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International Islamic Political Economy

Islamic Trading System

Compiled by:
Abidzar Raihan

(20120510167)

Raviq Ayusi

(20120510220)

A Novita Annisa A.

(20120510237)

Ajeng Puspa M.

(20120510273)

Reza Fernando

(20120510277)

Tiesya Novia N. P.

(20120510278)

Sigit Budiyanto

(20120510282)

Syifa Zia Rahmah

(20120510283)

Department of International Program of International Relations


Faculty of Social and Political Science
University of Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
2015

1. Introduction
Between 8th and 12th century, Islamic world has developed some economy system,
such as, trade, finance, property, taxation, etc. One of the policies of economy in the Prophet
era was the ban of charging fees and rent. In Islamic golden age era, trading activities were
supervised by the official of each city.
Trading activities are mainly occurred at the market and according to Nomani and
Rahnema, Islam accepts markets as the basic coordinating mechanism of the economic
system. Islamic teaching holds that the market, given perfect competition, allows consumers
to obtain desired goods and producers to sell their goods at a mutually acceptable price. 1
Also, there is this fairness in sharia law that forbids any kind of market manipulation, such as
"inflating the price of commodities by creating artificial shortages (Ihtekar), overbidding for
the sole purpose of driving the prices up (Najash) and concealment of vital information in a
transaction from the other party (Ghish)".2
In order to understand about Islamic trade, this paper will explore more about this
topic. The first part of this paper will talk about the source of the Islamic trade law. It will
explain about where the regulations derived from, and the second part will explain about the
regulation of Islamic trade law, or what can or can not be done in Islamic trading activities.
The third and fourth part of this paper will talk about the development of the Islamic trade
law and how is the implementation and application of the law in the trading activities. The
fifth part will explain about the strength and weakness of the Islamic trade law. Finally, the
last part will show the case study that will help us explore more about the Islamic trade law,
followed by the conclusion.
2. Sources of Islamic Trade
Prophet set a transaction or trade models which do not contradict Islamic law.
Business conduct is one of the people who received praise from Islam. As is said in a verse,
And when the prayer is ended, then disperse in the land and seek of Allahs bounty, and
remember Allah much, that ye may be successful. (Surat al-Jumu'ah: 10).

1NomaniRahnema, pp. 5558


2 Tabari, NimaMersadi. "The Shariah Dimension of the Persian Gulf's Hydrocarbon
Resources".social science research network. Retrieved 1 May2015

Each activity in the lives of Muslims either vertically or horizontally, has been
governed by the provisions to conform to God commanded. The basis of every action that is
based on the sources of law derived from the Quran and Hadith. Thus trade in Islam is also
based on the legal basis.
1. Al-Quran
On trade in the Qur'an clearly states that trade or commerce is the way that
commanded by God to prevent people from falsehood road in exchange something which
belongs among men. O ye who believe ! Squander not your wealth among yourselves in
vanity, except it be a trade by mutual consent, and kill not one another. Lo! Allah is ever
Merciful unto you. (Q.S. An- Nisa: 29)
In doing commerce, God also has set the manners that need to be followed in the
trade, which if the time had come to worship, trading activity should be left to worship Allah.
But when they spy some merchandise or pastime they break away to it and leave thee
standing. Say: That which Allah hath is better than pastime and than merchandise, and Allah
is the Best of providers. (Surat al-Jumu'ah: 11)
Men whom neither merchandise nor sale beguiled from remembrance of Allah and
constancy in prayer and paying to the poor their due; who fear a day when hearts and eyeballs
will be overturned. (Surah An-Nur: 37).
Similarly, the order in trade has also been outlined in the Qur'an, be it trade that are
not in cash with grammar rules, and how to trade in cash. O ye who believe ! When ye
contract a debt for a fixed term, record it in writing. Let a scribe record it in writing between
you in (terms of) equity. No scribe should refuse to write as Allah hath taught him, so let him
write, and let him who incurred the debt dictate, and let him observe his duty to Allah his
Lord, and diminish naught thereof. But if he who owed the debt is of low understanding, or
weak, or unable himself to dictate, then let the guardian of his interests dictate in (terms of)
equity. And call to witness, from among your men, two witnesses. And if two men be not (at
hand) then a man and two women, of such as ye approve as witnesses, so that if the one erred
(through forgetfulness) the other will remember. And the witnesses must not refuse when they
are summoned. Be not averse to writing down (the contract) whether it be small or great, with
(record of) the term thereof. That is more equitable in the sight of Allah and more sure for
testimony, and the best way of avoiding doubt between you; save only in the case when it is

actual merchandise which ye transfer among yourselves from hand to hand. In that case it is
no sin for you if ye write it not. And have witnesses when ye sell one to another, and let no
harm be done to scribe or witness. If ye do (harm to them) lo! It is a sin in you. Observe your
duty to Allah. Allah is teaching you. And Allah is knower of all things. (Q.S. Al-Baqarah:
282)
Courtesy of commerce clearly also be arranged, that people should not go overboard
in doing so forgot trading obligations towards Allah. Say: If your father, and your sons, and
your brethren, and your wives, and your tribe, and the wealth ye have acquired, and
merchandise for which ye fear that there will no sale, and dwellings ye desire are dearer to
you than Allah and His messenger and striving in His way: then wait till Allah brought His
command to pass. Allah guided not wrongdoing folk. (Q.S At-Taubah: 24)
2. Hadith
In addition to the Qur'an , Islam is also regulated trade in the hadith.
History of Mu'adh bin Jabal, the Prophet said, Truly the best of the business is
trading business. (Transmitted by Baihaqi and Ash Shabani)
How important Muslims dominate trade, as narrated in a hadith, the Prophet
Muhammad said, Be ye trade, because in it there is a 90% sustenance door. (Ahmad)
In the trade mulamasah trading system is banned (compulsory purchase if the buyer
has touched the merchandise) and munabazah (barter system between two people by
throwing merchandise without verifying respectively). It is mentioned in the hadith of Abu
Hurairah history, Hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah: The Messenger of Allah, prohibit trading
system mulamasah (compulsory purchase if the buyer has touched the merchandise) and
munabadzah (barter system between two people by throwing merchandise without verifying
respectively). (HR . Bukhari and Muslim)
3. Regulation of Islamic Trade Law
Islamic Trade Law is different from the general trade regulation. The religion of Islam as a
perfect religion provides guidance for mankind about how to obtain and use the property
well. The Islamic Trade law makes everyone free to get wealth and develop it within certain
limits set out in the Qur'an and Sunnah. Then through the revelation of God, with the
intermediary of the Prophet Muhammad, laid the basic fundamental principal way of trade

(Islamic Trade Law) among mankind that must be followed and adhered to mainly Muslim
traders. How the regulation of Islamic trade law that intended? Like other trade, there are
boundaries set by God in the Al Qur'an, that is clarified by the apostle sunna. There are a lot
of provisions of Allah, but there are 4 outlines:
a) Should not do fraud
Surah Al Mutaffifin, verse: 1-3

(1) Woe to those who give less (than due), (2) those who, when they take a measure from
people, take in full, (3) But when they give by measure to them or they weigh for them, they
give less.
Example:Yunus bin Ubaid as jewelry trader, told his brother for waiting him because he was
going to pray. At the same time came a buyer that wants to buy jewelry approximately 400
Dirham. By brother of Yunus, who guard the shop, shown and sell in 200 Dirham not in 400
Dirham like the buyer want. Middle of the road people who buy jewelry met with Yunus,
Yunus knew that it was the goods from his store in 200 Dirham and just bought by the buyer
in 400 Dirhams. Then Yunus invites the buyer to go back to his store to change the goods.
b) Should not monopolize the goods that needed by many of the people.
Hadith of Mamar bin Abdullah:






"Whoever stockpile the goods, then he is a sinner." (HR. Muslim (1605)
Example:Monopoly that prohibited is if they buy the goods when the price are expensive,
then be sold again at a higher price. Such as the purchase of petrol a lot ahead of price rises,
to save it first and sell at high prices. If you buy when prices are cheap and plentiful goods in
the community and keep it for sale at higher prices because of the necessities of life, then this
does not include monopoly that prohibited.
c)

Should not lend money to people by means of usury

In Islam, God forbids usury in any form and reason. Thus, usury law is haram like in the
verses of the Qur'an relating to usury.
Surah Al Baqarah, verse: 276

Allah destroys usury and gives increase for charities. And Allah does not love any ungrateful
sinner.
Example: Usury is an act of taking his friend property without replacing it. For those who
lend money 1 Dirham but want to get back 2 Dirham (after lending), for example, then he can
be an additional 1 Dirham for nothing substitutes. Sure, there are people who get
disadvantaged and advantaged. In where, Islam teaches us to always win-win solution (both
benefited) in every practice muamalah.
d) Should not provide inadequate wages to workers in order to obtain as much profit.
Then, in conducting trade, Islam requires to do justice indiscriminately, including to those
who are not preferred, because fair people will be closer to taqwa. There are two basic
principles of trade in Islam, first is the principle of consensual; Islam that we love has respect
to the ownership rights of people. Therefore, Islam forbids us to take away the rights of our
brothers without his willingness.And the second principle is not give disadvantages for
others: Muslims are a people united, so that they feel that the suffering of fellow Muslims is
part of his sufferings.
Surah Annisa, verse: 29

O you who believe! Do not consume one anothers wealth unjustly; instead do business with
mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves. Indeed, Allah is Most Merciful to you.
Example:Indonesian products needed by Muslim countries in the Middle East, must go
through Singapore. The consequence is Singapore get big advantage, because Singapore
bought at a low price and sell to the Middle East with an expensive price. And our country is
often quite satisfied with the ability to export even profit (margin) slightly.
According to Islamic teachings, there is a law or regulation relating to worldly affairs
(mu'amalat), not found in the Qur'an and the Sunna, that is Ijtihad. Example: An age of caliph
Ummar bin Khattab, there is Muslim traders asked the Caliph, how much tax should be
imposed on foreign traders who are in the country of the caliph. Then he answered and assign
that the extent that is usually imposed to Muslim traders by foreign countries, where they
trade.

4. The Development of Islamic Trading System


The development of Islamic trading system was started since the first period of the
emergence of Islam in the period of Prophet Muhammad SAW. Prophet Muhammad SAW is
the one who relied on as the role model in the practicing of all aspects of human life,
including in the trading matter. During the period of Prophet Muhammad SAW, all of his
behavior becomes the direct sample for the Muslim. But, after his death Muslim has to find or
solve their human life problem which is not explained by Al Quran and Hadith. If there was
a change in the Muslims life after the death of Prophet Muhammad SAW in term of figure of
decision maker. It was also becomes the change in the trading system, in the first period of
Islamic trading system, since the period of Prophet Muhammad SAW until the Dynasty (the
expansion of Islam), the Islamic trading was the way in order to spread the Islamic values,
such as in the case of Islamic spreading in the Asia (India, Indonesia, etc), Africa (Sudan,
Ghana, Mali, etc). And today, the Islamic Trading system becomes the alternative which is
promoted in the counter the liberal trading system.
The Islamic trading system in the period of Prophet Muhammad SAW was structured
under a type of chiefdom with taxes allocated to provide care for the poor and strangers, in
accordance with Islamic principles. And after the death of Prophet Muhammad SAW, Islamic
trading system still had the Golden Age from the 7th 13 th century under Rashidun,
Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid Caliphates.3 Islamic trading network was extending from the
Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean in the west to the Indian Ocean and South China Sea in the
east, including the areas of Asia and Africa and much of Europe. The map of Islamic trading
network has similarity toward the map of Islam religion, means that the Islamic trading
becomes the important matter in term of Islamic spreading.
The Islamic trading system in today era, as mentioned before that Islamic trading
system has the role in order to counter the liberal trading system. In order to express the
Islamic trading system, there is the idea known as Fair Trade which representing the values of
Islamic trading system. The Fair Trade is the prompt payment of a fair price to producers
that covers not only their costs of production but also enables production that is socially just
and environmentally sound. The main aim of Fair Trade is to promote a more balanced
relationship and exchange between rich and poor.
3http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Islamic_economics

For the explanation, can be concluded that the development of Islamic trading system
since the period of Prophet Muhammad SAW, Dynasty and today era is not change the main
idea, which is, the equality between rich and poor that caused the good relation for both sides.
Even there are changes in term of method in order to apply the Islamic trading system, but
there are no changes in the idea or value of the Islamic trading system itself. The
development of Islamic trading system is the way to fit toward the world circumstance.
5. The Implementation of Islamic Trade Law
Islam has influenced and regulates many spheres of life, including the trade and
commerce. Muslim do their business activities based by their religions life to be fair, honest,
and just towards other. There are many positive values in Islam that added in the Islamic
Trade Law such as iqtisad (moderation), adl (justice), ihsan (kindness par excellence),
amanah (honesty), infaq (spending to meet social obligations), sabr (patience) and istislah
(public interest). Similarly, there are anumber of values which are negative, and thus to be
avoided: zulm (tyranny), bukhl (miserliness), hirs (greed), iktinaz (hoarding of wealth) and
israf (extravagance). Economic activity within the positive parameters is halal (allowed and
praiseworthy) and within the negative parameters is haram (prohibited and blameworthy)
which has to be moderated (Rahman, 1994).
Many verses in the Holy Quran encourage trade and commerce, and the attitude of
Islam is that there should be no impediment to honest and legitimate trade and business, so
that people earn a living, support their families and give charity to those less fortunate.
Nevertheless, Muslims should not allow their business activities to dominate so that making
money becomes a rst priority and they neglect religious duties; in particular, all trading must
cease during the time of the Friday congregational prayer. Nor must the future be overlooked:
upon death one is expected to leave behind a family and descendants who perpetuate the law
of God, a permanent contribution which will benet the community, and a source of income
for the poor and the needy and/or to generate job opportunities for future generations.
Islamic principles have been (and are in process of) being modified to accommodate
modem institutions. The hope of pioneers in the area like Maulana Mawdoodi and his
followers, was to reshape the world, and in particular the theory and practice of economics, in
accordance with Islamic views. To the extent that' Islamic Financial Institutions represent the

reshaping of Islamic Laws in accordance with the demands of modernity, these represent the
failure rather than the success of Islamic Economics
Commercial law is an imprecise term. In comparisons as between Western systems,
the primary linguistic difference is that the common law term tends to cover transactions
rather than institutions such as partnerships and companies, whereas civilian law equivalents
encompass both. Another striking difference, which cannot be categorised according to the
common law/civilian law divide, is that between systems which have a formal distinction
between commercial and non-commercial law and those which do not.
In the Shariah, the same principles of morality apply to all situations; one should not
behave in one way at home and another way in the office. The Shariah attitude has deep
roots, for it reflects the Prophets many years of experience as a trader before his prophetic
mission. This uniformity of treatment is a particularly important aspect of the subject because
it gives rise to some major differences between the Shariah and Western commercial law
regimes. The latter, whether or not they contain a formal distinction, work on the assumption
that different attitudes are needed for commercial as opposed to non-commercial transactions,
since business people need less protection than ordinary individuals and different moral
standards apply.
All that can be said with confidence, it seems, is that the laws governing Islamicallyfinanced international trade transactions will be neither the traditional Shariah of the
medieval manuals nor straightforward imported Western law. They will represent a
commixture of those Western laws which reflect current commercial realities and the dictates
of the Quran and the Sunnah. The real justification for the complexity of activities involved
lies in fresh interpretations of the basic texts of Shariah in the light of the prevailing social
and economic climate. What remains missing, however, is any definable or systematic
collection of 'Islamic' principles which is backed by the authority of any group, official or
unofficial, or even a State Government. It is still far too early to speak even of an embryonic
code of Islamic principles(Jonge, 1996).
However, there are some practical problems. Since the Shariah commercial system
was dismantled many years ago, we cannot be entirely sure what the Shariah was, nor how it
was practiced. We have texts written by the jurists, but controversy surrounds the issue of the
degree to which they reflect the law in action; our best source of information, the participants

in the system, died many years ago; records relevant to practice are sparse for most periods,
and where they do exist only a few of them have been researched.

6. Strength and Weakness


In the other chapter, Islam as the religion provides perfections in other to
guide the mankind on how to maintain and obtain the property well. Islam accepts that
market as the basic of coordinating mechanism of the economic system. By this chapter, we
collected the Strength and the Weakness of the Islamic Trade.
There is the strength of Islamic Trade which is;
a. Stimulating the Muslim to do trade or commerce (sells their goods and services at
a mutually acceptable price).
b. There is Fair Trade that forbids any kind of market manipulation (promote a more
balanced relationship and exchange between rich and poor).
c. The assets belong to Allah and man is only caliph (all source that did by all
Muslims to do trade or commerce, is all come from Allah, which represented by
the Caliph in Muslim Countries).
d. Tied with Aqidah, Sharia and Morals (based on the religion that guide to life have
to be fair, honest, and toward other).
e. There is a balance between the spiritual and the material (supported by many
verses in the Quran, Sunnah and Hadith that encourage trade and commerce)

f.

Fair and balanced in order to protect and safeguard the economic interests of
individuals and society in general (to produce the equality between rich and poor
that bring good relation in both sides).

g. Tawassut in utilizing and using the wealth (the Islamic Trade provides everyone
free to get wealth and develop it within certain limits set out in the Quran and
Sunnah).
h. Maintain and give attention to the preservation of natural resources (Islam banned
Mulamasahcompulsory purchase if the buyer has touched the merchandise, and
munabazahbarter system between two people by throwing merchandise without
verifying respectively).
i.

Paying zakat (a permanent contribution which will benet the community and a
source of income for the poor and the needy and/or to generate job opportunities
for future generations).

j.

Not doing or prohibited Muslim when they are doing trade and commerce. Were
prohibited usury, fraud, monopolize, provide inadequate wages for the workers.
The Islamic Trade is different from the general trade regulation. Even though

these strength point of the Islamic Trade, and actually there are also that the weakness
of the Islamic Trade. The weakness of the Islamic trade itself derived from the
development of Islamic Trade which started since the first period of the emergence of
Islam in the Prophet Muhammad SAW era. The Prophet Muhammad is the one who
relied on as the role model in the practicing of all aspects human life, including in the
trading matter.During his life, all his behavior becomes the direct sample for the
Muslim. But there was a change in Muslims life both in social life and economic life

that after the death of the Prophet Muhammad SAW in term of the figure of the
decision maker.
From this aspect there is several point of the weakness of the Islamic Trade which
is:
a. The Islamic Trade Law cannot survive with the other major trade law (mostly
from the western (Liberals Capitalism, Communists Socialism) which based
on the material and profit.
b. The Islamic Trade Law experienced collapse right after the fall of the Ottoman
Empire (when they used the Islamic Trade Law in their economic activity).
c. The different situation that most people tend to choose and implement the
western major trade law (Liberal Capitalism) rather than the Islamic Trade.
d. The Islamic Trade Law has intervened by religion which currently the trade
law were separated from religion.
e. a formal distinction, work on the assumption that different attitudes are needed
for commercial as opposed to non-commercial transactions, since business
people need less protection than ordinary individuals and different moral
standards apply.
f.

The real justification for the complexity of activities involved lies in fresh
interpretations of the basic texts of Sharia in the light of the prevailing social
and economic climate. What remains missing, however, is any definable or
systematic collection of 'Islamic' principles which is backed by the authority of
any group, official or unofficial, or even a State.

7. Study Case
Before we going deeply about the case study we found that about , we brought some
introduction According to Islamic role in TRADE . If a business person who cares about
ethics , predictable he will be honest , trustworthy , fair . Always Seeing orangutan interests
lie ( altruistic moral ) and so on . In contrast to Reviews those who do not have the awareness
of ethics , anywhere anytime and any type of the second orangutan group will initially Appear
counter productive attitude to the nature of the type of orangutan first group controls the
hearts of business .
According to Qaradawi and in view of the trade law in Islam , between economics
( business ) and morals ( ethics ) never totally separate , as well as between science and
morality , between politics and morals , and between war and morality . Morals are the
lifeblood of meat and Islamic. Because Islam is a treatise of moral treatise . As well as never
separate between religion and state , and between the material and the spiritual . A Muslim is
sure to unity of life and the unity of humanity . Because it is not acceptable at all the action of
separation between religious life and the world as happened in Ethiopia Europe and other
countries which became the land business.
A businessman in the view of Islamic ethics is not just for profit, but also the blessing
that is the stability of the business with a reasonable profit and blessed by Allah. This means
that should be achieved by a merchant to do business is not limited to material benefits but
what matters more is the advantage immaterial (spiritual) . Profane material (not concerned
with religion or religious purposes) new significant when balanced with the interests of the
transcendent spiritual (hereafter).
Sheikh Mohammed Hussein Ali Al Amoudi is a Saudi Arabian/Ethiopian businessman
and billionaire who lives in Ethiopia and Saudi Arabia. In early March 2015, Forbes estimated
his net worth at $10.8 billion and a relative fall in net value was linked to the global fall in oil
and gold prices at the time of estimation. The same source listed him as Ethiopia's richest
man, the second richest Saudi Arabian citizen in the world and the second richest black
person in the world. Al Amoudi made his fortune in construction and real estate before
branching out to buy oil refineries in Sweden and Morocco. He is the largest individual
foreign investor in Ethiopia and a major investor in Sweden

Business activities
Al Amoudi owns a broad portfolio of businesses in construction, energy, agriculture,
mining, hotels, healthcare and manufacturing amongst others. His businesses are largely to be
found within two conglomerateholding and operating companies, Corral Petroleum Holdings
and MIDROC, both which he owns and manages. He employs over 70,000 people through
these companies.
Al

Amoudi's

construction

company

consortium,

Mohammed

International

Development Research and Organization Companies, also known as MIDROC, won a


contract to build Saudi Arabia's estimated $30 billion nationwide underground oil storage
complex in 1988. MIDROC acquired Yanbu Steel in Saudi Arabia in 2000.
In addition to his substantial business interests in Ethiopia, he also owns oil refineries
in Morocco and Sweden and is engaged in energy exploration and production off West Africa
and elsewhere. His Addis AbabaSheraton is said to be among the finest hotels in Africa.
He has recently pledged US$275 million alongside other Saudi and South Korean
investors through MIDROC to finance a factory to build Saudi Arabia's first car, to be called
Gazal, in a project initiated by King Saud University and, in September 2011, it was
announced that he planned to invest around US$1.07bn (4bn Saudi Riyals) in two major
Saudi industrial projects (phosphate derivatives and sulfur) in Ras Al Khair [Eastern Region]
and Jubail Industrial City respectively.

Conclusion
Since the Prophet Muhammad SAW era, Islam was introduced the system of Islamic
trade law which providing the law that give the mutual benefit for all. Islam also accepts the
market as the basic coordinating economic system which will give guarantee of the mutual
benefit for both seller and buyer. The source of the Islamic trade law are come from AlQuran and Hadith which containing the regulations of Islamic trade such as the prohibition
of fraud, monopolize the goods, lending money to people by means of usury, providing
inadequate wages to workers in order to obtain as much profit. This prohibition is actually for
the fairness means. As the mentioned before that Islamic trade law will guarantee that
everyone get the benefit. The development of the Islamic trade law since the Prophet era until
today has the change of the purposes. In the period of Prophet Muhammad SAW until the

Dynasty (the expansion of Islam) the Islamictrading was the way in order to spread the values
of Islam but nowadays becomes the alternative which is promoted in the counter the liberal
trading system. We can see that the implementation of the Islamic trade law today is being
modified in several Islamic Institution, this happened because the demands of modernity.
According the implementation of the Islamic trade law, we can conclude that actually Islamic
trading system have several strengths or advantages such as give the mutual for all but
because of the influence of capitalism that has dominated the world economy system,
nowadayas the Islamic trading system is really difficultto be implemented. We can see the
case of the Islamic trading system on the profile of Ahmad Almoudi which is a successful
businessman who implement the trading system of Islam.
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