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GMRC Engine Analyst Workshop:

CAT Engines
Ramiro M. Leon
July 2011

Background

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Exterran offers a world of energy solutions through a comprehensive products


and services portfolio with operations worldwide. Exterran focuses on
delivering a Total Solution for customers oil & gas production and processing
facilities in every major hydrocarbon region around the globe. Our worldwide
expertise includes:

Compression Technology
Critical Process Equipment
Gas Treatment
Production Equipment
Processed Water Technology
Power Generation
AMS

In 2007 the PdM Department was created in Exterran Bolivia as a means of


monitoring our equipment and also providing service to customers

Typical Readings

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Typical readings collected on this type of


engines, 4-stroke, are:
Power Cylinders:
Secondary Ignition; as long as the cable is accessible and not shielded
Vibration Readings:
High Frequency
Raw

Ultrasonic Readings

Main Bearings:
Vibration Readings:
High Frequency
Raw

Turbochargers:
FFT Vibration Readings: acceleration, velocity & displacement

Case History #1
Caterpillar G3516:
High speed: 1200 rpm
High Power Cylinder Temps

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CAT 3516

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One of the most common problems detected


on these engines has to do with valve lash
regulation, on both exhaust and intake
valves. This problem can be originated from:
Not following the manufacturers procedure when
adjusting valve lashes
Not using the proper tools as per the
manufacturers recommendations

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Valve Lash Problems

Early closure
events for both
sets of valves

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Valve Lash Problems

Early closure
events for both
sets of valves

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Valve Lash Problems

Early closure
events on both
sets of valves

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Valve Lash Problems

Early closure
events on both
sets of valves

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Valve Lash Problems

Early closure
events on both
sets of valves

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Valve Lash Problems

Early closure
events on both
sets of valves

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Valve Lash Problems

Valve closure events


detected while
collecting Main Brg
data

Recomendations

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Even Bank:
Check valve lash settings on both sets of valves
in all cylinders due to differences on the closure
event angles in regards to the manufacturers
recommendations

Odd Bank:
Check valve lash settings on both sets of valves
in all cylinders ASAP, due to the differences on
the closure event angles in regards to the
manufacturers recommendations

Actions Taken

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Valve lash adjustment was done on all power


cylinders the following day
The procedure and tools recommended on
manufacturers instructive REH-50128 were
followed

As Left Conditions

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Improvements on
the closure events
for both sets of
valves

As Left Conditions

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Improvements on
the closure events
for both sets of
valves

As Left Conditions

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Improvements on
the closure events
for both sets of
valves

Case History #2

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Lack of lubrication
Another, not too common problem, found
on CAT series 3500 engines is lack of
lubrication on the cylinder heads

As Found Reading

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Out of place events, and also loud


audible knocks

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Observations/Comments

High temperature on the components of


the valve assembly, as well as the head
cover
Completely dry head
Turned bushing guide wasnt allowing
cylinder head lubrication

Bushing Guide Detail

Turned bushing guide, installed


in the wrong position, didnt
allow lubrication of the cylinder
head components

Detail on the regulating bolt

Wear on the knob of the


regulating bolt

As Left Readings

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Events related to the wear seen on the


knob of the regulating bolt

Case History #3
Caterpillar G3412
High Speed: 1800 rpm
High Temperatures

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Background

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Our customer has three CAT 3412 gensets at


one of their processing plants
They have had many problems with these
engines since start-up
Most of the problems had to do with burnt
valves, both exhaust and intake
They also had high temperature problems

Background, 2

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CAT rep suggested replacement of cylinder


heads for newer model that helped with
cooling cylinders
Modifications were also made to the cooling
system in order to bring down temperatures
..Problems continued to happen..

Background, 3

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We were called to do an analysis on the


engine
Collected the following data:
Secondary ignition traces
Power Cylinders:
HF Vibration
Raw Vibration
Ultrasound

Main Bearings:
HF Vibration
Raw Vibration

As Found Readings, EB

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Out of place events, and also loud


audible knocks

As Found Readings, OB

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Out of place events, and also loud


audible knocks

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Observations/Comments

Early closure of both sets of valves, made


worst with exhaust valves not evacuating
all burnt gases; this meant that the cylinder
kept getting hotter and hotter
Which in turn affected intake valves
Our early recommendations was to verify
the camshaft
The customer wanted to wait until the
engine was due for overhaul, which was
awarded to us

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Findings During Disassembly

Gears not aligned

Gears aligned

As Left Conditions, EB

Improvements on the closure


events for both sets of valves

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As Left Conditions, OB

Improvements on the closure


events for both sets of valves

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Conclusions, Comments

Customer got back to the EPC company to


find out about these engines, and some of
the findings were:
These engines were originally meant for Canada
They were shipped to Ecuador and for some
reason were not accepted there
Then they made it to Bolivia, and were installed
in a very warm location