one-story unreinforced brick
masonry specimen having a wood diaphragm was subjected to earthquake excitations
using pseudo-dynamic testing. The specimen was designed to better understand the
flexible-floor/rigid-wall interaction, the impact of wall continuity at the building
corners and the effect of a relatively weak diaphragm on the expected seismic
behavior. This paper reports on the characteristics of the specimen and the analyses of
the dynamic response of the shear walls with piers having a rocking and/or a sliding
behavior. These results are compared with predictions from existing seismic
evaluation methodologies. It is found that the overall building was relatively resilient
to earthquake excitation, even though cracking was extensive, and that some ~but not
all! of the existing seismic evaluation methodologies accurately capture the rocking or
sliding behavior that developed in the shear walls under large displacement.
6.9) Paquette, J and Bruneau, M., Pseudo-Dynamic Testing of Un-reinforced
Masonry Building with Flexible Diaphragm, Journal of Structural Engineering,
2003, Vol.129, No.6, pp.708-716.
To complement the computer simulations, component testing, and small-scale shake
table tests done by other researchers, a full scale one story un-reinforced brick
masonry specimen having a wood diaphragm was subjected to earthquake excitations
using pseudo-dynamic testing. The specimen was designed to better understand the
flexile-floor or rigid-wall interaction, the impact of wall continuity at the building
corners and the effect of a relatively weak diaphragm on the expected seismic
behaviour. This paper reports on the characteristics of the specimen and analysis of
the dynamic response of the shear walls with piers having a rocking and or a sliding
behaviour. These results are compared with prediction from existing seismic
evaluation methodologies. It is found that the overall building was relatively resilient
to earthquake excitation, even though cracking was extensive, and that some ( but not

39

all) of the existing seismic evaluation methodologies accurately capture the rocking or
sliding behaviour that developed in the shear walls under large displacement.
6.10) Hamed, E and Robinovitch, O., Dynamic Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete
Beams Strengthened with Composites Materials, Journal of Composites for
Construction, 2005, Vol.9, No.5, pp.429-440.
The dynamic behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with
externally bonded composite materials is analytically investigated. The analytical
model is based on dynamic equilibrium, compatibility of deformations between the
structural components and the concept of the high order approach. The equations are
motion along with the boundary and continuity conditions are derived using
Hamiltons variational principle and the kinematic relations a small deformations. The
mathematical formulation also includes the constitutive laws that are based on beams
and lamination theories, and the two dimensional elasticity representation of the
adhesive layer including the closed form solution of its stress and displacement fields.
The new mark time a set of ordinary differential equations, which are analytically or
numerically solved in every time step. The response of a strengthened beam to
different dynamic load that include impulse load, harmonic load, and seismic base
excitation is numerically investigated. The numerical study highlights some of the
phenomena associated with the dynamic response and explores the capabilities of the
proposed model. The paper closes with a summary and conclusions.
6.11) Omika, Y., Fukuzawa, E., Koshika, N., Morikawa, H and Fukuda, R.,
Structural Responses of World Trade Centre under Aircraft Attacks, Journal of
Structural Engineering, 2005, Vol.131, No.1, pp.6-15.
At the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the New York World Trade Center
(WTC) Towers, extensive structural damage, including localized collapse, occurred at
several floors levels directly impacted by the air craft. Despite this massive localized
damage, each structure remaining standing for approximately 1 h/ 1 h 30 minutes.
Although the damage to the beams and columns in the perimeter tube of each tower
were classified in the published ASCE/FEMA report., the damage to the floor system
and inner core columns were not estimated.
6.12) Reiterer, M and Ziegler, F., Bi-axial Seismic Activation of Civil Engineering
Structures Equipped with Tuned Liquid Column Dampers, JSEE, Spring, 2005,
Vol.7, No.1, pp.45-60.
Tuned liquid column dampers (TLCD) considerably increase the effective damping of
vibration prone civil engineering structures in horizontal motion. A single degree of
freedom basic system (SDOF) with a TLCD attached is analyzed under horizontal and
vertical base excitations in order to prove its sensitivity with respect to the vertical
parametrical forcing. The main result is cast in a sufficient condition for the linearized
damping coefficient of the fluid motion to ensure its stability under the most critical,
time harmonic forcing conditions.
6.13) Taghavi, S and Miranda, E., Approximate Floor Acceleration Demands in
Multistory Buildings. II: Applications, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2005,
Vol.131, No.2, pp.21-220.

40

The accuracy of an approximate method to estimate floor acceleration demands in


multistory buildings responding elastically or practically elastic, when subjected to
earthquake ground motion is investigated. Modal analysis is used in combination with
approximate dynamic characteristics computed using a simplified continuous model
that is fully defined with only four parameters. The accuracy of the method is first
evaluated by comparing the response computed with the approximate method to that
computed with response history analysis of complete finite element models of two
generic building available in the literature.
6.14) Davidson, J.S., Fisher, J.W., Hammons, M.I., Porter, J.R and Dinan, R.J.,
Failure Mechanisms of Polymer Reinforced Concrete Masonry Walls Subjected to
Blast, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2005, Vol.131, No.8, pp.1194-1205.
Recent terrorist attacks indicate the improvised explosive device as the choice terror
tactic. Over the past decade, the U.S. Department of Defense has encouraged and
sponsored research toward developing methods of reinforcing structures to protect
building occupants from the effects of external explosion.
6.15) Baylot, J.T., Bullock, B., Slawson, T.R and Woodson, S.C., Blast Response of
Lightly Attached Concrete Masonry Unit Walls, Journal of Structural Engineering,
2005, Vol.131, No.8, pp.1186-1193.
Exterior wall panels of structures are often constructed of concrete masonry units
(CMUs), commonly known as concrete blocks. These walls may become a debris
hazard to building occupants when high explosives, foe example, a terrorist vehicle
bomb, are detonated outside of a building.
6.16) Bennati, S., Nardini, L and Salvatore, W., Dynamic Behaviour of a Medieval
Masonry Bell Tower.II: Measurement and Modeling of the Tower Motion, Journal
of Structural Engineering, 2005, Vol.131, No.11, pp.1656-1664.
The work described herein was conducted within the framework of an ongoing
research program on the dynamic behaviour of the Tower of Matilde, the bell tower of
the Cathedral of San Miniato, Pisa, Italy, an interesting case study for its current
structural arrangement and the modifications it has undergone over the centuries.
6.17) Kim, H and Adeli, H., Wind Induced Motion Control of 76-Story Benchmark
Building Using the Hybrid Damper-TLCD System, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2005, Vol.131, No.12, pp.1794-1802.
The tuned liquid column damper (TLCD) has recently been advanced for vibration
control of structures subjected to wind loading. The effectiveness of the semiactive
TLCD system and the hybrid viscous fluid damper-TLCD control system recently
proposed by the writers is investigated for control of wind induced motion of high rise
buildings.
6.18) Wang, Q and Wang, L.Y., Estimating Periods of Vibration of Building with
Coupled Shear walls, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2005, Vol.131, No.12,
pp.1931-1935.

41

In this paper the resulting equation for natural vibration of buildings with coupled
shear walls is proved to be the forth-order-Sturm-Liouville differential equation and a
hand method for determining the first two periods of natural vibration of the buildings
is presented. The method is accurate and simple, compared with other calculating
methods.
6.19) Koh, C.G., Tee, K.F and Quek, S.T., Condensed Model Identification and
Recovery for Structural Damage Assessment, Journal of Structural Engineering,
2006, Vol.132, No.12, pp.2018-2026.
This study aims to develop a system identification methodology for determining
structural parameters of linear dynamic system, taking into consideration of practical
constraints such as insufficient sensors. A new methodology called the condensed
model identification and recovery method is presented for identification of full
stiffness matrices for damage assessment based on incomplete measurement.
6.20) Eamon, C.D., Reliability of Concrete Masonry Unit Walls Subjected to
Explosive Loads, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2007, Vol.133, No.7, pp.935944.
This study discusses the development of a procedure that can be used to assess the
reliability of concrete masonry unit infill walls subjected to personnel delivered blast
loads. Consideration is given to maintain reasonable computational effort for both the
structural analysis and reliability models.
6.21) Ball, R.J., Turki, A.E., Allen, W.J and Allen, G.C., The Stress Cycling of
Hydraulic Lime Mortars, Construction Materials, 2007, Vol.160, No.CM2, pp.57-63.
The effect of thermal expansion and contraction in masonry has been simulated using
repeated stress cycles. Cylindrical specimens cast from 1:2 NHL 3.% Lime mortar
were exposed to air at 20 C and 65% relative humidity with a CO2 concentration of
400 ppm for 28 and 84 days respectively prior to stress cycling 40 times. Cycling did
not influence the peak stress recorded from subsequent destructive compressive
testing, however the un-cycled specimens absorbed more energy up to the peak stress,
compared with the cycled specimens. Ion induced electron images of the mortar
structure revealed the presence of micro-cracks in the cycled mortars, suggesting the
energy absorbing mechanism.
6.22) Dym, C and Williams, H.E., Estimating Fundamental Frequencies of Tall
Buildings, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2007, Vol.133, No.10, pp.1479-1483.
Empirical estimates of the fundamental frequency of tall buildings vary inversely with
their height, a dependency not exhibited by the various familiar models of beam
behaviour. This paper examines and explains this apparent discrepancy by analyzing
the consequences of using two models to estimate such natural frequencies.
6.23) Milo F. Drdck, Flood Damage To Historic Buildings And Structures,
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 2010, Vol. 24, No. 5, October1,
pp439445

42

This paper presents typical examples of damage to immovable cultural heritage due to
flooding. Flooding can damage architectural heritage, historic infrastructure
consisting of individual structures, buildings, and objects, as well as objects of art
standing alone or firmly attached as an integral part of buildings. All these objects are
subjected to various forces and actions during flood situations. These forces can be
categorized according to the types of damage that they can cause: horizontal static
pressure of raised water; upward hydrostatic pressure; dynamic low velocity streams;
dynamic high-velocity streams; dynamic impact of waves; dynamic impact of floating
objects; compacting of soils or infill; changes in subsoil conditions; saturation of
materials with water; contamination of materials with chemical and biological agents;
formation of barriers; ice floes; and post flood effects. These typical actions may
occur in combinations and work in synergy. Typical illustrative examples of damage
caused by individual actions are presented in the paper, which goes on to present
some general lessons applicable for the most vulnerable categories of immovable
heritage objects.
6.24) Saileysh Sivaraja.S, Thandavamoorthy.T.S, Rathnasheela. P.T and S.Moses
Aranganathan, (2011), Energy Absorption Capacity Of Rat-Trap Bond Masonry
Under Base Excitation, In: Proc, International Conference on Earthquake Analysis
and Design of Structures (EQADS-2011), On Dec 1-3, 2011, (Edi) S.Rajasekaran,
John W.van de Lindt, J.V.Ramasamy and G.Sankarasubramanian, Department of
Civil Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India and Collaboration
with University of Alabama , Tuscaloosa, AL, USA.pp324-331
Brick masonry does not exhibit much capacity to resist lateral loads and hence the
masonry suffers heavy damage during earthquakes, which impart lateral loads to
structures. In the Bhuj earthquake of Jan 26, 2001, that occurred in the Gujarat state of
India, majority of masonry structures failed because they were built with unreinforced brick masonry. The Indian code of practice for brick masonry IS 43261993, suggests the use of lintel band and roof band that introduce a rigid box-type
behavior which will help the structure to improve its performance against seismic
loads. But there are no codal provisions for use of Rat- Trap bond masonry which has
been found to possess good seismic resistance characteristics. Rat-Trap bond system
consists of an array of headers and stretchers with bricks laid vertically on the edge to
form a cavity within a set of two headers and two stretchers. In this investigation, an
attempt has been made to study the behavior of un-reinforced Rat-Trap bond masonry
of two categories viz., (i) with roof slab, and (ii) without roof slab. Shock-table tests
on one-third scale masonry building models (with and without roof slabs) were
carried out to study the behavior. The peak accelerations were recorded for each
shock. The scaled bricks were obtained by cutting locally available bricks using
special tools. The size of the masonry models was 2m x 1m x 1m. The amount of
energy imparted during each shock was measured before total collapse both for RatTrap bond masonry models with and without roof slabs. The results of the tests
revealed that the roof weight plays an important role in the design of Rat-Trap
masonry systems subject to seismic loads.
6.25) Saileysh Sivaraja.S, S.Moses Aranganathan, S.Vijayakumar, S.R.Mangala
Menaka and S.R.Kumaraguru (2011), In-Plane And Out-Of-Plane Loading

43

Behaviour Of Rat-Trap Bond Masonry Using Shock Table, International Journal of


Engineering and its Application (IJEA), Vol.01, No.01, pp73-81
This paper describes the performance of a series of single-story Rat-trap bond
masonry buildings observed during a shock table test program. The brick masonries
are suffers and damages during earthquakes. An earthquake is a sudden tremor or
movement of the earth crust, which originates naturally at or below the surface. Since
it excludes shock waves caused by nuclear tests, man-made explosions, etc. About
90% of all earthquakes result from tectonic events, primarily movements on the faults.
The remaining is related to volcanism, collapse of subterranean cavities or manmade
effects. In the Earthquake, majority of the masonry structures were damaged because
they were built with un-reinforced masonry. The code of practice for Brick masonry
IS 4326-1993 suggests the use of lintel band to integrate the structure and thus
introduce a rigid box like behavior. However, there are no guidelines given in the
code for Rat-trap bond masonry. Though the code recommendations are based on the
experiments done elsewhere. The problem is still a complex one because each type of
building is unique in construction features like different ratio of binder to sand used in
mortar, thickness of mortar and provision of openings etc., In the past research work
on brick masonry a number of contributions to strength and stiffness have been made.
So far they have not considered the effect of slab in their research. Here in, an attempt
has been made to study the Un- reinforced masonry with roof slab as an integral
system. This investigation consisted of a series of experiments. The following aspects
have been studied and presented in details are Characteristics of bricks and unreinforced Rat-trap bond brick masonry, Natural Frequencies of single storied boxtype Rat-trap bond masonry buildings with and without roof slab and Shock table
studies on scaled Rat-trap bond masonry building models, which investigate the base
shock resistance and failure patterns of the models with and without roof slab.
6.26) S.Saileysh Sivaraja, S.Vijayakumar, T.S.Thandavamoorthy, S.Moses
Aranganathan and K.Chinnaraju, (2012), Base Shock Excitation Of Rat-Trap Bond
Masonry With And Without Roof Slab, International Journal of Earth Science and
Engineering(IJEE), Vol.05, No.01, pp146-153.
Rat-trap bond masonry is being widely used in construction of buildings nowadays.
Masonry suffers major damages, when it is subjected to seismic loads as more than
60% of World is at risk to damaging earthquakes of a design intensity on the modified
mercalli intensity scale, education, training and research in earthquake engineering is
essential. Recently, the Latur (1993) and Bhuj (2001) earthquakes as well as the
Sumatra tsunami (2005), the Samoa Islands tsunami (2009), the Haiti earthquake
(2010), and Chile & Sumatra earthquakes (2010) have resulted in devastating losses
of life and property. The collapse and damage sustained by modern buildings and
inadequate construction of many buildings are of concern around the world. Hence,
there is an urgent need to mitigate damage to buildings and infrastructure and further
protect lives. The code of practice for brick masonry IS 4326-1993 suggests that
introduction of lintel band and roof band will help the structure to perform better,
44

when it is subjected to seismic loads. Herein, an attempt has been made to study the
behaviour of an unreinforced Rat-trap bond masonry building with and without roof
slab. Shock table tests of (1/3)rd scale masonry building models (with and without
roof slab) were carried out to study the behaviour. The peak accelerations were
recorded for each shock. The size of the masonry model is 2m x 1m x 1m. The
amount of energy imparted during each shock has been calculated and it was
compared for Rat-trap bond masonry model with and without slab before its total
collapse. These observations reveal that roof weight plays an important role in design
of masonry system subjected to seismic loads.
6.27) S. Saileysh Sivaraja, R. Balasubramanian and T.S. Thandavamoorthy,
Pendulum Impact On Brick Masonry Building With And Without Roof Slab-An
Experimental Investigation, (2012) In: Proc, Proceedings of International Conference
in Magna on Emerging Engineering Trends (ICMEET-2K12) on April 12-13, 2012,
(Org): Magna College of Engineering, Chennai, India.pp121-128
The common method of construction of brick masonry is either used by English bond
or Flemish bond. While numerous investigations on English and Flemish bond
constructions have been carried out, especially its behaviour under out-of-plane
extreme loadings. Therefore experimental investigation on masonry building was
carried out to assess its performance under base impact excitation. Brick masonry is a
popular method of construction of walls in single dwelling units, high-rise structures,
and heritage and monumental structures all over the world. As these structures are
constructed without any reinforcement they are most vulnerable to extreme loadings
such as earthquake, hurricane, blast, etc. For this purpose a shock table was designed
and fabricated using Indian equal angles of size 100 mm 100 mm and thickness 8
mm. A one-third model of a box type brick masonry building was constructed on the
Shock-table using scaled brick of size 92 mm 43 mm 30 mm especially cut using
special tool from a full brick of size 175 mm 92 mm 30 mm. A low flexural
strength cement-lime-sand mortar of mix 1:10:20 was used in the construction of the
building. Size of the building was 2.10 m 1.10 m and the thickness of the wall was
92 mm. One building was tested without a roof slab and the other was provided with
a reinforced concrete roof slab consisting of weld mesh made of m3 mm mild steel
rod spaced at 50 mm both ways. The impact at the base of the building was applied
by means of a pendulum weighing 115 kg and 150 kg. The frequency of oscillation
of building was measured with the help of transducers mounted on the building. For
each impact its velocity was calculated from the height of fall. From this the energy
imparted to the building was calculated. The failure modes for each impact were
recorded. It can be seen that the total energy imparted to the model without roof slab
is 6490.09 Nm before its total collapse. The model with roof slab was capable of
withstanding a total energy of 4295.16 Nm before its total collapse. Thus the energy
capacity of model without roof slab is greater than that of the model with roof slab. It
was observed in this experimental investigation that the damages in the case of model
with roof slab are more severe and extensive than that without roof slab. The onset of
damage is much earlier in the case of model with slab than that without slab. The
integrity of walls was not ensured by the provision of the roof slab. This shows that
the sustainability of model without roof slab under base shock excitation is better than
that with roof slab.

45

7.0 SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR


7.1) Clough, R.W., Gulkan, P., Manos, G.C., Mayas, R.L., Seismic Testing of
Single-Story Masonry Houses : Part-2, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1990,
Vol.116, No.1, pp.257-274.
This paper describes the performance of a series of single-story masonry houses
observed during a shaking table test program carried out at the university of
California Earthquake Engineering Research Engineering (EERC), under the
sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), The
design of the test structures and the conduct of the tests on the earthquake simulator
are described in a companion paper. In evaluating the observed performance, the
intensity of the test motions was characterized by the measured effective peak
acceleration (EPA), so that they could be related to Uniform Building Code seismic
zone 2. Based on the observed behaviour, it is recommended that zone 2 be divided in
to sub zone 2A for EPA values up to 0.10 g and sub zone 2B for values between 0.10
g and 0.20 g. The observed results demonstrate that masonry houses without
reinforcement may be permitted in both parts of zone 2 provided that the design
guidelines recommended for each sub-zone are followed.
7.2) Pantazopoulou, S.J., Experimental Investigation of Antifriction Slide Bearings,
Journal of Structural Engineering, 1991, Vol.117, No.11, pp.3487-3495.
Result of an experimental investigation of the load behaviour of antifriction slide
bearings used in bridge foundations presented. The tests are performed under quasistatic lateral loads and are intended to provide estimates for the average co-efficient of
the friction of the bearings when they are subjected to slow rates of lateral movement,
such as those occurring in bridge foundations due to support settlement, thermal
expansion and creep effects. During the experiments, the bearings are subjected to a
constant vertical load simulating the weight of the assumed superstructures, while the
lateral load is increased at a constant rate. The lateral load resistance of the bearings is
found to be in excess of 5% of the applied confining pressure. Further more, the
resistance increased with the rate of applied loads, but it was drastically reduced with
increasing accumulated damage of the bearings ( Velocity and history-dependent
friction mechanism).
7.3) Anon., Improving Earth-Quake Resistance of Low Strength Masonry
Buildings, Bureau of Indian Standard-13828, New Delhi, India, 1993, pp.1-10.
In order to minimize torsion, the building should have a simple rectangular plan and
be symmetrical both with respect to mass and rigidity so that the centers of mass
rigidity of the building coincide with each other. It will be desirable to use separate
blocks of rectangular shape particularly in seismic zones V and IV.
7.4) Bruneau, M., State of the Art Report on Seismic Performance of Un-reinforced
Masonry Buildings, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1994, Vol.120, No.1, pp.230251.

46

A large proportion of North Americas older building inventory is of un-reinforced


masonry (URM), constructed in the absence of mandatory earthquake design
requirements and unquestionably recognized as the type of construction most
vulnerable to earthquakes. Awareness of this seismic hazard is relatively new in
eastern North America. In addition, the nature of the seismic risk and other
engineering constraint there said a new and different perspective on the problem. This
state-of-the-art paper on the seismic performance of URM buildings summarizes
knowledge that has already gained some acceptance in part of North America and
outlines current limitations. Concerns regarding the seismic performance of existing
URM buildings are formulated in an eastern North American seismicity contest. The
various failure modes of URM buildings or components subjected to earthquake
excitation are described, and when possible, illustrated. The state-of-practice as
required by North American building design codes and standard is summarized. A
special analytical procedure of the uniform code for building conservation , largely
inspired from the Agbabian, Barnes and Kariotis (ABK) methodology for the
mitigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings is reviewed .
7.5) Tomazevic, M and Weiss, P., Seismic Behaviour of Plain and Reinforced
Masonry Building, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1994, Vol.120, No.2, pp.323338.
This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study that investigated the
seismic behaviour of two, three story, plain and reinforced masonry building models
with identical structural configuration. The measured response and observed
mechanism of structural behaviour have been used to analyze the load bearing and
energy dissipation capacity of each structural type. By reinforcing the masonry walls
with vertical reinforcement at the borders of the walls and horizontal reinforcement in
the mortar bed joints, the lateral resistance, energy dissipation capacity, and global
durability of the building was significantly improved. The mechanism of the
behaviour of the tested models changed from the story mechanism that prevailed in
the case of the plain masonry model to coupled shear-wall mechanism in the case of
reinforced masonry building model, with floor slabs and bond beams contributing to
the seismic resistance of the model in the latter case.
7.6) Wulin, T., Chern, C.C and Hone, C.C., Experimental Study of Base Isolation by
Free Rolling Rods, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 1995., Vol.24,
pp.1645-1650.
Experimental and analytical studies of base isolation by free rolling rods under
basement are described in this paper. The lists of the system, a one-storey, 326 kg
structure mounted on a set of free rolling rods, is carried out on a 3m x 3m shaking
table. The dynamic behaviour of the isolated structure is studied and used to verify the
analytical results. In the isolation system, the coefficient of kinetic rolling friction,
measured at different angular velocities, ranges from 0.0007 to 0.0016. The
coefficients are reduced by decreasing the angular velocities. Two earthquakes, a
short period and along-period motion in Taiwan, are utilized as the input signals. The
accelerations experienced by the superstructure are decreased by factors of 56 and 60
in comparison with the fixed-base condition for the two input earthquakes. Also, for
each test, the peak relative-to-ground displacement of the basement is nearly equal to

47

the peak ground displacement, and the permanent displacement of the basement is
present after the end of the earthquake. Finally test of the system with re-centering
force device is undertaken, where a soft spring added to the basement reduces
efficiently the permanent displacement. Comparisons show a good agreement
between experimental and theoretical results.
7.7) Tomazevic, M., Lutman, M and Petkovic, L., Seismic Behaviour of Masonry
Walls: Experimental Simulation, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1996, Vol.122,
No.9, pp.1040-1047.
The influence of four different lateral displacement patterns used for
experimental simulation of seismic behavior of masonry walls has been studied.
Thirty-two equal reinforced-masonry walls have been tested by imposing
monotonically increasing displacements; cyclic lateral displacements with
amplitudes, stepwise increasing in predefined blocks of two different shapes and
repeated three times at each amplitude peak: and simulated displacement seismic
response. By imposing the same displacement pattern dynamically, higher values of
lateral resistance and more rigid initial behavior of the walls has been obtained that
statically. Higher resistance and larger ultimate displacements have been obtained by
monotonic than by cyclic loading producing of all types. At a higher level of vertical
load, lateral resistance of the wall was improved, but deformability and ductility
decreased at both, static and dynamic types of loading at all load patterns.
7.8) Tomazevic, M and Lutman, M., Seismic Behaviour of Masonry Walls:
Modeling of Hysteric Rules, Journal of Structural Engineering., 1996., Vol.122,
No.9., pp.1048-1054.
A method of modifying the lateral load lateral displacement relationship obtained by a
simple monotonic racking test to represent the skeleton hysteresis curve of an
arbitrary dynamic response for a reinforced-masonry wall is proposed. The results of
tests of 32 equal reinforced masonry walls, tested by imposing monotonically
increasing displacements, cyclic lateral displacements of two different shapes, and
simulated displacement seismic response, have been used as a basis for the
development o the procedure of modification. The amount input energy , defined as
the decisive parameter for carrying out this modification. On the basis of experimental
results, correlation factors between the monotonic and cyclic hysteresis envelope
curves, as well as stiffness and strength degradation parameters, which define the
hysteretic rules, has been evaluated. Good agreement between predicted and
experimental cyclic behaviour of the walls has been obtained.
7.9) Tomazevic, M and Klemenc, I., Seismic Behaviour of Confined Masonry
Walls, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 1997, Vol.26, pp.10591071.
Tests of plain and confined masonry walls with h/l ratio equal to 1.5, made at 1:5
scale, have been used to a rational method for modeling the seismic behaviour of
masonry walls. A tri-linear model of lateral displacement envelope curve has been
proposed, where the resistance is calculated as a combination.Resistance of the plain
masonry wall panel and dowel effect of the tie-columns reinforcement. Lateral
stiffness, modeled as a function of the initial effective stiffness and damage, occurring

48

to the panel at characteristic. Good correlation between the predicted and


experimental envelopes has been obtained in the particular case. The method has been
also verified for the case of prototype confined masonry walls with h/l ratio equal to
1.0., correlation between the predicted and experimental values of lateral resistance
indicates the general validity of the method.
7.10) Magenes, G and Calvi, G.M., In-plane Seismic Response of Brick Masonry
Walls, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 1997, Vol.26, pp.10911112.
This paper addresses the problems of evaluation of strength, deformability, and
energy dissipation capacity of un-reinforced brick masonry walls, with in the context
of seismic assessment of existing buildings. Possible approaches to simplified
strength evaluation are discussed on the basis of experimental and numerical data, and
formulate for assessment are presented. The role of the shear ratio in the shear failure
mechanisms is put in evidence and shear strength formulate are speed accordingly.
The most significative parameters regarding deformability under cyclic loading are
highlighted energy dissipation due to hysteretic behaviour is quantified for possible
use in dynamic models. Experimental results are how ultimate drift seems to be a
parameter with high regularity for walls failing in shear. Based on such result,
possible approach for seismic assessment is outlined.
7.11) Benedetti, D., Carydis, P and Pezzoli, P., Shaking Table Tests on 24 Simple
Masonry Buildings, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 1998,
Vol.27, pp.67-90.
The paper presents the results of a large experimental programme carried out on
models, scaled 1:2, of two-storey buildings. After suffering damage, the models were
repaired and strengthened and tested again. A total of 24 buildings were subjected to
119 shaking-table tests, by ISMES(Italy) and LEE(Greece) facilities. The results
allow to the efficiency of the various strengthening techniques employed and to
describe the change of dynamic properties of the system at the increase of damage.
7.12) Filiatrault, A., Elements of Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics,
Polytechnic International Press, Canada, 1998.
Earthquake Engineering is a young science, with most of its major developments
occurring in the twentieth century, so making an accurate out-line of its history is
difficult. At the Eighth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering held in San
Francisco in 1984, Housner (1984) presented a historical review of earthquake
engineering.
7.13) Seo, J.M., Choi, I.K and Lee, J.R., Experimental Study on the Seismic
Capacity of a Wooden House Using Shaking Table, Earthquake Engineering and
Structural Dynamics, 1999, Vol.28, pp.1143 -1162.
The seismic capacity of a typical Korean wooden house built using traditional
construction methods is quantitatively estimated. Tenon joints were used in wooden
frames. Two 1:4 scale models were tested for rock and soil foundation conditions.
Scaled real earthquake time histories were input for the tests. The natural frequency

49

and model damping ratio of the wooden house in the elastic range were 1.66Hz and 7
%, respectively. The peak ground Acceleration (PGA) at the collapse of the house at
the soil site was 0.25 g whereas PGA for moderate damage at the rock site was 0.6 g.
A significant reduction in acceleration response and increase in displacement response
was observed for rock and soil foundation conditions, respectively. The wooden
house studied is much more vulnerable at soil sites than at rock sites due to the rich
low frequency contents of the input motion and the flexible characteristics of the
wooden house. Non-linear dynamic analyses using the modified Double-Target model
were compared with test results. The modified Double-Target model appropriately
simulates the non-linear inelastic behaviour of a wooden house with tenon joints.
7.14) Drake, R.M and Bragagnolo, L.J., Model Code Design Force Provisions for
Elements of Structures and Non-Structural Components, Earthquake Spectra, 2000,
Vol.16, No.1, pp.115-125.
With the publication of the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC) and the 1997
NEHRP Recommended Provisions for the Seismic Regulations for New Buildings
and Other Structures, there has been a significant change in the earthquake design
force provisions for buildings, Structures, elements of structures and non-structural
components. Engineers and Architects need to become informed regarding a variety
of earthquake design force provisions, primarily those published in the UBC and
those developed as part of the NEHRP provisions. Both sources provide design force
provisions for the building structural system and separate design force provisions for
elements of structures and non-structural components. This paper describes the
development, evolution, and application of the earthquake design force provisions for
elements of structures and non-structural components.
7.15) Comartin, C.D., Niewiarowski, R.W., Freeman, S.A and Turner, F.M., Seismic
Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings: A Practical Overview of the ATC 40
Document, Earthquake Spectra, 2000, Vol.16, No.1, pp.241-261.
The Applied Technology Council (ATC), with funding from the Colifornia Seismic
Safety Commission developed the documents, Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit
Concrete Buildings, commonly referred to as ATC 40. This two volume, 612 pages
report provides a recommended procedure for the seismic evaluation and retrofit of
the concrete building. Although the focus is specifically on concrete buildings, the
documents provides information on emerging techniques applicable to most building
types.
7.16) Senthivel, R., Sinha, S.N and Madan, A., Energy Dissipation in High Strength
Brick Masonry under Cyclic Compressive Loading, In. Proc, International
Conference on Civil Engineering, 2001, pp.109-119.
An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the energy dissipation
characteristics of high strength calcium silicate brick masonry panels under cyclic
uni-axial compressive loading at the different angles of orientation including 0, 22.5,
45, 67.5 and 90 to the horizontal. The energy dissipated per cycle of loading or unloading is expressed as a dimensionless Energy dissipation Ratio, EDR due to cyclic
loading is significantly affected by the direction of applied stress relative due to bed
joints and varies with the envelope strain and residual strain in bilinear manner.

50

7.17) Varma, V., Reddy, G.R., Vaze, K.K and Kushwaha, H.S., Experimental and
Analytical Study of Laminated Rubber Bearing and its Application to PHWR
Buildings, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2002, Vol.28, No.4, pp.199-204.
The effect of Laminated Rubber Bearing (LRB) system on the dynamic response of
the structure is studied. A LRB system is designed and tested in the laboratory for its
dynamic characteristics. Finite element analysis is also performed and based on this
analysis, isolator for its PHWR nuclear power plant is designed. Analysis of the
building is performed with and without isolator. Comparison of responses is also
made in terms of frequencies, accelerations, and displacements and floor response
spectra.
7.18) Andrew Coburn and Robin Spenee., Earthquake Protection, John., Wiley.,
and Sons Ltd, Chichester West Sussex, England, 2002.
Earthquake tend to be concentrated in particular zones on the earths surface, with
coincide with the boundaries of the tectonic plates into which the earths crust is
devided. As the plates move relative to each other along the plate boundaries, they
tend not to slide smoothly but to become interlocked.
7.19) Farzad Naeim., The Seismic Design Handbook, Structural Engineering Series,
Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, USA, 2002.
On the average, 10,000 people die in each year from earthquakes. A UNESCO study
gives damage losses amounting to $ 10,000,000,000 from 1926 to 1950 from
earthquakes.
7.20) Dafnis, A., Kolsch, H and Reimerdes, H.G., Arching in Masonry Walls
subjected to Earthquake Motions, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2002, Vol.128,
No.2, pp.153-159.
Non-reinforcement masonry walls used as infill panels in concrete frames are
vulnerable elements of buildings when subjected to earthquake loading. Gaps develop
at the top of the walls, shortly after construction due to shrinkage of the mortar, and in
the event of an earthquake the wall cannot withstand the out-of-plane forces and
collapse due to the lack of binding at the top. However walls confined between rigid
supports can display very high resistance to out-of-plane forces through the
development of arching action in flexure. Therefore it is recommended, in order to
achieve an optional load-bearing behaviour or rather stability, that the remaining gap
at the top of the wall is filled with non-shrinkable mortar some days after the
construction of the wall. Shaking table tests, with full scale walls subjected to
transient seismic loads were carried out in order to study the out-of-plane behaviour in
relation to the characteristics at the top of the walls. A comparison of the
measurements with the results from finite element calculations showed a satisfactory
correlation.
7.21) Day, R.W., Geo-Technical Earthquake Engineering Handbook, Mcgraw-Hill
Companies, New York., USA, 2002.

51

Geo-Technical Earthquake Engineering can be defined as that subspecialty within the


field of geo-technical engineering which deals with the design and construction of
projects in order to resist the effects of earthquakes.
7.22) Anon., Seismic Up-gradation of Buildings: An overview, Indian Concrete
Journal, 2002, Vol.76, No.8, pp.314-326.
In the aftermath of Gujarat earthquake 2001, the need to understand the technology of
seismic upgradation of buildings has been felt more than ever before. The author has
tried to present an overview of various aspects involved in the seismic upgradation of
buildings.
7.23) Hamidi, M., Naggar, M.H.E., Vafai, A and Ahmadi, G., Seismic Isolation of
Buildings with Sliding Concave Foundation (SCF), Earthquake Engineering and
Structural Dynamics, 2003, Vol.32, pp.15-29.
In this paper, a new base isolation system, namely the sliding concave foundation
(SCF) is introduced and the behaviour of the buildings using such a system is
theoretically investigated. A building supported on the new system behaves like a
compound pendulum during seismic excitation. The pendulum behaviour
accompanied by the large radius of foundation curvature shifts the fundamental period
of the system to a high value (e.g. more than 8 sec), in a frequency range where none
of the previously recorded earthquakes had considerable energy, This results in a
large decrease in the structural responses. Since small friction forces are essential on
the contact surfaces, PTFE sheets can be used as sliding surfaces. Although the pure
frictional sliding system have the same efficiency as the SCF, in reducing the
responses of the superstructure, the main advantage of the new system is a significant
decrease in sliding displacement. The performance of the SCF subjected to a number
of harmonic and non-harmonic base excitations is studied and its ability to reduce the
structural response is examined. Some numerical examples are solved for a single
degree of freedom (SDOF) structure and responses are compared with the
responses of the same SDOF structure on a fixed base or a pure frictional sliding
support system. The comparisons confirm the effectiveness of the new system.
7.24) Murthy, C.V.R., Why should Masonry Building have Simple Structural
Configration?, Tech. Report, Learning Earthquake Design and Construction-IITKBMTPC Earth-Quake Tip 13, 2003.
Brick masonry buildings have large mass and hence attract large horizontal forces
during earthquake shaking. They develop numerous cracks under both compressive
and tensile forces caused by earthquake shaking. The forces of earthquake resistant
masonry building construction is to ensure that these effects are sustained without
major damage or collapse. Appropriate choice of structural configuration can help
achieve this.
7.25) Murthy, C.V.R., Why are Horizontal bands necessary in Masonry Buildings?,
Tech. Report, Learning Earthquake Design and Construction-IITK-BMTPC EarthQuake Tip 14, 2003.

52

Horizontal bands are the most important earthquake resistant feature in masonry
building. The band are provided to hold a masonry building as a single unit by tying
all the walls together, and are similar to a closed belt provided around cardboard
boxes.
7.26) Murthy, C.V.R., Why is Vertical Reinforcement Required in Masonry
Buildings?, Tech. Report, Learning Earthquake Design and Construction-IITKBMTPC Earth-Quake Tip 15, 2003.
Horizontal bands are provided in masonry building to improve their earthquake
performance. These bands include plinth band, lintel band and roof band. Even if
horizontal bands are provided, masonry buildings are weakened by the openings in
their walls.
7.27) Murthy, C.V.R., How to make Stone Masonry Buildings Earthquake
Resistant?, Tech. Report, Learning Earthquake Design and Construction-IITKBMTPC Earth-Quake Tip 16, 2003.
Stone has been used in building construction in India since ancient times , since it is
durable and locally available. There are huge numbers of stone buildings in the
country, ranging from rural houses to royal palaces and temples.
7.28) Raghunath, S., Static and Dynamic Behaviour of Brick Masonry with
Containment Reinforcement, 2003, PhD Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
It is well known that one/two storied masonry buildings suffer a great deal of damage
during earthquakes, leading to significant loss lives. It is also true that out-of-plane
collapse of walls causes maximum damage. It is hence evident that imparting ductility
to the brittle masonry is vital in preventing the out-of-plane failure of walls. In this
investigation a new method of reinforcing masonry, termed as containment
reinforcement, has been developed to impact ductility to masonry walls and prevent
this catastrophic failure. Containment reinforcement consists of thin ductile wires
provided on both the faces of masonry walls, held together with the help of lateral ties
provided through the bed joints. The focus of the investigation is on the
characterization of static and dynamic behaviour of un-reinforced masonry and
masonry provided with containment reinforcement. This investigation consists of a
series of experiments and analysis.
7.29) Lindt, J.W.V.D and Goh, G., Earthquake Duration Effect on Structural
Reliability, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2004, Vol.130, No.5, pp.821-826.
The duration of ground motion has been shown to have a significant effect on the
level of damage sustained by engineered structures during moderate to severe
earthquakes. In this technical note, the authors present and apply an approach that
makes use of the fundamental structural period., yield strength , and their regressive
relationship with the number of reversed deformation cycles during a specified
duration. This approach is applied in order to quantify the effect of earthquake
duration on structural reliability using (1) a low-cycle damage limit state and (2) an
Ultimate strength limit scale. The theory of order statistics was combined with an

53

extreme value distribution model of the deformation response peaks in order to


provide full coupling of the seismic hszard with the structural response.
7.30) Peralta, D.F., Bracci, J.M and Hueste, M.B.D., Seismic Behaviour of Wood
Diaphragms in Pre-1950s Un-Reinforced Masonry Buildings, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2004, Vol.130, No.12, pp.2040-2050.
This paper documents an experimental testing program on the lateral In-plane
behaviour of pre-1950s existing rehabilitated wood floor and roof diaphragms in unreinforced masonry buildings found in the Central and Eastern regions of the United
States. Three diaphragm specimens were constructed with elements and connection
details typical of pre-1950s construction. The specimens were tested, retrofitted, and
retested again using different rehabilitation method, including enhanced shear
connectors and perimeter strapping, a steel truss attached to the bottom of the joists
and connected to the vertical lateral force resisting system, and unblocked and
blocked plywood overlays connected to the sheathing and joists. Specimens were
tested under quasi-static reversed cyclic loading to evaluate their in-plane lateral
deformation performance at the selected locations of the diaphragm.
7.31) Anon., How do Earthquakes Affect Reinforced Concrete Buildings?,
Learning Earthquake Design and Construction-IITK-BMTPC Earth-Quake Tip 17,
2004, ICI Journal, pp.23 & 24.
In recent times, reinforced concrete buildings have become common in India,
particularly in towns and cities. Reinforced concrete consists of two primary
materials, namely concrete with reinforcing steel bars.
7.32) Anon., How do Beams in RC Buildings Resist Earthquakes?, Learning
Earthquake Design and Construction-IITK-BMTPC Earth-Quake Tip 18, 2004, ICI
Journal, pp.25 & 26.
In RC Buildings, the vertical and horizontal members are built integrally with each
other. Thus, under the action of loads, they act together as a frame transferring forces
from one to another.
7.33) Anon., How do Columns in Reinforced Concrete Buildings Resist
Earthquake?, Learning Earthquake Design and Construction-IITK-BMTPC EarthQuake Tip 19, 2004, ICI Journal, pp.27 & 28.
Columns the vertical members in RC Buildings, contain two types of steel
reinforcement, namely: (a) long straight bars placed vertically along the length, and
(b) closed loops of smaller diameter steel bars placed horizontally at regular intervals
along its full length.
7.34) Anon., How do Beam-Columns in Reinforced Concrete Buildings Resist
Earthquake?, Learning Earthquake Design and Construction-IITK-BMTPC EarthQuake Tip 20, 2004, ICI Journal, pp.29 & 30.

54

In RC buildings, portions of columns that are common to beams at their intersections


are called beam-columns joints. Since their constituent materials have limited
strengths, the joints have limited force carrying capacity.
7.35) Mosqueda, G., Whittaker, A.S and Fenves, G.L., Characterization and
Modeling of Friction Pendulum Bearings subjected to Multiple Components of
Excitation, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2004, Vol.130, No.3, pp.433-442.
Experimental and numerical studies are used to examine the behaviour of friction
pendulum (FP) bearings to multiple components of excitation. In the experimental
studies, a scaled rigid frame model representing a rigid bridge superstructure on four
FP bearings is subjected to displacement-controlled orbits and earthquake simulations.
Using the test data from bidirectional displacement orbits, the constant friction
coefficient is calibrated for a rate displacement plasticity model for FP bearings. The
earthquake test data are compared with numerical simulations to evaluate the efficacy
of the calibrated models. The studies show that the coupling between the two
orthogonal components is important for representing the behaviour of FP bearings.
Modeling of the forces transmitted by the bearings into the substructure. Tridirectional testing of the regid-block frame shows that the vertical ground motion
component has a small effect on the response of a bridge isolated with FP bearings.
7.36) Mcguire, R.K., Seismic Hazard and Risk Analysis, Earthquake Engineering
Research Institute, Oakland, CA, 2004.
Earthquakes which are normally recurring phenomena of the earths crust have in the
past caused considerable loss of property and life, and much of the distress and
destruction has been due to lack of knowledge of earthquakes and their peculiar mode
of action and of proper precautions against injury.
7.37) Mahmoud R. Maheri, Seismic Vulnerability Of Post-Islamic Monumental
Structures In Iran: Review Of Historical Sources, Journal of Architectural
Engineering, 2004, Vol. 10, No. 4, December 1, pp160166
This paper reports on a study undertaken to investigate the earthquake performance
and assess the seismic vulnerability of post-Islamic monumental structures in Iran.
These structures are primarily of brick masonry construction, though some notable
stone and mud-brick structures also exist. The structures are first classified according
to their structural forms. A review of the available historical and recent sources on the
earthquake behavior of different structural forms is then conducted. A second
classification of the structures is subsequently made according to their seismic
vulnerability. By estimating the location intensity for a large number of past and
present structures, subjected to earthquakes in the last millennium, damage and
survival intensity levels are calculated for different structural groups. Based on the
estimated damage and survival intensity levels, an intensity scale is proposed for the
post-Islamic historical structures in Iran.
7.38) Jocelyn Paquette Michel Bruneau and Svetlana Brzev, Seismic Testing Of
Repaired Unreinforced Masonry Building Having Flexible Diaphragm, Journal of
Structural Engineering, 2004. Vol. 130, No. 10, October 1, pp14871496

55

The in-plane rocking behavior of unreinforced masonry walls is generally perceived


as a stable desirable behavior. However, there may be instances where the available
lateral resistance of such walls would be inadequate. In that perspective, fiberglass
strips were applied to damaged unreinforced masonry (URM) shear walls to increase
their in-plane lateral load-resisting capacity. This paper reports on the dynamic
response and behavior of a full-scale one-story unreinforced brick masonry building
specimen having a flexible wood floor diaphragm. The shear walls were damaged in a
previous test and repaired with fiberglass strips. The results demonstrate the
effectiveness of fiberglass strips in enhancing the in-plane seismic response of URM
walls failing in rocking and bed joint sliding mode. The response of the wood
diaphragm and its interaction with the shear walls have also been studied. As a
consequence of the increased in-plane lateral resistance of URM shear wall, the
diaphragm was subjected to larger deformations in the inelastic range. The evaluation
of experimental results and the comparison with the existing procedures have revealed
that the diaphragm deflections observed experimentally closely matched those
predicted using the Federal Emergency Management Agency 356 and Agbabian,
Barnes, and Kariotis models.
7.39) Bahar, O., Banan, M.R and Mahzoon, M., Studying the Behaviour of Active
Mass Drivers during an Earthquake using Discrete Instantaneous Optimal Control
Method, JSEE: Spring, 2005, Vol.7, No.1, pp.1-8.
In order to control the responses of a building, different control systems may be
employed. To recognize and select a proper control system, a designer has to analyze
many cases. This paper investigates the behaviour of some control systems with
respect to changes in different parameters of an AMD, and various combinations of
masses and control forces of two or three AMDs, and also different locations of an
AMD along the height of a building. In this study we used a recently proposed control
algorithm, named discrete instantaneous optimal control method. A new discrete
weighting matrix strengthens this method.
7.40) Miranda, E and Taghavi, S., Approximate Floor Acceleration Demands in
Multistory Building. I : Formulation, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2005,
Vol.131, No.2, pp.203-211.
An approximate method to estimate floor acceleration demands in multistory
buildings responding elastically or practically elastic when subjected to earthquake
ground motion is presented. The method can be used to estimate floor acceleration
demands at any floor level for a given ground motion record. The dynamic
characteristics of the building are approximated by using a simplified model based on
equivalent continue structure that consists of a combination of a flexural beam and
shear beam. Closed form solutions for mode shapes, period ratios, and modal
participation factors are presented. The effect of reduction of lateral stiffness along
the height is investigated. It is shown that the effect of reduction in lateral stiffness on
the dynamic characteristics of the structure is small in buildings that deflect laterally
like flexural beams. For other building approximate correction factors to the closed
form solutions of the uniform case are presented to take in to account the effect of
reduction of lateral stiffness. Approximate dynamic properties of the building are then
used to estimate acceleration demands in the building using model analysis.

56

7.41) Dinh, T.V and Ichinose, T., Probabilistic Estimation of Seismic Story Drifts in
Reinforced Concrete Buildings, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2005, Vol.131,
No.3, pp.416-427.
Probabilistic techniques are of vital use in predicting the seismic story drifts of
buildings, which vary due to uncertainties in the characteristics of future earthquake
motions. This paper proposes a procedure for evaluating the expected mean and
standard deviation of seismic story drifts of reinforced concrete buildings by
considering both total and story failure mechanisms. The estimation process consists
of a pushover analysis of the structure against inverted triangular forces to evaluate
the most probable mechanism during earthquakes, followed by consideration of the
relative reserve strengths to evaluate the probability of other mechanisms.
7.42) Xu,Y.L., Chen, J., Ng, C.L and Qu, W.L., Semiactive Seismic Response
Control of Buildings with Podium Structure, Journal of Structural Engineering,
2005, Vol.131, No.6, pp.890-899.
A multistory building with large podium structure under earthquake excitation may
suffer from whipping effect due to the sudden change of building lateral stiffness and
mass at the top of the podium structure. An experimental investigation was carried out
in this paper to explore the possibility of using magnetor-heological (MR) dampers to
connect the podium structure to the multistory building to prevent the whipping
effect.
7.43) Berton, S and Bolander, E., Application system for Supplemental Damping
Devices in Seismic Applications, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2005, Vol.131,
No.6, pp.979-983.
Seismic protection systems include the use of special passive devices to introduce
supplemental damping in to structure. In building applications, passive devices are
normally used in brace configurations and activated by a component of the structural
drift. However in applications where small elastic inter-story displacements are
expected, the conventional usage of such devices may not be suitable. Lever
mechanisms, which amplify the displacements and velocities affecting the damping
device, can be employed to overcome this deficiency. This work describes a
displacements application device (DAD) based on a gear type mechanism and
connected in series with a fluid viscous damper (FVD). Laboratory test results are
given here for a small scale version of the DAD-FVD system. Potential
implementations of this application system in civil structure are briefly described.
7.44) Liu, W., Tong, M and Lee, G.C., Optimization Methodology for Damper
Configuration Based on Buildings Performance Indices, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2005, Vol.131, No.11, pp.1746-1756.
Although energy dissipation devices (EDDs) have been used as a viable strategy of
seismic protection of buildings for many years, current design codes do not provides
guidelines for optimizing EDD configuration that may be improve the structures
performance or decrease cost. This paper presents an effective and efficient design
methodology to optimize the EDD configuration based on building performance
objectives. The proposed strategy performance based heuristic optimization approach,

57

uniquely combines the engineering knowledge and an interactive approach to


optimize the EDD configuration for optimal structural performance under earthquake
conditions.
7.45) Anon., Guide lines For Earthquake Resistant Non-Engineered Construction,
Dec 2005., Reprinted by: The National Information Center of Earthquake
Engineering, IITK, Kanpur, India.
Earthquakes are natural hazards under which disasters are mainly caused by damage
to or collapse of buildings and other man-made structures. Experience has shown that
for new constructions, establishing earthquakes resistant regulations and their
implementation is the critical safeguard against earthquake-induced damage. As
regards existing structures, it is necessary to evaluate and strengthen them based on
evaluation criteria before an earthquake.
7.46) Murty, C.V.R., IITK-bmTpc EARTHQUAKE TIPS, Learning Earthquake
Design and Construction, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of
Technology, Kanpur, India. 2005.
Brick masonry buildings have large mass and hence attract large horizontal forces
during earthquake shaking. They develop numerous cracks under both compressive
and tensile forces caused by earthquake shaking. The forces of earthquake resistant
masonry building construction is to ensure that these effects are sustained without
major damage or collapse. Appropriate choice of structural configuration can help
achieve this. Horizontal bands are the most important earthquake resistant feature in
masonry building. The band are provided to hold a masonry building as a single unit
by tying all the walls together, and are similar to a closed belt provided around
cardboard boxes. Horizontal bands are provided in masonry building to improve their
earthquake performance. These bands include plinth band, lintel band and roof band.
Even if horizontal bands are provided, masonry buildings are weakened by the
openings in their walls.
7.47) Balasubramanian, R., Saileysh Sivaraja, S., Senthil, R and Santhakumar, A.R.,
Behaviour of Masonry Building Under Base Shock Vibrations, In: Proc, National
Symposium on Structural Dynamics ,Random Vibrations & Earthquake Engineering,
(Edi) C.S.Manohar and D.Roy, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, 2005,
pp.99-106.
Brick masonry suffers damage during earthquakes. In the Bhuij earthquake, majority
of the masonry structures were damaged because they were built with un-reinforced
masonry. The code of practice for Brick masonry IS 4326-1993 suggests the use of
lintel band to integrate the structure and thus introduce a rigid box like behaviour.
Though the code recommendations are based on the experiments done elsewhere, the
problem is still a complex one because each type of building is unique in
constructions features like different ratio of binder to sand used in mortar, thickness of
mortar and provision of openings etc., In the past research work on brick masonry a
number of contributions to strength and stiffness have been made. So far they have
not considered the effect of slab in their research.

58

7.48) Saileysh Sivaraja, S., Behaviour of Rat-Trap Bond Masonry Building Under
Base Shock Vibrations, Dec 2005, M.S (By-Research) Thesis, Structural
Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, Anna University., Chennai.,
India.
Rat-Trap bond masonry is widely used in the construction of buildings nowadays.
Masonry suffers major damages when it is subjected to seismic loads. The Indian
Code of practice for Brick Masonry IS 4326-1993 suggests that the introduction of
lintel band and roof band will help the structure to perform better when it is subjected
to seismic loads. However, there are no guidelines given in the code for Rat-trap bond
masonry.
7.49) Sahasrabudhe, S and Nagarajaiah, S., Experimental Study of Sliding BaseIsolated Buildings with Magnetorheological Dampers in Near-Fault Earthquakes,
Journal of Structural Engineering, 2005, Vol.131, No.7, pp.1025-1034.
The increase in bearing displacements of sliding isolated buildings due to near fault
earthquakes, with long period pulse type of ground motion is an important problem.
Often supplemental non-linear passive dampers are incorporated into the isolation
system to reduce the base displacement; however this may increase the interstory
drifts and accelerations in the superstructure.
7.50) Colunga, A.T and Osornio, M.A.P., Assessment of Shear Deformation on the
Seismic Response of Asymmetric Shear Wall Buildings, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2005, Vol.131, No.11, pp.1774-1779.
It is well known that shear deformations are of paramount importance in the planar
two dimensional (2D) analysis of shear wall systems, both for strains and stress, so
they should be included in the analysis of such systems.
7.51) Kim, J., Collins, K.R and Lim, Y.M., Application of Internally Damped Shear
Beam Model to Analysis of Buildings Under Earthquakes: Robust Procedure for
Quick Evaluation of Seismic Performance, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2006,
Vol.132, No.7, pp.1139-1149.
A step-by-step procedure for linear analysis of building structures with rigid floor
beams is developed and presented. The method outputs the maximum story drift
envelope, and consists of a series of explicit formulas that do not require iteration.
The basis of the method is an internally damped shear beam model.
7.52) Ryan, K.L and Chopra, A.K., Estimating Seismic Demands for Isolation
Bearings with Buildings Overturning Effects, Journal of Structural Engineering,
2006, Vol.132, No.7, pp.1118-1128.
An earlier procedure that estimates the peak deformation in base isolated buildings is
include overturning and thereby estimate the peak axial forces in individual isolators.
Such tools can be used as part of a design procedure to predict and subsequently
eliminate bearing tension by modifying the design.

59

7.53) Kalkan, E and Kunnath, S.K., Adaptive Model Combination Procedure for
Nonlinear Static Analysis of Buildings Structures, Journal of Structural Engineering,
2006, Vol.132, No.11, pp.1721-1731.
A new pushover analysis procedure derived through adaptive modal combinations
(AMC) is proposed for evaluating the seismic performance of building structures. The
methodology offers a direct multimode technique to estimate seismic demands and
attempts to integrate concepts built into the capacity spectrum method recommended
in ATC-40 (1996) , the adaptive method originally proposed by Gupta and Kunnath
(2000) and the modal pushover analysis advocated by Chopra and Goel (2002).
7.54) Bhardwaj, M.K and Datta, T.K., Semi-active Fuzzy Control of the Seismic
Response of Building Frames, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2006, Vol.132,
No.5, pp.791-799.
A methodology for semi-active control of building frames using multiple semi-active
hydraulic dampers (SHDs) driven by fuzzy controllers is presented. The SHDs are
installed in combination with steel bracings and are placed at different floor levels.
The fuzzy controller is designed for the bottom most SHD.
7.55) Agarwal, P and Shrikhange, M., Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures,
Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, India, 2006.
Seismology is the study of the generation, propagation and recording of elastic waves
in the earth, and the sources that produce them. An earthquake is a sudden tremor or
movement of the earths crust, which originates naturally at or below the surface.
Since it excludes shock waves caused by nuclear tests, man-made explosions, etc.
About 90% of all earthquakes result from tectonic events, primarily movements on
the faults. The remaining is related to volcanism, collapse of subterranean cavities or
manmade effects. Tectonic earthquakes are triggered when the accumulated strain
exceeds the shearing strength of rocks. Elastic rebound theory, plate tectonics,
earthquake size, earthquake frequency and energy, seismic waves, local site effects on
the ground motion characteristics, interior of the earth and seism city of India.
7.56) Murty, C.V.R., Dasgupta, K and Dash, S.R., Open Ground Storey RC Frame
Buildings with 230mm Columns unsafe during Earthquakes, In: Proc, Indian
Concrete Institute, Annual Convention & National Workshop on Earthquake Resistant
Design Construction Retrofit & its Implementation, Kolkata, India, Part-A, 12 & 13
Sep 2006, pp.1-30.
Indias seismic hazard is highly understated; over 60% of India is under the threat of
moderate to severe seismic hazard. RC frame buildings of a special class have been
and are continuing to be built in India, which have open ground stories and 230 mm
wide columns. These buildings are not being designed as per sound practices of
earthquake-resistant design, but are simply being built. Past earthquakes have shown
that these are vulnerable. This paper presents a broad overview of the major issues
associated with such buildings and how they are currently being designed, built and
repaired. Also, simple calculations show that these buildings are highly vulnerable in
shear generated during strong earthquakes. The number of such buildings in the
country runs into tens of lakhs, and these buildings are located in urban areas of

60

moderate to severe seismic zones of the country. Urgent steps are required to (a) stop
any further addition of such buildings, and (b) to make existing such buildings
earthquake-resistant, prevent their collapse and there by the loss of life and property.
7.57) Basu, P.C., Seismic Up-gradation of Buildings: An Overview, In: Proc, ICI,
Annual Convention & National Workshop on Earthquake Resistant Design
Construction Retrofit & its Implementation, Kolkata, India. , Part B, 12 & 13
Sep2006, pp V.1-11
Seismic up-gradation of structures aims at improving the seismic performance of
deficient structures, in terms of their strength, stiffness and ductility, so that they can
withstand seismic effects, current specifications, maintaining desired performance
level. The deficient structures are either damaged by seismic activity, or are in
operation but designed for lower level of seismic design specifications or deteriorated
by ageing effect. A number of terminologies, such as seismic rehabilitation, seismic
retrofitting, seismic strengthening are in use in this connection. Seismic retrofitting
corresponds to up-gradation of deficient structures which are in operation while
seismic up-gradation is associated with the up-gradation strengthening is enhancing
the capability of the structure for improved performance against specified earthquake
hazard level.
7.58) Saileysh Sivaraja, S., Balasubramanian, R., Senthil, R and Santhakumar, A.R.,
Behaviour of Rat-Trap Bond Masonry Building Under Base Shock Vibrations, In:
Proc, National Conference on Earth Quake Analysis and Design of Structures
(EQADS-06)., G.Sankarasubramanian ., PSG Tech, Coimbatore, India, 2006.,
pp.B75-B86.
Rat-Trap bond masonry is widely used in the construction of buildings nowadays.
Masonry suffers major damages when it is subjected to seismic loads. The Indian
Code of practice for Brick Masonry IS 4326-1993 suggests that the introduction of
lintel band and roof band will help the structure to perform better when it is subjected
to seismic loads. However, there are no guidelines given in the code for Rat-trap bond
masonry.
7.59) Rai, D.C and Murty, C.V.R., Effects of the 2005 Muzaffarabad (Kashmir)
Earthquake on Built Environment, Current Science, 2006, Vol.8, pp.1066-1070.
Studying the effect of earthquakes has long been recognized as a necessary steps to
understand the natural hazard and its risk to the society in the long term. A rapid
assessment of general damage survey and documentation of initial important
observations, not only help management of emergency response and rehabilitation
activities, but also help to assess the need of follow up areas of research. The
Muzaffarabad earthquake of 8th October 2005, which caused major devastation on
both sides of the Line of Control (LoC) in Kashmir, presented another opportunity to
further our understanding of earthquake risk in the region.
7.60) Muthumani, K., Gopalakrishnan, N and Sathishkumar, K., Base Isolation in
Structures, In: Proc, Proceedings of National Conference on Innovative
Technologies in Civil Engineering March 20 & 21, Department of Civil Engineering,

61

(Edi) K.Subramanian, V.G.Srisanthi and M.P.Muthuraj, Coimbatore Institute of


Technology, Coimbatore, India, 2006, pp.99-117.
Base isolation as a design strategy for mechanical equipment mounting has been
employed for over several years, but only recently the concept has been seriously
considered for civil structures such as buildings and bridges. Seismic excitation
interacts with these structures at the foundation level, and is transmitted up through
the structure.
7.61) Gajalakshmi, P., Senthil, R and Santhakumar, A.R., Numerical Modeling of
Masonry Model subjected to Base Shock Vibration, In: Proc, Proceedings of
National Conference on Innovative Technologies in Civil Engineering March 20 &
21, Department of Civil Engineering, (Edi) K.Subramanian, V.G.Srisanthi and
M.P.Muthuraj, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India, 2006, pp.514521.
This paper describes how numerical modeling based on a discrete element
formulation has been employed to the response of masonry to seismic loading. The
seismic loading is simulated in experiment by applying impact load on shock table
over which the model is constructed. In analytical work, transient dynamic nonlinear
analysis is carried out to find out the response of the 1/3rd masonry model with and
without roof. Models representative of English bond masonry laid with a weak lime
cement mortar including idealized openings have been investigated. Introducing
R.C.C horizontal band at lintel level strengthens the model. It is concluded that, with
increased mass because of heavy roof leads to the out of plane failure of cross walls.
The results are validated with the available experimental results.
7.62) Arul selvan, S., Perumal Pillai, E.B., Subramanian, K and Santhakumar, A.R.,
Strength Behaviour in Brick Joints, In: Proc, Proceedings of National Conference on
Innovative Technologies in Civil Engineering March 20 & 21, Department of Civil
Engineering, (Edi) K.Subramanian, V.G.Srisanthi and M.P.Muthuraj, Coimbatore
Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India, 2006, pp.610-627.
In this study of brick joints subjected to seismic loads, shear strength of the joint is
often a problem. Sufficient shear strength can be obtained by using rich mortar in the
joints. The behaviour of two types of brick joints with three mixes was studied under
earthquake type loads. The seismic load vs. deformation behaviour under constant
vertical gravity loads was also studied. The shear failures of joints observed. The
shear strength of the joints usually governs the design of brickwork under seismic
loading conditions. The joints were subjected to statically apply lateral load as well as
vertical gravity loads. The results of these tests were compared with different brick
joints. This paper presents the effect of seismic load with vertical gravity loads in
brick work joints.
7.63) Gavridou, S., Pinho, R., Crowley, H., Calvi, G.M., Montaldo, V., Meletti, C and
Stucchi, M., Preliminary Study on the Impact of the Introduction of an Updated
Seismic Hazard Model for Italy, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 2007, Vol.11,
pp.89-118.

62

A new hazard model for Italy has recently been proposed; hazard map has been
produced for various return periods, allowing the values of peak ground acceleration
(PGA) and spectral accelerations for response period up to 2s to be interpolated for
each of the 8,101 Italian municipalities.
7.64) Santhakumar, A.R., Lessons from Earthquake failures, In: Proc, India-New
Zealand Workshop on Seismic Design of RCC Structures, Indian Concrete Institute,
IITM-Chennai, 2007, Section 1, pp.1-16.
An earthquake as a geophysical event is measured in magnitude of energy released
and in duration and intensity of ground shaking. An earthquake as a human event is
measured in terms of loss of life and property. The scale of human event is not always
proportional to that of the seismic event. The casualties and property damage depend
upon population density, types of structures, type of construction, stability of geologic
foundations, and time of occurrence, as well as on the magnitude, duration and focal
distance of the earthquake. The extensive loss of life and property caused by
earthquake may be reduced to a considerable degree by the adoption and
implementation of improved design, sitting and construction procedures practicable
within the context of the cultural and socio-economic constraints prevailing in the
regions. When housing built by traditional methods and using conventional building
materials, does not exhibit the necessary characteristics of earthquake resistant
housing, new design and non-traditional building materials and construction
techniques need to be developed.
7.65) Davidson, B., Earthquake Ground Motion, In: Proc, India-New Zealand
Workshop on Seismic Design of RCC Structures, Indian Concrete Institute, IITMChennai, 2007, Section 2, pp.1-17.
An illustration of the range of earthquake acceleration time histories that have been
recorded. To assist in the comparison, they have been plotted to the same scale and
we can see that they vary in duration, peak acceleration and frequency content. Each
record could be described as a sequence of random accelerations over ridon with a
component of oscillatory motion. The characteristics of the recodes are largely due to
the ground conditions upon which they were recorded, the size of the earthquake and
the distance of the recording site to centre of energy release. Other factors such as the
type of earthquake and the orientation of the direction of recording to the travel path
of the earthquake waves can influence the record, especially for sites close to the
fault. The recorded acceleration time history can be integrated to determine the
ground velocity and displacement time histories. These are shown in Fig. 2.2by the
North South component of the imperial Valley 1940 earthquake recorded at EI
Centro. This record is referred to often as EI Centro.
7.66) Santhakumar, A.R., Provisions of IS 1893 (Part I).,2002., Indian Standard
Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, In: Proc, India-New Zealand
Workshop on Seismic Design of RCC Structures, Indian Concrete Institute, IITMChennai, 2007, Section 3, pp.1-6.
Ground vibrations during earthquakes cause forces and deformations in structures.
Structures need to be designed to withstand such forces and deformations. Seismic

63

codes help to improve the behaviour of structures so that they may withstand the
earthquake effects without significant loss of life and property
7.67) Davidson, B., Response of Multi-Storey Buildings, In: Proc, India-New
Zealand Workshop on Seismic Design of RCC Structures, Indian Concrete Institute,
IITM-Chennai, 2007, Section 4, pp.1-17.
For this investigation four frames have been developed. They are similar in that they
are all three bay and have the same total seismic mass of 10,000/9.81 tones. In
developing the numerical models of these frames, the mass is lumped at the floor
levels and the floor is considered to be rigid in plane. These assumption are consistent
with those made in building design. In each frame, all the beams have been assigned
one set properties and all the columns another. The stiffness of all members have been
scaled so that the period of the first mode of vibration is one second. This process has
resulted in member sizes for the six story frame similar to those that would be found
in design, and those for the three and twelve storey frames, a little similar and larger
respectively. The single storey frame is provided as the equivalent SDF system.
7.68) Santhakumar, A.R., Design of RC Framed Buildings, In: Proc, India-New
Zealand Workshop on Seismic Design of RCC Structures, Indian Concrete Institute,
IITM-Chennai, 2007, Section 7, pp.1-65.
(1) Reinforced concrete is an attractive material of building construction because of
its mold ability, durability, rigidity and economy. (2) Structural design of a RC
building is the process. To define Configuration and Composition. To determine form,
dimensions and reinforcement. To specify material properties. (3) For engineers
involved in design, the reinforced concrete construction process must be understood
and carefully considered throughout the design and detailing steps. (4) Proper
utilization of reinforced concrete requires knowledge, effort, and cooperation from
everyone involved in a project.
7.69) Santhakumar, A.R., Design example of a shear wall building, In: Proc, IndiaNew Zealand Workshop on Seismic Design of RCC Structures, Indian Concrete
Institute, IITM-Chennai, 2007, Section 9, pp.1-22.
In many tall buildings shear walls provide major lateral load resistance for wind and
seismic effects. Their incorporation into the architectural plan is dictated by functional
requirements. For wind loading the governing design criteria is invariably top storey
deflection. When the drift limitations are satisfied it is only necessary to satisfy the
strength requirements for a prescribed load factor (1). In case of seismic loading in
addition to satisfying the limit states of strength and deflection the requirements of
ductility becomes important. During earthquakes shear walls, in addition ton
providing lateral load resistance should allow energy dissipation through post elastic
deformations. It becomes necessary to design shear walls for the required lateral load
resistance and also satisfy the ductility demands during cyclic loading. Shear walls
when designed and detailed properly gives the greater degree of protection against
non-structural damage during moderate earthquake while assuring survival during
major events. This has been demonstrated time and again during past earthquake.

64

7.70) Davidson, B., Comparison of Codal Provisions- Indian and New Zealand
Approach, In: Proc, India-New Zealand Workshop on Seismic Design of RCC
Structures, Indian Concrete Institute, IITM-Chennai, 2007, Section 10, pp.1-11.
Seismic design in New Zealand has evolved over the last 30 years. From an
allowable stress basis to strength capacity approach. This change was lead by
the innovations in design for reinforced concrete, and has been accepted now in the
design of all materials including timer and the design of foundations. The concept of
capacity design is well established as a way of thinking for New Zealand structural
engineers and dominates their design approach. Over the last 15 years, the Loading
Standards (NZS4203:92 and NZS1170.5) have used as the basis of design, a constant
hazard design spectrum. This spectrum is not intended to be an earthquake
spectrum but a spectrum for which, the acceleration at each spectral period has an
equal likelihood of being, exceeded over some passage of time.
7.71) Duggal, S.K., Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Oxford University
Press, New Delhi, India, 2007.
Chapter 6 discusses the behaviour of un-reinforced and reinforced masonry walls. The
chapter also provides an insight in to the behaviour of infill walls, load combinations,
and permissible stresses. Methods for seismic design of walls and bands and
improvement of seismic behaviour of masonry buildings are also elucidated herein.
7.72) Paola, M.D., Mendola, L.L and Navarra, G., Stochastic Seismic Analysis of
Structures with Non-Linear Viscous Dampers, Journal of Structural Engineering,
2007, Vol.113, No.10, pp.1475-1478.
Fluid damper devices inserted in buildings or bridges are commonly used as energy
sinks for seismic protection. In the response analysis of structures with filled damper
devices the main problem exists in the strong non-linear behaviour of such equipment,
as a consequence the differential equation of motion remains nonlinear and the
response spectrum analysis still can not be applied. In this note, by using the concept
of power spectral density function coherent with the elastic response spectrum and by
using the statistical linearization technique, expressions for finding the equivalent
linear damping have been found. Comparisons with results obtained by Monte Carlo
simulations conform that for the kind of non-linearity induced by fluid dampers the
statistical linearization technique gives satisfactory results in term of second order
moments, as well as in terms of absolute maximum peak response.
7.73) Restrepo, J.I and Rahman, A., Seismic Performance of Self Centering
Structural Walls In-corporating Energy Dissipaters, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2007, Vol.133, No.11, pp.1560-1570.
This paper presents elements of seismic design for jointed pre-cast cantilever wall
units designed to rock about their foundation. Gravity loading and pre-stressed unbonded tendons provide the restoring force in these walls. Lateral displacements
eventually result in a separation gap forming only at the wall foundation beam
connection. The gap reduces the wall stiffness and results in nonlinear response.
Design of these walls is made with the explicit objective of ensuring a self centering

65

response. That is the wall returns to its pre-earthquake position up on unloading from
a large displacement excursion.
7.74) Daniel Abrams, Tracy Smith, Jaret Lynch and Shaun Franklin, Effectiveness
Of Rehabilitation On Seismic Behavior Of Masonry Piers, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2007, Vol. 133, No. 1, January 1, pp3243
This paper summarizes research done to evaluate the effect of axial compression on
unreinforced brick masonry (URM) walls and various rehabilitation techniques for
enhancing seismic performance of URM structures. Flexural behavior of slender piers
subjected to repeated and reversed in-plane deflections, and varied axial compression,
is summarized relative to FEMA 356. The effectiveness of four rehabilitation
techniques for improving seismic resistance are examined: (1) adhered fiberreinforced polymer strips; (2) reinforced shotcrete overlay; (3) ferrocement surface
coating; and (4) grouted reinforcing bars within drilled cores. The effectiveness of
each technique is judged relative to the lateral strength and ductility of control piers
with no rehabilitation, which are governed by a nonlinear, elastic rocking mode of
behavior. Experimental results suggest that rocking behavior may be equal to, or
superior to that of retrofitted piers because of the large ductility capacity at the
component level. Test results also indicate that the FEMA 356 document
conservatively characterizes seismic capacity for both non rehabilitated and
rehabilitated unreinforced masonry piers.
7.75) Kim, D.H and Leon, R.T., Seismic Performance of PR Frames in Mid America
Earthquake Region, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2007, Vol.133, No.12,
pp.1808-1820.
The wind moment frame (WMF) method has been and continue to be widely utilized
in the central and Eastern United States, resulting in a very larg population of
structures having been designed without a rigorous analysis with respect to lateral
loads. The primary objective of this paper are to determine whether moment resisting
frames designed by the WMF method are adequate to handle the increased demand on
lateral resistance made by modern seismic codes, and to evaluate and compare the
seismic performance of existing and new moment resisting steel frames with partially
restrained (PR) connections. Three prototype frames were designed and analyzed
utilizing synthetic ground motions for the Mid-America region.
7.76) Padgett, J.E and Desroches, R., Sensitivity of Seismic Response and Fragility
to Parameter Uncertainty, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2007, Vol.133, No.12,
pp.1710-1718.
As the use for regional seismic risk assessment increases the need for fragility curves
for portfolios of structures becomes more important. Fragility curves for portfolios of
structures have the added complexity of having to deal with the uncertainty in
geometric properties, along with the typical uncertainties such as material or
component response parameters. Analysts are challenged with selecting a prudent
level of uncertainty treatment while balancing the simulation and computational
effort.

66

7.77) Trifunac, M.D., Energy of Strong Motion at Earthquake Source, Soil


Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2008, Vol.28, pp.1-6.
This note is the first in a series devoted to a study of the flow of earthquake energy
from the sources to its destination, the soil structure systems, where it will derive the
relative structural response. The basic seismological aspects empirical scaling of
seismic wave energy, Es are reviewed and it is shown how this energy can be
represented by functional of strong ground motions. This constitutes the first required
step, after which this energy will be dissipated along the wave propagation path
arriving as the incident wave energy upon the soil structure systems. The ultimate
goal of this work is to form a basis for formulation of a new design method in which
the power of the incident wave pulses will be capacity of the structure to absorb this
power.
7.78) Yinfeng, D., Yingmin, L., Mingkui, X and Ming, L., Analysis of Earthquake
Ground Motions using an Improved Hilbert-Huang Transform, Soil Dynamics and
Earthquake Engineering, 2008, Vol.28, pp.7-19.
Some limitations of the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) for non-linear and non
stationary signal processing are remarked. As an enhancement to the HHT a time
varying vector auto regressive moving average (VARMA) model based method is
proposed to calculate the instantaneous frequencies of the intrinsic mode functions
(IMFs) obtained from the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) of a signal. By
representing the IMFs as time varying VARMA model and using the Kalman filter to
estimate the time varying model parameters, the instantaneous frequencies are
calculated according to the time varying parameters, then the instantaneous
frequencies and the envelopes derived from the cubic spine interpolation of the
maxima of IMFs are used to yield the Hilbert spectrum.
7.79) Christopoulos, C., Tremblay, R., Kim, H.J and Lacerte, M., Self Centering
Energy Dissipative Bracing System for the Seismic Resistance of Structures:
Development and Validation, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2008, Vol.134,
No.1, pp.96-107.
Buildings designed according to modern seismic codes are expected to develop a
controlled ductile inelastic response during major earthquakes, implying extensive
structural damage after a design level earthquake, along with possibly substantial
residual deformations. To address this drawback of traditional yielding system, a new
bracing system that can undergo large axial deformations without structural damage
while providing stable energy dissipation capacity and a restring force has recently
been developed.
7.80) Tremblay, R., Lacerte, M and Christopoulos, C., Seismic Response of
Multistory Buildings with Self-Centering Energy Dissipative Steel Braces, Journal of
Structural Engineering, 2008, Vol.134, No.1, pp.108-120.
This paper examines the seismic response of 2-, 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-story steel framed
buildings with self centering energy dissipative (SCED) bracing members. The
structures are assumed to be located in Los Angeles, California. Identical buildings
equipped with buckling restrained braces (BRB) are also studied comparison

67

purposes. Incremental static analysis and non linear dynamic analysis under ground
motion ensembles corresponding to three hazard levels were performed. The SCED
frames generally experienced smaller peak story drifts, less damage concentration
over the building height, and smaller residual lateral deformations compared to the
BRB system. Higher floor acceleration peaks were observed in the SCED frames due
to the sharper transitions between elastic and inelastic response assumed in the
analysis. The study also indicated that higher design seismic loads may be needed for
low-rise SCED and BRB frames in order to improve their collapse prevention
performance.
7.81) Vasant A. Matsagar and R. S. Jangid, Base Isolation For Seismic Retrofitting
Of Structures, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, 2008, Vol.
13, No. 4, November 1,.pp175185
Analytical seismic responses of structures retrofitted using base isolation devices are
investigated and the retrofit schemes are illustrated. The retrofitting of various
important structures using seismic isolation technique by incorporation of the layers
of isolators at suitable locations is studied. Three specific structures such as historical
buildings, bridges, and liquid storage tanks are selected to investigate the
effectiveness of the base isolation in seismic retrofitting. Different types of isolation
devices, such as elastomeric bearings and sliding systems are evaluated for their
performance in the retrofitting works. The response of the retrofitted structural system
is obtained numerically by solving the governing equations of motion under different
earthquakes and compared with the corresponding conventional structure without any
retrofit measures, in order to investigate the effectiveness of base isolation in
retrofitting of structures. It is observed that the seismic response of the retrofitted
structures reduces significantly in comparison with the conventional structures
depicting effectiveness of the retrofitting done through the base isolation technique.
This paper also distinctively elaborates on the methods of construction in retrofitting
works involving base isolation.
7.82) Dr Tiziana Rossetto, Dr Navin Peiris, Dr John Alarcon Dr Susanne Sargeant,
Victoria Sword-Daniels, Arup. Craig Libberton Enrica Verrucci, Domenico Del Re
Dr Matthew Free, Arup, The Laquila, Italy Earthquake Of 6 April 2009 A
Preliminary Field Report By Eefit, April 2009.
An earthquake hit the Abruzzo region of Italy on the 6th April 2009 at 3:32am local
time. This earthquake had a moment magnitude of 6.2 MW and a shallow focal depth
( ~8-9 km, according to the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, INGV,
2009: www.ingv.it ). The epicentre of the earthquake is located 95 km NE of Rome
and 10km West of Aquila, the administrative capital of the region of Abruzzo. Aquila
has a population of more than 68,000, and was devastated by the earthquake. The
earthquake intensity was seen to have reached IX EMS-98 (see section 3) in the
proximity of Aquila. In total the earthquake killed 299 people, injured over 1,500
people and approximately 17,000 people are reported to be living in emergency
shelters, (figures correct as of 22nd April, Italian Civil Protection
www.protezionecivile.it). The total cost of damage to buildings is estimated to be 2Bn
to 3Bn Euro (AIR Worldwide), whilst the insured loss to be in the range 200-400M
Euro (AIR Worldwide). Though not of very high magnitude compared to some
worldwide events, this is a significant magnitude for a European country.

68

7.83) Arturo Tena-Colunga and Jess Cano-Licona, Simplified Method For The
Seismic Analysis Of Masonry Shear - Wall Buildings, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2010, Vol. 136, No. 5, May 1, pp511520
In this paper, an improved version of a simplified method to assess lateral shear forces
attracted by shear walls of regular, low-rise masonry structures is presented. This
simplified method for seismic analysis (SMSA) is allowed by Mexican building codes
since the 1970s. The impact of shear deformations in the three-dimensional
distribution of the forces absorbed by these walls is assessed for different wall aspect
ratios (H/L). Based on extensive parametric studies, effective shear area factors (FAE)
originally proposed in the SMSA are modified to improve the estimates of shear
forces using this method. New FAE are proposed for three different performance
levels for the structure: (1) elastic response; (2) completely nonlinear (cracked)
response of all walls along the building height; and (3) partially nonlinear (cracked)
response along the height.
7.84) Marwan T. Shedid, Wael W. El-Dakhakhni and Robert G. Drysdale,
Characteristics Of Rectangular, Flanged, And End-Confined Reinforced Concrete
Masonry Shear Walls For Seismic Design, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2010,
Vol. 136, No. 12, December 1,.pp14711482
This paper contains detailed analyses of an experimental study conducted to evaluate
the ductility, stiffness degradation and energy dissipation characteristics of
rectangular, flanged, and end-confined reinforced masonry (RM) shear walls failing in
flexure. The test program consisted of seven two- and three-story RM shear walls,
with aspect ratios of 1.5 and 2.2, tested under reversed cyclic lateral displacements
simulating seismic loading effects. Documentation of the compressive strains at the
wall toes, wall base curvatures, and ductility levels attained are presented. The paper
focuses on determining the extent of plasticity over the wall height, evaluating the
contribution of flexure and shear deformations to the overall wall lateral
displacements, identifying the trend of stiffness degradation, and quantifying the
amount of energy dissipation. The rectangular walls displacement predictions at
ultimate loads using Canadian Standards Association (CSA) S304.1 were in better
agreement with the experimental results compared to the Masonry Standards Joint
Committee (MSJC) code predictions. However, both the MSJC code and the CSA
S304.1 significantly overestimated the test results for the flanged and end-confined
walls. Analysis of the measured displacements showed that the contribution of shear
displacement to the overall wall displacement was, on average, 21 and 25% of the
total displacement for the walls with aspect ratio of 2.2 and 1.5, respectively. The
relationship between the energy dissipation and the ratio of the post yield to the yield
displacements was found to be almost linear for the test walls. In addition, the wall
stiffnesses degraded rapidly to about 60% of their gross stiffness at very low drift
levels (0.1% drift). Measured compressive strain at the wall toes were almost double
those specified in both North American codes. Extent of plasticity over the wall
height was about 75% of the wall length. The data presented in this paper is expected
to facilitate better understanding of RM wall behavior under in-plane load to
researchers, practicing engineers, and code developers. This study aimed at presenting
the flanged and end-confined categories as cost-effective alternatives to enhance the
seismic performance of mid-rise RM construction in North America.

69

7.85) Dziugas Reneckis and James M. LaFave, Out-Of-Plane Seismic Performance


And Detailing Of Brick Veneer Walls, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2010, Vol.
136, No. 7, July1, pp781794
The out-of-plane seismic performance of residential brick veneer walls built over
wood-frame backup was evaluated as a function of construction detailing. Shake table
tests were conducted on a full-scale brick veneer wall panel, with a window opening,
representing the gable-end wall of a typical home structure; the structural
performance of corrugated sheet metal veneer-to-wood tie connections was also
characterized by separate laboratory testing. The wall panel test specimen was
prepared following typical construction practice for brick veneer wall systems, in
general conformance with current specified prescriptive design and construction
requirements. The shake table tests captured the performance of the brick veneer wall
system, including interaction and load-sharing between the brick veneer, corrugated
sheet metal ties, and wood-frame backup. Detailed three-dimensional finite-element
(FE) models were also developed representing the full-scale brick veneer wall panel
specimen, including nonlinear inelastic properties for the tie connections. After
calibration based on test results, the FE wall panel model effectively captured static
and dynamic experimental brick veneer wall behavior at different response levels, up
to and including tie damage and even instability/collapse of the wall panel. Parametric
studies were then carried out using FE wall panel models to evaluate the effects of
certain types and layouts of tie connections, as well as geometric variations in brick
veneer wall construction. Overall seismic performance of brick veneer walls was
closely related to the individual tie connection deformation limits, especially for
damage in tension. The grid spacing of tie connections, as well as tie installation
along the edges and in upper regions of the walls, controlled the ultimate behavior of
the brick veneer wall panels. Design guides, codes, and current construction practices
have been evaluated in light of the overall findings from these experimental and
analytical studies.
7.86) Fabio Nardone, Gerardo Mario Verderame, Andrea Prota and Gaetano
Manfredi, Comparative analysis on the seismic behavior of combined Rc-masonry
buildings, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2010, Vol. 136, No. 12, December 1,
pp14831496
Since the early 20th century combined RC-masonry buildings have become more
common in European, Mediterranean, and Southern America countries. Despite the
diffusion of this combined building typology, the international guidelines have not
followed building transformation evolutions and, in particular, for combined RCmasonry buildings, nowadays, international guidelines are not exhaustive to deal with
specific issues of this building typology. Although there is a well-established
background focused on the nonlinear analysis of masonry structures and RC frames,
the knowledge of numerical and experimental criteria for the study of interaction
effects in combined RC-masonry buildings is limited. In this paper, nonlinear static
analyses (pushover analyses) on three-dimensional combined RC-masonry buildings
have been performed to obtain capacity curves of single-resistant systems and of the
whole building. The results confirm the code guidelines for the design of new
combined RC-masonry buildings and provide interesting insights about the seismic

70

behavior of combined RC-masonry buildings obtained from the rehabilitation of


original masonry structures.
7.87) Kasim Armagan Korkmaz and Ali Emre Karahan, Investigation Of Seismic
Behavior And Infill Wall Effects For Prefabricated Industrial Buildings In Turkey,
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 2011, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp158-171
Recently, Turkey has been hit by several moderate to large earthquakes that resulted
in significant loss of life and property. The 1998 Adana and 1999 Marmara
earthquakes caused severe damage not only in residential buildings but also in
industrial buildings. Most of the industrial buildings in Turkey are constructed as
prefabricated structures. Prefabricated structures are preferred because of their
economic and rapid production. In the present study, the earthquake behavior and
infill wall effects for single story hinged industrial prefabricated buildings were
investigated. Nonlinear pushover, performance-based, time history, and fragility
analyses were carried out for a sample prefabricated industrial building. Infill wall
effect was investigated by adopting a diagonal strut model. The structural behavior
and loaded formation relationship of prefabricated industrial buildings both with and
without infilled walls were evaluated and compared. Results of the study show that
masonry infill walls can affect the lateral load-carrying capacity and modify the
earthquake response of prefabricated industrial buildings.
7.88) Marwan T. Shedid, Wael W. El-Dakhakhni and Robert G. Drysdale, Seismic
Response Modification Factors For Reinforced Masonry Structural Walls, Journal of
Performance of Constructed Facilities, 2011, Vol. 25, No. 2, April1, pp7486
Abstract: The current North American design standards provide seismic force
modification factors for the rectangular masonry structural walls category only; no
similar provisions for flanged and end-confined masonry structural walls exist. This
study demonstrates that seismic force reduction factor (R) values calculated for
rectangular walls was close to 5.0, which is consistent with the value stipulated by the
ASCE 7, and was 36 and 90% higher for the corresponding flanged and end-confined
walls. The deflection amplification factor (Cd) values calculated for rectangular walls
were higher than specified in the ASCE 7 for the special reinforced masonry wall
category. Values of the ductility-related force modification factor (Rd) for flanged and
end-confined walls were, respectively, at least 30 and 100% higher than those of
rectangular walls specified in the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC).
Quantification of the seismic response parameters within this study is expected to
facilitate adoption of the flanged and end-confined wall categories in North American
masonry codes as a cost-effective technique to enhance the seismic performance of
masonry construction.
7.89) M. Mohammadi, V. Akrami and R. Mohammadi-Ghazi, Methods To Improve
Infilled Frame Ductility Journal of Structural Engineering, 2011, Vol. 137, No. 6,
June 1,.pp646653
An experimental investigation was conducted to achieve engineered infilled frames in
two stages. The first stage was aimed at discovering methods to raise infilled frames
ductility, through testing six single-story single-bay infilled steel frames; three general
techniques were studied, disregarding their manufacturing details. Results show that

71

supplying a sliding fuse in the infill highly efficiently increases ductility; however,
this presents some problems that can be avoided by improving fuse configuration. The
second stage of the testing was conducted with two specimens with an improved
sliding fuse configuration, in which the influences of fuse sliding strength on the
behavior of the infilled frames were studied. On the basis of these results, the infills,
provided with frictional sliding fuses, can be considered to be engineered elements of
high ductility, of transversal stability, and capable of being adjusted for desired
strengths.
8.0 CASE STUDIES
8.1) Ng, K.H., Fairfeild, C.A and Sibbald, A., A Statistical Approach to Brickwork
Arch Bridge Assessment, Tech. Report, Napier University, Edinburgh, 1978, pp.8495.
Three nominally identical laboratory brickwork arch bridges were built and tested on
the collapse to examine the repeatability of such tests. The arches collapsed at 21
KNm,16KNm and 25KNm. Six arch bridge assessment methods, including two
novel risk assessment programs coded by the authors, were used to analyze these
arches. It was concluded that normally identical arches may show significantly
different behavior. Statistical analysis should be performed so that the risk involved
in assessing an arch, either due to imperfect modeling or input parameter variability,
can be quantified thereby making an assessment more reliable.
8.2) Groot, C.J.W.P and Larbi, J.A., The Influence of Interfacial Moisture
Exchange on Mortar Brick Bond Strength, Tech. Report, TU-delf, DELFT, The
Netherlands, 1981, pp.148-156.
Water loss from the fresh mortar is believed to be related to mortar-brick bond
strength development in masonry. Recent research on mortar brick-bond has shown
that, particularly, effects of water flow on the composition and the hydration
conditions of the mortar-brick interface have to be taken in to account to explain bond
strength development. However, many causes of unexpected bond behavior are still
registered, and apparently the insight into this complex phenomenon is still
incomplete. In this paper an attempt is made to increase the understanding by
analyzing in more detail the hydration conditions of the mortar at the interface. To
enhance the potential for a more extension analysis of the test results much attention
was paid to the 'hygric' characterization of the bricks and mortars of the test series and
the use of different interpretation techniques. It is concluded, that not only the water
flow from mortar to brick (which takes place immediately after mortar brick
contact) but also a reversed water flow from brick to mortar (occurring after
compaction and initial hydration of mortar) may significantly influence the bond
strength development.
8.3) Parsekian, G.A and Franco, L.S., Cost Comparative Analysis to the use of PreStressed Masonry in Brazil, Tech. Report, Dept of Civil Engineering, Escoia
Politecnica da University, Brazil, 1981, pp.200-214.
The main aim is to analysis the viability of the use of pre-stressed masonry in Brazil.
Using ideas given in the British code to the use of pre-stressed masonry and the

72

criteria given in the Brazilian code to design un-reinforced masonry two kinds of
constructions are analyzed: retaining walls of 3.0 and 4.0 meters and a water tank of
3.6 meters. The pre-stressed masonry solution is compared to the reinforced concrete
and reinforced masonry solutions. The conclusions of this study that all the materials
needed for the use of pre-stressed masonry are available in Brazil and this can be a
very cost competitive solution. However further studies are needed in order to
determine the behavior of pre-stressed masonry built with materials and process used
in Brazil., especially pre-stress losses and anchorage details, Researches of such
topics are taking place at Escola politenica of Universidade de Sao Paulo in order to
clear these questions are allow the use of pre-stressed masonry in Brazil.
8.4) Raghunath, S., Nanjunda Rao, K.S and Jagadish, K.S., Studies on the Ductility
of Brick Masonry Walls with Containment Reinforcement, Tech. Report, Dept of
Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, India, 1991, pp.241-246.
Improving or imparting ductility to brick masonry wall is an important aspect of
earthquake resistant design of a masonry building. It is also essential to prevent
catastrophic failure of brick masonry walls, which are brittle. In this investigation,
initially un-reinforced masonry walls were tested to obtain strength and elastic
properties. Later, brick masonry units provided with a kind of external reinforcement,
termed as containment reinforcement, were tested to obtain moment-curvature (M-0)
relationship. Vertical masonry units (columns) were subjected to flexure with
eccentric load. Brick masonry, contained with two types of reinforcement viz
galvanized iron wires and mild steel rods, were tested. The experimental
investigations have shown that containment reinforcement improves the ductility of
brick masonry significantly. brick masonry units provided with a kind of external
reinforcement.
8.5) Iyengar, R.N., Performance of Indian Rural Stone Masonry during EarthQuakes, Tech Report, Dept of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, India,
1992, pp.247-252.
Masonry construction of various types has been prevalent in India since ancient times.
Till recently masonry has been popular for all types of constructions including bridges
and dams, with very few exceptions. Even though, with the advent of RCC and the
modern materials, this trend has changed masonry remains popular in urban and rural
areas for building construction burnt bricks., cut-stones and cement mortar are
common, in the rural scenario random rubble masonry (RRM) un-burnt bricks and
mud mortar are still popular. Geo-climatic conditions have encouraged several
patterns in the roof geometry and thickness of the walls. Large variation in material
properties and construction practices pose a challenge in understanding the behaviour
of rural masonry under seismic conditions. In a rural community it is natural and
sensible to built with locally available materials utilizing local level skills. This
perhaps is the single reason for the proportion of RRM stock that exists in the
seismically active regions of this country. A random survey of the rural districts of the
Maharastra affected by the Khilari and earthquake of Sep. 30, 1993, showed that 8590% of the houses were of RRM in mud mortar. This type of construction is
prevalent in other part of the country including the Himalayan regions. Performance
of this rural stone masonry RSM under earthquakes is the subject matter of the present
paper. It is now widely recognized that migration of earthquake hazard calls for

73

proper zonation based on vulnerability of the building stock. This necessitates


analysis of post earthquake damage data. Another motivation for the present work is
the fact that RSM has been identified as the reason for injury and loss of life in the
Uttaraashi, Khilari and other recent earthquakes. Several agencies citing this reason
have been against the continued use of RRM in seismic regions. The relevant question
engineers should be asking themselves is weather the RRM load bearing wall is
intrinsically weak against earthquakes or the failure of the building can be attributed
to other causes.
8.6) Karantoni, F.V and Fardis, M.N., Computed Versus Obtained Seismic Response
and Damage of Masonry Buildings, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1992,
Vol.118, No.7, pp.1804-1821.
The behaviour of and damage inflicted on stone-masonry buildings during the
Kalamata, Greece, Earthquake of 1986 is studied statistically and analytically.
Damage is shown to be almost statistically uncorrelated to the structural geometry of
the buildings and its walls. The response of three typical two-story buildings to the
recorded ground motion is analyzed, assuming linear elasticity and employing three
different idealizations of the structures (1) Elaborate modeling in three dimensions by
the finite element method. (2) Idealization as a space frame and (3) a crude shearbeam type of approximation. In the first two modeling approaches., both in-plane
stresses and out-of-plane bending are taken in to account. The three models are
assessed on the basis of their ability to predict the location and severity of damage.
Finite element analysis is the only reliable procedure among the three alternatives
studied. The results from the finite element method also show that out-of-plane
bending and the transfer of out-of-plane lateral loads to the transverse walls cause
most of the damage.
8.7) Karantoni, F.V and Fardis, M.N., Effectiveness of Seismic Strengthening
Techniques for Masonry Building, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1992, Vol.118,
No.7, pp.1884-1902.
The effectiveness of various seismic-strengthening technique of stone masonry is
assessed through linear elastic finite element analysis. The strengthening methods
examined are (1) Reinforced concrete tie-beams at the floor and roof level: (2)
Replacement of wood floors by reinforced concrete slab: (3) Reinforced concrete tie
columns at the junctions of load bearing walls; (4) Shot-crete jackets over the entire
external and or internal wall surface; (5) Horizontal pre-stressing of the spandrels ;
and (6) Vertical pre-stressing of the piers , Combinations of methods , such as 1 and
2, 2 and 3, 5 and 6, etc., are also studied. The criterion for the effectiveness of the
technique is the mean reduction of principal elastic tensile stresses in the masonry
wall relative to the un-strengthened building for the combination of gravity loads with
a seismic loading representative of the maximum expected earthquake loading in the
buildings conventional life time. Results are given separately for the walls normal to
or parallel to the seismic action, for each story, and for the buildings as a whole. The
most effective strengthening is the two sided shot-crete jockets followed by the easy
to construct combination of RC slabs and a RC tie beam at the top.

74

8.8) Pankaj and Durgesh Rai, C., Performance of Brick Masonry in the Jabalpur
Earthquakes of May 22, 1997, Tech. Report, University of Edinburgh & Roorkee,
UK & India, pp.253-261.
A moderate earthquake (Mb = 6.0) struck Central India on May 22, 1997. The
epicenter of the earthquake was located about 12km SE to the city of Jabalpur. The
maximum intensity observed in the epicenter region was VIII on MMI scale. In such
an earthquake mirror damage to structures can be expected. However, several
structures in the region suffered severe damage. This paper describe the damage
observed in un reinforced brick masonry structures and considers its causes. Poor inplane shear performance, often made worse by large openings, was noted with many
structures all around the quake affected area. Diagonal, shear cracking of masonry
piers were a common sight. Dynamic instability of walls under out of plane loads was
also seen to be an important cause of failure. Most serious failures due to this
deficiency occurred in the star case portion of buildings. The paper also considers the
planning and designed issues such as plan irregularity or asymmetry and vertical
discontinuity, which are attributed as reasons for damage in number of cases. URM
residential buildings, which did not suffered from major layout or planning
deficiencies and where the quality of workmanship and material were good performed
satisfactory.
8.9) Anon., Validation of Rat-Trap Bond Wall and Filler Block Floors, In: Proc,
Building Technology Center, Anna University, Chennai, India, 1997, pp.11-30.
In the conventional English bond wall, the major component of the cost is the material
cost. i.e. the cost of bricks and mortar. Hence reduce the cost, some new technique
should be adopted so as to reduce the brick as well as mortar works consumption. The
Rat-Trap bond is also thermally efficient and intuitively appears to be stronger, since
the number of bed joints in a wall is lesser than that of the wall constructed with other
bonds.
8.10) Ravisankar, K., Raghunath, S and Jagadish, K.S., Shock Table Studies on
Brick Masonry Building Model, Tech. Report, Dept of Civil Engineering, Indian
Institute of Science, India, 1998, pp.277-286.
In this paper the results obtained by the experimental studies conducted on a masonry
model, have been presented. An attempt has been made to simulate ground motions
on a simple box-type un-reinforced masonry building. Prior to the testing, free
vibration study was carried out to obtain natural frequency and damping. For the
purpose of base motion simulation, a shock table was fabricated. The shock table was
fabricated such that the cross walls (longer walls) of the box type structure were
subjected to out-of-Plane motion. Due to the limitation of input energy, a scaling ratio
of 1/6 was adopted. The strength and elastic properties of the masonry used were
obtained. A linear finite element dynamic analysis has been carried out compared the
experimentally obtained response.It has been concluded that shock table study is very
useful in understanding the dynamic behaviour of simple masonry structures.
8.11) Hamilton-III, H.R., Strengthening URM with FRP Composites and Ductile
Connections, REPORT-Council for Masonry Research, 2001, Vol.13, Number.1.

75

Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites can be provide a strengthening


alternative for un-reinforced or inadequately reinforced masonry (URM). Potential
applications include strengthening for a change in lateral loads ( wind or seismic),
repair of inadequate construction or possibly as an alternative reinforcing method for
new construction.
8.12) Samblanet, P.J., 2001 University Professors Masonry Workshop Scheduled
(UPMW), REPORT-Council for Masonry Research, 2001, Vol.13, No.1.
The university Professors masonry workshop is aimed at providing professors with
the resources and background needed to effectively teach masonry design and
construction classes at the university level.
8.13) Borchelt, J.G., International Brick/Block Masonry Conferences, REPORTCouncil for Masonry Research, 2001, Vol.13, No.1.
The most popular topics, in decreasing frequency are: (1) Structural properties of
masonry, including reinforced masonry, (2) Preservation, renovation and
rehabilitation of buildings , (3) Physical properties of masonry, (4) Seismic
performance of masonry.
8.14) Thurlimann, B., Introduction of Post-Tensioned Masonry Structures, Tech:
Report; VSL International Ltd, Berbe, Switzerland, 2001.
The Post-Tensioning masonry combining the most advanced techniques with an old
building material almost forgotten in the education of civil engineers
8.15) Thurlimann, B., Masonry Components and Construction, Tech. Report, VSL
International Ltd, Berbe, Switzerland, 2001.
The most widely accepted definition of masonry is an assemblage of small units
joined with mortar. Horizontal and vertical joints are called bed and head or perpend
joints, respectively
8.16) Thurlimann, B., Properties of Masonry Structures, Tech. Report, VSL
International Ltd, Berbe, Switzerland, 2001.
Masonry is a rather complex composite material. The interaction of units and mortar
joints has attracted the interest of many researchers. Where the strength envelopes of
units and mortar intersect. Based on such models and extensive experimental
research, an almost unlimited number of equations were proposed trying to correlate
masonry compressive strength with unit and mortar strengths.
8.17) Thurlimann, B., Design Considerations of Masonry Structures, Tech. Report,
VSL International Ltd, Berbe, Switzerland, 2001.
Some inherent properties of masonry and statically system of most walls clearly favor
the vertical axis of a wall to be the direction best suited for the placing of the tendons.
For walls made of hallow units the tendons may be placed in relatively large cores at
the centre of the wall. For applications with solid units , cavities and special pockets
may be formed by masonry leaves to place the tendons. Thus the tendons basically are
76

straight at the centre of the wall or at the constant eccentricity. For special
applications such as ties at floor levels, tendons might be placed horizontally if units
with special grooves are used.
8.18) Thurlimann, B., The VSL Post-Tensioning System for Masonry and its First
Applications., Tech. Report, VSL International Ltd, Berbe, Switzerland, 2001.
The VSL system for masonry is an un-bonded system. It utilizes monostrands, ie high
strength steel strands that are greased and coated with extruded plastic for maximum
corrosion protection. A solid and durable duct around the monostrands tendon
provides e third layer of protection. The system is easy to use in the field, eliminating
the multiple couplings of pre-stressing bars and providing a highly superior tension
capacity per weight of pre-stressing steel.
8.19) Jagadish, K.S., Ragunath, S and Nanjunda Rao, K.S., Shock Table Studies on
Masonry Building Model with Containment Reinforcement, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2002, Vol.29, No.1, pp.9-17.
Masonry Buildings are normally very vulnerable to earthquake induced lateral loads.
Current BIS codes specify the use of lintel bands and roof bands to tie the building
together so that the separation of walls can be prevented. In this paper, an additional
feature known as containment reinforcement has been examined. The containment
reinforcement is intended to control post-cracking deflection and impart flexural
ductility to masonry walls.A small rectangular shock table has been fabricated to test
the behaviour of 1/6th scale building models to base shock vibrations. Three models
namely, (a) un-reinforced model (b) model with horizontal bands only and (c) model
horizontal bands and vertical containment reinforcement were subjected to a series
of base shock. The failure patterns of the three models are then studied and efficacy of
containment reinforcement examined. The natural frequencies obtained
experimentally have been compared with the natural frequencies obtained from finite
element analysis. Also the measured acceleration response of the models, subjected to
base shocks, have been compared with the response obtained from a linear finite
element transient dynamic analysis. The have shown that Containment
Reinforcement along with the conventional horizontal bands have prevent
catastrophic failure of buildings. The reserve energy capacity of the masonry
buildings is vastly enhanced due to the presence of ductile containment
reinforcement.
8.20) Jagadish, K.S., Ragunath, S and Nanjunda Rao, K.S., Behaviour of Masonry
Structures during the Bhuj Earthquake of Jan2001, Earth Planet Set, 2003, Vol. 112,
No.3, pp.431-440.
A variety of masonry structures suffered damage during the recent Bhuj earthquake.
Some of the traditional masonry structures had no earthquake resistant features and
suffered considerable damage. This paper annempts to evaluate the behavior of
masonry structures based on the type of masonry used in places like Bhuj, Anjar,
Bhachau, Morbi, Samakhyali and several other places. Quite a few masonry buildings
had used earthquake resistant features like lintel bands and corner reinforcement. The
cracking and failure patterns of such buildings have also been examined. The paper
concludes with a discussion on the relevance of the current codal provisions for

77

earthquake resistance of masonry structures and the direction of further research in


the area.
8.21) Agraeal, S.K and Chourasia, A., Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of
Buildings in Delhi, In: Proc, National Symposium on Structural Dynamics, Random
Vibrations & Earthquake Engineering, (Edi) C.S.Manohar and D.Roy, Indian Institute
of Science, Bangalore, India, 2005, pp.79-90.
History of earthquakes in our country demonstrates vulnerability to seismic hazards.
The recent past, devastating earthquakes in urban areas in India causing heavy
economical losses in terms of loss of life, property, disruption of services and damage
to environment have been of great concern; the experiences have prompted to carry
out in-depth studies and come out with solutions and policies which will go a long
way in minimizing the damages caused by seismic ground motions. In this contest,
microzonation of urban areas have assumed new dimensions.
8.22) Yoshida, O and Dyke, S.J., Response Control of Full-Scale Irregular Buildings
Using Magnetorheological Dampers, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2005,
Vol.131, No.5, pp.734-742.
This paper considers the capabilities of semi-active control systems using
magnetorheological dampers when applied to numerical models of full scale
asymmetric buildings. Two full scale building models exhibiting coupled lateral and
torsional motions are studied. The first case considered is a nine story building with
an asymmetric structural plan. The footprint of this building is rectangular, but the
asymmetry is due to the distribution of shear walls. The second case considered is an
L-shaped, eight story building with additional vertical irregularity due to set backs.
Linear lumped parameter models of the buildings are employed herein to evaluate the
potential of the control system to effectively reduce the responses of the buildings. In
each case a device placement scheme based on genetic algorithms is used to place the
control devices effectively. The proposed control systems are evaluated by simulating
the responses of the models due to the EI Centro 1940 and the Kobe 1995
earthquakes. In the second case, simulations are conducted two-dimensional ground
motions. The performance of the proposed semi-active control systems are compared
to that of both ideal active control systems and passive control systems.
8.23) Rai, D.C and Murty, C.V.R., Effects of the 2005 Muzaffarabad (Kasmir)
Earthquake on Built Environment, Current Science, 2006, Vol.90, No.8, pp.10661070.
Studying the effects of earthquakes has long been recognized as a necessary step to
understand the natural hazard and its risk to the society in the long term. A rapid
assessment of general damage survey and documentation of initial important
observations, not only help management of emergency response and rehabilitation
activities, but also help to assess the need of follow up areas of research. The
muzaffarabad earthquake of 8 October 2005 which caused major devastation on both
sides of the line of control (LoC) in Kashmir, presented another opportunity to further
our understanding of earthquake risk in the region.

78

8.24) Prabavathy, S., Palanichamy, M.S and Sekar, M., Experimental Studied On
Reinforced Brick Masonry Infill R.C.Frame, ICI Journal, 2007, Vol.8, No.3, pp.4346.
Reinforced concrete framed buildings with infill are usually analyzed and designed as
bare frame without considering the strength and stiffness contributions of the infill.
However during wind and earthquake, these infill walls contribute much to the
response of the structure and also the behaviour of in-filled framed building is
different from that of bare framed structures. Although in the past, considerable
research has been done in the field of in-fills, the work using reinforced masonry infills is less. In tall structures the vertical loads do not gives much problem in analysis
and design as they are mostly deterministic. But the lateral loads due to wind or
earthquake are a matter of great importance. These require special considerations in
the design because they produce critical stresses in the structure and cause excessive
lateral sway.
8,25) Hemant B. Kaushik, Durgesh C. Rai and Sudhir K. Jain, Effectiveness Of
Some Strengthening Options For Masonry-Infilled RC Frames With Open First
Story, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2009, Vol. 135, No. 8, August1, pp925-937
Strengthening of masonry-infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings with an
open first story is needed because of the inherent irregularity in such buildings
resulting in their poor performance as observed during several past earthquakes. In the
present study, several strengthening schemes were evaluated for their effectiveness in
improving the performance of such buildings, based on nonlinear analyses of typical
RC frames. Instead of using predetermined multiplying factors for designing the firststory members for higher forces as recommended in some national codes, a rational
method was developed for the calculation of the required increase in strength of open
first-story columns. Other strengthening schemes studied were providing additional
columns, diagonal bracings, and lateral buttresses in the open first story. Code
methods were found to increase only lateral strength (and not the ductility) of such
frames; whereas, some of the alternate schemes studied were found to improve both
lateral strength and ductility for improved seismic performance.
8.26) Valerio Alecci, Silvia Briccoli Bati and Giovanna Ranocchiai, Study Of Brick
Masonry Columns Confined With CFRP Composite, Journal of Composites for
Construction, 2009, Vol. 13, No. 3, June 1, pp179187
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are more and more used in the building
trade for the set up of reinforcing and repair devices. As known, FRP composites offer
higher strength and Young modulus than traditional steel devices, but nowadays
technologies are not able to produce pretension of the wrap in civil engineering
strengthening applications. Moreover, when confining compressed masonry columns
with FRP composites, the effective contribution of the composite cannot be accurately
evaluated. In the present paper, some theoretical relationships available in literature
are analyzed, regarding the evaluation of confinement effect on wrapped masonry
columns. The reliability of these formulations is investigated, comparing the
theoretical values with unixial and triaxial experimental test results; unixial tests were
carried out both on plain and wrapped brick masonry samples. Experimental results

79

are shown not to fit to the formulas of the literature and the reasons of the discrepancy
were searched for in the mechanical process that produces failure.
8.27) Yuri Gorokhovich, Shannon Doocy, Andrei Voustianiouk and Christopher
Small, Assessment Of Mortar And Brick Strength In Earthquake-Affected Structures
In Peru Using A Schmidt Hammer, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities,
2010, Vol. 24, No. 6, December 1, pp634640
This study describes results of surveys with Schmidt hammer conducted after the
earthquake of August 15, 2007 in coastal cities of Ica, Pisco, and Chincha, Peru.
Statistical analysis included comparison of data on compressive strength collected
from various types of buildings in damaged and intact walls and bricks. Results of
statistical analysis suggest that architecture and nonstructural building design
considerations in masonry structures may be more important determinants of seismic
resistance than construction material strength. Comparison of mortar samples with
respect to structure ownership revealed that strength of mortar at test locations in
privately owned buildings was significantly greater than in public buildings.
8.28) Romeu Vicente, Hugo Rodrigues, Humberto Varum and J. A. R. Mendes da
Silva, Evaluation Of Strengthening Techniques Of Traditional Masonry Buildings:
Case Study Of A Four-Building Aggregate, Journal of Performance of Constructed
Facilities, 2011, Vol. 25, No. 3, June 1,.pp202216
Increasing appraisal of the durability, conservation state, and changeable use and
function of old buildings in urban centers relies a great deal on the structural safety
evaluation of vertical load capacity and the ability to resist horizontal forces. The need
to assess seismic vulnerability, particularly of traditional masonry buildings, is a key
issue. Evaluation of the seismic vulnerability of old buildings is essential in the
definition of strengthening needs and minimization of damage from seismic actions in
the safeguarding of built heritage. A three dimensional model was developed for an
aggregate of four traditional masonry buildings located in the old city center of
Coimbra, in Portugal. The finite element modeling of these buildings has aimed to
identify structural fragility, understand the damages detected, and evaluate the global
structural safety of these types of buildings. The primary results obtained in this case
study helped to interpret the structural damage and stress distribution, and verified
global stability and its consequences. Different strengthening techniques to improve
the global behavior of these buildings were modeled and analyzed. A comparison of
the efficiencies of strengthening strategies is also discussed.
8.29) S.Saileysh Sivaraja, T.S.Thandavamoorthy, S.Vijayakumar, S.Moses
Aranganathan and A.K.Dasarathy, (2012), Preservation Of Historical Monumental
Structures Using Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)-Case Studies, In: Proc,
Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Rehabilitation and Maintenance
in Civil Engineering (ICRMCE-2), On Mar 08-10, 2012, (Edi) S.A. Kristiawan and
Sholihin Asad, Sebelas Marat University, Solo, Indonesia.pp483-490.
Multitude of repair schemes are currently available to retrofit damaged civil
engineering structures. Among them, efficient and effective method of repairing
damaged structures is the application of Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) because of
its distinct advantages over other techniques. In the past, several structures have been

80

successfully rehabilitated using the FRP techniques. To quote some examples, a


calcareous masonry bell tower building, about 30 m in height and 1,200 m in width
with a rectangular plan was retrofitted with FRP. Pushover curves for the retrofitted
and un-retrofitted structures presented have disclosed that FRP intervention enhanced
the seismic capacity of the structure. In the case of repairing of underwater prestressed piles, corrosion rate measurements indicated that the performance of the
wrapped piles is consistently better than that the unwrapped controls. The paper
presents a review of using the FRP techniques, their applications, case studies of
repairing civil engineering structures, and appropriate concluding remarks.
8.30) S. Vijayakumar, T.S.Tandavamoorthy and S. Saileysh Sivaraja,, Seismic
Damaged Masonry Structures - A Review Of Case Studies, (2012) In: Proc,
Proceedings of International Conference in Magna on Emerging Engineering Trends
(ICMEET-2K12) on April 12-13, 2012, (Org): Magna College of Engineering,
Chennai, India.pp141-147
Un-reinforced masonry (URM) structures are prone to extensive damages followed by
failure and collapse when subjected to loads resulting from wind, earthquake and
other natural or man-made events particularly when subjected to out-of-plane loads
caused by these loads. Resent earthquakes and terrorist acts have clearly demonstrated
that the development of effective and affordable strategies for the strengthening of
masonry urgently needed. In the past many URM buildings have been retrofitted
using FRP. A review of the failure of URM buildings both unretrofitted and retrofitted
has disclosed that even unretrofitted URM buildings have failed extensively due to
inadequacy in construction and method of execution of retrofitting techniques. The
papers presents the lesson learned from past earthquakes that have occurred especially
in India.
9.0 RETROFITTING
9.1) Lawrence, S.J and Lu, J.P., Use of Fiber-Reinforced Render for Repairs to
Cracked Masonry Walls, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1993, Vol.20, No.2,
pp.63-71.
The investigation culminated in full scale wall tests to prove the adequacy of the
repair technique. The pilot study was conducted by testing small beam specimens and
shear panels of plain brickwork to measure their strength. The cracked specimens
were then rendered and re-tested. It was found that the strengths of these specimens
after repair were up to ten times their original strengths, indicating that the render has
a significant effect in restoring and enhancing strength.
9.2) Binda, L., Baronio, G and Tiraboschi, C., Repair of Brick Masonries by
Injection of Grouts, Journal of Structural Engineering., 1993, Vol.20, No.1, pp.2944.
Repair and strengthening of brick and stone masonry walls by grouting have been
largely applied on historic buildings and dwellings in Italy; nevertheless no great
effort has been taken to test the effectiveness of these techniques.

81

9.3) Mendola, L.L., Papia, M and Zingone, G., Stability of Masonry Walls subjected
to Seismic Transverse Forces, Journal of Structural Engineering., 1995,Vol.121,
No.11, pp.1581-1587.
The stability condition of masonry walls subjected to seismic transverse forces is
investigated by translating the problem in to the analysis of a fixed free ended
prismatic column undergoing static horizontal forces equivalent to the maximum
inertia actions. The column is assumed to be made of a no tension material, with a
linear stress-strain law compression. The solution is achieved by a numerical model in
which the column is ideally divided in to a sufficiently high number of elements, each
with uniform curvature. With reference to the deformed shape corresponding to a load
condition, this approach allows the stress and strain characteristic quantities of a cross
section to be expressed recursively, and the stability domain to be defined in
dimensionless terms. In the general case of a column subjected to its own weight, to a
concentrated eccentric compressive load acting at the top, and to the related horizontal
inertia forces, the results show that large displacement effects, due to the material
flexibility, can considerably reduce the maximum slenderness value corresponding to
the rigid-body equilibrium condition.
9.4) Dritsos, S.E., Seismic Strengthening of Existing Reinforced Concrete Building
in Greece, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1995, Vol.22, No.1, pp.11-20.
Strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings to mitigate seismic hazard, is
becoming more acceptable effectively as compared to the alternative of demolition
and re-building. For improving the seismic behaviour of structures, the number of
strengthening methods and techniques have been extensively used in Greece.
9.5) M. R. Ehsani, H. Saadatnlanesh,:Z Member and A. AI-Saidy, Shear Behavior Of
URM Retrofitted With FRP Overlays, Journal of Composites for Construction, 1997,
Vol. I, No. I, February, pp0017-0025
A large inventory of older masonry buildings exists in earthquake-prone regions. In
most cases these buildings contain shear walls constructed of un-reinforced masonry.
The majority of these buildings were built before any provisions for earthquake
loadings were established. The failures and damages reported in recent earthquakes
attest to the need for efficient strengthening procedures. The effectiveness of
increasing the shear strength of brick masonry by epoxy-bonding fiber-reinforced
polymer (FRP) overlays to the exterior surfaces was evaluated. The variables in the
test included the strength of the composite fabric, fiber orientation, and anchorage
length. The specimens were tested under static loading. The results showed that both
the strength and ductility of tested specimens were significantly enhanced with this
technique. The orientation of the angle of fibers with respect to the plane of loading
had a major effect on the stiffness of the retrofitted system but did not affect the
ultimate strength significantly.
9.6) Shin, C.S and Chen, Z.Z., A Novel method for Repairing Fatigue Crack,
Journal of Structural Engineering, 1999, Vol.26, No.1, pp.55-62.

82

Infiltration of suitable materials in to a fatigue crack has been shown to be able to retard a crack and extend the fatigue life of any component. Development of this
method is reviewed and its current status is reported.
9.7) Anon., Seismic Strengthening Provisions for Un-reinforced Masonry Bearing
Wall Buildings, Guidelines for the Seismic Retrofit of Existing Buildings, DRAFTROUGH, 2000, Chapter-1., pp.1-12.
The purpose of this chapter is to promote public safety and welfare by reducing the
risk of death or injury that may result from the effects of earthquakes on existing unreinforced masonry bearing wall buildings. The provisions of this chapter are chapter
are intended as minimum standards for structural seismic resistance, and established
primarily to reduce the structural seismic resistance, and established primarily
provisions will not necessary prevent loss of life or injury, or prevent earthquake
damage to rehabilitated buildings.
9.8) Anon., Earthquake Hazard Reduction in Existing Reinforced Concrete and
Reinforced Masonry Wall Buildings with Flexible Diaphragms, Guidelines For the
Seismic Retrofit of Existing Buildings, DRAFT-ROUGH, 2000, Chapter- 5, pp.1 & 2.
The purpose of this chapter is to promote public safety and welfare by reducing the
risk of death or injury that may result from the effects of earthquakes on reinforced
concrete and reinforced masonry wall buildings with flexible diaphragms. These
buildings have been categorized, based on the past earthquakes, as being potentially
hazardous and prone to significant damage, including possible collapse in a moderate
to major earthquake. The provisions of this chapter are minimum standards for
structural dynamic resistance established primarily to reduce the risk of life loss or
injury on both subject and adjacent properties. These provisions will not necessarily
prevent loss of life or injury or prevent earthquake damage to an existing building that
complies with these standards.
9.9) Tinazzi, D., Modena, C and Nanni, A., Strengthening of Masonry Assemblages
with FRP Rods and Laminates, In: Proc, International Meeting on Composite
Materials & Advancing with Composites, PLAST 2000, Italy, pp.411-418.
The present study, part of the collaboration project between the University of
Missouri- Rolla and University of Padua, investigates in-plane and out-of-plane load
conditions applied to different constructive typologies of FRP strengthened masonry
panels.
9.10) Taghdi, M., Bruneau, M and Saatcioglu, M., Seismic Retrofitting of Low Rise
Masonry and Concrete Walls using Steel Strips, Journal of Structural Engineering.,
2000,Vol.126, No.9, pp.1017-1025.
Four concrete block masonry and two reinforced concrete walls were designed to
simulate low-rise non ductile walls built decades ago, before the enactment of
earthquake resistant design provisions. Two masonry walls were un-reinforced and
two were partially reinforced. The concrete walls had minimum reinforcement. One
wall from each pair was retrofitted using a steel strips system consisting of diagonal
and vertical strips that were attached using through thickness bolts. Stiff steel angles

83

and anchor bolts were used to connect the steel strips to the foundation and the top
loading beam. All walls were tested under combined constant gravity load and
incrementally increasing in-plane lateral deformation reversals. The lightly reinforced
concrete walls were also repaired using only vertical strips and retested. These tests
showed that the complete steel strips system was effective in significantly increasing
the in-plane strength and ductility of low rise un-reinforced and partially reinforced
masonry walls and lightly reinforced concrete walls.
9.11) J. I. Velazquez-Dimas and M. R. Ehsani, Modeling out-of-plane behavior of
urm walls retrofitted With fiber composites, Journal of Composites for Construction,
2000, Vol. 4, No. 4, November, pp01720181
Although masonry is one of the oldest construction materials, its behavior has not
been investigated as extensively as other construction materials. Out-of-plane failures
are common in unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings constructed in seismic
regions. Seven half-scale brick masonry walls were constructed, externally
strengthened with vertical glass-fabric composite strips, and subjected to static cyclic
out-of-plane loading. The flexural behavior of the tested specimens is characterized
by three main stages corresponding to the first visible bed-joint crack, the first
delamination, and the ultimate load. The main parameters being investigated in this
study are the amount of composite, the height-to-thickness ratio h/t, the tensile strain
in composites, and the mode of failure. Based on the trends observed in the
experimental phase, it was concluded that the behavior of the walls is best predicted
with a linear elastic approach. It was also concluded that the ultimate strength method
overestimates the flexural capacity and the ultimate deflection of the wall. Preliminary
design recommendations are also proposed for tensile strain in the composite,
maximum deflection, and maximum reinforcement
ratio.
9.12) Maria Rosa Valluzzi, Maurizio Valdemarca and Claudio Modena, Behavior Of
Brick Masonry Vaults Strengthened By Frp Laminates, Journal of Composites for
Construction, 2001, Vol. 5, No. 3, August, pp01630169
The results of experimental research on brick masonry vaults strengthened at their
extrados or at their intrados by fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) strips is presented
here. The presence of the fibers prevents the typical brittle collapse that occurs in a
plain arch because of the formation of four hinges; therefore, depending on the
position and amount of the reinforcement in the strengthened vaults, three
mechanisms are possible: (1) masonry crushing, (2) detachment of the fibers; and (3)
sliding along a mortar joint due to the shear stresses. Some first theoretical approaches
describing some of these mechanisms are discussed, and the formulation of further
models based on the local interaction among the constituent materials is proposed. Six
masonry vaults strengthened by glass FRPs or carbon FRPs have been tested. The
results have pointed out the enhancement in strength and ductility of the strengthened
vaults and the influence in the ultimate strength of the width of the strips and of the
bond between the laminate and the masonry.
9.13) Paqutte, J., Bruneau, M and Filiatrault, A., Out-of-plane Seismic Evaluation
and Retrofit of Turn of the Century North American Masonry Walls, Journal of
Structural Engineering, 2001, Vol.127, No.5, pp.561-569.

84

Three masonry walls with their wood backing were extracted from an old three storey
residential building. These specimens are representative of a type of construction
widely used in North America Circa 1900, in which a single wythe exterior masonry
wall was tied only with nails to the timber structure, leaving an irregular gap between
the masonry and timber walls.
9.14) Albert, M.L., Elwi, A.E and Cheng, J.J.R., Strengthening of Un-Reinforced
Masonry Walls using FRPs, Journal of Composite for Construction, 2001,Vol.5,
No.2, pp.76-84.
An experimental program conducted at the university of Alberta showed that
externally applied fiber reinforced polymers ( FRPs ) are effective in increasing the
load carrying capacity of un-reinforced masonry walls that are subjected to out-ofplane flexural loads. Ten walls with a height of 4m were used to conduct 13 tests in
two series. Both undamaged and slightly damaged walls were tested. The following
experimental parameters investigated; (1) Type of fiber reinforcement; (2) Amount of
fiber reinforcement; (3) Layout of fiber reinforcement; (4) Effects of moderate
compressive axial load; and (5) Cyclic behaviour. This paper briefly reviews the
existing rehabilitation methods available and explains why the use of FRPs as external
reinforcement is a possible alternative. The general behaviour of the specimens is
discussed with emphasis on the load deflection and strain characteristics. The modes
of failure are identified and categorized. Finally, a simple analytical model is
proposed and compared with the test results followed by a summary of the major
results.
9.15) Valluzzi, M.R., Valdemarca, M and Modena, C., Behaviour of Brick Masonry
Vaults Strengthened by FRP Laminates, Journal of Composite for Construction,
2001, Vol.5, No.3, pp.163-169.
The results of experimental research on brick masonry vaults strengthened at their
extrados or at their intrados by fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) strips is presented
here. The presence of the fibers prevents the typical brittle collapse that occurs in a
plain arch because of the formation of four hinged; there fore depending on the
position and amount of the reinforcement in the strengthened vaults, three
mechanisms are possible; (1) Masonry crushing; (2) Detachment of the fibers; and (3)
Sliding along a mortar joint due to the shear stresses. Some first theoretical
approaches describing some of these mechanisms are discussed, and the formulation
of further models based on the local interaction among the constituent materials is
proposed. Six masonry vaults strengthened by glass FRPs or carbon FRPs have been
tested. The results have pointed out the enhancement in strength and ductility of the
strengthened vaults and the influence in the ultimate strength of the width of the strips
and of the bond between the laminate and the masonry.
9.16) Hamilton-III, H.R and Dolan, C.W., Flexural Capacity of Glass FRP
Strengthened Concrete Masonry Walls, Journal of Composite for Construction,
2001, Vol.5, No.3, pp.170-178.
Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) can provide a strengthening alternative for unreinforced and under-reinforced masonry. The case with which FRP can be installed

85

on the exterior of a masonry wall makes this form of strengthening alternative to the
owner, considering both reduced installation cost and down time of the occupied
structures. Six un-reinforced concrete masonry walls ( 4 @ 1.80 m tall and 2 @ 4.70
m tall ) were tested in out-of-plane flexure up to capacity. The walls are strengthened
with glass FRP composite composed of uni-directional E-glass fabric with an epoxy
matrix. The composite was adhered to the surface of the masonry using the same
epoxy with the fibers oriented perpendicular to the bed joints. General flexural
strength design equations are presented and compared with the results of the testing. It
was found that the equations over predicted the actual capacity of the test specimens
by no more than 20 %.
9.17) Hamoush, S.A., MeGiney, M.W., Mlakar, P., Scott, D and Murray, K., Out-ofPlane Strengthening of Masonry Walls with Reinforced Composites, Journal of
Composites for Construction, 2001, Vol.5, No.3, pp.139-145.
This paper presents an investigation into the effectiveness of using fiber-reinforced
composites overlays to strengthen existing un-reinforced masonry walls to resist outof-plane static loads. A total of fifteen wall panels [1,200 X 1,800 X 200 mm] were
tested. Twelve panels were assembled with fiber reinforcing systems attached to the
tension side, and the remaining three control walls were left without any external
reinforcement.
9.18) Tumialan, J.G., Galati, N., Namboorimadathil, S.M and Nanni, A.,
Strengthening of Masonry with FRP Bars, ICCI, 2002, San Francisco, CA, pp.1-12.
For the retrofitting of the civil infrastructure, an alternative to Fiber Reinforced
Polymer (FRP) externally bounded laminates is the Near Surface Mounted (NSM)
FRP bars. This technique consists of placing a bar in a grove cut in to the surface of
the member being strengthened.
9.20) Nghiem, D.X., Seismic Strengthening Provisions for Un-reinforced Masonry
Bearing Wall Buildings, 2002, Tech.Report, Guidelines for seismic retrofit of
existing buildings.
(1)Seismic load has increased for soil effect and proximity of faults. (2) Strength
design has been introduced with the 1977 code. (3) The need for URM retrofit need
has spread to other zones other than zone 4. (4) experience was gained from recent
earthquakes.
9.21) Bhagavan, N.G., Sreenath, H.G., Chandra, A.R and Vimalanandam, V., A
Novel Concept of Reinforcing the Brick Masonry as Shear wall Structural System for
Earthquakes Resistant Construction, Tech. Report, Earthquake Resistant StructuresCE & CR., 2003, pp.60-66.
Masonry structural system is the most popular building construction technology in
rural and semi-urban areas of our country. Unfortunately both non engineered and
semi engineered masonry structures that collapsed among other types of buildings,
during the recent earthquakes in India. Sudden collapse of masonry structures during
earthquakes, not only resulted in heavy loss of property. But also in heavy loss of
human lives. Though earthquakes are natural hazards they have resulted as man made

86

disasters only because of improper construction practices. Hence, to avoid collapse of


building structures and to improve ductility of the masonry. The technique of
reinforcing the masonry is recommended as one of the improved construction
practices.
9.22) Arya, A.S., Seismic Status of Masonry Buildings in India and their
Retrofitting, Tech. Report, Earthquake Resistant Structures-CE & CR, 2003, pp.3245.
During the last 100 years India has lost about 100,000 lives due to earthquakes, or an
average of about 1000 lives per year. The corresponding average for the whole world
is about 18000 lives per year. It may be argued that these figures are not so impressive
since Traffic accidents now may be accounting for many more lives than the above.
But when one looks at such figures as 20,000 lives perishing in a matter of seconds in
the 1905 Kangra (HP) Earthquake of M=8.0 or 13800 lives lost in the recent Kachchh
(Gujarat) earthquake of 2001, together with hundreds of thousands of houses that
collapsed or were severally damaged in each event, one can imagine its impact on the
misery of the survivors and the economy of the region affected by the earthquake.
Even more important is the question if the 1905 Kangara earthquake is to repeat
itself. Which would not be unlikely after a hundred years or more what would be the
shape of the things then? The startling answer would be that there will be many
mare houses as well as people to suffer the consequences since the wood framed brick
nogged construction adopted after the 1905 earthquake in urban areas has long been
forgotten and the highly vulnerable brick and stone construction using mud mortar,
have taken its place. No wonder that in the Dharmasala earthquake of only M= 5.7
several thousand building got severally damaged requiring extensive repair and
reconstruction costing Rs.65 crores .
9.23) Kuzik, M.D., Elwi, A.E and Cheng, J.J.R., Cyclic Flexure Tests of Masonry
Walls Reinforced with Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Sheets, Journal of
Composites for Construction, 2003, Vol.7, No.1, pp.20-30.
The research work reported here investigates the out-of-plane flexural behaviour of
masonry walls reinforced externally with glass fiber reinforced polymer sheets and
subjected to cyclic loading.
9.24) Foraboschi,P Strengthening of Masonry Arches with Fiber-Reinforced
Polymer Strips, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2004, Vol.8, No.3, pp.191-202.
This paper deals with masonry arches and vaults strengthened with surface fiberreinforced-polymer (FRP) reinforcement in the form of strips bonded at the extrados
and/ or intrados, considering strip arrangements that prevent hinged mode failure, so
the possible failure modes are: (1) crushing, (2) Sliding., (3) De-bonding, and (4) FRP
rupture. Mathematical models are presented for predicting the ultimate load
associated with each of such failure modes. This study has shown that the reinforced
arch is particularly susceptible to failure by crushing, as a result of an ultimate
compressive force being collected by a small fraction of the cross section. Failure by
sliding has to be considered if the re-inforcement is at the extrados and loading is
considerably non-symmetric

87

9.25) Saiidi, M.S and Cheng, Z., Effectiveness of Composites in Earthquake Damage
Repair of Re-inforced Concrete Flared Column, Journal of Structural Engineering,
2004, Vol.8, No.4, pp.306-314.
A method to utilize fiber composites for rapid repair of earthquake damaged flared
columns was developed. Two 0.4- scale reinforced concrete columns that had been
tested to failure in previous research were used. Both columns had been subjected to
slow cyclic loads and had failed due to low cycle fatigue of the longitudinal bars. To
repair the columns, the damaged concrete in and around the plastic hinge was
removed and steel bars were straightened. Low shrinkage, high strength concrete
grout was placed in the column afterward. The broken longitudinal bars were not
replaced. Rather glass and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets with fibers
running in the axial direction of the column were added to provide flexural strength to
the columns. Additionally, glass FRP sheets with horizontal fibers were attached on
the column to provide confinement and shear strength. Cyclic tests of the repaired
columns indicated that the method to restore the strength was effective, Analysis
using conventional constitutive relationships led to a close estimate of the lateral load
response of the models.
9.26) Tan, K.H and Patoary, M.K.H., Strengthening of Masonry Walls against Outof-Plane Loads Using Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement, Journal of
Composites for Construction, 2004, Vol.8, No.1, pp.79-87.
Thirty masonry walls strengthened using three different fiber-reinforced polymer
(FRP) systems, with three anchorage methods, were fabricated and tested under a
concentrated lead over a 100 mm square area or a patch load over a 500 mm square
area. The test results indicated a significant increase in the out-of-plane wall strength
over a un-strengthened wall. While failure occurred in the un-strengthened wall by
bending, four different modes of failure, that is, punching shear through the bricks,
de-bonding of FRP reinforcement from the masonry substrate, crushing of brick in
compression, and tensile rupture of the FRP reinforcement, were observed in the
strengthened walls, depending on the types and configurations of FRP and anchorage
systems. With appropriate surface preparation and anchorage systems, premature
failure due to FRP de-bonding is prevented. Based on the principles of strain
compatibility and force equilibrium, simple analytical models are presented to predict
the ultimate load carting capacity of the strengthened walls. The test results compared
well with the analytical predictions.
9.27) Agarwal, P and Thakkar, S.K., Quasi-Static Tests on Brick Masonry House
Models for Evaluation of Retrofitting Measures, Tech. Report, Dept of Earthquake
Engineering., University of Roorkee, India, 2004, pp.228-235.
The retrofitting of seismically deficient masonry buildings is a viable alternative to
reconstruction. It is necessary to evaluate effectiveness of the existing and refitting
techniques and upgrade these for better performance. Two retrofit models have been
tested up to ultimate failure and their strength, deformability, energy dissipation
capacity, hysteretic behaviour, damping, crack patterns have been compared with the
original models. The models have been retrofitted by epoxy sand mortar and cement
grout injection with welded wire mesh methods. The models are subjected to alternate
cyclic quasi-static loading in the form of sine weep waves. The epoxy and mortar

88

technique of retrofitting of cracked areas can restore the original strength, stiffness
and deformation capacity. Cement grouting and welded wire mesh are effective to
regain the ultimate strength but it not much effective to increase the deformation
capacity of damaged model.
9.28) Singh, K.K., Gupta, V.K and Bala, S., Retrofitting or Rehabilitation of
Masonry Prisms, Tech. Report, Dept of Earthquake Engineering, University of
Roorkee, India, 2004, pp.236-240.
Brick masonry construction is used extensively in India for low-rise buildings. In
areas where good quantity bricks are available loads bearing masonry construction is
used for up to 3 or 4 storey for residential, commercial and government buildings. In
U.K. brickwork construction is used for buildings up to 12 or 14 storey.
Brick masonry columned jacketed by ferro-cement have an increased load
carrying capacity and seismic resistance. The corresponding increase in cross-section
size is small. This technique can be applied to new construction as well as for repair
and retrofitting of old buildings. In case damaged or distressed columns their strength
may be restored at a small cost. The same technique can be extended to brick masonry
columns.
In this paper the authors review the work on jacketing of ferro-cement brick
masonry columns.. The formulations for calculation of strength increase of such
columns are included. The experimental results and formulations for strengthening of
damaged columns are also covered. These result show that jacketing by ferro-cement
improves the strength of damaged as well as undamaged brick masonry columns.
9.29) Jaisingh, M.P., Repair or Seismic Strengthening of Earthquake Damaged
Houses in Garhwal Region of UP, Tech. Report, Central Building Research Institute,
Roorkee, India, 2004, pp.262-276.
An earthquake of magnitude 6.8 on the richer scale had occurred in the Garhwal
region of 29th March 1999, resulting in destruction / severe damage to houses and
other buildings, mostly in Chamoli and Rudraprayag Districts. A population of about
4.4Lakhs, living in 3166 villages, was affected in the earthquake. About 4500 houses
were fully damaged and 26000 houses partially damaged. Alarmed by the situation,
Govt. of UP entered in to a Memorandum of Understanding with Central Building
Research Institute for getting advice on rehabilitation and reconstruction in the
affected area. One of the tasks carried out by the institute under the MoU was training
of engineers and master craftsmen in repair and strengthening of the damaged houses
and demonstration of the remedial measures to generate confidence of the public in
such measures. The paper is based on the above mentioned work carried out by CBRI
in Garhwal region. Types of prevalent construction, nature of damage/distress
observed, structural weakness in the prevalent construction practices and
recommendations for improving structural safety of the buildings are discussed in the
paper. Recommended measures of for repair/seismic strengthening of the damaged
houses are explained and details of the demonstration of the measures carried out on a
house in Chamoli Distt. are discussed.
9.30) Rai, D.C., Seismic Strengthening of Rocking Critical Masonry Piers, Tech.
Report, Dept of Earthquake Engineering, University of Roorkee, India, 2004, pp.287295.

89

Systems of discrete wall piers and spandrels created by openings are significantly
weak in resisting in-plane lateral loads. For rocking-critical masonry piers, the
overall lateral behaviour can be significantly improved by installing a system of
horizontal and vertical elements. These new elements restrain the rocking motion of
piers and enhance their rocking capacity. These stabilized piers rocked through a
number of cycles of large displacements (up to 2.5% storey drift) without
disintegrating, displaying a ductile response. The strengthened system has excellent
strength, stiffness and ductility despite the brittleness of masonry because of
considerable load sharing between the existing masonry and newly added elements.
Typically these vertical elements are moderate size and can be traditional steel
sections, steel tendons, flat bars or fiber reinforced fabrics and boards which can be
directly applied to masonry.
9.31) Dakhakhni, W.W., Hamid, A.A and Elgaaly, M., Seismic Retrofit of Concrete
Masonry In-filled Steel Frames with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Laminates,
Journal of Structural Engineering, 2004, Vol.130, No.9, pp.1343-1352.
An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of retrofitting unreinforced concrete masonry in-filled steel frame structures using glass fiber
reinforced polymer (GFRT) laminates. The study focuses on enhancing the in-plane
seismic behaviour of un-reinforced masonry (URM) infill walls when subjected to
displacement controlled cyclic loading.
9.32) Ghobarah, A and Amoury, T.E., Seismic Rehabilitation of Deficient Exterior
Concrete Frame Joints, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2005, Vol.9, No.5,
pp.408-416.
The performance of rehabilitated reinforced concrete beam-column joints was
compared with the response of existing joints designed to pre-seismic codes to assess
proposed rehabilitation techniques. Six beam column sub assemblies with non-ductile
reinforcement detailing were tested. The joints were subjected to quasi-static load that
simulates seismic forces. The first three specimens had inadequate anchorage length
of the beam bars. Two of the beam column joints were strengthened by glass fiber
reinforced polymer jackets of the joint zone and steel rods/plates. The rehabilitation
techniques were found effective in eliminating the brittle joint shear and steel bar
bond slip failure mode, and ductile beam hinging instead occurred.
9.33) Elgawady, M.A., Lestuzzi, P and Badoux, M., In-Plane Seismic Response of
URM Walls Upgraded with FRP, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2005,
Vol.9, No.6, pp.524-535.
Recent earthquakes have shown the vulnerability of un-reinforced masonry (URM)
buildings, which have led to an increasing demand for techniques to upgrade URM
buildings. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) can provide an upgrading alternative for
URM buildings. This paper presents results of dynamic tests investigating the in-plane
behaviour of URM walls upgraded with FRP (URM-FRP). These tests represents
pioneer work in this area (dynamic and in-plane). Five half scale walls were built,
using half scale brick clay units, and upgraded on one face only.

90

9.34) Yoshida, O and Dyke, S.J., Response Control of Full Scale Irregular Buildings
Using Magnetorheological Dampers, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2005,
Vol.131, No.5, pp.734-742.
This paper considers the capabilities of semiactive control systems using
magnetorheological dampers when applied to numerical models of full scale
asymmetric buildings. Two full scale building models exihibiting coupled lateral and
torsional motions are studied. The first case considered is a nine story building with
an asymmetric structural plan. The foot print of this building is rectangular, but the
asymmetry is due to the distribution of shear walls.
9.35) Kesner, K and Billington, S., Investigation of Infill Panels Made from
Engineered Cementitious Composites for Seismic Strengthening and Retrofit,
Journal of Structural Engineering, 2005, Vol.131, No.11, pp.1712-1720.
An In-fill system for frame structures has been developed as a retrofit strategy for
critical facilities. The system uses pre-cast panels made with an engineered
cementitious composite (ECC) material in lieu of a traditional reinforced concrete/
masonry. The ECC material is advantageous due to the increased tensile strain
capacity and compressive toughness of the material relative to traditional materials.
Finite element simulations were performed to identify promising infill geometries. A
series of structural scale tests was developed from the simulation results.
9.36) Van Ziji, G.P.A.G and De-Vries, P.A., Masonry Wall Crack Control with
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2005,
Vol.9, No.1, pp.84-89.
Re-strained shrinkage is a major source of damage to buildings. By the combination
of different construction materials, or through different conditions of exposure of
different structural elements, differential dimensional change occurs. There by, stress
arise, which can cause cracking, In recent combined experimental and numerical
research projects, this source of damage to masonry walls has been combined. The
ability has been developed to predict the level of damage computationally. This paper
addresses a method to reduce the width of cracks in masonry walls subjected to
restrained shrinkage, to acceptable levels. Crack control by externally applied carbon
fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) reinforcement is studied. Although structural
strengthening by CFRP reinforcement is actively researched, its application here to
preserve structural serviceability is novel. An experiment was designed and
performed to study the response of an un-reinforced masonry wall to restrained
shrinkage. Subsequently the wall was repaired and reinforced on one face with CFRP
strips. The required CFRP reinforcement was designed by finite element analysis,
which also served as prediction of the response of the required wall to restrained
shrinkage.
9.37) Krevaikas, T.D and Triantafillou, T.C., Masonry Confinement with FiberReinforced Polymers, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2005, Vol.9, No.2,
pp.128-135.
The application of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) as a means of increasing the axial
capacity of masonry through confinement a subject not addressed before, is

91

investigated in this study. Four series of uni-axial compression tests, with a total of 42
specimens, were conducted a model masonry columns with these variables: number of
layers, radius in the corners, cross-section aspect ratio and types of fibers. It is
concluded that, In general FRP confined masonry behaves very much like FRP
confined concrete. Confinement increases load carrying capacity and the
deformability of masonry almost linearly with the average confining stress. The uniaxial compression test results enabled the development of a simple confinement
model for strength and ultimate strain of FRP confined masonry. This model is
consistent with the test results obtained here, but should attract further experimental
verification in the future to account for types of masonry materials other than those
used in this study.
9.38) Masoud, S., Soudki, K and Topper, T., Post-Repair Fatigue Performance of
Fiber- Reinforced Polymers (FRP) Repaired Corroded RC Beams: Experimental and
Analytical Investigation, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2005, Vol.9, No.5,
pp.441-449.
This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical study of the fatigue
performance of corroded reinforced concrete beams repaired with fiber reinforced
polymer (FRP) sheets. Ten RC beam specimens (152x254x3,200 mm) were
constructed. One specimen was neither strengthened nor corroded to serve as a
reference; three specimens were corroded and not repaired; another three specimen
were corroded and repaired with U-shaped glass FRP sheets wrapped the cross
section of the specimens and the remaining three specimens were corroded and
repaired with U-shaped glass FRP sheets for wrapping and carbon fiber reinforced
polymer (CFRP) sheets for flexural strengthening. The FRP sheets were applied after
the main reinforcing bars were corroded to an average mass loss of 5.5%. Following
FRP repair some specimen were tested immediately to failure., while other repaired
specimens were subjected to further corrosion before being tested to failure to
investigate their post repair performance. Reinforcement steel pitting due to corrosion
reduced to fatigue life significantly. The FRP wrapping had no significant effect on
the fatigue performance, while using CFRP sheets for flexural strengthening enhanced
the fatigue performance significantly. The fatigue results were compared to smooth
specimen fatigue data to estimate an equivalent fatigue notch factor for the main
reinforcing bars are of the tested specimens.
9.39) Sekar, M and Prabaharan, A., Seismic Retrofitting of Masonry Structures in
the Built Environment, In: Proc, Proceedings of National Conference on Innovative
Technologies in Civil Engineering March 20 & 21, Department of Civil Engineering,
(Edi) K.Subramanian, V.G.Srisanthi and M.P.Muthuraj, Coimbatore Institute of
Technology, Coimbatore, India, 2006, pp.598-603.
Indian sub continent has been classified into five different zones depending upon their
seismic vulnerability. No part of it is sparred as safe against earthquake. The extent of
damages in buildings due to an earthquake differs from the structural configuration
and materials with which they are built. As masonry structures are stiff with least
materials ductility, they undergo brittle failures leading to sudden and total collapse.
Structural engineers have tough task in suggesting reliable retrofitting techniques for
quake affected masonry structures. The author makes sincere attempt to list the
provisions of codes and usage of smart materials for the repair techniques.

92

9.40) Sekar, M Prabaharan, A and Mathew, R., Strengthening of Masonry Wall


Panels for In-Plane Shear under Dynamic Loading- A Model Study, In: Proc,
Proceedings of National Conference on Innovative Technologies in Civil
Engineering March 20 & 21, Department of Civil Engineering, (Edi)
K.Subramanian, V.G.Srisanthi and M.P.Muthuraj, Coimbatore Institute of
Technology, Coimbatore, India, 2006, pp.604-609.
Brick masonry structures when subjected to extreme loads, like earthquake load or
impact load, the external walls that are oriented along the direction of loading
experience critical In-plane bending. This type of loading creates normally a diagonal
shear crack at about 45 inclination at collapse load. The failure pattern could be
diagonal crack or stepped crack or a sliding crack. Here the authors have studied the
behaviour of brick masonry model wall panel specimens with different types of
external treatments under in-plane bending. The results are compared for their
maximum load carrying capacity and ductile behaviour. The wall panels treated with
diagonal grid reinforcement proved to be superior with many advantages.
9.41) Korany, Y and Drysdale, R., Rehabilitation of Masonry Walls using
Unobtrusive FRP Techniques for Enhanced Out-of-Plane Seismic Resistance,
Journal of Composites for Construction, 2006, Vol.10, No.3, pp.213-222.
Earthquake damage to un-reinforced masonry buildings has shown the vulnerability
of perimeter walls to out-of-plane failure. This describes a study that was carried out
to develop and test innovative fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) rehabilitation
techniques that meet the stringent requirements for strengthening historical buildings
and to be cost effective alternatives applicable to other existing masonry structures.
9.42) Moora, F.L., Yi, T., Leon, R.T and Kahn, L.F., Recommendations for Seismic
Evaluation and Retrofit of Low-Rise URM Structures, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 2006, Vol.132, No.5, pp.663-672.
Based on the results of a full-scale lateral load test of a two-story unreinforced
masonry (URM) structure, modifications are suggested for the model implied by
FEMA 356 for the in-plane analysis of perforated URM walls.
9.43) Korany, Y and Drysdale, R., Load Displacement of Masonry Panels with UNbonded and Intermittently Bonded FRP II. : Analytical Study, Journal of Composites
for Construction, 2007, Vol.11, No.1, pp.24-32.
Having evaluated the adequacy of the analytical model described in part I, it was used
to investigate the impact of some of the most influential parameters on the post
cracking lateral pressure displacement behaviour of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP)
reinforced masonry wall panels. The analytical study was divided in to two parts. The
first part is an extension to the experimental program that reports on the study of the
interaction art various levels of the different parameters investigated experimentally.
The second part of the analytical investigation focused on defining limitations and
providing answers to some design questions.

93

9.44) Bati, S.B., Rovero, L and Tonietti, U., Strengthening Masonry Arches with
Composite Materials, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2007, Vol.11, No.1,
pp.33-41.
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of strengthening masonry arches
using two different composite materials. To this end, an experimental analysis was
carried out on models of arches that were first damaged, then strengthened by
applying composite material sheets to the surface of the in-trados, and last, subjected
to a loading process until the point of collapse. One arch was strengthened with
carbon fiber reinforced polymer, the other with glass fiber-reinforced cement matrix.
9.45) Pampanin, S., Bolognini, D and Pavese, A., Performance Based Seismic
Retrofit Strategy for Existing Reinforced Concrete Frame Systems using Fiber
Reinforced Polymer Composites, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2007,
Vol.11, No.2, pp.211-226.
The feasibility and efficiency of a seismic retrofit intervention using externally
bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites on existing reinforced concrete
frame systems, designed prior to the introduction of modern standard seismic design
code provisions in the mid-1970s, are here in presented, based on analytical and
experimental investigations on beam-column joint sub assemblied and frame systems.
A multilevel retrofit strategy, following hierarchy of damage considerations, is
adopted to achieve the desired performance.
9.46) Cosenza, E and Lervolino, L., Case Study : Seismic Retrofitting of a Medieval
Bell Tower with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP), Journal of Composites for
Construction, 2007, Vol.11, No.3, pp.319-327.
Seismic retrofitting of monument structures requires compliance with restrictive
constraints related to the preservation of original artistic and structural features. Any
conceived intervention must achieve structural performance yet still respect to the
appearance and structural mechanism of the original and be as minimally invasive as
possible. There fore traditional retrofit strategies may not be suitable for such
purposes, and structural engineers need to develop specific techniques.
9.47) Aiello, M.A., Micelli, F and Valente, L., Structural Upgrading of Masonry
Columns by using Composite Reinforcement, Journal of Composites for
Construction, 2007, Vol.11, No.6, pp.650-658.
Emerging techniques that use fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for
strengthening and conservation of historic masonry are becoming increasingly
accepted. In the last decades steel plates or wood frames were used for external
confinement in containing the lateral dilation of masonry columns subjected to axial
loads. In the last years FRP epoxy bonded strips or jackets were also employed to
increase strength and ductility with encouraging results in terms of mechanical
behaviour and cost effectiveness. The behaviour of masonry columns confined with
FRP and subjected to axial compression is studied in this paper.
9.48) Micelli, F and Tegola, A.L., Strengthening Masonry Columns: Steel Strands
versus FRP, Construction Materials, 2007, Vol.160, No.CM2, pp.47-55.

94

Masonry structures are prone to brittle failure due to seismic forces or compressive
overloads. A novel retrofitting technique is presented for the confinement of masonry
columns subjected to compressive loads. The use of steel strands immersed in a
cementitious matrix is described in terms of the mechanical properties of steel
confined columns. The structural behaviour of steel confined columns was also
compared with that of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) confined columns.
9.49) Rai, D.C and Goel, S.C., Seismic Strengthening of Rocking-Critical Masonry
Piers, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2007, Vol.133, No.10, pp.1445-1452.
System of discrete wall piers and spandrels created by large openings are particularly
weak in resisting in-plane lateral loads. The rocking piers thus stabilized by holddown vertical forces have excellent strength, stiffness, and ductility in a very stable
manner for a safer and better performance under lateral loads. However the
undesirable compressive mode of failure of stabilized rocking piers at larger drifts can
be eliminated by the use of yielding energy dissipation device to limit the forces in
verticals and there by the compression force in rocking piers. A displacement based
design procedure can be used to design dissipation devices and other stabilizing
elements. A simple mechanics model is developed foe the non-linear load
deformation relationship of the stabilized piers which is accurate enough for design
purposes. This performance based design scheme rationally accounts for the superior
ductility and energy dissipation characteristics of strengthened rocking piers.
9.50) Elgawady, M.A., Lestuzzi, P and Badoux, M., Static Cyclic Response of
Masonry Walls Retrofitted with FRPs, Journal of Composites for Construction,
2007, Vol.11, No.1, pp.50-61.
The behaviour of seven one half scale masonry specimens before and after retrofitting
using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) is investigated. Four walls were built using one
half scale hallow clay masonry units and weak mortar to simulate walls built in
central Europe in the mid-20th century.
9.51) Pablo Alcaino and Hernan Santa-Maria, Experimental response of externally
retrofitted masonry Walls subjected to shear loading, Journal of Composites for
Construction, 2008, Vol. 12, No. 5, October 1, pp489498
Recent earthquakes have produced extensive damage in a large number of existing
masonry buildings, demonstrating the need for retrofitting masonry structures.
Externally bonded carbon fiber is a retrofitting technique that has been used to
increase the strength of reinforced concrete elements. Sixteen full-scale shear
dominant clay brick masonry walls, six with wire-steel shear reinforcement, were
retrofitted with two configurations of externally bonded carbon fiber strips and
subjected to shear loading. The results of the experimental program showed that the
strength of the walls could be increased 1384%, whereas, their displacement
capacity increased 51146%. This paper presents an analysis of the experimental
results and simple equations to estimate the cracking load and the maximum shear
strength of clay brick masonry walls, retrofitted with carbon fiber.

95

9.52) S. W. Li, J. W. Wei, T. Y. Li, Q. M. Li and A. J. Bell, Assessment Of Repairs


And Strengthening Of A Historic Masonry Pagoda Using A Vibration-BasedMethod,
Journal of Structural Engineering, 2009, Vol. 135, No. 1, January , pp6777
The East Pagoda of Yongzuo Monastery (Twin Pagodas Monastery), built in Taiyuan
city during the Chinese Wanli Period (15731619 AC) of the Ming Dynasty, has
suffered serious movement and damage. A series of maintenance and refurbishment
projects, including foundation reinstatement (Phase I), foundation strengthening
(Phase II), structural reinforcement and interior/exterior repairs (Phase III), were
completed between 1992 and 1997. The dynamic characteristics of the East Pagoda
were measured consistently before Phase I, after Phase II, and after Phase III. These
measurements were used to obtain the change of the stiffness of each story of the
pagoda in order to assess the effects of each of the phases of work on the condition of
the pagoda. It has been shown that this vibration-based inspection method offers an
easy and useful means to identify the weakness of a structure and assess the effects of
strengthening and repairs of a historic building.
9.53) Kiang Hwee Tan and M. K. H. Patoary, Blast Resistance Of Frp-Strengthened
Masonry Walls I: Approximate Analysis And Field Explosion Tests, Journal of
Composites for Construction, 2009, Vol. 13, No. 5, October 1, pp422430
An approximate analysis method is proposed to determine the blast resistance of
fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)-strengthened masonry walls. The method relates the
static to dynamic response by incorporating the strain rate effect on the material
strength and a dynamic load factor for the applied peak load. Based on the method, 18
full-scale masonry walls reinforced with three different FRP systems were designed
and subjected to field explosions, using charges of 27-ton TNT in one test and 5-ton
TNT in the other. For each test, the walls were placed at three different standoff
distances and orientations to the blast source. The response of the strengthened walls
under blast was monitored by high-speed data acquisition systems. Post-test
observations indicated no visible damage, crack, or de-bonding in any of the walls,
thus confirming the effectiveness of the FRP retrofit technique in blast protection. The
data presented are valuable for validation of analytical or numerical models.
9.54) Robert B. Petersen, Mark J. Masia and Rudolf Seracino, In-plane shear
behavior of masonry panels strengthened with nsm cfrp strips. Ii: finite-element
model, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2010, Vol. 14, No. 6, December 1,
pp764774
A combined experimental and numerical program was conducted to study the in-plane
shear behavior of clay brick masonry walls strengthened with near surface mounting
carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips. This paper is focused on the
numerical program. A two-dimensional finite-element (FE) model was used to
simulate the behavior of FRP-strengthened wall tests. The masonry was modeled
using the micromodeling approach. The FRP was attached to the masonry mesh using
the shear bond-slip relationships determined from experimental pull tests. The model
was designed in a way so that FRP crossing a sliding crack (perpendicularly) would
prevent crack opening, normal to the direction of sliding (dilation), and increase
sliding resistance. This sliding resisting mechanism was observed in the experimental

96

tests. The FE model reproduced the key behaviors observed in the experiments,
including the load displacement response, crack development, and FRP reinforcement
contribution. The FE model did not include masonry cracking adjacent to the FRP and
through the wall thickness (as observed in some experiments). This type of cracking
resulted in premature FRP debonding in the experiments. Debonding did not occur in
the FE model because this type of masonry cracking was not modeled.
9.55) Girum S. Urgessa, A.M. and Arup K. Maji, Dynamic Response Of Retrofitted
Masonry Walls For Blast Loading, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 2010, Vol.
136, No. 7, July 1, pp858864
A full-scale blast test was conducted on eight masonry walls reinforced with two and
four layers of carbon fibers and two types of polymer matrices. The walls were then
subjected to a 0.45-kg pentolite booster suspended from the ceiling of a test structure.
The pressure-time history caused by the blast and the resulting displacement response
were measured during the test. This paper presents a summary of the test program and
the corresponding results from a nonlinear single degree of freedom analysis. The
results provide a basis for determining effective means of retrofitting existing
masonry walls and designing new structures to withstand blast loads. The paper
also outlines a fiber-reinforced polymer retrofit design procedure for walls subjected
to blast loading.
9.56) Daniel V. Oliveira, Ismael Basilio and Paulo B. Loureno, Experimental
Behavior Of FRP Strengthened Masonry Arches,Journal of Composites for
Construction, 2010, Vol. 14, No. 3, June 1, pp312322
This paper deals with the experimental behavior of solid clay brick masonry arches
strengthened with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. Twelve halfscaled segmental masonry arches subjected to a load applied at the quarter span were
tested under displacement control up to failure. The arches were built using handmade
low strength bricks and a commercial lime-based mortar, trying to mimic ancient
structures. Besides reference unreinforced arches, five different strengthening
arrangements, including the use of spike anchors, were studied. The experimental
results provide significant information for validation of advanced numerical models
and analytical tools and for code drafting. The experimental results also show that (1)
only continuous strengthening strategies are able to prevent typical local failure
mechanisms of unreinforced arches; (2) strengthening at the intrados is the most
effective option to increase strength; and (3) strengthening applied at the extrados
provides the higher deformation capacity prior to failure, endowing arches with
considerable ductility behavior.
9.57) C. Natarajan, Shen-En Chen and Mohiuddin Syed, Rehabilitation and
preservation of the st. Lourdes church, Tiruchirappalli, Journal of Performance of
Constructed Facilities, 2010, Vol. 24, No. 3, June 1, pp281288
This paper reports the rehabilitation of the historic St. Lourdes Church in
Tiruchirappalli, India. The structure is a critical landmark and a significant
representation of religious buildings in the area. Inspections of the Gothic style
masonry church were completed in 1998, where distress and decay due to water
damages were identified and repaired using lime-based materials. A subsequent

97

inspection 10 years later indicated that remains a critical issue. This case study
demonstrates the importance of rehabilitation of historic structures using appropriate
construction techniques including possible alternative rehabilitation approaches to
ensure the preservation of these structures.
9.58) Lijuan Cheng, A.M and Ashley M. McComb, Unreinforced concrete masonry
walls strengthened with CFRP sheets and strips under pendulum impact, Journal of
Composites for Construction, 2010, Vol. 14, No. 6, December 1, pp775783
Impact tests using drop-weight pendulum on nine 1.2-m-high full-scale concrete
masonry block walls were conducted to investigate the out-of-plane impact behavior
of unreinforced masonry (URM) walls externally strengthened with carbon-fiberreinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. Three strengthening schemes on one side of
the wall were studied: continuous unidirectional and continuous woven sheets,
discrete strips in a vertical pattern, and discrete strips in orthogonal and diagonal
patterns. All walls were vertically positioned resting on a knife-edge support with one
face leaning against two steel rollers close to the upper and lower edges of the wall.
The impact load was applied at the wall center through a drop-weight pendulum
impact tester with various drop heights. Test results revealed that using composite
laminates or strips could significantly improve the impact performance of URM walls.
The wall strengthened with continuous woven sheets performed better than the one
with unidirectional sheet. With the same amount of fiber-reinforced polymer strip
material, the wall with narrower but more closely spaced strips performed slightly
better than the one with wider strips.
9.59) Y. Zhuge, FRP-Retrofitted URM Walls Under In-Plane Shear: Review And
Assessment Of Available Models, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2010,
Vol. 14, No. 6, December 1, pp743753
In the last two decades, several seismic retrofitting techniques for masonry structures
have been developed and practiced and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) material has
been increasingly used owing to its high strength/stiffness to mass ratio and easy
application. Although much research has been carried out on FRP strengthening of
unreinforced masonry (URM) structures, most of it has been experimental studies to
investigate the effectiveness of retrofitting techniques rather than the development of
a rational design model. In addition, more research has been conducted on FRPretrofitted URM walls under out-of-plane loads where flexural behavior dominates,
the research on the shear strength of FRP-retrofitted URM walls has been limited.
This paper presents a review of research in this area. Existing retrofitting techniques
are overviewed, followed by a detailed discussion of experimental results of failure
modes as they are directly related to the design model. The available design models
are then assessed based on a test database collected from the available literature.
Limitations of each model are addressed.
9.60) Yuri Gorokhovich, Shannon Doocy, Andrei Voustianiouk and Christopher
Small, Assessment Of Mortar And Brick Strength In Earthquake-Affected Structures
In Peru Using A Schmidt Hammer, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities,
2010, Vol. 24, No. 6, December 1, pp634640

98

This study describes results of surveys with Schmidt hammer conducted after the
earthquake of August 15, 2007 in coastal cities of Ica, Pisco, and Chincha, Peru.
Statistical analysis included comparison of data on compressive strength collected
from various types of buildings in damaged and intact walls and bricks. Results of
statistical analysis suggest that architecture and nonstructural building design
considerations in masonry structures may be more important determinants of seismic
resistance than construction material strength. Comparison of mortar samples with
respect to structure ownership revealed that strength of mortar at test locations in
privately owned buildings was significantly greater than in public buildings.
9.61) Dillon S. Lunn and Sami H. Rizkalla, Strengthening Of Infill Masonry Walls
With FRP Materials, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2011, Vol. 15, No. 2,
April 1, pp206214
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of different externally bonded glass fiber
reinforced polymer (GFRP) systems for increasing the out-of-plane resistance of infill
masonry walls to loading. The research included a comprehensive experimental
program comprising 14 full-scale specimens, including four un strengthened (control)
specimens and 10 strengthened specimens. To simulate the boundary conditions of
infill walls, all specimens consisted of a reinforced concrete (RC) frame, simulating
the supporting RC elements of a building superstructure, which was in-filled with
solid concrete brick masonry. The specimens were loaded out-of-plane using
uniformly distributed pressure to simulate the differential (suction) pressure induced
by a tornado. Parameters investigated in the experimental program included aspect
ratio, FRP coverage ratio, number of masonry wythes, and type of FRP anchorage.
Test results indicated that the type of FRP anchorage had a significant effect on the
failure mode. Research findings concluded that GFRP strengthening of infill masonry
walls is effective in increasing the out-of-plane load-carrying capacity when proper
anchorage of the FRP laminate is provided.
9.62) Ehab Hamed and Oded Rabinovitch, Free Out-Of-Plane Vibrations Of
Masonry Walls Strengthened With Composite Materials, Journal of Engineering
Mechanics, 2011, Vol. 137, No. 2, February 1, pp125137
The natural frequencies and the out-of-plane vibration modes of one-way masonry
walls strengthened with composite materials are studied. Due to the inherent nonlinear
behavior of the masonry wall, the dynamic characteristics depend on the level of outof-plane load (mechanical load or forced out-of-plane deflections) and the resulting
cracking, nonlinear behavior of the mortar material, and debonding of the composite
system. In order to account for the nonlinearity and the accumulation of damage, a
general nonlinear dynamic model of the strengthened wall is developed. The model is
mathematically decomposed into a nonlinear static analysis phase, in which the static
response and the corresponding residual mechanical properties are determined, and a
free vibration analysis phase, in which the dynamic characteristics are determined.
The governing nonlinear differential equations of the first phase, the linear differential
eigenvalue problem corresponding to the second phase, and the solution strategies are
derived. Two numerical examples that examine the capabilities of the model and
study the dynamic properties of the strengthened wall are presented. The model is
supported and verified through comparison with a step-by-step time integration
analysis, and comparison with experimental results of a full-scale strengthened wall

99

under impulse loading. The results show that the strengthening system significantly
affects the natural frequencies of the wall, modifies its modes of vibration, and
restrains the deterioration of the dynamic properties with the increase of load. The
quantification of these effects contributes to the understanding of the performance of
damaged strengthened walls under dynamic and seismic loads.
9.63) Daniel V. Oliveira, Ismael Basilio and Paulo B. Loureno, Experimental Bond
Behavior Of Frp Sheets Glued On Brick Masonry, Journal of Composites for
Construction, 2011, Vol. 15, No. 1, February 1,.pp3241
This paper deals with the experimental characterization of the mechanical tensile and
shear bond behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets externally glued on
masonry prisms, in terms of load capacity and stress distribution along the bonded
length. The brick masonry adopted tries to replicate ancient brick masonry, by using
handmade low-strength solids bricks and low-strength lime-based mortar. Key
parameters relative to the FRP-masonry interface response, particularly bonded
length, FRP materials, anchor scheme adopted, and shape of masonry substrate, were
studied. Finally, an analytical bond stress-slip formulation was developed, allowing
deducing local bond stress-slip curves directly from the experiments.
Matthew Mowrer, Kevin Coll. and David VanOcker, Investigation And Repair
Of Structural Deficiencies In Projected Masonry Bay Construction, Journal of
Performance of Constructed Facilities, 2011, Vol. 25, No. 2, April 1, pp6873
9.64)

9.65) Projected masonry bays are a common feature on many historic buildings.Over
the course of the last 100 years or so, bays have been constructed utilizing a wide
variety of masonry and framing configurations to provide structural support to these
eccentric architectural elements. Mechanisms to resist the natural tendency of the bay
construction to sag and/or rotate away from the plane of the wall have historically
included corbelled and/or cantilevered masonry, steel tension ties, counterweight
beams, and a variety of steel, concrete, and wood framing configurations. Many of
these support system mechanisms have satisfactory in-service performance, whereas
others have been found to permit undesirable behavior. Unanticipated flexibility in the
bay support may result from improper interaction of the various structural
components. Distortion of the bay construction leads to distress, premature
deterioration, and sometimes failure within the bay assemblies. This paper will
present a case study pertaining to the investigation, analysis, and repair of a projected
masonry bay system involving several different support mechanisms and will focus
on a specific structure in which effective support assemblies were integrated into the
existing building fabric.
9.66) Ernesto Grande, Maura Imbimbo and Elio Sacco, Simple Model For Bond
Behavior Of Masonry Elements Strengthened With FRP, Journal of Composites for
Construction, 2011, Vol. 15, No. 3, June 1,.pp354363
The aim of the present paper is the development of a simple procedure for the analysis
of the bond behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets or plates externally
applied to masonry supports for the strengthening or repair of masonry constructions.
The procedure allows evaluation of the bond strength and the fracture energy
developed during the de-bonding process through simple formulas based on a few

100

parameters, evaluated either by standard tests performed on the materials making up


the support and the strengthening system or by theoretical considerations. A brief
discussion on the main experimental evidence and the theoretical models provided by
the literature is also reported in this paper. The comparison between the theoretical
results obtained by applying the proposed procedure and the experimental data
deduced from literature is carried out.
9.67) J. M. Lees and A. U. Winistrfer, Non-laminated FRP Strap Elements For
Reinforced Concrete, Timber, And Masonry Applications, Journal of Composites for
Construction, 2011, Vol. 15, No. 2, April 1, pp146155
Advances in material technology allow for the exploration of new structural forms
and systems. In recent years, fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) have emerged as
candidate materials for civil engineering applications, and the use of FRPs in
construction has been an area of growing interest. Unidirectional high-strength FRPs
are well-suited for use as tensioning elements, but anchorage details present a
challenge. An alternative is to self-anchor the FRP tensioning element by winding
thin layers of material around supports and then laminating all the layers together (a
laminated strap) or by securing only the outermost layer to form a closed outer loop
while the inner layers remain Non laminated (a nonlaminated strap). Nonlaminated
FRP straps have been found to have higher efficiencies than equivalent laminated
straps, which is advantageous in high-tension applications. The suitability of
nonlaminated FRP straps for use as unbonded tension elements provides scope for use
in new construction and for the strengthening of existing structures. A review of non
laminated carbon FRP strap system properties and applications in the context of
reinforced concrete, timber, and masonry structures is presented.
9.68) Efe Gokce Kurt, Ozgur Kurc, Baris Binici, Erdem Canbay and Guney Ozcebe,
Performance examination of two seismic strengthening Procedures by pseudo
dynamic testing, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2011, Submitted June 2, 2010;
accepted May 23, 2011; posted ahead of print May 25
Pseudo dynamic testing was employed to observe the seismic performance of two
retrofit methods on two story three bay frame structures. The test frames had hollow
clay tile (HCT) infill in the central bay and incorporated the seismic deficiencies of
Turkish construction practice such, as use of plain reinforcing bars, low strength
concrete and insufficient confining steel. Two non-invasive and occupant friendly
retrofit schemes suggested in the Turkish Earthquake Code, namely, use of Fiber
Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) and precast concrete panels integrated on the HCT infill
were employed. The specimens were subjected to three different scale levels of
ground motion from the Duzce (1999) earthquake. The control specimen experienced
severe damage at the 100% scale level and reached the collapse stage due to the loss
of integrity of the infill wall and significant damage on the boundary columns. The
retrofitted test structures were able to survive the highest level 140% Duzce ground
motion. Test results confirmed the success of the two previously developed retrofit
methods for simulated earthquake loads

101

9.69) Hamid Mahmood and Jason M. Ingham, Diagonal Compression Testing Of


Frpretrofitted Unreinforced Clay Brick Masonry Wallettes, Journal of Composites
for Construction, 2011, Submitted June 10, 2010; accepted February 9, 2011; posted
ahead of print February 11.
To address concerns regarding the seismic vulnerability of New Zealand Unreinforced
masonry (URM) buildings, a research program was undertaken to investigate the
effectiveness of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) systems as a seismic retrofit
intervention for in-plane loaded URM walls that are prone to fail in a shear mode
during earthquakes. Seventeen URM wallettes were retrofitted with either externallybonded (EB) glass FRP fabrics, EB pultruded carbon FRP (CFRP) plates or nearsurface mounted pultruded CFRP rectangular bars. The wallettes were tested by the
application of a diagonal compressive force, and data was recorded for applied force
and corresponding wall drift. Results were compared with five nominally identical
unretrofitted wallettes. It was determined that the FRP systems substantially increased
the shear strength of the wallettes. Significant increases in the pseudo-ductility and
the toughness were also obtained, which are all considered to be important goals of
any seismic retrofit intervention.
9.70) Navaratnarajah Sathiparan and Kimiro Meguro, Seismic Behavior Of Low
Earthquake Resistant Arch Shaped Roof Masonry Houses Retrofitted By Pp-Band
Meshes, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, 2011, Submitted
September 14, 2010; accepted August 16, 2011;posted ahead of print August 18
This paper introduces a technically feasible and economically affordable PP-band
(polypropylene bands) retrofitting for low earthquake resistant masonry structures in
developing countries. Results of the basic material tests and shaking table tests on
building models show that the PP-band retrofitting technique ca n enhance safety of
both existing and new masonry buildings even in worst case scenario of earthquake
ground motion like Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) seismic intensity scale 7.
Therefore, proposed method can be one of the optimum solutions for promoting sa fer
building construction in developing countries and can contribute earthquake disaster
mitigation in the future. CE Database subject headings: Earthquake engineering,
Masonry, Retrofitting, Shake table tests
9.71) D. Kakaletsis, Comparison of CFRP and alternative seismic retrofitting
Techniques for bare and infilled RC frames, Journal of Composites for Construction,
2011, Vol. 15, No. 4, August 1, pp565577
The opportunities provided by the use of modern repair schemes for the seismic
retrofit of existing RC structures were assessed on a comparative experimental study
of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) and more-conventional seismic
retrofitting techniques for the repair of reinforced concrete members and masonry
walls of bare and infilled RC frames, respectively, damaged because of cyclic
loading. Four 1-story, one-bay, one-third-scale frame specimens are tested under
cyclic horizontal loading up to a drift level of 4%two bare frames with spirals or
stirrups as shear reinforcement, respectively, and two infilled frames with weak infills
and spirals or stirrups as shear reinforcement, respectively. The applied repair
techniques are mainly based on the use of thin epoxy resin infused under pressure into
the crack system of the damaged RC joint bodies or on the additional use of CFRP

102

plates to the surfaces of the damaged structural RC members as external


reinforcement and the use of a polymer modified cement mortar or two-sided diagonal
CFRP fabrics for the damaged infill masonry walls. After repair, specimens were
retested in the same way. Conclusions concerning the comparison of the effectiveness
between conventional and CFRP seismic retrofitting applied techniques on the basis
of maximum cycles load, loading stiffness, and hysteretic energy absorption
capabilities of the tested specimens are drawn.
9.72) S.Moses Aranganathan, Thandavamoorthy.T.S, Saileysh Sivaraja.S, Paul
Mahesh.A Rathnasheela.P.T and A.K.Dasarathy (2012), Strengthening And
Retrofitting Of Earthquake Damaged Structures, In: Proc, Proceedings of the
National Conference on Innovative Trends for Technology Developments
(Technocon-2012), on Jan 6-7, 2012, (Org) Datta Meghe Institute of Engineering,
Technology & Research, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra, India.pp85
Strengthening of structures using Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) shows better
performance for extending the life span of structures. The main advantages of using
FRP include light weight, ease installation installations, minimum labor cost and site
constraints, high strength weight and durability. Civil engineering structures may be
damaged due various causes such as earthquakes, cyclones, blasting, etc. These kinds
of loading collapse the structure prematurely or cause extensive damages to them.
When the damage is minor, it is possible to retrofit the structure. A review of the
available literature has disclosed that umpteen numbers of retrofitting methodologies
are available. Among them, efficient and effective method of repairing damaged
structures is the application of Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP). In the past, several
structures have been rehabilitated using the FRP techniques. This paper presents a
review of using the FRP techniques, their applications, case studies of repairing civil
engineering structures, and appropriate concluding remarks.
9.73)
S.Saileysh
Sivaraja,
T.S.Thandavamoorthy,
S.Vijayakumar,
S.MosesAranganathan, P.T.Rathnasheela and A.K.Dasarathy, (2012), GFRP
Strengthening And Applications Of Unreinforced Masonry Wall (UMW), In: Proc,
Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Rehabilitation and Maintenance in
Civil Engineering (ICRMCE-2), On Mar 08-10, 2012, (Edi) S.A .Kristiawan and
Sholihin Asad, Sebelas Marat University, Solo, Indonesia.pp437-448.
Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composites are more and more used in the
building trade for the set up of reinforcing and strengthening applications devices. As
known, GFRP composites offer higher strength and Young modulus than traditional
steel devices. The majority of these buildings were built before any provisions for
earthquake loadings were established. The failures and damages reported in recent
earthquakes attest to the need for efficient strengthening procedures. The
effectiveness of increasing the shear strength of brick masonry coating with epoxybonding by Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) overlays to the exterior surfaces
was evaluated. Out-of-plane failures are common in un-reinforced masonry wall
(UMW) constructed in seismic regions. This paper deals with the experimental
characterization of the mechanical tensile and shear bond behavior of Glass FiberReinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets externally glued on masonry wall, in terms of
load capacity and stress distribution along the bonded length. A combined
experimental program was conducted to study the out-of-plane shear behavior of (i)

103

Burned Clay Brick Masonry Walls and (ii) Strengthened with Glass Fiber Reinforced
Polymer (GFRP) over the Burned Clay Brick Masonry Walls surface.
9.74) T.S.Tandavamoorthy, S. Saileysh Sivaraja Strengthened With Glass Fiber
Reinforced Polymer Over The Burned Clay Brick Masonry Walls Surface, (2012) In:
Proc, Proceedings of International Conference in Magna on Emerging Engineering
Trends (ICMEET-2K12) on April 12-13, 2012, (Org): Magna College of Engineering,
Chennai, India.pp133-140
This paper deals with the experimental characterization of the mechanical tensile and
shear bond behavior of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets externally
glued on masonry wall, in terms of load capacity and stress distribution along the
bonded length. A combined experimental program was conducted to study the out-ofplane shear behavior of (i) Burned Clay Brick Masonry Walls and (ii) Strengthened
with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) over the Burned Clay Brick Masonry
Walls surface. Un-reinforced masonry structures are prone to extensive damage
followed by failure and collapse when subjected to loads resulting from earthquake
and other natural or man-made events. Recent earthquakes and terrorist acts have
clearly demonstrated that the development of effective and affordable strategies for
the strengthening of masonry is urgently needed. But in the recent past GFRP is
found to be an alternative modern technique used to strengthen the masonry elements.
Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) can provide a strengthening alternative for
un-reinforced and under-reinforced masonry. The case with which GFRP can be
installed on the exterior of a masonry wall makes this form of strengthening
alternative to the owner, considering both reduced installation cost and down time of
the occupied structures. The research work reported here investigates the out-of-plane
flexural behaviour of masonry walls reinforced externally with Glass Fiber
Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets and subjected to dynamic loading. In the
experiments the behaviour of simple masonry elements with and without GFRP
wrappings subjected to base excitations for out-of-plane loading is carried out. Based
on the experimental investigation the failure pattern and energy dissipation capacity
of the masonry elements with and without GFRP wrappings are estimated. . A
combined experimental program was conducted to study the out-of-plane shear
behavior of (i) Burned Clay Brick Masonry Walls and (ii) Strengthened with Glass
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) over the Burned Clay Brick Masonry Walls
surface
9.75) T.S.Thandavamoorthy and P.T. Rathnasheela, S. Moses Aranganathan, S.
Saileysh Sivaraja, Use Of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Materials For
Repairing Un-Reinforced Masonry (URM) Wall, (2012) In: Proc, Proceedings of
International Conference in Magna on Emerging Engineering Trends (ICMEET2K12) on April 12-13, 2012, (Org): Magna College of Engineering, Chennai,
India.pp148-153
Un-reinforced masonry (URM) buildings, many of which have historic and cultural
importance, constitute a significant portion of existing buildings around the world. In
general, these structures do not conform to modern engineering standards and suffer
from deteriorations caused by various environmental loads. The performance of these
structures under seismic loads has been a major concern and various retrofit methods
have been developed in recent years to improve their seismic resistance. One of the

104

main problems connected with preserving and maintenance of historic buildings and
existing dwellings is the need for strengthening and retrofitting of the masonry parts
of the structures. For design purposes masonry is considered as homogeneous material
but in reality it shows very complex heterogeneous characteristics. Aggressive
environment and some natural calamities can cause extensive damage to unreinforced masonry (URM) structures. Many older masonry structures currently in use
were designed and constructed with little or no consideration of these aggressive
factors. In addition, recent changes in seismic requirements have left many URM
buildings in need of strengthening. In many cases, these natural effects were not
considered in ancient time. Since the advent of modern reinforced masonry
construction, URM structures have been viewed as a significant liability when
considering strengthening.
10.0 SUMMARY
The available material in the open literature covering research pertaining to masonry
structures has been reviewed and compiled as a report as a part of future research to
be carried out on various aspects.

11.0 REFERENCES
(1) Saileysh Sivaraja S., Senthil R., Thandavamoorthy.T.S and Arumugam.M,
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MASONRY STRUCTURES, (2008),
Technical Report No. 01/Bib/SD/CV/AU/2008, CEG, Guindy, Anna University,
Chennai, India, pp01-72.

105